diseases i.e. lung cancer, childhood leukemia, obesity and Alzheimer's disease. In each explanation, I have included a definition of the disease, risk factors, treatments, prognosis, and prevention. Later, I have provided short literature reviews of four articles.
Lungs are those organs in the body that help the human beings to breathe i.e. inhale and exhale oxygen. Their primary function is to provide oxygen to every cell in the body. As far as cancer cells are concerned, they are abnormal and deformed cells with the basic property of rapid growth and multiplication as compared to healthy cells. Thus, lung cancer begins in the lung tissues when lung cells start to become deformed. It is the Lung cancer is the deadliest cancer for all human beings as it is due to lung cancer that more people die each year as compared to other cancers that occur in breast, colon, and prostate. The older adults are more likely to have lung cancer and rarely affect people who are less than 45 (Roth, Hong & Cox, 2008). In USA, lung cancer is the principal factor of cancer death in both males and females. Lung cancer crops up after recurring diatribes to the heritable matter of the cell. Tobacco smoke, without a doubt, is the most ordinary cause of such insults and is responsible for about eighty five percent of USA cancer deaths. In contrast, the smoking patterns in other countries determine the prevalence of lung cancer in their society ("lung cancer," 2012).
There are other carcinogens found in the place of work that too cause lung cancer. Chemical workers are affected by bischloromethyl ether and chloromethyl ether whereas those involved in copper smelting are affected by arsenic. Asbestos affects those that are involved in shipbuilding. Similarly, miners that work in uranium and fluorspar mines are affected by radon which can also be dangerous for some private residents. It has been found out that European-Americans are less likely to have lung cancer as compared to African-Americans who are more likely to have lung cancer ("lung cancer," 2012).
Lung cancer is every so often given the name of bronchiogenic cancer or bronchiogenic carcinoma (Suliman, Qureshi & Akhter, 2009). Nearly all types of lung cancers begin in bronchi of the lungs i.e. In the cell linings. Lung cancer is categorized into 2 main types on the basis of how the cells look under the microscope. They are SCLC and NSCLC i.e. small cell lung cancer and non-small cell lung cancer. Both SCLC and NSCLC possess different patterns of development and increase. For this reason, the treatments employed to cure them are also different. Thus, the classification of lung cancers is done by the cell type in the tumor. The disease usually reaches to the brain, bone, liver, or bone marrow. Cough, breath shortness, croakiness, blood in the sputum and pain are the main symptoms of lung cancer. In a few types, hormones or other matters are produced by the cancer cells themselves resulting in an imbalance and creation of other symptoms ("lung cancer," 2012).
"Physical examination, chest X rays, bronchoscopy or percutaneous needle biopsy (insertion of a fine needle through the skin and into the lung to obtain tissue for study)" ("lung cancer," 2012) can be helpful in diagnosing lung cancer. In a lot of cases, definitive diagnosis is completed after the evaluation of surgical specimens. CAT scans or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may be used to evaluate suspected sites of metastasis ("lung cancer," 2012). Helical low-dose CAT-scanning, a unique CAT-scanning method, is also sometimes employed for initial diagnosis since small tumors can be detected by it before their further spread in the body. Lung cancer is staged pertaining to its setting, extent, cell structure and development. Along with the condition of patient's health, this staging is used for settling on the treatment ("lung cancer," 2012).
Generally, the treatment involves surgical removal of the tumor only or together with "either external-beam radiation therapy or chemotherapy using one or more anticancer drugs" ("lung cancer," 2012). In case of persistent localization of the cancer, sometimes photodynamic therapy is used as well. As far as the prevention of the disease is concerned, the most effective preventative measure is either the refusal to start smoking or quitting it. In ex-smokers, the threat of lung cancer is less as it begins to alleviate more or less 5 years after their decision to quit smoking. The best thing is that the chances of having lung cancer diminish to 80% after fifteen to twenty years. ("lung cancer," 2012).
As already mentioned, cigarette-smoking has been unanimously identified as the major contributor of all the lung cancers (Suliman, Qureshi & Akhter, 2009). Therefore, any tactic for lung cancer must hence be a smoking avoidance, smoking termination, no smoking and anti-smoking strategy ("Lung Cancer," 2007).Every smoking patient must be encouraged to bring smoking to an end and this must be done by the staff involved in their care. All hospitals must have smoking cessation support groups. The availability of pharmacotherapy/nicotine replacement must be ensured. It is also necessary to avoid breathing in places where other people smoke. It is also essential for the people to find out whether their homes and workplace are exposed to chemicals that cause cancer. The indoor levels of radon should also be monitored, especially at home, as this can also facilitate in the prevention of lung cancer. Moreover, whether someone smokes or not, he/she should eat a healthy and balanced diet so that the risk of lung cancer can be reduced. By eating fruits and vegetables daily, the chances of lung cancer can be lessened ("Lung Cancer," 2007).
Childhood leukemia can be regarded as the most frequently-occurring type of cancer in children. In this cancer, the white blood cells show abnormality and start appearing in the bone marrow. Due to this, the healthy cells in the bloodstream get dominated with the swift expansion of white blood cells. Due to this activity, the chances of infections' development in the body increase ("Childhood Leukemia"). Mostly, the risk factors for childhood leukemia are not known. However, there are certain factors that may raise the chances of acquiring. In simple words, it can be said that a majority of the children with leukemia are not known to have any particular factors. On the other hand, the chances of having this disease increase if the child has an inborn disorder such as Down syndrome, ataxia telangiectasia (an inherited immune system problem), a sibling (particularly an identical twin) with leukemia, a pat record of exposure to high radiation levels, chemotherapy or chemicals or a record of inhibition of immune system ("Childhood Leukemia").
Common symptoms of childhood leukemia include exhaustion or pale skin, infections and fever, simple flow of blood or bruising, severe tiredness or weakness, breath shortness and cough. Sometimes, there are other symptoms that consist of "bone or joint pain, swelling in the abdomen, face, arms, underarms, sides of neck, or groin, swelling above the collarbone, loss of appetite or weight loss, headaches, seizures, balance problems, or abnormal vision, vomiting, rashes and gum problems" ("Childhood Leukemia").
In order to diagnose childhood leukemia, several tests are done. These include blood tests for measuring the number of blood cells and observing their appearance. Sometimes, bone marrow is taken from the pelvic bone so that the diagnosis may be confirmed. Lumbar puncture is also carried out for checking the leukemia cells multiplication in the bloodstream i.e. In the flowing part in which the brain and spinal cord are immersed ("Childhood Leukemia").
The treatments for Childhood Leukemia depend, for the most part, upon the kind of leukemia as well as other causes. The major treatment for childhood leukemia is chemotherapy in which the patient receives anticancer drugs by oral cavity, via intravenous intervention, muscular intervention or the spinal fluid. To put a stop to the returning of leukemia, cycles of maintenance therapy occur over a period of 2-3 years. The doctors also use targeted therapy for curing leukemia. In this therapy, particular parts of cancer cells are targeted. This therapy works in a different way as compared to standard chemotherapy. It is mostly suggested as a better treatment method as it has side effects that are less problematical ("Childhood Leukemia").
Radiation therapy is another type of treatment in which high-energy radiation is used for killing cancer cells and shrinking tumors. It is often used for facilitating the prevention or treating the spread of leukemia to other body parts. Childhood leukemia is rarely treated by surgery. In case of less-effectiveness of standard treatment, the best option to treat child leukemia is through a stem cell transplant. This method consists of "transplant of blood-forming stem cells after whole body radiation combined with high-dose chemotherapy to first destroy the child's bone marrow" ("Childhood Leukemia").
The obesity condition results from disproportionate fat accumulation in the body. It can be defined as "a weight more than 20% above what is considered normal according to standard age, height, and weight…