Use our essay title generator to get ideas and recommendations instantly
Malaria Prevention Among Children in Africa
The objective of this study is to examine malaria prevention among children in Africa. Malaria is the third biggest killer of children on a global scale and is a disease that is completely preventable and treatable, and according to UNICEF this makes all deaths due to malaria unacceptable. (2013, paraphrased) The primary cause of the death of children under the age of five years of age in the West African Ivory Coast is that of Malaria according to UNICEF (2013).
Malaria is caused by Plasmodium parasites, which are spread, to people through bites of infected Anopheles mosquitoes, which are referred to as malaria vectors known to bite primarily between dusk and dawn. Four parasite species that result in malaria in humans are the following:
(1) Plasmodium falciparum;
(2) Plasmodium vivax;
(3) Plasmodium malariae;
(4) Plasmodium ovale. (WHO, 2013, p.1)
The most common of these…
Africa: Adopting an Integrated Approach to Malaria Control (2009) All Africa Global Media. The Carter Center 24 Apr 2009. Retrieved from: http://www.cartercenter.org/news/publications/health/malaria_publications/AllAfrica-042409-malaria.html
Malaria (2012) World Health Organization. Retrieved from: http://www.who.int/topics/malaria/en/
Malaria (2013) World Health Organization. Jan 2013. Retrieved from: http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs094/en/
McNeil, DG Jr. (2011) Human Swallows Pill. Mosquito Bites Human. Mosquito Dies. The New York Times. 11 Jul 2011. Retrieved from: http://www.nytimes.com/2011/07/12/health/12mosquito.html?_r=3&ref=science& ;
efore this, malaria took place mainly in much the Western states of the Sub-Sahara Africa (Mark, 2002).
For several decades, malaria has out-played war as a basis of human anguish. Over the preceding many decades it has taken away lives of millions of human beings, as well as, shattered the potency of hundreds of millions other human beings. It carries on to be an arduous nuisance on man's efforts to move ahead his farming and business. These were the view of one of the American senators during the 1960's. Since this account approximately four decades ago, it has continued to be considerably suitable even today. Certainly, it could be factual for approximately the whole continuation of the human race in the warmer divisions of the world (Patricia & Schlagenhauf, 2001).
Malaria has only lately been surpassed by another disease called AIDS. Malaria is the second largest solo grounds of loss…
Amir Attaran & Maharaj Rajendra. (2000). Ethical debate: doctoring malaria, badly: the global campaign to ban DDT. British Medical Journal, J 321:1403-5.
Amir Attaran, & Richard Liroff. (2000). Doctoring Malaria, Badly: The Global Campaign To Ban DDT. British Medical Journal, 321.7273 (2000): 1403-1405.
Arrow Kenneth, Claire Panosian, Hellen Gelband. (2004). Saving Lives, Buying Time: Economics of Malaria Drugs in an Age of Resistance. National Academies Press.
Anne Platt McGinn. (2002). Malaria, Mosquitoes, and DDT. World Watch, v15 no3: 10-16.
In the earlier times, malaria was a big issue in the North America, Europe and some areas of northern Asia. The geographic distribution could still be offset by the shift in population mobility and climatic changes. Plasmodium falciparum is the most dominant species in the world while the P. Ovale dominating the sub-Saharan region of Africa, and P. vivax found in the other remaining regions according to Parasites and Health.12. However, the last two have a tendency of overlapping in their geographic distribution and they are at times very difficult to distinguish.
(2). egional (within U.S.)
In the U.S.A. The malaria predominance is along the border points and the entry points into the U.S.A. As earlier noted. These are cases that are detected among the travelers returning from the malaria prone areas like Africa and South Asia as the Morbidity and Mortality Weekly eport10 noted. However, most of the cases…
1. Medical Dictionary. Malaria: Definition. 2011. http://medical-
dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/malaria. Accessed April 6, 2011.
2. CDC. Diagnosis and Treatment of Malaria in the Malaria-Endemic World. 2010.
Challenges in the response of public health in this area includes the following:
1) a lack of medical records or documentation of predeparture therapy;
2) Limited Medicaid reimbursement for therapy and follow-up care due to the lack of documentation;
3) Difficulty in securing the appropriate treatment since Malarone is not on the FDOH.
A formulary; and 4) Initial difficulty in locating a Kirundi interpreter for the interviews. (Epi Update, 2008)
VI. ARRIERS and MISCONCEPTIONS
arriers to funding and focus on prevention, treatment and eradication efforts are identified to be those as follows:
Malaria no longer 'king of diseases' in the tropics and hardly any threat to the industrialized countries of the North
Malariologists no longer in charge - new breed of 'managers' have taken command
asic research dominates and the little applied research that is funded has little operational links with control programs
More complex international infrastructure; countries need to…
Azarian, Taj; Kay, Robin S.; and Smith, Laura (2008)Malaria Among Recently Arrived Burundian Refugees: A Public Health Response. Epi Update. The Florida Department of Health, Bureau of Epidemiology. January 2008.
Breiger, Bill (2008) IRS in Uganda - a Call for Monitoring Resistance 21 June 2008. Indoor Residual Spraying. Malaria Matters. Online available at http://www.malariafreefuture.org/blog/
Brieger, Bill (2008) Counting Down the Cases Morbidity & Monitoring 24 June 2008. Malaria Matters. Online available at
Malaria -- a New Cause for Concern?
Malaria has long been thought of as the bane of travelers to and residents of the tropical and subtropical regions of the globe alone. According to the Center for Disease control, every 30 seconds in Africa a child dies of this disease. ("Malaria," CDC, 2004) It is easy to forget that the construction of the Panama Canal was made possible only after yellow fever and malaria were controlled in that North American area. But will global warming made this formerly prevalent illness resurgent in the United States? ("Malaria: History," CDC, 2004)
The CDC's discussion of the distribution of the ailment states that where malaria is found depends mainly on climatic factors such as temperature, humidity, and rainfall levels. "Malaria is transmitted in tropical and subtropical areas," specifically where mosquitoes are prevalent, and the malaria parasites can complete their growth cycles in mosquitoes, which…
"Malaria: Home Page." (24 Apr 2004) CDC Website. Retrieved 21 Apr 2004 at http://www.cdc.gov /malaria / 'Malaria: Geographic Distribution." (23 Apr 2004) CDC Website. Retrieved 21 Apr 2004 at
, published as a Bulletin of the World Health Organization. This article reportedly provides a general overview of the current status of prevention treatment in sub-Saharan Africa and assesses whether intermittent preventive treatment in infants would be an effective form of malaria control. Part of the goal of this project was to provide information to decision makers regarding an effective tool to remediate the epidemic conditions of malaria in the region. In order to locate this article, I used the search terms malaria and Africa and filtered for full text peer reviewed articles published between 2005 and 2011.
Other headings that may be relevant to my research include "The transit phase of migration: circulation of malaria and its multidrug-resistant forms in Africa" by Caroline Lynch and Cally oper, 2011 and "andomized controlled trials of malaria intervention trials in Africa, 1948 to 2007: a descriptive analysis" by Vittoria Lutje, Annette Gerritsen…
Carneiro, I., Smith, L., Ross, A., et al. (2010). Intermittent preventative treatment for malaria in infants: A decision-support tool for sub-Saharan Africa. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 88(11), 807-814.
Lutje, V., Gerritsen, A., & Siegfried, N. (2011). Randomized controlled trials of malaria
Intervention trials in Africa, 1948 to 2007: a descriptive analysis. Malaria Journal, 10(1), 61-68.
Lynch, C., & Roper, C. (2011). The transit phase of migration: Circulation of Malaria and its multidrug-resistant forms in Africa.
One agent often used to help treat the symptoms and invasion of malaria currently is "quinine" and is effective when used early in the disease process (Kiple 682).
IV. Proposed Development of Vaccine Against Causative Agent
Development of a vaccine against the causative agent will involve assessment and calculation of risk and current environmental exposure to the causative agent (Eisenberg et al., 2002). At present anti-malarial inoculations and medications are available in limited quantities to humans traveling to regions where malaria is prevalent (Eisenberg, et al., 2002). A proper vaccine will investigate further the exposure "scenario" and "transmission models" and aim to strengthen individual's immune systems, among populations most at risk for exposure to the Pathogen, as at this time it is virtually impossible to eliminate the Pathogen entirely (Eisenberg, et al., 2002; Haas, 1983). esearch previously conducted suggests in those with strong immune system, exposure to low dose microorganisms…
Eisenberg, Joseph, Brookhart, Alan, Rice, Glenn, Brown, Mary and Colford Jr., John M.
Disease Transmission Models for Public Health Decision Making: Analysis of Epidemic and Endemic Conditions by Waterborne Pathogens. Environmental Health Perspectives, 110.8: 783 (2002).
Ethiopian Mothers Treat Malaria Effectively at Home. Journal of Environmental Health,
Hass, CN. Estimation of risk due to low doses of microorganisms: a comparison of alternative methodologies. American Journal of Epidemiology, 55: 573-582 (1983).
Malaria: An Epidemiological Overview
Distribution: Environmental risk factors
Because of malaria's mode of transmission (through Anopheles mosquito bites), it is an almost exclusively tropical disease. "Temperature is particularly critical. For example, at temperatures below 20°C (68°F), Plasmodium falciparum (which causes severe malaria) cannot complete its growth cycle in the Anopheles mosquito, and thus cannot be transmitted" ("Where malaria occurs," 2010). But where the parasites can complete their growth cycle, wherever the Anopheles mosquitoes can survive and multiply, so do incidents of the disease. Prevalence and intensity is highest where the mosquito can breed year 'round in regions nearest the equator -- particularly in sub-Saharan Africa ("Where malaria occurs," 2010). In some tropical and subtropical countries, prevalence has been reduced because the disease cannot be transmitted at higher altitudes, during colder seasons, in deserts (mosquitos prefer humid climates), and also because of government mosquito control programs ("Where malaria occurs," 2010).
Driss, A. (et al. 2011). Genetic polymorphisms linked to susceptibility to malaria. Malaria Journal, 10:271. Retrieved from: http://www.malariajournal.com/content/10/1/271
The history of malaria, an ancient disease. (2010). CDC. Retrieved from:
Though Malaria has been eradicated in some parts of the world, especially developed countries, it remains a significant public health concern across the globe. According to the World Health Organisation (WHO) (2017), there were 212 million malaria cases and 429,000 malaria deaths globally in 2015 alone. Though the incidence of malaria morbidity and mortality has reduced over the years, these statistics are undoubtedly troubling. Developing countries bear the greatest burden of malaria (Shretta, Avancena & Hatefi, 2016). More specifically, Africa has a disproportionately high prevalence of malaria, with estimates indicating that approximately 90% of all malaria cases and 92% of all malaria mortalities across the globe occur in the continent (WHO, 2017). Over 70% of malaria cases in Africa occur in only 13 countries, mostly in the sub-Saharan region, with infants, children below 5 years, expectant women, and HIV/AIDS patients being at a greater risk compared to the rest of…
Groepe, M., Urbach, J., Jooste, H., Hlongwana, K., Baker, L., Misiani, E., & Mayet, N. (2013). Health promotion: from malaria control to elimination. The South African Medical Journal, 103(10), 799-800.
Hansen, S., Kanning, M., Lauer, R., Steinacker, J., & Schlicht, W. (2017). MAP-IT: A practical tool for planning complex behaviour modification interventions. Health Promotion Practice, 18(5), 696-705.
Hemingway, J., Shretta, R., Wells, T., Bell, D., Djimde, A., Achee, N., & Qi, G. (2016). Tools and strategies for malaria control and elimination: what do we need to achieve a grand convergence in malaria? PLoS Biology, 14(3): e1002380.
Kumar, S., & Preetha, G. (2012). Health promotion for global health. Indian Journal of Community Medicine, 37(1), 5-12.
Obi, L. (2017, October 7). Malaria kills over 50 in two weeks. Daily Nation. Retrieved from http://www.nation.co.ke/newsplex/malaria-deaths/2718262-4128862-f2v5ab/index.html
Shretta, R., Avancena, A., & Hatefi, A. (2016). The economics of malaria control and elimination: a systematic review. Malaria Journal, 15: 593.
World Health Organisation. (2017). Malaria. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs094/en/
Infectious Disease and Nursing Interventions:
In the past few years, the world has gained more awareness regarding health conditions, especially in light of the numerous changes in the environment that cause changes in the microbial population. While the awareness has increased, there are some infectious diseases that have become common in today's world. Actually, these diseases continue to spread rapidly throughout the world, which necessitates global surveillance for the emerging infections through public health initiatives. The need for increased global surveillance in public health is attributed to the increased health risks caused by changes in microbial population and the probable impact of these infections. Generally, an infectious disease is defined as a communicable disease whose main cause is a biological agent like bacterium, virus, and parasite. Consequently, this kind of disease basically requires a biological agent and a transmission mode.
An example of an infectious or communicable disease that is…
"Nursing Care of Malaria Patients." (n.d.). Pocket Guidelines for the Care of Malaria Patients.
Retrieved April 6, 2014, from http://www.tm.mahidol.ac.th/eng/tropical-medicine-knowledge/book-pocket-guilines/i-book-nurse02-pocket-guilines-part2.pdf
"Water-related Diseases" (2001). World Health Organization. Retrieved April 6, 2014, from http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/diseases/malaria/en/
Malaria isk Factors
Malaria, as Viewed through the Expanded isk Factor Model
Malaria is caused by infection of red blood cells by the parasites Plasmodium falciparum, P. vivax, P. malariae, and P. ovale and transmitted from human to human by the vector, Anopheles mosquitoes, according to the information provided by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, 2012a). The ability of the female Anopheles mosquito to thrive in proximity to humans, in addition to the presence of the malaria parasite, therefore determines the prevalence and incidence of malaria infections (CDC, 2012b). The only exceptions to this rule is when malaria is transmitted from human to human through pregnancy or exposure to biological substances, such as during a blood transfusion, organ transplantation, or drug use requiring the sharing of needles. These latter modes of transmission occur rarely, however, therefore the vector, Anopheles mosquitoes, plays a dominant role in determining…
Epidemiological Study on Influenza
The study hypothesized that in a population with high risk of developing complications, there is bound to be a high incidence of severe cases and lethality of type A influenza (Lera et al., 2011, p. 372).
The study population is the children attended to at the University Hospital Vall d'Hebron which is a third-level center in Barcelona. The facility serves a population of 45,000 and attends to patients up to the age of 16 years. The study included all patients seen at the pediatric emergency room between July 1st and December 31st of 2009 who were suffering from clinically suspected influenza type A (H1N1). The patients had to meet the criteria for microbiological study according to the Departament de Salut of the Generalitat de Catalunya protocol. The patients had to have travelled to an epidemic region or come into contact with a confirmed case in…
Lera, E., Worner, N.T., Sancosmed, M., Fabregas, A., Casquero, A., Melendo, S., . . . Cebrian, R. (2011). Clinical and epidemiological characteristics of patients with influenza A (H1N1) 2009 attended to at the emergency room of a children's hospital. [Article]. European Journal of Pediatrics, 170(3), 371-378. doi: 10.1007/s00431-011-1399-4
A. Overview of disease pathology
B. History of the disease in tropical climates and elsewhere
II. What community/ population did you choose?
A. According to the CDC (2016), travelers who have not developed partial immunity, children, and pregnant women are most vulnerable to malaria.
B. Malaria primarily affects Africa south of the Sudan in the modern world, where transmission is a risk year-round and the mosquito (Anopheles gambiae) can breed easily (“Malaria,” 2016).
III. Why did you choose this community?
A. Malaria affects some of the poorest communities in the world.
B. Precautions can be taken to curtail its spread.
IV. What types of disparities do they face?
B. Lack of education
C. Lack of access to healthcare
V. What issue related to public health/community wellness did you choose?
A. No cure exists for malaria.
B. The local population can benefit from a public…
Malaria. (2016). CDC. Retrieved from:
Malaria prevention. (2017). NHS. Retrieved from:
Prevent malaria. (2017). WHO. Retrieved from:
Poverty and Malaria in Angola
Angola is a country on the southern West coast of Africa. Its capital city is Luanda and it recognizes half a dozen national languages (though its native language is Portuguese). It achieved independence from Portugal in 1975 and consists of over 1 million square kilometers. Its population according to the 2014 census was 24,383,301 people. Angola has rich natural resources, from diamonds to oil and wildlife. Today it has one of the fastest growing economies in the world, and the fastest in Africa (Angola Financial Sector Profile, 2015).
The indicator I selected is "reported malaria cases" and it is defined as the "total number of reported malaria cases during the given year" (Data in Gapminder World, 2016). The trend of reported cases shows a sudden spark from 2002 to 2003 (from 1.86 million reported cases in 2002 to 3.24 million reported cases the following year)…
Angola Financial Sector Profile. (2015). MFW4A. Retrieved from http://www.mfw4a.org/angola/angola-financial-sector-profile.html
Data in Gapminder World. (2016). Gapminder.org. Retrieved from http://www.gapminder.org/data/
GNI per capita. (2015). Trading Economics. Retrieved from http://www.tradingeconomics.com/angola/gni-per-capita-ppp-us-dollar-wb-data.html
Polgreen, L. (2003). Angolans come home to negative peace. The New York Times.
According to the CDC, United states was once a malaria-endemic country until 1951 when malaria was eliminated in the country. Currently, approximately 1,500 cases of malaria and five deaths are reported annually in the US mostly by returning travelers (Ramasamy, 2014). Globally, malaria is widespread in over 100 countries mostly the less developed tropical areas of Asia, Latin America, and Asia. It is estimated that malaria kills about 1 million people annually in Africa alone. There are about 300 to 500 million cases of malaria reported annually and approximately 90 percent of these cases occur in sub-Saharan Africa. Although malaria is treatable and preventable, it still causes significant mortality and morbidity with the highest number of cases being reported in resource poor-regions and amongst young children.
The contributing factors for malaria are mostly dictated by social and economic reasons. In most instances of malaria infection, the people infected are mainly…
Pimenta, P. F., Orfano, A. S., Bahia, A. C., Duarte, A. P., Ríos-Velásquez, C. M., Melo, F. F., . . . Villegas, L. M. (2015). An overview of malaria transmission from the perspective of Amazon Anopheles vectors. Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, 110(1), 23-47.
Ramasamy, R. (2014). Zoonotic malaria–global overview and research and policy needs. Frontiers in public health, 2.
Zurovac, D., Githinji, S., Memusi, D., Kigen, S., Machini, B., Muturi, A., . . . Nyandigisi, A. (2014). Major improvements in the quality of malaria case-management under the “test and treat” policy in Kenya. PLoS ONE, 9(3), e92782.
Treatment of Malaria
Halliday and her team (2014) studied the effect of intermittent screening and treatment or IST on malaria among young students in a low-to-moderate transmission setting in Kenya. The main goal of the study was to improve the volunteer children's cognitive development and overall health. Specifically, it aimed at determining the benefit of alternative therapies against malaria and the impact of adjusting treatment to the intensity of the disease, which are not adequately explored ( Halliday et al.).
The intervention was conducted on a group of 5,233 school children in 101 government primary schools in Kenya from 2010 to 2012 (Halliday et al., 2014). They were selected at random from 5 classes and then followed up for two years. Once a year, public health workers screen the children with rapid diagnostic tests or RDTs whether they had symptoms or not. Those found positive for the tests were treated…
Co, E.M. A et al. (2009). Assessment of malaria in vitro drug combination screening and mixed-straw infection using the malaria sybi green I-based fluorescence assay. Vol. 53 # 6,
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy: PubMed. Retrieved on April 16, 2015 from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2687182
Halliday, K et al. (2014). Impact of intermeittent screening and treatment for malaria among school children in Kenya: a cluster randomized trial. Vol. 11 # 1, PLoS Medicine: Europe
PMC Funders Group. Retrieved on April 16, 2015 from http://www.europepmc.org/article/PMC3904819
The aim of this project is to come up with a group of healthcare providers that will carry out medical caravans, particularly visiting villages in located in Niger whereby women are actually the most affected by CVD (Cardiovascular Diseases) as well as SRHR (sexual reproductive health and rights). Our team will conduct screening for HIV, CVD, diabetes, malaria, hepatitis and hypertension. We will also offer medical consultations and provide health education together with evidence-based treatment. We are also going to identify and enlist women suffering from Obstetrical fistula as well as those at risk of the disease and will then direct them to our team’s medical center for both empowerment and treatment.
The project, collectively designed by our team of medical personnel “CARAVAN OF HOPE” will mainly concentrate on screening as well as management of women with cardiovascular diseases, malaria, HIV, diabetes, hepatitis, and hypertension. Our…
The race between new drugs and new resistances has not stopped since then.... And in 1986, WHO's expert panel concluded that a magic solution could not be relied upon, and that furthermore, malaria patterns were determined by a variety of socioeconomic as well as biological, climatic and geographic factors. " (Banfield, 1998. p. 35)
The article refers as well to the impact of malaria on the people of Kenya "... where people in the Bomet district were dying at a rate of three or four a day..." (Banfield, 1998. p.35)
Another general study which includes informative data relative to the topic of this study is The Heavy Cost of Malaria and AIDS by De Giorgio (2000). This article refers to some significant economic aspects and to the way that the high rate of malaria infections is affecting the economy of Kenya, as well as other countries in the region. The…
ALAII J. et al. (2003) COMMUNITY REACTIONS TO THE INTRODUCTION OF PERMETHRIN-TREATED BED NETS FOR MALARIA CONTROL DURING A RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL IN WESTERN KENYA. Retrieved November 3, 2006, at http://www.ajtmh.org/cgi/reprint/68/4_suppl/128.pdf http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002294055
Banfield, J. (1998, September). Malaria: Africa's Public Enemy No. 1. African Business 35+. Retrieved November 4, 2006, from Questia database:
Prevention methods, combined with education have been shown to effectively prevent malaria and this is good because, the infrastructure of poor nations is often inadequate to care for those who do fall ill. Many malaria treatment medications are very expensive, where legitimate (non-counterfeit) remedies can be found. In many of these nations the problem is perpetuated by counterfeit drugs, which sap family resources and do little if anything to remediate symptoms. In fact the presence of these drugs may even worsen the problem by creating drug resistant strains, as many counterfeit medications have been shown to contain only minute amounts of the anti-malarial pharmaceuticals and therefore expose the parasites to amounts that simply allow them to adapt, rather than eradicating them in the human body.
According to the Kaiser foundation, researchers claim that the wave of counterfeit anti-malarial drugs has reached industrial levels, meaning that the drugs are being produced…
Centers for Disease Control "Malaria: FAQ" 2010 from
Along with India, South Africa is perhaps the most prominent country using DDT that has large developed populations. Neither country has reported negative consequences, and many thousands of lives have been saved in both cases.
Ultimately, the use of DDT as a combatant against the spread of malaria has wide-ranging benefits that far outweigh the side effects. Carefully tracking the trajectory of DDT's history demonstrates that most developed nations, including the U.S., took advantage of DDT's benefits during the Global Malaria Eradication Campaign in the 1960s to eliminate the threat of malaria entirely. Their subsequent ban of DDT and the imposition of economic restrictions by the United Nations upon countries still using DDT represent a selective memory at best. The actions of developed nations regarding DDT could also be considered a hypocritical thought process.
egardless, malaria continues to pose a substantial threat to many countries, mostly in Africa. Only closed-mindedness…
Carson, R. (1962). Silent Spring. New York: Houghton-Mifflin.
Chanon, K & Mendez-Galvan, J. (2003). Cooperative Actions to Achieve Malaria
Control Without the Use of DDT. International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health, vol. 206, issues 4-5. Retrieved April 6, 2011 from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL
Curtis, C.F. (1994). Should DDT Continue to be Recommended for Malaria Vector
Africa so Poor?
Why is it that Africa, despite the aid and help and support that she gets from different sources all over the world, is still very much impoverished and in a state of poverty even now? It is a fact that this continent has been availing of outside help and has also been a site where numerous large-scale experiments have been performed over the years in order to improve and reform its economy for its innate betterment, but it has still remained in the same condition in which it has been existing all these pats few centuries. The truth is that none of the above experiments have been able to succeed in achieving a sustained and continuous economic growth in Africa and this has also led to the astonishing fact that most African three dozen nations are, today, even poorer than they were during the 1980's. It is…
African Alternative Framework to Structural Adjustment Programs for Socio-Economic Recovery and Transformation. Retrieved From http://www.africaaction.org/african-initiatives/aafall.htm Accessed on 28 February, 2005
Africa's Development Crisis. Retrieved From http://www.econdad.org/Berlin.htm Accessed on 28 February, 2005
Basu, Anupam; Calamitsis, Evangelos A; Ghura, Dhaneshwar. Promoting Growth in Sub-Saharan Africa. International Monetary Fund. August 2000. Retrieved From
http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/issues/issues23 / Accessed on 27 February, 2005
This is particularly the case in sub-Saharan Africa where clinicians have often come to rely on signs and symptoms alone to make diagnoses." (Nicoll, Walraven, Kigadye, Klokke, 1995)
The laboratory environment is critical to administering testing to determine population rates of HIV / AIDS throughout nations and perhaps continents where the lacking of resources facilitates a substandard environment for care. In the case of the African nation of Mozambique, which perhaps can be understood as a case indicative of the environmental assessment one would find throughout Africa and therefore, can be labelled to be a median statistical nation. A nation representing the median would indicate that half of the population nations that are categorized as resourced deficient, half would be above Mozambique in terms of resource allocation and half would fall below.
esearch into the quality of HIV / AIDS case-detection and case-reporting system in Mozambique was conducted by (Chilundo,…
Chappuis, F., Loutan, L., Simarro, P., Lejon, V., and Buscher, P. Options for Field Diagnosis of Human African Trypanosomiasis. Clinical Microbiology Reviews, January 2005, p. 133-146, Vol. 18, No.1
Chilundo, B., Sundeep S., Sundby J. The Quality of HIV / AIDS case-detection and case reporting systems in Mozambique. African Journal of AIDS Research 2004, 145-155. Copyright NISC Pty Ltd.
Clark. Blood Safety PPT. CDC, WHO
Loefler, I. Surgical wound infection in the Third World: the African experience. Journal of Medical Microbiology. Volume 47, 471-473. 1998. The Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland
Given a mosquito's vastly shorter life span, preventing the spread of the infection to more human hosts greatly reduces the number of viable parasites in existence (CDC 2009).
There are several reasons that viral infections are more difficult to treat and diagnose than bacterial infections. For one thing, viruses are not truly alive, and this makes it difficult to kill them. They are essentially packets of genetic information in tough protein shells; there are no real biological mechanisms for medicines to disrupt. In addition, the virus' use of host cells as reproduction sites means that drugs used to attack the virus often als due damage to healthy cells and the body's natural defenses. The basic life cycle of an animla virus includes hijacking a host cell and reproducing until rupture, where the process continues in new host cells. Most viruses can remain viable indefinitely outside a host, so the…
To wit, in several SSA countries, the ratio of girls to boys in school is less than 80% (eight girls to every ten boys who have a chance at an education). In Chad, there are 6.4 girls to every 10 boys in primary education; in Guinea-Bissau there are 6.5 girls for every ten boys in school. Child mortality is a horrific problem in SSA: in 30 of the 47 countries the rate of child mortality is at least 1 in ten (for children under 5 years of age). In Sierra Leone, for example 262 out of every 1,000 children die before the age of five (orld Bank data).
Maternal health is a very serious problem in SSA; over thirty countries report more than 500 mothers out of every 100,000 either die during pregnancy or during childbirth. There are some frighteningly stark numbers among those 30 countries; to wit, in Sierra…
Franklin, Thomas. "Reaching the Millennium Development Goals: equality and justice as well as results." Development in Practice 18.3 (2008): 420-423.
United Nations. "The Millennium Development Goals Report 2008." Retrieved July 11,
2009, from http://www.un.org/millenniumgoals/pdf/ .
World Bank. "Data and Research." Retrieved July 12, 2009, from http://econ.worldbank.org.
AIDS and Politics in African
Aside from Malaria and other life threatening diseases, AIDS constitutes one of the major concerns within the African continent. One of the reasons behind this concern is the fact that HIV / AIDS is responsible for causing many deaths in this part of the world. ith close to 70% of people living with HIV / AIDS in the entire globe coming from Africa, the magnitude of the problem in the continent cannot be overemphasized (UNAIDS 1). Political participation in matters as serious as this cannot go without being noticed. Politics in Africa is part of the HIV / AIDS epidermis and plays a role not only in the prevention of the diseases but also in its causes among other dynamics. The politics of Aids however is not limited to government and political entities and neither does it emanate from Africa alone. The participation of such…
Akukwe, Chinua, HIV / AIDS in Africa: Politics, Policies, Programs and Logistics, Atlanta, GA: the Perspective, 2003
Cook, Nicholas, AIDS in Africa, Congressional Research Service, 2008, Accessed April 30, 2012, http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/row/RL33584.pdf
Fassin, Didier & Schneider, Helen, the Politics of AIDS in South Africa: Beyond the Controversies, South Africa: BMJ Publishing Group, 2003
Goliber Thomas, Africa's Political Response to HIV / AIDS, Washington D.C: Population Reference Bureau, 2012
Nurses Do? Many people, tropical countries Third World, die preventable, curable diseases. . . . Malaria,
Of the many challenges related to providing adequate health care in nations that are still developing, one of the most prominent is the fact that in many instances cases of both preventable and curable diseases (such as tuberculosis) are not sufficiently reported (WHO, 2012, p. 1). Without reporting that an individual is infected or even possibly infected by this particular malady or others, it is extremely difficult to provide the sort of remedy that could prevent such a disease from being fatal. In developing nations, there are a number of places in which communication is strained due to the fact that these locations are remote or are in parts of the world in which advancements in information technology (such as mobile devices and the internet) have not fully penetrated. Thus, one of the critical…
Crisp, N., Chen, L. (2014). Global supply of health professionals. New England Journal of Medicine. Retrieved from http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMra1111610?query=featured_global-health
World Health Organization. (2012). "Global tuberculosis report 2012." World Health Organization. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/tb/publications/global_report/gtbr12_main.pdf
For a country such as Uganda to possess sufficient health care is tremendously important to the people of the republic of Uganda. Even triumphant medical treatment for malaria can involve pain through injections of drugs and in the entire period of recuperating after the administration of the drugs. Furthermore, nervousness may crop up, threat and unavoidably a lot of money. The final thing a parent of a sick child suffering from malaria in a hospital needs to believe about is how he or she is actually going to pay out for all the costs encountered or the billing. In an ideal world, as a substitute of distressing about money, a patient or a mother or a father of a kid who is suffering from malaria should be focused on getting well or consoling the sick child respectively. Nonetheless, the entire subject of health cover can be puzzling (Trisha, 2007, p.…
Akhtar, R (ed.) 1991, Planning and Implementing Community Participation in health Programs,
in Healthcare Patterns and Planning in Developing Countries, Greenwood Press,
New York, pp. 6.
Baum, F & Sanders, D 1995, 'Can Health Promotion and Primary Health Care Achieve Health
JOB: Case analysis
Malaria is a killer in many parts of the world and it specifically affects a large population of young children around the globe. I need to write a report that would inform the public about the threat that malaria poses to lives and health of millions of people who due to lack of better health facilities and treatment are dying unnecessarily. These lives could have been protected had better services been available to these people. Bill Gates foundation has undertaken the task of reaching out to this underprivileged population globally. I need to write a report which can be downloaded from the website but before they do so, I need them to know about the significance of the report so the people wouldn't download it without knowing what it contains.
Since people from various walks of life visit the Bill Gates foundation website, I am…
Along the way, scholarly resources such as books, peer-reviewed journal articles and reputable websites will be used to create or support the opinions or answers given. The three questions that will be answered will include what basic types of healthcare everyone should have access to and why, a choice from thirteen risk factors that impact infectious disease and a recitation of how nurses can play a part in one or more of the millennium development goals (MDG) set forth for global health. While being too loose and generous with what people are entitled to and/or the depth and breadth of what nurses can truly do is a danger, to suggest that neither is worthy of consideration would be less than wise to assert as true.
Healthcare as a ight
The first essay question asks what types and forms of healthcare should be a given and a right to everyone regardless…
Carlton, E.J., Liang, S., McDowell, J.Z., Huazhong, L., Wei, L., & Remais, J.V. (2012).
Regional disparities in the burden of disease attributable to unsafe water and poor sanitation in China. Bulletin Of The World Health Organization, 90(8), 578-
Clasen, T., Pruss-Ustun, A., Mathers, C.D., Cumming, O., Cairncross, S., & Colford, J.
Breaking obert's ules (B), Susskind emphasizes the value that a good facilitator can add in helping a group reach the best possible outcomes using the consensus-based approach. Looking back at the Bullard or Harborco negotiation, how might a neutral facilitator have added value?
A neutral facilitator would have better able to ascertain the desires of both sides of the argument. The consensus based approach is most prominent when both sides can discuss grievances without a bias methodology from the facilitator. The facilitator using a consensus based approach must encourage careful thought and collaboration amongst all parties involved. Biases could negatively impact the consensus based approach as one party may feel alienated or defensive. The other party meanwhile will believe themselves to have a negotiation advantage and attempt more benefits. These aspects would ultimately hinder the negotiation as both sides will be unable to arrive at a legitimate consensus regarding their…
1) Graham, John (2010), "The Problem-Solving Approach to Negotiations in Industrial Marketing," Journal of Business Research, 14, 549-566.
Prospects of a brighter future for Cote d'Lvoire
Cote d' Lvoire has finally recovered from a decade old socio-political crisis which plagued it from 2002-2011. This crisis hindered the almost all efforts in attaining the Millennium Development Goals (MDG). The MDG indicators have shown a decrement in performance over the past years. Now growth is on its way and relations are being established with international financial institutions. The MDG goals will be attained by the latest 2012-2015 via the National Development Plan which has been enforced by Ivorian government (World Bank, 2011).
Situation of the MDGs in Cote d'Ivoire
The case for MDG's in Cote d'Lvoire
Birth of MDG indicators: A short introduction
According to MDG's, it's clear that there has been delay in eradication against poverty and education sector, gender discrimination in education, lack of women empowerment, child and mother health to name a few. The only work done…
AfDB (2011).The Middle of the Pyramid: Dynamics of the Middle Class in Africa. Market Brief, 20 April 2011, AfDB.
AfDB, OECD and UNECA (2010). African Economic Outlook 2010. Paris: OECD.
AfDB, OECD, UNDP and UNECA (2011).African Economic Outlook 2011. Paris: OECD.
Berg, Andrew, Pedro Conceicao, Ayodele Odusola et al. (2012).Enhancing Development Assistance to Africa: Lessons from Scaling- Up Scenarios. New York: IMF.
Prevention and Control of the Flu
The flu is a serious illness but one of its great advantages is that a vaccine does exist to contain its spread and prevent or at least mitigate its symptoms. The flu is a virus and available antiviral medications like Tamiflu are not as effective as treating, for example, a bacterial infection with an antibiotic. The most effective method of treating the flu is to not get it at all -- which is why vaccination is so essential. However, even flu vaccinations are not particularly effective on a seasonal basis: "A flu virus mutates at an exceptionally high rate as it reproduces, and some mutations will change the tips of the surface proteins. The antibodies cannot grab tightly to the altered tips, so the virus is able to proceed with its invasion. From one flu season to the next, the evolution of the flu…
Mwangi, T. Bethony. J. & Brooker, S. (2006). Malaria and helminth interactions in humans: an epidemiological viewpoint. Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology, 100(7): 551-570. Retrieved from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1858631/
Zimmer, C. (2013). The quest to end the flu. The Atlantic. Retrieved from:
3 Strategies of CDC
As mentioned in the introduction, the Centers for Disease Control and prevention has developed and implemented six sets of strategies as follows:
Health Impact Focus - the alignment of CDC's employees, objectives, strategies, investments and performances in order to maximize the CDC's beneficial effects upon public health
Customer Centricity - Like any other corporation, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention is focused on offering those products and services required and needed by the population in order to improve and preserve their health
Public Health esearch - the CDC funds and conducts numerous researches aimed at identifying new treatments and any other issues which would positively affect the public health
Leadership - the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention possesses the best skilled and qualified employees, guided by the most committed managers and supported by strategic partners, all to improve the health system within the United…
Etheridge, E.W., 1994, Sentinel for Health: A History of the Centers for Disease Control, Journal of Interdisciplinary History, Volume 24, Number 4
Friede, a. And O'Carroll, P.O., 1996, CDC and ATSDR Electronic Information Resources for Health Officers, Journal of Environmental Health, Volume 59
1994, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention on Emerging Infectious Disease Threats, Population and Development Review, Number 13
1999, CDC on Infectious Diseases in the United States: 1990-1999, Population and Development Review, Volume 25, Number 3
strange how certain figures throughout the history of man become the figures of such intrigue and mystery (Meyerson, 2009). Alexander the Great, Attila the Hun, Charlemagne are examples of such figures. These are all men that led full lives and accomplished great things but sharing the same level of notoriety is young man from ancient Egypt who died at 19 accomplishing very little other than becoming Pharaoh. For whatever reason, King Tutankhamen (King Tut) has been the center of much discussion and theorizing since his nearly intact tomb was discovered in 1922. Among the many areas of concern regarding King Tutankhamen has been the cause of his death. Even in ancient Egypt, death at 19 was unusual and for someone so privileged it would be exceedingly so.
There has been no shortage of theories offered to explain how King Tut died. Some have suggested that he was killed falling from…
Hawass, Z. (2010, September). King Tut's Family Secrets. National Geographic, pp. http://ngm.nationalgeographic.com/2010/09/tut-dna/hawass-text .
King, M.R. (2006). Who Killed Kint Tut?: Using Modern Forensics to Solve a 3,300-year-old Mystery. Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books.
Meyerson, D. (2009). In the Valley of the Kings: Howard Carter and the Mystery of King Tutankhamun's Tombe. New York: Random House.
Pusch, C.M. (2010, January). Ancestry and Pathology in King Tutankhamun's Family. Journal of the American Medical Association, pp. 638-647.
(SA AIDS Drugs Company Set for Africa Sales)
The immense market potential for anti-retrovirals will signify a huge bonus for the company and also its shareholders. 8% of the roughly 4 million people in Mozambique are in need of the treatment for HIV / AIDS and were getting it. The fact of the matter is that HIV / AIDS has long been noted for it potential capability for raking in more money and the SA Cabinet some years ago had already stated its strong interest in the lucrative local development of AIDS drugs in the abortive Virodene experiment. The company obtained sanction from the U.S. Federal Drug Administration for certain of its anti-AIDS medicines as was of late given the award for the biggest share of the South African government anti-retroviral drug tenders. This is in greater measure part because it possesses a good BEE profile, assuring the support of…
Drug deals: Medicines, Development and HIV / AIDS. 2000. Retrieved at http://www.vso.org.uk/Images/position_papers_drug_deals_tcm8-1597.pdf . Accessed 17 September, 2005
HIV / AIDS Situation in Mozambique. Retrieved at http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/50875.pdf . Accessed 17 September, 2005
Marketing Medicine: Insider Secrets to online healthcare Marketing. March, 2002. Retrieved from http://www.medic8.com/MarketingMedicine.htm . Accessed 18 September, 2005
Mozambique: fact file. Retrieved at http://www.oxfam.org.uk/coolplanet/kidsweb/world/mozambique/mozfact.htm . Accessed 18 September, 2005
International health care funding programs are collaborative, multinational, cross-disciplinary endeavors with a broad philanthropic outlook and scope. There are dozens of different international health care funding programs, all of which depend at least in part on private funding sources due to the prevalence of the neoliberal economic, political, and social justice model (Pfeiffer, 2003). Two of the most significant international health care funding programs include the Global Fund, which focuses on AIDS, tuberculosis, and malaria to provide funding, consultation, leadership, research, coordination, and policy standardization; and the Commonwealth Fund, which is a fully private foundation dedicated to equitable access to healthcare resources. Both the Global Fund and the Commonwealth Fund perform similar functions as international health care funding programs. They provide services, support, human resources, and infrastructural support to primary health care delivery in the developing world but also in any region of need. Although utilization of the Global…
Anderson, G.F., Frogner, B.K., Johns, R.A. & Reinhardt, W.E. (2006). Health care spending and use of information technology in OECD countries. Health Affairs 25(3): 819-831.
Pfeiffer, J. (2003). International NGOs and primary health care in Mozambique: the need for a new model of collaboration. Social Science and Medicine 56(4): 725-738.
Bill Gates Founder of Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation; philanthropy
Did his upbringing seem to influence desire to be philanthropic? If so, how?
But his parents planted the seed of entering into philanthropy. Mrs. Gates always stressed on Bill why he needed to begin philanthropy. Someone who was at Bill's father's law office one night recalls that he had quarreled with his parents stating that he was just trying to run his company. Bill Gates notes that he wasn't against philanthropy at the time but wanted to give Microsoft all his energy and attention. Eventually, Mrs. Gates got Bill to donate money for United Way and establish a program at his company to do that. With the growth of his wealth, more requests for donations started streaming in. Bill Gates says that his desire was focusing on philanthropy after retiring from Microsoft or at least later on when he was…
Anderson, I. (2011). The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation: business vs. bureaucracy in international development, Development Policy Centre Discussion Paper #3, Crawford School of Public Policy, The Australian National University, Canberra.
Bort J. (2015 Jan. 21). Bill Gates Talks About The Heartbreaking Moment That Turned Him To Philanthropy. Business Insider. Retrieved from on March 11, 2015
Clemens, M & Demombynes, G 2010, 'When does rigorous impact evaluation make a difference? The case of the millennium villages', Centre for Global Development, Working Paper 225
Encyclopedia Britannica (updated 2014, July 14). Bill Gates. Retrieved from on March 11, 2015
As standard procedure warranted in this case, her obstetrician injected her with varicella zoster specific immunoglobulin. The injection did occur too late, but this is a special case warranting attention and was a prophylactic to protect the baby. A few days later the N developed chickenpox anyway. The reasons why the vaccine did not take could have been the fact that the N had already been exposed, and the situation is referred to as "breakthrough varicella," (National Centre for Immunisation, 2009, p. 3). Breakthrough varicella is a mild form of the infection, and yet is still contagious. Varicella vaccine should not be given to the baby until it is twelve months of age, but it may not be necessary at all due to the potential in vitro exposure to the varicella zoster virus. Infants "should receive no specific treatment or vaccination after exposure to Varicella zoster virus (VZV) but…
The author of this report has been asked to summarize and recite the main points of two scholarly offerings that both relate to the Zika virus. One of those is a presentation that was given by Ms. Carter and the other is a scholarly article that pertains to the same. Items that will be covered include where the virus originated from, the type of mosquitos that carry the virus, the number of cases that have been seen in the United States and a few other things. Of course, there will be a good amount of overlap between the presentation's facts and figures and what is seen from the scholarly article. While there is still a lot that is not known about the Zika virus, where it came from and what it can do, what is already known to this point is quite intriguing and scary.
Zika virus outbreaks in the Americas. (2015). Relevea Eapideamiologique Hebdomadaire / Section
D'hygiene Du Secreatariat De La Socieatea Des Nations = Weekly Epidemiological Record /
Health Section Of The Secretariat Of The League Of Nations, 90(45), 609-610.
It is indeed sad to point out that the Kyoto protocol has not been enforced as a result of its rejection by the U.S. government and the ussian move of deferring it.
As pointed out by Hamada (2006).the process of controlling the global weather change should be done through a combined and unified effort of all nations. These must include the entire global community of the developed and the developing nations. It is therefore important to put aside political differences and then advance a sense of unity in coming up with an appropriate framework to be used in tackling global warming. A global strategy should therefore be put forward to tackle the problem. The design of the global strategy must accommodate the situation of all the participating nations. On the technical aspect, the strategy must involve the view of both social and natural scientist.
Encyclopedia of Earth (2010)."Global…
Encyclopedia of Earth (2010)."Global Warming"
Guardia (2009). Climate change increasing malaria risk, research reveals http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/2009/dec/31/climate-change-malaria-kenya
Hamada, T (2006). How Should Global Society Address Climate Change? - The Kyoto Protocol
There have been numerous debates over the right choice between breast feeding and other substitutes in the conditions of mothers infected with HIV. Due to the possibility of infecting the infant with the virus, many women prefer bottled milk or other substitutes. However, unlike western countries where the issue of hygiene is no longer a problem, not even in the remotest corners of the countries, the situation is Africa is greatly related to the idea of a clean environment for women and their newborns. In this sense, the lack of financial possibilities determines the state and the population to be unable to provide a proper environment and to be unable to afford one respectively. Thus, the milk other than the maternal one is subjected to all sorts of bacteria, viruses, and even diseases. Therefore, on the one hand, there is the risk of the child to become infected with HIV;…
Afolabi, et al. (2001) Malaria in the first 6 months of life in urban African infants with anemia. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, Vol 65, Issue 6, 822-827. Retrieved 26 March 2008, at http://www.ajtmh.org/cgi/reprint/65/6/822
Andersson, H. (2005). Niger's children continue dying. BBC News. Retrieved 26 March 2008, at http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/africa/4274728.stm
Andersson, H. (2005). Niger children starving to death. BBC News. Retrieved 26 March 2008, from, http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/4695355.stm
Aneki (2008) Countries with the Highest Infant Mortality Rates in the World. Aneki Web page. Retrieved 26 March 2008, at http://www.aneki.com/mortality.html
By channeling his energy in another direction, Gates shows that he is not a one-dimensional leader only involved in promoting his company, but a three-dimensional leaders interested in helping the world be a better place. Just one of the programs that has gained media attention is the eradication of malaria, a disease almost non-existent in America but still prevalent in many other parts of the world. Another writers notes, "Malaria strikes 300m people every year, mainly in the farming parts of Africa where mosquito eradication programmes are nonexistent. Of those infected, 1.1m die, most of them children below the age of ten" (Vesely, 2003). The Gates Foundation, along with pharmaceutical companies, are committed to eradicating this, and other diseases such as smallpox, that have been out of control in many other parts of the world, largely due to a lack of funding and support.
Ultimately, Bill Gates leadership style is…
Editors. (2007). Biography: Bill Gates. Retrieved 12 March 2008 from the Microsoft.com Web site: http://www.microsoft.com/presspass/exec/billg/bio.mspx.
Gates, B. (2006). How I work. Retrieved 12 March 2008 from the CNN.com Web site: http://money.cnn.com/2006/03/30/news/newsmakers/gates_howiwork_fortune/ .
Hanlon, M. What a Microsofty; Bill Gates created the modern computer and, with ruthless business brutality made himself the richest man in the world. (2006, June 17). The Daily Mail (London, England), p. 46.
Heller, R. (2006). Management styles & leadership styles of Warren Buffet & Bill Gates. Retrieved 12 March 2008 from the ThinkingManagers.com Web site: http://www.thinkingmanagers.com/management/management-styles.php .
Apparently Brandt handled the medical needs of Bruckner well because Hitler made him "…his personal physician" and in time Brandt was given the rank of "major-general in the affen-SS" (Spartacus Educational).
Brandt helped establish the "Law for the Protection of Hereditary Health," which was a smokescreen for "compulsory sterilization" -- and in fact Brandt was in charge of the program ("Reich Committee for the Scientific Registration of Serious Hereditary and Congenially-Based Diseases") that basically was established to kill those who were "insane" and the "physically handicapped" (Spartacus Educational). The JVL explains that Brandt's euthanasia program began in 1939, and deformed children along with the very old and insane were murdered by gas or lethal injections in "…nursing homes, hospitals and asylums" (JVL, 1).
During the Nuremberg Trials the prosecutors were "caught off guard by the numerous affidavits submitted by the defense" that testified to the quality of Brandt's "personal character"…
Bryant, Michael. (2009). "Only the National Socialist": Postwar U.S. And West German
Approaches to Nazi "Euthanasia" Crimes, 1946-1953. Nationalities Papers, 37(6), 861-888.
Glaser, Edmund. (2008/09). Ulf Schmidt's Karl Brandt -- the Nazi Doctor: Medicine and Power in the Third Reich and Justice at Nuremberg: Alexander and the Nazi Doctors' Trial.
Journal of Hate Studies, 7(1), 109-116.
Social, Cultural, And Political Influence in Healthcare Delivery
Social, cultural, and political inequalities are detrimental to the health and healthcare system of the U.S. This is because the U.S. is one of the most multicultural, overpopulated, diverse and undergoing rapid economic growth. The federal government has embarked on efforts geared at addressing unsustainable costs of health care in the U.S. With the leadership of the current president, Barrack Obama, initiatives of containing health care costs will evaluate and explore strategies to contain the growing costs of health care based on a system-wide while enhancing the value and quality of health care (Ubokudom, 2012). The apparent system of health care is rife with opportunities of minimizing waste, delivering coordinated, effective care, and improving well-being and health of all Americans. The government in collaboration with care providers must prioritize cost effective containment strategies with the greatest possibility for political success and non-partisan…
Albrecht, G.L., Fitzpatrick, R., & Scrimshaw, S. (2013). Handbook of social studies in health and medicine. London: Sage Publications.
Armstrong, E.G. (2011). The health care dilemma: A comparison of health care systems in three European countries and the U.S. Singapore: World Scientific.
Bale, J.R., Stoll, B.J., & Lucas, A.O. (2013). Improving birth outcomes: Meeting the challenge in the developing world. Washington, DC: National academies press.
Buseh, A.G. (2008). Empowering resilience: Improving health care delivery in war-impacted African countries: a case study of Liberia. Lanham, Md: University Press of America.
Money Hurts Economy Analyze compare effectiveness (A) thesis statements (B) evidence, (C) rhetorical strategies (logos, ethos, pathos) dentify essay thought effective explain .
Rick Rilley's essay "Nothing but Nets," Stanley Fish's essay "But Didn't Do t" and David Wolman's essay "Time to Cash Out: Why Paper Money Hurts the Economy" all address contemporary issues and are all meant to emphasize how apparently simple ideas can bring reform to society. All of these essays are directed at raising public awareness concerning concepts that many people today currently believe to be insignificant when compared to the world's greater goal to experience progress through technology and finances.
Rilley's thesis deals with making it possible for the masses to understand how some small interventions can save lives and can help individuals combat maladies that claim thousands of lives every year. The writer concentrates on producing solid evidence with regard to how a sum as…
In spite of the fact that they are two very different digital tools for collaboration, I believe that Facebook ( https://www.facebook.com/ ) and Wikipedia ( http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page ) are largely responsible for helping the contemporary society experience progress. Even with the fact that they play an important role in today's society, both of these digital tools for collaboration are regarded as being little more than places where one can socialize and, respectively, where he or she can get information that is not 100% verifiable. Stigma follows the two in most communities and makes it difficult for the masses to actually be able to understand the beneficial aspects concerning both of them.
Facebook can be use as a tool for socializing and is known to have brought people closer together as a result of how it provides the ability to communicate and connect with people who share similar passions. This digital tool for collaboration needs to be understood properly in order for people to benefit from it, as otherwise it can actually harm individuals.
Wikipedia is known for how individuals can modify content without actually introducing truthful information. However, as long as one has a complex understanding of the digital tool and as long as he or she is able to differentiate between truthful information and information that cannot be verified, he or she is most likely to benefit from using it.
The first analysis concentrated on the Y chromosome, which would illuminate King Tutankhamun's paternal heritage; the second analysis consisted of genetic fingerprinting," (SCA, cited by Ann). Genetic fingerprinting allowed for a five-generation "pedigree of Tutankhamun's immediate lineage," (Hawass 2010). All of the testing was replicated in an independent laboratory designed specifically for the Family of Tutankhamun Project (Hawass et al.). In addition to the DNA analyses that were performed on the royal mummies, CT scans were also used to help analyze bones.
The results of the DNA analysis revealed the parentage of King Tutankhamun. Akhenaten is the father of King Tutankhamun, not his brother as was previously believed (MalcolmJ). However, Hawass had already hypothesized that Akhenaten was the father of King Tutankhamun. Hawass notes that an inscribed limestone block that he helped piece together led him to question King Tut's heritage. The text printed on the limestone block states that…
Ann. "King Tut Further Unwrapped - the Family of Tutankhamun Project." Heritage Key. 2010. Retrieved April 8, 2010 from http://heritage-key.com/blogs/ann/king-tut-further-unwrapped-family-tutankhamun-project
"Chief Inspector of Antiquities for the Giza Pyramids." Dr. Hawass.com. Retrieved April 8, 2010 from http://www.drhawass.com/events/chief-inspector-antiquities-giza-pyramids
"General Director of Antiquities for the Giza Pyramids, Saqqara, and Bahariya." Dr. Hawass.com. Retrieved April 8, 2010 from http://www.drhawass.com/events/general-director-antiquities-giza-pyramids-saqqara-and-bahariya
Hawass, Zahi et al. "Ancestry and Pathology in King Tutankhamun's Family." Journal of the American Medical Association. Feb 17, 2010. Retrieved April 8, 2010 from http://jama.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/short/303/7/638?home
The heat is oppressive and because of that heat Holloway had to endure "an overpowering stench" in the birthing room. alking into that room on a day that was probably over 100 degrees Holloway (p. 6) said the building "was like an oven, baking all the secretions [from pregnant and post-partum women] into a rank casserole" (p. 6). Holloway said she felt like she was "drowning in the smell of flesh, body fluids, and leftover food" -- all made more aromatically spicy by the torrid head in the dry season.
The fierce storms that arrive in rainy season have a huge impact on the village and on the story that Holloway is telling. In many countries, the rainy season would be a blessing after a long, hot dry spell. But the rains that arrive in Mali as the rainy season started are terrifying. "I was startled out of my thoughts…
Holloway, Kris. (2007). Monique and the Mango Rains: Two Years with a midwife
In Mali. Long Grove, IL: Waveland Press.
The weaker segments in Africa, women and children, were and are the worst hit by HIV / AIDS, which then is spread to the families and communities. (Bage 2004)
Dealing with this is a great scientific, social, and moral challenge that every organization and country, especially developed countries must rise up to. It is time to mobilize resources and contribute to make changes in the policies so that we at the United Nations can do something worthwhile to combat Africa's problem with this disease. There were commercial interests earlier that would not allow the developed nations to provide subsidized medicine. For instance the United States, there was a stance that there could be no recognition of the problem and a denial of need. This was followed by a policy that placed the solving of the problem on the affected countries. Until George W. Bush, the United States and many developed…
Bage, Lennart. 2004. HIV / AIDS in Africa: Shifting the Horizons of Development. UN
Chronicle, vol. 41, no. 3. September-November, pp: 49-54.
DeConde, Alexander. 1963. A History of American Foreign Policy. Charles Scribner's
Sons: New York.
These technologies are key to sustaining economic growth and increase productivity within these countries.
Access to electricity remains far from adequate, specifically in sub-aharan Africa, where as much as 74% of the population remains without electricity. This is one area that needs urgent attention by means of a global partnership between the public and private sectors.
Clearly, there are many gaps that still need to be addressed between the Millennium Goals and reaching the established targets. With the current global economic recession, it is however very unlikely that the 2010 targets will be met, and at least unlikely that the goals for 2015 will be met. However, it is encouraging that an effort is made to improve the situation, despite the financial difficulties experienced across the world.
Despite the gloomy projections in terms of meeting the overall goals, the UN report also cites considerable success in terms of countries using…
UN Department of Public Information. (2008, Sept). End Poverty 2015: Millennium Development Goals.
MDG Monitor (2007). Develop a Global Partnership for Development: Success Stories. http://www.mdgmonitor.org/story.cfm?goal=8
(Jordans, 2008) "Europe's unilateral approach will only lead to legal battles and trade wars," Bisignani also stressed. (Jordans, 2008) a hint of this contention occurring in the future was evidenced recently when 27 nations, including the U.S., China and 25 other countries, registered opposition to the EU's attempt to include commercial airlines in its cap-and-trade program by supporting an ICAO-run program. This signal confirmed united opposition to the European Union's intentions to develop a separate, regional emissions trading system. U.S. officials warn that the inclusion of U.S. And other non-European airlines in the EU cap-and-trade program "may break international aviation and trade laws." (Jordans, 2008) Although reasons differ, along with official warnings, scientists raise questions regarding the European program. Airlines, experts basically agree, contribute approximately 2% of man-made emissions of carbon dioxide, a gas reportedly contributing to global warming. Perceptions, nevertheless, differ regarding the impact of other gases aircraft emit,…
Aircraft emissions capped to tackle climate change." European Commission, 20 Dec. 2006. Retrieved June 17, 2005, at http://ec.europa.eu/news/environment/061220_1_en.htm .
Aviation and the Environment." Finance Wire, May 7, 2008. Retrieved June 16, 2005, at http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1P3-1474988211.html .
EPA to Revise Aircraft Engine Emission Standards." IHS, 30 Nov. 2005. Retrieved June 17, 2005, at http://aero-defense.ihs.com/news/2005/epa-aircraft-engine-emissionsstandards.htm .
FAQ on Aviation Emissions and Climate Change." HIS, 2 Jan. 2007. Retrieved June 17, 2005, at http://aero-defense.ihs.com/news/eu-en-airplane-emissions-faq-1-07.htm .
Crosby, Alfred W. Ecological Imperialism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986.
eezley, ill. "The Global Market from and to the Americas." University of Arizona (November 23, 2004), http://18.104.22.168/search?q=cache:uKRvc_4yeu4J:las.arizona.edu/outreach/complete_curriculum_units/taste_of_LA/Taste%2520of%2520LA%2520Handouts.pdf+%22columbian+exchange%22+food&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=1&gl=us.
Hodge, F. "Disabled American Indians: A Special Population Requiring Special Considerations." American Indian Culture and Research Journal 13 (1988), 83-104.
Sale, Kirkpatrick. The Conquest of Paradise. New York: Alfred a. Knopf, 1990.
Stannard, David E. American Holocaust. New York: Oxford University Press, 1992.
Viola, Herman J. And Carolyn Margolis. Seeds of Change. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1991.
David E. Stannard, American Holocaust (New York: Oxford University Press, 1992), 53.
Kirkpatrick Sale, the Conquest of Paradise (New York: Alfred a. Knopf, 1990), 34.
Herman J. Viola and Carolyn Margolis, Seeds of Change (Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1991), 79.
Alfred W. Crosby, Ecological Imperialism (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986), 197.
Viola and Margolis, 192.
F. Hodge, "Disabled American Indians: A Special Population…
Crosby, Alfred W. Ecological Imperialism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986.
Beezley, Bill. "The Global Market from and to the Americas." University of Arizona (November 23, 2004), http://22.214.171.124/search?q=cache:uKRvc_4yeu4J:las.arizona.edu/outreach/complete_curriculum_units/taste_of_LA/Taste%2520of%2520LA%2520Handouts.pdf+%22columbian+exchange%22+food&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=1&gl=us.
Hodge, F. "Disabled American Indians: A Special Population Requiring Special Considerations." American Indian Culture and Research Journal 13 (1988), 83-104.
Sale, Kirkpatrick. The Conquest of Paradise. New York: Alfred a. Knopf, 1990.
There are a wide range of issues it consider here; from the effect that changed ecosystems can have on the general environment to studies of the 'disappearing' coral reef and the glaciers that are rapidly melting. "Scientists predict that composition and range of many ecosystems will shift as species respond to climate change..." (eschatology of the left)
This will also have an impact on the forests and it is estimated that as much as two-thirds of the worlds footrests will be affected.
Figure 1. Comparison of emissions source: (http://www.ucsusa.org/global_warming/solutions/recognizing-forests-role-in-climate-change.html)
2.1. The media and the construction of perceptions
Taking into account the enormous significance of global warming and the potential that it poses for the disruption and even destruction of human life on earth, it is important to gauge the effect that this event has had on the public perception. The media as a conduit of popular perception is also means…
Boykoff J. And Boykoff M. Journalistic Balance as Global Warming Bias:
Creating controversy where science finds consensus. May 4, 2007. http://www.fair.org/index.php?page=1978
Brief Analysis of Climate Change Report. May 4, 2007. http://alt-e.blogspot.com/
Eschatology of the left. May 4, 2007 http://www.watchblog.com/republicans/archives/001181.html
The World Bank asserts that this project will also improve the quality of life for the people of Uruguay by producing skilled jobs ("Uruguay: World Bank Approves...").
The article reports that another purpose of the project is to support the government as it relates to strengthening the capacity of the country to produce, transfer, and adapt knowledge and new technology ("Uruguay: World Bank Approves..."). As it relates to this aim the project is designed to encourage the strengthening of the institutional framework for technology, science, and innovation. In addition the project is designed to support investments in education; technology transfer and innovation within the private sector; and research alliances and transportation/flexibility for researchers between educational institutions and the productive sector ("Uruguay: World Bank Approves...").
In addition to the aforementioned activities, there are many other activities that the World Bank is currently involved in that are aimed at improving living standards…
Albania: Micro-credits Support a Growing Rural Economy. http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/NEWS/0,contentMDK:20871875~menuPK:141311~pagePK:34370~piPK:34424~theSitePK:4607,00.html
Uruguay: World Bank Approves U.S.$26 Million to Promote Innovation and Improve the Country's Competitiveness. http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/NEWS/0,contentMDK:21318964~pagePK:34370~piPK:34424~theSitePK:4607,00.html
World Bank Vows to Strengthen Health Systems in Poor Countries with New http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/NEWS/0,contentMDK:21318554~pagePK:34370~piPK:34424~theSitePK:4607,00.html
There has been considerable negative propaganda about the U.N. In recent times that has portrayed the organization as a bureaucratic "white elephant" and suggestions have even been made to do away with it altogether. John Bolton, who until recently was the U.S. Permanent epresentative at the UN, once famously remarked: "The [U.N.] Secretariat building in New York has 38 stories. If you lost ten stories today, it wouldn't make a bit of difference;" and many people in the U.S. tend to agree with him. No doubt, improvement in the performance of the United Nations may well be called for, since no orgainization is perfect. However, to my mind, it would be an extremely unwise and short-sighted step to curtail the activities of the United Nations. In fact, we need to expand the United Nations so that it can carry out the enormous tasks of maintaining global peace, reducing poverty, supporting…
About the ITU." (2007). International Telecommunication Union. Retrieved on April 24, 2007 at http://www.itu.int/aboutitu/index.html
Global Issues on the UN Agenda." (2007). The United Nations Official Website. Retrieved on April 24, 2007 at http://www.un.org/issues/
International cooperation for an enabling environment for sustainable development." (2001).
Report of the Secretary-General: Commission on Sustainable Development. Retrieved on April 24, 2007 at http://www.un.org/documents/ecosoc/cn17/2001/ecn172001-5.pdf
" There is also a problem with deforestation, overgrazing, soil erosion and over-fishing, and because of the clear-cutting of forested areas in Senegal, a process of "desertification" is well underway. The problem of desertification is significant because according to United Nations' information (Thompson Gale / Nations Encyclopedia) 46% of Senegal is classified as semiarid. There has been "inadequately controlled cutting of forests for fuel" and there has also been significant overgrazing of existing grasslands (which are dwindling away). The capital of Dakar suffers from "improper sanitation" according to Nations Encyclopedia; but on the positive side of urban life, 92% of city dwellers have access to safe drinking water. Still, wherever you look in Senegal, you can't escape the fact that this is a third world country; to wit, 35% of people living in rural Senegal do not have access to safe drinking water.
Those above-mentioned facts having been presented, there…
African Conservation. "Senegal: The African Mangrove Network." Retrieved April 12, 2007 from http://www.africanconservation.org/senegal.html .
CIA. "The World Factbook: Senegal." Retrieved April 12, 2007, at http://www.cia.gov/publications/factbook/pring/sg.html .
Encyclopedia of the Nations. "Senegal: Environment." Retrieved April 12, 2007, from Thompson - Gale at http://www.nationsencyclopedia.com/e/africa/Senegal-ENVIRONMENT.html .
Sakho, Amadou. "Senegal Shuts Down Mining Operations in Protected Areas." Inter
Obesity, overweight and underweight all have impacts that are negative on self-esteem of many children and adolescents that if not checked can have long-term effects on the success in lives of these children and their general happiness in the future (Moran, 1999).
The persistence of chronic diseases in more in the developing than in the developed countries. The World Health Organization posits that by 2020, a quarter of deaths in the least developed countries will be caused by the so called non-communicable diseases, WHO, (1997). In this regard, a major mind blowing public health problem in the developing world may the reality of increasing obesity in children populations which might result to major social and economic burdens on these developing nations in the coming years, (Freedman et al., 2001).
This health care problem is present in almost all parts of the world and the Arabian Gulf region is not exempted.…
Ali, H,2010.Major characteristics of Saudi hospitals http://bit.ly/kdNzPX
Al-Quaiz, Al-Joharah M.2001. Current concepts in the management of obesity. An evidenced-based review. Saudi Med J. 2001; 22: 20
Amin, T.T.,Al-Sultan.,A.I.,Ali.,A, 2008.Overweight and Obesity and their Association with Dietary Habits, and Sociodemographic Characteristics Among Male Primary School Children in Al-Hassa, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Baum, F. 2008 The new public health (3rd Edition) Oxford University Press, Melbourne
Their entire procedure was completed in less than 28 minutes. The current H5N1 tests, on the toehr hand, occur around the space of 4 hours.
Their point-of-care tests are comprised of an instrument that has a disposable component and, by being low cost and rapid to use, is ideal for those countries that need it most and where, due to depleted resources, the influenza vaccine is unavailable. Resources for creating their point-of-care tests are inexpensive: a CD-ROM drive, a power supply, a spindle stepper motor for microfluidic actuation, and optics for fluorescence detection. Most countries can, with help from generous and more privileged others, come up with these requirements. Transport and storage related issues would need to be transfigured into the expense.
The authors provide an important and under mentioned perspective to treatment of H5N1 influenza by noting that countries that most need the vaccination and treatment are not…
In this way, the authors' contribution has global and far-reaching results and they have reason to believe that the microfluidic system described in their article can be "an attractive diagnostic platform, especially for decentralized environmental, biological, or medical testing" (p.4).
Pipper, J. et al. (2007) Catching bird flu in a droplet. Nature Medicine; (Technical Reports), 1- 5.
Hello, Mr. And Mrs. Jones.
You came to us because you each have relatives with B-thalessemia. You wanted to know what the chances were that you would have children with this disease.
The only way a baby can be born with B-thalessemia is if both parents carry the gene for it. At conception, each child receives one set of genes from each parent. Because each of you received one gene for B-thalessemia, it is possible that your children could inherit this disease. Neither of you are sick from it because you have "Thalassemia minor" -- one gene. However, each time you conceive a child, there's a one in four chance that the child will inherit a B-thalessemia gene from each of you. That child would have thalessemia major, a potentially serious form of the disease. In this disease, there are changes in the hemoglobin of the red blood cells.…
The first level of the NHS - health centers and health costs produce a considerable part of the total volume of health services in the nation and comprise the first and only point of contact with the health system for the major part of the Mozambican population. The present approach while delivering primary level health services in Mozambique has been very successful. (Expenditure Tracking and Service Delivery Survey: The Basic Concept) iv) Profitability: Prices of medicines often has no relation to costs, as included in the cost of research and development -- &D and production, are added a portion of the mixture of marketing costs, profit margins, subsidies, tariffs, and tax requirements that vary across nations. The outcome is great price variations both between and within the nations. Since the patent for lamivudine/zidovudine taken on 1996 is valid for 20 years and low cost generic copies cannot be sold prior…
About Our Work: Antiretroviral Therapy. Retrieved at http://www.cdc.gov /nchstp/od/gap/pa_art.htm. Accessed 23 September, 2005
Dare to Lead: public health and company wealth. Oxfam Briefing paper on GlaxoSmithKline.
Retrieved at http://www.oxfam.org.uk/what_we_do/issues/health/dare_to_lead.htm . Accessed 23 September, 2005
Expenditure Tracking and Service Delivery Survey: The Health Sector in Mozambique. Survey Information and Status Report. August, 2002. Retrieved at http://www.worldbank.org/research/projects/publicspending/tools/Mozambique%20PETS/mozambique.ETSDS.lindelow.statusreport.sep4.2002.pdf . Accessed 23 September, 2005
Exploration - Populations
Population pyramids symbolize graphically the age/gender arrangement of a population. Basically is shows how many men and women of a given age or age group are present in the population. They are detailed kinds of histograms, in which the male population is displayed on the left side of the graph, and the female population on the right; the youngest are the base of the pyramid, and the oldest are at its top. The very oldest are generally absent from the representation of the pyramid because it is unfeasible to depict this open-ended interval that includes a few of the oldest-old. Percentages are figured using both sexes combined or the total population as the denominator. A lot can be read from population pyramids as they can trace the history of a populace, as well as project its prospect. In particular, one can deduce the likelihood of population…
Malcom, C. (2012). Types of Population Pyramids. Retrieved from http://www.ehow.com/list_6370548_types-population-pyramids.html
Population Pyramids. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://healthandrights.ccnmtl.columbia.edu/demography/population_pyramids.html
Population Pyramids 2. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.martinsclass.com/aphug/population-pyramids-2/