Malaria Essays (Examples)

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Impregnated Mosquito Bed Netting in

Words: 5949 Length: 17 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35956222

The race between new drugs and new resistances has not stopped since then.... And in 1986, WHO's expert panel concluded that a magic solution could not be relied upon, and that furthermore, malaria patterns were determined by a variety of socioeconomic as well as biological, climatic and geographic factors. " (Banfield, 1998. p. 35)

The article refers as well to the impact of malaria on the people of Kenya "... where people in the Bomet district were dying at a rate of three or four a day..." (Banfield, 1998. p.35)

Another general study which includes informative data relative to the topic of this study is The Heavy Cost of Malaria and AIDS by De Giorgio (2000). This article refers to some significant economic aspects and to the way that the high rate of malaria infections is affecting the economy of Kenya, as well as other countries in the region. The…… [Read More]

References

ALAII J. et al. (2003) COMMUNITY REACTIONS TO THE INTRODUCTION OF PERMETHRIN-TREATED BED NETS FOR MALARIA CONTROL DURING A RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL IN WESTERN KENYA. Retrieved November 3, 2006, at http://www.ajtmh.org/cgi/reprint/68/4_suppl/128.pdf http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002294055

Banfield, J. (1998, September). Malaria: Africa's Public Enemy No. 1. African Business 35+. Retrieved November 4, 2006, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002294055

Brown D. (1994) When Disease Resists; Malaria's Toll Rises in Tropical Regions As Effectiveness of Chloroquine Falls Off. www.highbeam.com/Search.aspx?q=impregnated+mosquito+bed+netting+%20publication:%5b%22The%20Washington%20Post%22%5dThe Washington Post. www.highbeam.com/Search.aspx?q=impregnated+mosquito+bed+netting+%20pubdate:%5b19940211;19940217%5dFebruary 14, 1994

Brown D. (1996) Antimalarial 'Bednets' Greatly Reduce Child Mortality in Africa, Studies Show. The Washington Post April 4, 1996. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002358265
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Health Organization in 2008 There

Words: 1143 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63627388



Prevention methods, combined with education have been shown to effectively prevent malaria and this is good because, the infrastructure of poor nations is often inadequate to care for those who do fall ill. Many malaria treatment medications are very expensive, where legitimate (non-counterfeit) remedies can be found. In many of these nations the problem is perpetuated by counterfeit drugs, which sap family resources and do little if anything to remediate symptoms. In fact the presence of these drugs may even worsen the problem by creating drug resistant strains, as many counterfeit medications have been shown to contain only minute amounts of the anti-malarial pharmaceuticals and therefore expose the parasites to amounts that simply allow them to adapt, rather than eradicating them in the human body.

According to the Kaiser foundation, researchers claim that the wave of counterfeit anti-malarial drugs has reached industrial levels, meaning that the drugs are being produced…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Centers for Disease Control "Malaria: FAQ" 2010 from   http://www.cdc.gov/malaria/ about/faqs.html 

Centers for Disease Control "Fight the Bite for Protection from Malaria

Guidelines for DEET Insect Repellent Use" 2010 from  
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DDT A Controversial Look on

Words: 1641 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1035842

Along with India, South Africa is perhaps the most prominent country using DDT that has large developed populations. Neither country has reported negative consequences, and many thousands of lives have been saved in both cases.

Ultimately, the use of DDT as a combatant against the spread of malaria has wide-ranging benefits that far outweigh the side effects. Carefully tracking the trajectory of DDT's history demonstrates that most developed nations, including the U.S., took advantage of DDT's benefits during the Global Malaria Eradication Campaign in the 1960s to eliminate the threat of malaria entirely. Their subsequent ban of DDT and the imposition of economic restrictions by the United Nations upon countries still using DDT represent a selective memory at best. The actions of developed nations regarding DDT could also be considered a hypocritical thought process.

egardless, malaria continues to pose a substantial threat to many countries, mostly in Africa. Only closed-mindedness…… [Read More]

References

Carson, R. (1962). Silent Spring. New York: Houghton-Mifflin.

Chanon, K & Mendez-Galvan, J. (2003). Cooperative Actions to Achieve Malaria

Control Without the Use of DDT. International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health, vol. 206, issues 4-5. Retrieved April 6, 2011 from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL

Curtis, C.F. (1994). Should DDT Continue to be Recommended for Malaria Vector
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Why Is Africa'so Poor

Words: 5480 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73371208

Africa so Poor?

Why is it that Africa, despite the aid and help and support that she gets from different sources all over the world, is still very much impoverished and in a state of poverty even now? It is a fact that this continent has been availing of outside help and has also been a site where numerous large-scale experiments have been performed over the years in order to improve and reform its economy for its innate betterment, but it has still remained in the same condition in which it has been existing all these pats few centuries. The truth is that none of the above experiments have been able to succeed in achieving a sustained and continuous economic growth in Africa and this has also led to the astonishing fact that most African three dozen nations are, today, even poorer than they were during the 1980's. It is…… [Read More]

Bibliography

African Alternative Framework to Structural Adjustment Programs for Socio-Economic Recovery and Transformation. Retrieved From http://www.africaaction.org/african-initiatives/aafall.htm Accessed on 28 February, 2005

Africa's Development Crisis. Retrieved From http://www.econdad.org/Berlin.htm Accessed on 28 February, 2005

Basu, Anupam; Calamitsis, Evangelos A; Ghura, Dhaneshwar. Promoting Growth in Sub-Saharan Africa. International Monetary Fund. August 2000. Retrieved From

http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/issues/issues23 / Accessed on 27 February, 2005
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Low Health Expectancy in Developing Countries There

Words: 1008 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45514024

Low Health Expectancy in Developing Countries

There are a number of health problems in the developing world that contribute to lower health and life expectancy. Many of these health problems are environmental, which means that they may be beyond the immediate control of people in the developing countries. Many of these factors also disproportionately impact the poor in these countries. "From longstanding to emerging hazards, environmental factors are a root cause of a significant burden of death, disease and disability -- particularly in developing countries. The resulting impacts are estimated to cause about 25% of death and disease globally, reaching nearly 35% in regions such as sub-Saharan Africa (1). This includes environmental hazards in the work, home and broader community/living environment" (WHO 2013). Three of these problems are: unsafe water, malaria, and lead exposure.

Unsafe water may be the largest global health risk, particularly in developing countries. In order to…… [Read More]

References

Alo, B 2011, Issues of lead poisoning and developing countries. Available from:

[16 February 2013].

Charity Water 2006, Why water. Available from:<  http://www.charitywater.org/whywater/ >.

[16 February 2013].
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Improving the Quality of Medical

Words: 4818 Length: 18 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29120759

This is particularly the case in sub-Saharan Africa where clinicians have often come to rely on signs and symptoms alone to make diagnoses." (Nicoll, Walraven, Kigadye, Klokke, 1995)

The laboratory environment is critical to administering testing to determine population rates of HIV / AIDS throughout nations and perhaps continents where the lacking of resources facilitates a substandard environment for care. In the case of the African nation of Mozambique, which perhaps can be understood as a case indicative of the environmental assessment one would find throughout Africa and therefore, can be labelled to be a median statistical nation. A nation representing the median would indicate that half of the population nations that are categorized as resourced deficient, half would be above Mozambique in terms of resource allocation and half would fall below.

esearch into the quality of HIV / AIDS case-detection and case-reporting system in Mozambique was conducted by (Chilundo,…… [Read More]

References

Chappuis, F., Loutan, L., Simarro, P., Lejon, V., and Buscher, P. Options for Field Diagnosis of Human African Trypanosomiasis. Clinical Microbiology Reviews, January 2005, p. 133-146, Vol. 18, No.1

Chilundo, B., Sundeep S., Sundby J. The Quality of HIV / AIDS case-detection and case reporting systems in Mozambique. African Journal of AIDS Research 2004, 145-155. Copyright NISC Pty Ltd.

Clark. Blood Safety PPT. CDC, WHO

Loefler, I. Surgical wound infection in the Third World: the African experience. Journal of Medical Microbiology. Volume 47, 471-473. 1998. The Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland
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Biology Qs Microbes Exist All

Words: 1525 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89102749

Given a mosquito's vastly shorter life span, preventing the spread of the infection to more human hosts greatly reduces the number of viable parasites in existence (CDC 2009).

10)

There are several reasons that viral infections are more difficult to treat and diagnose than bacterial infections. For one thing, viruses are not truly alive, and this makes it difficult to kill them. They are essentially packets of genetic information in tough protein shells; there are no real biological mechanisms for medicines to disrupt. In addition, the virus' use of host cells as reproduction sites means that drugs used to attack the virus often als due damage to healthy cells and the body's natural defenses. The basic life cycle of an animla virus includes hijacking a host cell and reproducing until rupture, where the process continues in new host cells. Most viruses can remain viable indefinitely outside a host, so the…… [Read More]

Reference

CDC. (2009). "Malaria." Accessed 22 September 2009. http://www.cdc.gov/Malaria/index.htm
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West Nile Virus

Words: 791 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63777657

West Nile Virus

In the summer of 1999, an unusual thing occurred: West Nile Encephalitis came to New York City. This was unusual because the disease had previously been present in the Middle East and Africa, and sporadically present in Europe, but unknown in North America. Its sudden appearance in America sparked speculation that West Nile Virus was brought to America by terrorists as a form of biological warfare.

In spite of the speculation, there is actually no proof of how the West Nile Virus came to the United States. What is known about the West Nile Virus in the United States is that it developed from the same strand of the virus that infected people in Tel Aviv, Israel. However, despite being able to determine that the Israeli and American strains of the West Nile Virus developed from the same strain, scientists have been unable to determine which strain…… [Read More]

Referenced

"Background: Virus History and Distribution." West Nile Virus. 2004. Centers for Disease

Control and Prevention. 24 Apr. 2005

.

Giladi, Michael, Einat Metzkor-Cotter, Denise A. Martin, Yardena Siegman-Igra, Amos D.
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Goals -- Some Progress for

Words: 1409 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34192582

To wit, in several SSA countries, the ratio of girls to boys in school is less than 80% (eight girls to every ten boys who have a chance at an education). In Chad, there are 6.4 girls to every 10 boys in primary education; in Guinea-Bissau there are 6.5 girls for every ten boys in school. Child mortality is a horrific problem in SSA: in 30 of the 47 countries the rate of child mortality is at least 1 in ten (for children under 5 years of age). In Sierra Leone, for example 262 out of every 1,000 children die before the age of five (orld Bank data).

Maternal health is a very serious problem in SSA; over thirty countries report more than 500 mothers out of every 100,000 either die during pregnancy or during childbirth. There are some frighteningly stark numbers among those 30 countries; to wit, in Sierra…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Franklin, Thomas. "Reaching the Millennium Development Goals: equality and justice as well as results." Development in Practice 18.3 (2008): 420-423.

United Nations. "The Millennium Development Goals Report 2008." Retrieved July 11,

2009, from http://www.un.org/millenniumgoals/pdf/.

World Bank. "Data and Research." Retrieved July 12, 2009, from http://econ.worldbank.org.
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How Is AIDS Related to African Politics

Words: 2873 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59394386

AIDS and Politics in African

Aside from Malaria and other life threatening diseases, AIDS constitutes one of the major concerns within the African continent. One of the reasons behind this concern is the fact that HIV / AIDS is responsible for causing many deaths in this part of the world. ith close to 70% of people living with HIV / AIDS in the entire globe coming from Africa, the magnitude of the problem in the continent cannot be overemphasized (UNAIDS 1). Political participation in matters as serious as this cannot go without being noticed. Politics in Africa is part of the HIV / AIDS epidermis and plays a role not only in the prevention of the diseases but also in its causes among other dynamics. The politics of Aids however is not limited to government and political entities and neither does it emanate from Africa alone. The participation of such…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Akukwe, Chinua, HIV / AIDS in Africa: Politics, Policies, Programs and Logistics, Atlanta, GA: the Perspective, 2003

Cook, Nicholas, AIDS in Africa, Congressional Research Service, 2008, Accessed April 30, 2012, http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/row/RL33584.pdf

Fassin, Didier & Schneider, Helen, the Politics of AIDS in South Africa: Beyond the Controversies, South Africa: BMJ Publishing Group, 2003

Goliber Thomas, Africa's Political Response to HIV / AIDS, Washington D.C: Population Reference Bureau, 2012
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Developing Health

Words: 697 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2012282

Nurses Do? Many people, tropical countries Third World, die preventable, curable diseases. . . . Malaria,

Of the many challenges related to providing adequate health care in nations that are still developing, one of the most prominent is the fact that in many instances cases of both preventable and curable diseases (such as tuberculosis) are not sufficiently reported (WHO, 2012, p. 1). Without reporting that an individual is infected or even possibly infected by this particular malady or others, it is extremely difficult to provide the sort of remedy that could prevent such a disease from being fatal. In developing nations, there are a number of places in which communication is strained due to the fact that these locations are remote or are in parts of the world in which advancements in information technology (such as mobile devices and the internet) have not fully penetrated. Thus, one of the critical…… [Read More]

References

Crisp, N., Chen, L. (2014). Global supply of health professionals. New England Journal of Medicine. Retrieved from http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMra1111610?query=featured_global-health

World Health Organization. (2012). "Global tuberculosis report 2012." World Health Organization. Retrieved from  http://www.who.int/tb/publications/global_report/gtbr12_main.pdf
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Role Relevance and Future Potential

Words: 3295 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13863186



For a country such as Uganda to possess sufficient health care is tremendously important to the people of the republic of Uganda. Even triumphant medical treatment for malaria can involve pain through injections of drugs and in the entire period of recuperating after the administration of the drugs. Furthermore, nervousness may crop up, threat and unavoidably a lot of money. The final thing a parent of a sick child suffering from malaria in a hospital needs to believe about is how he or she is actually going to pay out for all the costs encountered or the billing. In an ideal world, as a substitute of distressing about money, a patient or a mother or a father of a kid who is suffering from malaria should be focused on getting well or consoling the sick child respectively. Nonetheless, the entire subject of health cover can be puzzling (Trisha, 2007, p.…… [Read More]

References

Akhtar, R (ed.) 1991, Planning and Implementing Community Participation in health Programs,

in Healthcare Patterns and Planning in Developing Countries, Greenwood Press,

New York, pp. 6.

Baum, F & Sanders, D 1995, 'Can Health Promotion and Primary Health Care Achieve Health
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Alternatives to the Migrant Health Problem

Words: 5085 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65098065

Migrant Health Problems

Understanding the Migrant Health Problem

Currently access to health and social services for the majority of migrants is based on their legal status. Needless to say undocumented migrants have little or no access to health care services. One's legal status is one of the prerequisite conditions for one to receive sufficient care. Additionally, accessibility, availability, acceptability and quality of such services depends on various factors such as financial, gender, structural, linguistic, social, cultural and geographical factors. Furthermore, various beliefs and myths or knowledge about ill health and one's health status prevent migrants from engaging or getting into national health systems.

Causes of the Migrant health problem/Impact on communities

Low health literacy levels within migrant communities are a huge barrier and deter many migrants from wanting to engage health care professionals (Becker, 2003). This situation is the same within many migrant communities regardless of a migrant's socio-economic status…… [Read More]

References

Becker, G. (2003). Socioeconomic Status and Dissatisfaction with Health Care among Chronically Ill African-Americans. American Journal of Public Health, 93(5), 742.

Carrasquillo, O., Carrasquillo, A. & Shea, S. (2000). Health Insurance Coverage of Immigrants Living in the United States: Differences by Citizenship Status and Country of Origin. American Journal of Public Health 90 (6): 917-923.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDCP), (2013).Division of Tuberculosis Elimination. Retrieved fromhttp://www.cdc.gov/tb/topic/populations/default.htm

Howie, W. O. (2009). Mandatory reporting of medical errors: crafting policy and integrating it into practice. The Journal for Nurse Practitioners, 5(9), 649-654.
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On the Job Communicating at Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation Preparing a Case Analysis

Words: 760 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45442819

JOB: Case analysis

Problem Identification:

Malaria is a killer in many parts of the world and it specifically affects a large population of young children around the globe. I need to write a report that would inform the public about the threat that malaria poses to lives and health of millions of people who due to lack of better health facilities and treatment are dying unnecessarily. These lives could have been protected had better services been available to these people. Bill Gates foundation has undertaken the task of reaching out to this underprivileged population globally. I need to write a report which can be downloaded from the website but before they do so, I need them to know about the significance of the report so the people wouldn't download it without knowing what it contains.

Since people from various walks of life visit the Bill Gates foundation website, I am…… [Read More]

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Is Healthcare a Right

Words: 3418 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56544496

Along the way, scholarly resources such as books, peer-reviewed journal articles and reputable websites will be used to create or support the opinions or answers given. The three questions that will be answered will include what basic types of healthcare everyone should have access to and why, a choice from thirteen risk factors that impact infectious disease and a recitation of how nurses can play a part in one or more of the millennium development goals (MDG) set forth for global health. While being too loose and generous with what people are entitled to and/or the depth and breadth of what nurses can truly do is a danger, to suggest that neither is worthy of consideration would be less than wise to assert as true.

Healthcare as a ight

The first essay question asks what types and forms of healthcare should be a given and a right to everyone regardless…… [Read More]

References

Carlton, E.J., Liang, S., McDowell, J.Z., Huazhong, L., Wei, L., & Remais, J.V. (2012).

Regional disparities in the burden of disease attributable to unsafe water and poor sanitation in China. Bulletin Of The World Health Organization, 90(8), 578-

587. doi:10.2471/BLT.11.098343

Clasen, T., Pruss-Ustun, A., Mathers, C.D., Cumming, O., Cairncross, S., & Colford, J.
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Breaking Robert's Rules Brr Susskind Emphasizes the

Words: 1532 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32383580

Breaking obert's ules (B), Susskind emphasizes the value that a good facilitator can add in helping a group reach the best possible outcomes using the consensus-based approach. Looking back at the Bullard or Harborco negotiation, how might a neutral facilitator have added value?

A neutral facilitator would have better able to ascertain the desires of both sides of the argument. The consensus based approach is most prominent when both sides can discuss grievances without a bias methodology from the facilitator. The facilitator using a consensus based approach must encourage careful thought and collaboration amongst all parties involved. Biases could negatively impact the consensus based approach as one party may feel alienated or defensive. The other party meanwhile will believe themselves to have a negotiation advantage and attempt more benefits. These aspects would ultimately hinder the negotiation as both sides will be unable to arrive at a legitimate consensus regarding their…… [Read More]

References:

1) Graham, John (2010), "The Problem-Solving Approach to Negotiations in Industrial Marketing," Journal of Business Research, 14, 549-566.

2)
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MDG for CA'te D'ivoire

Words: 2940 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46625849

Prospects of a brighter future for Cote d'Lvoire

Cote d' Lvoire has finally recovered from a decade old socio-political crisis which plagued it from 2002-2011. This crisis hindered the almost all efforts in attaining the Millennium Development Goals (MDG). The MDG indicators have shown a decrement in performance over the past years. Now growth is on its way and relations are being established with international financial institutions. The MDG goals will be attained by the latest 2012-2015 via the National Development Plan which has been enforced by Ivorian government (World Bank, 2011).

Situation of the MDGs in Cote d'Ivoire

The case for MDG's in Cote d'Lvoire

Birth of MDG indicators: A short introduction

According to MDG's, it's clear that there has been delay in eradication against poverty and education sector, gender discrimination in education, lack of women empowerment, child and mother health to name a few. The only work done…… [Read More]

References

AfDB (2011).The Middle of the Pyramid: Dynamics of the Middle Class in Africa. Market Brief, 20 April 2011, AfDB.

AfDB, OECD and UNECA (2010). African Economic Outlook 2010. Paris: OECD.

AfDB, OECD, UNDP and UNECA (2011).African Economic Outlook 2011. Paris: OECD.

Berg, Andrew, Pedro Conceicao, Ayodele Odusola et al. (2012).Enhancing Development Assistance to Africa: Lessons from Scaling- Up Scenarios. New York: IMF.
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Containing Infectious Diseases Today

Words: 634 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82826665

Prevention and Control of the Flu

The flu is a serious illness but one of its great advantages is that a vaccine does exist to contain its spread and prevent or at least mitigate its symptoms. The flu is a virus and available antiviral medications like Tamiflu are not as effective as treating, for example, a bacterial infection with an antibiotic. The most effective method of treating the flu is to not get it at all -- which is why vaccination is so essential. However, even flu vaccinations are not particularly effective on a seasonal basis: "A flu virus mutates at an exceptionally high rate as it reproduces, and some mutations will change the tips of the surface proteins. The antibodies cannot grab tightly to the altered tips, so the virus is able to proceed with its invasion. From one flu season to the next, the evolution of the flu…… [Read More]

References

Mwangi, T. Bethony. J. & Brooker, S. (2006). Malaria and helminth interactions in humans: an epidemiological viewpoint. Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology, 100(7): 551-570. Retrieved from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1858631/

Zimmer, C. (2013). The quest to end the flu. The Atlantic. Retrieved from:

http://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2013/12/the-quest-to-end-the-flu/354677/
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Management Analysis of the Center

Words: 2560 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9980047

3 Strategies of CDC

As mentioned in the introduction, the Centers for Disease Control and prevention has developed and implemented six sets of strategies as follows:

Health Impact Focus - the alignment of CDC's employees, objectives, strategies, investments and performances in order to maximize the CDC's beneficial effects upon public health

Customer Centricity - Like any other corporation, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention is focused on offering those products and services required and needed by the population in order to improve and preserve their health

Public Health esearch - the CDC funds and conducts numerous researches aimed at identifying new treatments and any other issues which would positively affect the public health

Leadership - the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention possesses the best skilled and qualified employees, guided by the most committed managers and supported by strategic partners, all to improve the health system within the United…… [Read More]

References

Etheridge, E.W., 1994, Sentinel for Health: A History of the Centers for Disease Control, Journal of Interdisciplinary History, Volume 24, Number 4

Friede, a. And O'Carroll, P.O., 1996, CDC and ATSDR Electronic Information Resources for Health Officers, Journal of Environmental Health, Volume 59

1994, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention on Emerging Infectious Disease Threats, Population and Development Review, Number 13

1999, CDC on Infectious Diseases in the United States: 1990-1999, Population and Development Review, Volume 25, Number 3
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Strange How Certain Figures Throughout the History

Words: 740 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4781563

strange how certain figures throughout the history of man become the figures of such intrigue and mystery (Meyerson, 2009). Alexander the Great, Attila the Hun, Charlemagne are examples of such figures. These are all men that led full lives and accomplished great things but sharing the same level of notoriety is young man from ancient Egypt who died at 19 accomplishing very little other than becoming Pharaoh. For whatever reason, King Tutankhamen (King Tut) has been the center of much discussion and theorizing since his nearly intact tomb was discovered in 1922. Among the many areas of concern regarding King Tutankhamen has been the cause of his death. Even in ancient Egypt, death at 19 was unusual and for someone so privileged it would be exceedingly so.

There has been no shortage of theories offered to explain how King Tut died. Some have suggested that he was killed falling from…… [Read More]

References

Hawass, Z. (2010, September). King Tut's Family Secrets. National Geographic, pp.  http://ngm.nationalgeographic.com/2010/09/tut-dna/hawass-text .

King, M.R. (2006). Who Killed Kint Tut?: Using Modern Forensics to Solve a 3,300-year-old Mystery. Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books.

Meyerson, D. (2009). In the Valley of the Kings: Howard Carter and the Mystery of King Tutankhamun's Tombe. New York: Random House.

Pusch, C.M. (2010, January). Ancestry and Pathology in King Tutankhamun's Family. Journal of the American Medical Association, pp. 638-647.
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Mozambique Faces the Significant Problem

Words: 2571 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86844001

(SA AIDS Drugs Company Set for Africa Sales)

The immense market potential for anti-retrovirals will signify a huge bonus for the company and also its shareholders. 8% of the roughly 4 million people in Mozambique are in need of the treatment for HIV / AIDS and were getting it. The fact of the matter is that HIV / AIDS has long been noted for it potential capability for raking in more money and the SA Cabinet some years ago had already stated its strong interest in the lucrative local development of AIDS drugs in the abortive Virodene experiment. The company obtained sanction from the U.S. Federal Drug Administration for certain of its anti-AIDS medicines as was of late given the award for the biggest share of the South African government anti-retroviral drug tenders. This is in greater measure part because it possesses a good BEE profile, assuring the support of…… [Read More]

References

Drug deals: Medicines, Development and HIV / AIDS. 2000. Retrieved at http://www.vso.org.uk/Images/position_papers_drug_deals_tcm8-1597.pdf. Accessed 17 September, 2005

HIV / AIDS Situation in Mozambique. Retrieved at http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/50875.pdf. Accessed 17 September, 2005

Marketing Medicine: Insider Secrets to online healthcare Marketing. March, 2002. Retrieved from http://www.medic8.com/MarketingMedicine.htm. Accessed 18 September, 2005

Mozambique: fact file. Retrieved at http://www.oxfam.org.uk/coolplanet/kidsweb/world/mozambique/mozfact.htm. Accessed 18 September, 2005
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Nursing Things

Words: 869 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40396675

Healthcare

International health care funding programs are collaborative, multinational, cross-disciplinary endeavors with a broad philanthropic outlook and scope. There are dozens of different international health care funding programs, all of which depend at least in part on private funding sources due to the prevalence of the neoliberal economic, political, and social justice model (Pfeiffer, 2003). Two of the most significant international health care funding programs include the Global Fund, which focuses on AIDS, tuberculosis, and malaria to provide funding, consultation, leadership, research, coordination, and policy standardization; and the Commonwealth Fund, which is a fully private foundation dedicated to equitable access to healthcare resources. Both the Global Fund and the Commonwealth Fund perform similar functions as international health care funding programs. They provide services, support, human resources, and infrastructural support to primary health care delivery in the developing world but also in any region of need. Although utilization of the Global…… [Read More]

References

Anderson, G.F., Frogner, B.K., Johns, R.A. & Reinhardt, W.E. (2006). Health care spending and use of information technology in OECD countries. Health Affairs 25(3): 819-831.

Pfeiffer, J. (2003). International NGOs and primary health care in Mozambique: the need for a new model of collaboration. Social Science and Medicine 56(4): 725-738.
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Accomplishments of a Philanthropist

Words: 2873 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33223494

Bill Gates Founder of Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation; philanthropy

Did his upbringing seem to influence desire to be philanthropic? If so, how?

But his parents planted the seed of entering into philanthropy. Mrs. Gates always stressed on Bill why he needed to begin philanthropy. Someone who was at Bill's father's law office one night recalls that he had quarreled with his parents stating that he was just trying to run his company. Bill Gates notes that he wasn't against philanthropy at the time but wanted to give Microsoft all his energy and attention. Eventually, Mrs. Gates got Bill to donate money for United Way and establish a program at his company to do that. With the growth of his wealth, more requests for donations started streaming in. Bill Gates says that his desire was focusing on philanthropy after retiring from Microsoft or at least later on when he was…… [Read More]

References

Anderson, I. (2011). The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation: business vs. bureaucracy in international development, Development Policy Centre Discussion Paper #3, Crawford School of Public Policy, The Australian National University, Canberra.

Bort J. (2015 Jan. 21). Bill Gates Talks About The Heartbreaking Moment That Turned Him To Philanthropy. Business Insider. Retrieved from on March 11, 2015

Clemens, M & Demombynes, G 2010, 'When does rigorous impact evaluation make a difference? The case of the millennium villages', Centre for Global Development, Working Paper 225

Encyclopedia Britannica (updated 2014, July 14). Bill Gates. Retrieved from on March 11, 2015
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Healthcare as Standard Procedure Warranted in This

Words: 1266 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5037100

Healthcare

As standard procedure warranted in this case, her obstetrician injected her with varicella zoster specific immunoglobulin. The injection did occur too late, but this is a special case warranting attention and was a prophylactic to protect the baby. A few days later the N developed chickenpox anyway. The reasons why the vaccine did not take could have been the fact that the N had already been exposed, and the situation is referred to as "breakthrough varicella," (National Centre for Immunisation, 2009, p. 3). Breakthrough varicella is a mild form of the infection, and yet is still contagious. Varicella vaccine should not be given to the baby until it is twelve months of age, but it may not be necessary at all due to the potential in vitro exposure to the varicella zoster virus. Infants "should receive no specific treatment or vaccination after exposure to Varicella zoster virus (VZV) but…… [Read More]

References

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2014). Preventing varicella in health care settings. Retrieved online:  http://www.cdc.gov/chickenpox/hcp/healthcare-setting.html 

Cheprasov, A. (2014). The spread of disease. Retrieved online: http://education-portal.com/academy/lesson/the-spread-of-disease-endemic-epidemic-pandemic.html#lesson

Children, Youth, and Women's Health Service (n.d.). Chickenpox. Retrieved online:  http://www.health.wa.gov.au/docreg/Education/Diseases/Communicable/Virus/HP8873_chickenpox.pdf 

"Descriptive Epidemiology," (2014). Retrieved online:  http://www.med.uottawa.ca/SIM/data/Epidemiology_rates_e.htm
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Zika Outbreak in Americas

Words: 701 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68972769

Zika Virus

The author of this report has been asked to summarize and recite the main points of two scholarly offerings that both relate to the Zika virus. One of those is a presentation that was given by Ms. Carter and the other is a scholarly article that pertains to the same. Items that will be covered include where the virus originated from, the type of mosquitos that carry the virus, the number of cases that have been seen in the United States and a few other things. Of course, there will be a good amount of overlap between the presentation's facts and figures and what is seen from the scholarly article. While there is still a lot that is not known about the Zika virus, where it came from and what it can do, what is already known to this point is quite intriguing and scary.

Analysis

As noted…… [Read More]

References

Zika virus outbreaks in the Americas. (2015). Relevea Eapideamiologique Hebdomadaire / Section

D'hygiene Du Secreatariat De La Socieatea Des Nations = Weekly Epidemiological Record /

Health Section Of The Secretariat Of The League Of Nations, 90(45), 609-610.
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Global Warming Neglecting the Complexities

Words: 1667 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69501337



It is indeed sad to point out that the Kyoto protocol has not been enforced as a result of its rejection by the U.S. government and the ussian move of deferring it.

Conclusion

As pointed out by Hamada (2006).the process of controlling the global weather change should be done through a combined and unified effort of all nations. These must include the entire global community of the developed and the developing nations. It is therefore important to put aside political differences and then advance a sense of unity in coming up with an appropriate framework to be used in tackling global warming. A global strategy should therefore be put forward to tackle the problem. The design of the global strategy must accommodate the situation of all the participating nations. On the technical aspect, the strategy must involve the view of both social and natural scientist.

eferences

Encyclopedia of Earth (2010)."Global…… [Read More]

References

Encyclopedia of Earth (2010)."Global Warming"

http://www.eoearth.org/articles/view/153038/?topic=49491

Guardia (2009). Climate change increasing malaria risk, research reveals http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/2009/dec/31/climate-change-malaria-kenya

Hamada, T (2006). How Should Global Society Address Climate Change? - The Kyoto Protocol
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Infant Feeding Practices in Africa

Words: 2718 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62766667



There have been numerous debates over the right choice between breast feeding and other substitutes in the conditions of mothers infected with HIV. Due to the possibility of infecting the infant with the virus, many women prefer bottled milk or other substitutes. However, unlike western countries where the issue of hygiene is no longer a problem, not even in the remotest corners of the countries, the situation is Africa is greatly related to the idea of a clean environment for women and their newborns. In this sense, the lack of financial possibilities determines the state and the population to be unable to provide a proper environment and to be unable to afford one respectively. Thus, the milk other than the maternal one is subjected to all sorts of bacteria, viruses, and even diseases. Therefore, on the one hand, there is the risk of the child to become infected with HIV;…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Afolabi, et al. (2001) Malaria in the first 6 months of life in urban African infants with anemia. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, Vol 65, Issue 6, 822-827. Retrieved 26 March 2008, at http://www.ajtmh.org/cgi/reprint/65/6/822

Andersson, H. (2005). Niger's children continue dying. BBC News. Retrieved 26 March 2008, at http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/africa/4274728.stm

Andersson, H. (2005). Niger children starving to death. BBC News. Retrieved 26 March 2008, from,  http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/4695355.stm 

Aneki (2008) Countries with the Highest Infant Mortality Rates in the World. Aneki Web page. Retrieved 26 March 2008, at  http://www.aneki.com/mortality.html
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Leadership in American Business Specifically

Words: 2377 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95856454



By channeling his energy in another direction, Gates shows that he is not a one-dimensional leader only involved in promoting his company, but a three-dimensional leaders interested in helping the world be a better place. Just one of the programs that has gained media attention is the eradication of malaria, a disease almost non-existent in America but still prevalent in many other parts of the world. Another writers notes, "Malaria strikes 300m people every year, mainly in the farming parts of Africa where mosquito eradication programmes are nonexistent. Of those infected, 1.1m die, most of them children below the age of ten" (Vesely, 2003). The Gates Foundation, along with pharmaceutical companies, are committed to eradicating this, and other diseases such as smallpox, that have been out of control in many other parts of the world, largely due to a lack of funding and support.

Ultimately, Bill Gates leadership style is…… [Read More]

References

Editors. (2007). Biography: Bill Gates. Retrieved 12 March 2008 from the Microsoft.com Web site: http://www.microsoft.com/presspass/exec/billg/bio.mspx.

Gates, B. (2006). How I work. Retrieved 12 March 2008 from the CNN.com Web site:  http://money.cnn.com/2006/03/30/news/newsmakers/gates_howiwork_fortune/ .

Hanlon, M. What a Microsofty; Bill Gates created the modern computer and, with ruthless business brutality made himself the richest man in the world. (2006, June 17). The Daily Mail (London, England), p. 46.

Heller, R. (2006). Management styles & leadership styles of Warren Buffet & Bill Gates. Retrieved 12 March 2008 from the ThinkingManagers.com Web site: http://www.thinkingmanagers.com/management/management-styles.php.
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Dr Karl Brandt Karl Brandt

Words: 1220 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71029081

Apparently Brandt handled the medical needs of Bruckner well because Hitler made him "…his personal physician" and in time Brandt was given the rank of "major-general in the affen-SS" (Spartacus Educational).

Brandt helped establish the "Law for the Protection of Hereditary Health," which was a smokescreen for "compulsory sterilization" -- and in fact Brandt was in charge of the program ("Reich Committee for the Scientific Registration of Serious Hereditary and Congenially-Based Diseases") that basically was established to kill those who were "insane" and the "physically handicapped" (Spartacus Educational). The JVL explains that Brandt's euthanasia program began in 1939, and deformed children along with the very old and insane were murdered by gas or lethal injections in "…nursing homes, hospitals and asylums" (JVL, 1).

During the Nuremberg Trials the prosecutors were "caught off guard by the numerous affidavits submitted by the defense" that testified to the quality of Brandt's "personal character"…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bryant, Michael. (2009). "Only the National Socialist": Postwar U.S. And West German

Approaches to Nazi "Euthanasia" Crimes, 1946-1953. Nationalities Papers, 37(6), 861-888.

Glaser, Edmund. (2008/09). Ulf Schmidt's Karl Brandt -- the Nazi Doctor: Medicine and Power in the Third Reich and Justice at Nuremberg: Alexander and the Nazi Doctors' Trial.

Journal of Hate Studies, 7(1), 109-116.
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Social Cultural and Political Influence in Healthcare Delivery

Words: 4282 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16620351

Social, Cultural, And Political Influence in Healthcare Delivery

Social, cultural, and political inequalities are detrimental to the health and healthcare system of the U.S. This is because the U.S. is one of the most multicultural, overpopulated, diverse and undergoing rapid economic growth. The federal government has embarked on efforts geared at addressing unsustainable costs of health care in the U.S. With the leadership of the current president, Barrack Obama, initiatives of containing health care costs will evaluate and explore strategies to contain the growing costs of health care based on a system-wide while enhancing the value and quality of health care (Ubokudom, 2012). The apparent system of health care is rife with opportunities of minimizing waste, delivering coordinated, effective care, and improving well-being and health of all Americans. The government in collaboration with care providers must prioritize cost effective containment strategies with the greatest possibility for political success and non-partisan…… [Read More]

References

Albrecht, G.L., Fitzpatrick, R., & Scrimshaw, S. (2013). Handbook of social studies in health and medicine. London: Sage Publications.

Armstrong, E.G. (2011). The health care dilemma: A comparison of health care systems in three European countries and the U.S. Singapore: World Scientific.

Bale, J.R., Stoll, B.J., & Lucas, A.O. (2013). Improving birth outcomes: Meeting the challenge in the developing world. Washington, DC: National academies press.

Buseh, A.G. (2008). Empowering resilience: Improving health care delivery in war-impacted African countries: a case study of Liberia. Lanham, Md: University Press of America.
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Money Hurts Economy Analyze Compare Effectiveness A

Words: 1178 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82248137

Money Hurts Economy Analyze compare effectiveness (A) thesis statements (B) evidence, (C) rhetorical strategies (logos, ethos, pathos) dentify essay thought effective explain .

Rick Rilley's essay "Nothing but Nets," Stanley Fish's essay "But Didn't Do t" and David Wolman's essay "Time to Cash Out: Why Paper Money Hurts the Economy" all address contemporary issues and are all meant to emphasize how apparently simple ideas can bring reform to society. All of these essays are directed at raising public awareness concerning concepts that many people today currently believe to be insignificant when compared to the world's greater goal to experience progress through technology and finances.

Rilley's thesis deals with making it possible for the masses to understand how some small interventions can save lives and can help individuals combat maladies that claim thousands of lives every year. The writer concentrates on producing solid evidence with regard to how a sum as…… [Read More]

In spite of the fact that they are two very different digital tools for collaboration, I believe that Facebook (https://www.facebook.com/) and Wikipedia (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page) are largely responsible for helping the contemporary society experience progress. Even with the fact that they play an important role in today's society, both of these digital tools for collaboration are regarded as being little more than places where one can socialize and, respectively, where he or she can get information that is not 100% verifiable. Stigma follows the two in most communities and makes it difficult for the masses to actually be able to understand the beneficial aspects concerning both of them.

Facebook can be use as a tool for socializing and is known to have brought people closer together as a result of how it provides the ability to communicate and connect with people who share similar passions. This digital tool for collaboration needs to be understood properly in order for people to benefit from it, as otherwise it can actually harm individuals.

Wikipedia is known for how individuals can modify content without actually introducing truthful information. However, as long as one has a complex understanding of the digital tool and as long as he or she is able to differentiate between truthful information and information that cannot be verified, he or she is most likely to benefit from using it.
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Effects of European Epidemics on Native American Lifestyles

Words: 1736 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29329067

European Epidemics on Native American Lifestyles

When the Europeans arrived in America, the Native Americans were a settled agricultural people. These Indians relied heavily on corn, beans and squash and their diet was supplemented through the gathering of wild plants and hunting. (Geier, 1991)

Hundreds of thousands of Native Americans lived in America with the greatest diversity - as many as 120 - of languages, dialects, and cultures of any comparably sized are in the world. For example, Indians in the far north had very different languages and cultures from the central and southern tribes.

Tribes traded with each other but were self-sufficient for the most part. With bountiful game, fish, and plants available and a moderate climate, most Indians bands led stable, productive and peaceful lives.

The tranquil lifestyle of the Indians changed dramatically with the introduction of European settlers. Many hunters and trappers were attracted to America by…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Primary

Geier, Mark. The Encyclopedia of Colonization and Settlement (1585-1763), Facts on File, Inc., 1991.

Debo, Angie. A History of the Indians of the United States. University of Oklahoma Press, 1970.

D'Azevedo, Warren Ed., Handbook of North American Indians. Great Basin. Vol. 11. Smithsonian Institution, 1986.
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Analysis of Kimberley Clark'sustainability report

Words: 1260 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52587419

manufacturer, which opens it up to a number of issues regarding sustainability. This paper will review Kimberley Clark's approach to sustainability, based on information presented in the company's 2015 Sustainability Report, and understanding of the key issues surrounding sustainability in general.

Sustainability

Kimberley Clark produces a periodic sustainability report, and the last one was produced in 2015. The production of these reports is voluntary for business, and the content contained within them is also voluntary. In general, production of a sustainability report is an important step towards transparency and accountability in the sustainability practices of a business. The 2015 report sets out the company's strategy through 2022, and recaps the outcomes of the last strategy, which ran from 2010 to 2015.

There are several major impacts on the environment that arise from KC's business. The first is the forestry activities that produce the logs that are turned into paper. The…… [Read More]

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Zahi Hawass Was Born May

Words: 1254 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45231966

The first analysis concentrated on the Y chromosome, which would illuminate King Tutankhamun's paternal heritage; the second analysis consisted of genetic fingerprinting," (SCA, cited by Ann). Genetic fingerprinting allowed for a five-generation "pedigree of Tutankhamun's immediate lineage," (Hawass 2010). All of the testing was replicated in an independent laboratory designed specifically for the Family of Tutankhamun Project (Hawass et al.). In addition to the DNA analyses that were performed on the royal mummies, CT scans were also used to help analyze bones.

The results of the DNA analysis revealed the parentage of King Tutankhamun. Akhenaten is the father of King Tutankhamun, not his brother as was previously believed (MalcolmJ). However, Hawass had already hypothesized that Akhenaten was the father of King Tutankhamun. Hawass notes that an inscribed limestone block that he helped piece together led him to question King Tut's heritage. The text printed on the limestone block states that…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Ann. "King Tut Further Unwrapped - the Family of Tutankhamun Project." Heritage Key. 2010. Retrieved April 8, 2010 from http://heritage-key.com/blogs/ann/king-tut-further-unwrapped-family-tutankhamun-project

"Chief Inspector of Antiquities for the Giza Pyramids." Dr. Hawass.com. Retrieved April 8, 2010 from http://www.drhawass.com/events/chief-inspector-antiquities-giza-pyramids

"General Director of Antiquities for the Giza Pyramids, Saqqara, and Bahariya." Dr. Hawass.com. Retrieved April 8, 2010 from http://www.drhawass.com/events/general-director-antiquities-giza-pyramids-saqqara-and-bahariya

Hawass, Zahi et al. "Ancestry and Pathology in King Tutankhamun's Family." Journal of the American Medical Association. Feb 17, 2010. Retrieved April 8, 2010 from http://jama.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/short/303/7/638?home
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Monique and the Mango Rains

Words: 2594 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92614912



The heat is oppressive and because of that heat Holloway had to endure "an overpowering stench" in the birthing room. alking into that room on a day that was probably over 100 degrees Holloway (p. 6) said the building "was like an oven, baking all the secretions [from pregnant and post-partum women] into a rank casserole" (p. 6). Holloway said she felt like she was "drowning in the smell of flesh, body fluids, and leftover food" -- all made more aromatically spicy by the torrid head in the dry season.

The fierce storms that arrive in rainy season have a huge impact on the village and on the story that Holloway is telling. In many countries, the rainy season would be a blessing after a long, hot dry spell. But the rains that arrive in Mali as the rainy season started are terrifying. "I was startled out of my thoughts…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Holloway, Kris. (2007). Monique and the Mango Rains: Two Years with a midwife

In Mali. Long Grove, IL: Waveland Press.
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Funding for AIDS in Africa

Words: 3546 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1779188

The weaker segments in Africa, women and children, were and are the worst hit by HIV / AIDS, which then is spread to the families and communities. (Bage 2004)

Dealing with this is a great scientific, social, and moral challenge that every organization and country, especially developed countries must rise up to. It is time to mobilize resources and contribute to make changes in the policies so that we at the United Nations can do something worthwhile to combat Africa's problem with this disease. There were commercial interests earlier that would not allow the developed nations to provide subsidized medicine. For instance the United States, there was a stance that there could be no recognition of the problem and a denial of need. This was followed by a policy that placed the solving of the problem on the affected countries. Until George W. Bush, the United States and many developed…… [Read More]

References

Bage, Lennart. 2004. HIV / AIDS in Africa: Shifting the Horizons of Development. UN

Chronicle, vol. 41, no. 3. September-November, pp: 49-54.

DeConde, Alexander. 1963. A History of American Foreign Policy. Charles Scribner's

Sons: New York.
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Goal 8 Target 12-13 the

Words: 969 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80468430

These technologies are key to sustaining economic growth and increase productivity within these countries.

Access to electricity remains far from adequate, specifically in sub-aharan Africa, where as much as 74% of the population remains without electricity. This is one area that needs urgent attention by means of a global partnership between the public and private sectors.

Clearly, there are many gaps that still need to be addressed between the Millennium Goals and reaching the established targets. With the current global economic recession, it is however very unlikely that the 2010 targets will be met, and at least unlikely that the goals for 2015 will be met. However, it is encouraging that an effort is made to improve the situation, despite the financial difficulties experienced across the world.

Despite the gloomy projections in terms of meeting the overall goals, the UN report also cites considerable success in terms of countries using…… [Read More]

Sources

UN Department of Public Information. (2008, Sept). End Poverty 2015: Millennium Development Goals.

 http://www.un.org/millenniumgoals/2008highlevel/pdf/newsroom/Goal%208%20FINAL.pdf 

MDG Monitor (2007). Develop a Global Partnership for Development: Success Stories. http://www.mdgmonitor.org/story.cfm?goal=8
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European Union's New Emmissions Proposal

Words: 6246 Length: 25 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90118636

(Jordans, 2008) "Europe's unilateral approach will only lead to legal battles and trade wars," Bisignani also stressed. (Jordans, 2008) a hint of this contention occurring in the future was evidenced recently when 27 nations, including the U.S., China and 25 other countries, registered opposition to the EU's attempt to include commercial airlines in its cap-and-trade program by supporting an ICAO-run program. This signal confirmed united opposition to the European Union's intentions to develop a separate, regional emissions trading system. U.S. officials warn that the inclusion of U.S. And other non-European airlines in the EU cap-and-trade program "may break international aviation and trade laws." (Jordans, 2008) Although reasons differ, along with official warnings, scientists raise questions regarding the European program. Airlines, experts basically agree, contribute approximately 2% of man-made emissions of carbon dioxide, a gas reportedly contributing to global warming. Perceptions, nevertheless, differ regarding the impact of other gases aircraft emit,…… [Read More]

References

Aircraft emissions capped to tackle climate change." European Commission, 20 Dec. 2006. Retrieved June 17, 2005, at http://ec.europa.eu/news/environment/061220_1_en.htm.

Aviation and the Environment." Finance Wire, May 7, 2008. Retrieved June 16, 2005, at http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1P3-1474988211.html.

EPA to Revise Aircraft Engine Emission Standards." IHS, 30 Nov. 2005. Retrieved June 17, 2005, at http://aero-defense.ihs.com/news/2005/epa-aircraft-engine-emissionsstandards.htm.

FAQ on Aviation Emissions and Climate Change." HIS, 2 Jan. 2007. Retrieved June 17, 2005, at http://aero-defense.ihs.com/news/eu-en-airplane-emissions-faq-1-07.htm.
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Columbian Exchange Is a Term

Words: 1730 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16537686



ibliography

Crosby, Alfred W. Ecological Imperialism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986.

eezley, ill. "The Global Market from and to the Americas." University of Arizona (November 23, 2004), http://72.14.253.104/search?q=cache:uKRvc_4yeu4J:las.arizona.edu/outreach/complete_curriculum_units/taste_of_LA/Taste%2520of%2520LA%2520Handouts.pdf+%22columbian+exchange%22+food&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=1&gl=us.

Hodge, F. "Disabled American Indians: A Special Population Requiring Special Considerations." American Indian Culture and Research Journal 13 (1988), 83-104.

Sale, Kirkpatrick. The Conquest of Paradise. New York: Alfred a. Knopf, 1990.

Stannard, David E. American Holocaust. New York: Oxford University Press, 1992.

Viola, Herman J. And Carolyn Margolis. Seeds of Change. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1991.

David E. Stannard, American Holocaust (New York: Oxford University Press, 1992), 53.

Kirkpatrick Sale, the Conquest of Paradise (New York: Alfred a. Knopf, 1990), 34.

Herman J. Viola and Carolyn Margolis, Seeds of Change (Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1991), 79.

Alfred W. Crosby, Ecological Imperialism (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986), 197.

Viola and Margolis, 192.

F. Hodge, "Disabled American Indians: A Special Population…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Crosby, Alfred W. Ecological Imperialism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986.

Beezley, Bill. "The Global Market from and to the Americas." University of Arizona (November 23, 2004), http://72.14.253.104/search?q=cache:uKRvc_4yeu4J:las.arizona.edu/outreach/complete_curriculum_units/taste_of_LA/Taste%2520of%2520LA%2520Handouts.pdf+%22columbian+exchange%22+food&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=1&gl=us.

Hodge, F. "Disabled American Indians: A Special Population Requiring Special Considerations." American Indian Culture and Research Journal 13 (1988), 83-104.

Sale, Kirkpatrick. The Conquest of Paradise. New York: Alfred a. Knopf, 1990.
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Global Warming as a Social

Words: 3315 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49315796

There are a wide range of issues it consider here; from the effect that changed ecosystems can have on the general environment to studies of the 'disappearing' coral reef and the glaciers that are rapidly melting. "Scientists predict that composition and range of many ecosystems will shift as species respond to climate change..." (eschatology of the left)

This will also have an impact on the forests and it is estimated that as much as two-thirds of the worlds footrests will be affected.

Figure 1. Comparison of emissions source: (http://www.ucsusa.org/global_warming/solutions/recognizing-forests-role-in-climate-change.html)

2.1. The media and the construction of perceptions

Taking into account the enormous significance of global warming and the potential that it poses for the disruption and even destruction of human life on earth, it is important to gauge the effect that this event has had on the public perception. The media as a conduit of popular perception is also means…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Boykoff J. And Boykoff M. Journalistic Balance as Global Warming Bias:

Creating controversy where science finds consensus. May 4, 2007. http://www.fair.org/index.php?page=1978

Brief Analysis of Climate Change Report. May 4, 2007.  http://alt-e.blogspot.com/ 

Eschatology of the left. May 4, 2007  http://www.watchblog.com/republicans/archives/001181.html
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Bank Is an Essential Organization

Words: 866 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44623277

The World Bank asserts that this project will also improve the quality of life for the people of Uruguay by producing skilled jobs ("Uruguay: World Bank Approves...").

The article reports that another purpose of the project is to support the government as it relates to strengthening the capacity of the country to produce, transfer, and adapt knowledge and new technology ("Uruguay: World Bank Approves..."). As it relates to this aim the project is designed to encourage the strengthening of the institutional framework for technology, science, and innovation. In addition the project is designed to support investments in education; technology transfer and innovation within the private sector; and research alliances and transportation/flexibility for researchers between educational institutions and the productive sector ("Uruguay: World Bank Approves...").

In addition to the aforementioned activities, there are many other activities that the World Bank is currently involved in that are aimed at improving living standards…… [Read More]

References

Albania: Micro-credits Support a Growing Rural Economy. http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/NEWS/0,contentMDK:20871875~menuPK:141311~pagePK:34370~piPK:34424~theSitePK:4607,00.html

Uruguay: World Bank Approves U.S.$26 Million to Promote Innovation and Improve the Country's Competitiveness. http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/NEWS/0,contentMDK:21318964~pagePK:34370~piPK:34424~theSitePK:4607,00.html

World Bank Vows to Strengthen Health Systems in Poor Countries with New http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/NEWS/0,contentMDK:21318554~pagePK:34370~piPK:34424~theSitePK:4607,00.html
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Role of UN in Global

Words: 1613 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10155657

There has been considerable negative propaganda about the U.N. In recent times that has portrayed the organization as a bureaucratic "white elephant" and suggestions have even been made to do away with it altogether. John Bolton, who until recently was the U.S. Permanent epresentative at the UN, once famously remarked: "The [U.N.] Secretariat building in New York has 38 stories. If you lost ten stories today, it wouldn't make a bit of difference;" and many people in the U.S. tend to agree with him. No doubt, improvement in the performance of the United Nations may well be called for, since no orgainization is perfect. However, to my mind, it would be an extremely unwise and short-sighted step to curtail the activities of the United Nations. In fact, we need to expand the United Nations so that it can carry out the enormous tasks of maintaining global peace, reducing poverty, supporting…… [Read More]

References

About the ITU." (2007). International Telecommunication Union. Retrieved on April 24, 2007 at http://www.itu.int/aboutitu/index.html

Global Issues on the UN Agenda." (2007). The United Nations Official Website. Retrieved on April 24, 2007 at http://www.un.org/issues/

International cooperation for an enabling environment for sustainable development." (2001).

Report of the Secretary-General: Commission on Sustainable Development. Retrieved on April 24, 2007 at  http://www.un.org/documents/ecosoc/cn17/2001/ecn172001-5.pdf
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Senegal Prior to Ordering Meat

Words: 754 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61963853

" There is also a problem with deforestation, overgrazing, soil erosion and over-fishing, and because of the clear-cutting of forested areas in Senegal, a process of "desertification" is well underway. The problem of desertification is significant because according to United Nations' information (Thompson Gale / Nations Encyclopedia) 46% of Senegal is classified as semiarid. There has been "inadequately controlled cutting of forests for fuel" and there has also been significant overgrazing of existing grasslands (which are dwindling away). The capital of Dakar suffers from "improper sanitation" according to Nations Encyclopedia; but on the positive side of urban life, 92% of city dwellers have access to safe drinking water. Still, wherever you look in Senegal, you can't escape the fact that this is a third world country; to wit, 35% of people living in rural Senegal do not have access to safe drinking water.

Those above-mentioned facts having been presented, there…… [Read More]

Works Cited

African Conservation. "Senegal: The African Mangrove Network." Retrieved April 12, 2007 from http://www.africanconservation.org/senegal.html.

CIA. "The World Factbook: Senegal." Retrieved April 12, 2007, at http://www.cia.gov/publications/factbook/pring/sg.html.

Encyclopedia of the Nations. "Senegal: Environment." Retrieved April 12, 2007, from Thompson - Gale at http://www.nationsencyclopedia.com/e/africa/Senegal-ENVIRONMENT.html.

Sakho, Amadou. "Senegal Shuts Down Mining Operations in Protected Areas." Inter
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Social Determinants of Health Which

Words: 4083 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62544992

Obesity, overweight and underweight all have impacts that are negative on self-esteem of many children and adolescents that if not checked can have long-term effects on the success in lives of these children and their general happiness in the future (Moran, 1999).

The persistence of chronic diseases in more in the developing than in the developed countries. The World Health Organization posits that by 2020, a quarter of deaths in the least developed countries will be caused by the so called non-communicable diseases, WHO, (1997). In this regard, a major mind blowing public health problem in the developing world may the reality of increasing obesity in children populations which might result to major social and economic burdens on these developing nations in the coming years, (Freedman et al., 2001).

This health care problem is present in almost all parts of the world and the Arabian Gulf region is not exempted.…… [Read More]

References

Ali, H,2010.Major characteristics of Saudi hospitals http://bit.ly/kdNzPX

Al-Quaiz, Al-Joharah M.2001. Current concepts in the management of obesity. An evidenced-based review. Saudi Med J. 2001; 22: 20

Amin, T.T.,Al-Sultan.,A.I.,Ali.,A, 2008.Overweight and Obesity and their Association with Dietary Habits, and Sociodemographic Characteristics Among Male Primary School Children in Al-Hassa, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Baum, F. 2008 The new public health (3rd Edition) Oxford University Press, Melbourne