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Effective utilization of Natural esources for food Depends on Sound Management Theories
elationship between the world food crisis and the world financial crisis
According to Howard G. Buffett, an organizer of the philanthropic Buffet Foundation, the world food crisis and the world financial crisis coincided at a particularly unfortunate time. Despite the fact that the financial crisis temporarily caused fuel and thus commodity prices to decrease, the majority of the world's consumers were still "spending 70 to 100% of what you make on food, and the balance of what you don't spend on food you may easily spend on transportation or cooking or producing food in small agriculture, those two things are killers. You have an increase in the problem and a reduction of funds. It's the worst possible scenario" ('The worst possible scenario,' 2009, World Food Programme). The devastation of the global economy and reduced availability of…
Gentleman, Amelia. (2009). Global financial crisis hits world's poor hardest. The Guardian.
Retrieved: http://www.guardian.co.uk/politics/2009/mar/27/global-crisis-impact-poor 'The worst possible scenario.' (2009). World Food Programme. Retrieved:
Shattuck, Annie. (2008). The financial crisis and the food crisis: Two sides of the same coin.
fresh student groups enrolling in education, constant evolutions in student affairs systems are needed for meeting the unique requirements of students. Student affairs practitioners are required to make student transition easier through adoption of programs and policies that aid transition. Students face challenges when moving between educational levels. ecent literature has focused greatly on this topic, as transition is apparently related to 'mental health crises' among students (Eisner, 2011). Students unable to deal with such transition find it hard to complete their degrees/diplomas and achieve educational requirements for enjoying civic and economic security (Bonanni, 2015, p. 1-2; Conley, Kirsch, Dickson, & Bryant, 2014; Mattanah, Ayers, Brand, & Brooks, 2010; Eisner, 2011). Generally, educational institutions' environment, culture, expectations, and structure differ across the nation. But implementation of transition initiatives in school can promote student success. College and high school leaders can collaborate and aid student success. Systems and programs have been…
Bonanni, M. (2015). In Transition: Examining Students with Learning Disabilities' Transition from High School to College Through Schlossberg's Transition Theory. Theses and Dissertations.
Brown, K. M., & Anafara, V.A. (2001). Competing perspectives on advisory programs: Mingling or meddling in middle school? Research in Middle Level Education Annual, 24, 1-22.
Cossy, L. S. (2014). Transition and Thriving in University: A Grounded Theory of the Transition Experiences and Conceptions of Thriving of a Selection of Undergraduate Students at Western University. Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository. Paper 2531.
Conley, C. S., Kirsch, A. C., Dickson, D. A., & Bryant, F. B. (2014). Negotiating the Transition to College: Developmental Trajectories and Gender Differences in Psychological Functioning, Cognitive-Affective Strategies, and Social Well-Being. Emerging Adulthood, 1-16. doi: 10.1177/2167696814521808
Management, Strategic Management Theories and the Linkage with Organizational Competitive Advantage from the esource-Based View
Accurate comprehension of the article = blue
Critical analysis of the strengths and weakness of the ideas, concepts or theories = yellow
* Provision of specific comments in the form of criticism, disagreement, synthesis, paradox, curiosity or genuine confusion= green
Management, Strategic Management Theories and the Linkage with Organizational Competitive Advantage from the esource-Based View
Using a thorough analysis of management theories and approaches to illustrate how the esource-Based View (BV) of management can deliver greater competitive advantage and more optimized use of internal resources, the authors seek to support this assertion with a comprehensive literature review. The synthesis of the Classical Approach, Human esource Approach, Quantitative Approach, Systems Perspective, Contingency Approach and Information Technology Approach is used as the foundation for showing how the BV approach to management can deliver exceptional results (aduan, Jegak,…
Raduan, C.R., Jegak, U., Haslinda, A., & Alimin, I. (2009). Management, strategic management theories and the linkage with organizational competitive advantage from the resource-based view. European Journal of Social Sciences, 11(3), 402-418.
Since, this one lacks structure means that many employees can become confused about their responsibilities. Once this occurs, it can often lead to employee issues, where this confusion can become an issue of contention between the staff and management. As management is telling them to engage in particular activity, yet they don't understand why they are doing such tasks. Over time, this can cause moral to drop as those employees who do not thrive under such a system, begin to lower the overall positive attitude in the work environment. ("Contingency Theory," 2010)
Despite some of the obvious weaknesses, the contingency theory is effective for those organizations that are small. This is because the in formalized structure allows managers / owners the opportunity to adapt to changes that are occurring in real time. Where, they can use their experience and common sense to adjust to various business conditions. As a result,…
Building Emotional Capital. (2004, June 24). Retrieved April 10, 2010, from Executive Education website: http://executive.education.insead.edu/programme/documents/Nissan_004.pdf
Contingency Theory. (2010). Retrieved April 9, 2010, from Values-Based Management website: http://www.valuebasedmanagement.net/methods_contingency_theory.html
Babineck, M. (2006, March 13). The Enron Trial. Retrieved April 10, 2010 from Chron website: http://www.chron.com/disp/story.mpl/special/enron/3718892.html
Bissonette, Z. (2008, August 1). How Does General Motors CEO Rick Wagoner Still Have a Job. Retrieved April 10, 2010 from Blogging Stocks website: http://www.bloggingstocks.com/2008/08/01/how-does-general-motors-ceo-richard-wagoner-still-have-a-job/
Historical records show that people always organized themselves in order to work together towards a common objective and they coordinated their efforts to achieve this objective (Accel-Team 2004). It was not until the latter part of the 19th century that the concept of scientific management entered history during the Industrial evolution, but management skills existed long before the 19th century. Ancient Egyptians built the pyramids, ancient Chinese erected the Great Wall of China, the Mesopotamians irrigated their lands and walled their cities and the omans of old put up their roads, aqueducts and notably Hadrian's Wall not without established and superb management standards of their leaders (Accel-Team) and massive obedience and coordination among the followers. The pyramids of Egypt, wonders of the world, each measure 75,600 square feet at the base, 480 feet high and consists of more than two million blocks of stone, each weighing 2.5 tons.…
1. Accel-Team. (2004). Developments from Ancient History. Accel-Team.com. http://www.accel-team/scientific
2. Allen, G. (1998). Management History. Supervision. http://allie.dcccd.edu.mgnmt1374
3. Geocities. (2004). Human Behavior. http://www.geocities.com/the sydication/hr.html
4. McNamara, C. (1999). Very Brief History of Management Theories. http://www.mapnp.org/library/mgmnt/history.htm
In fact I sincerely wanted to help them find positions where they could excel. The lack of trust on their part and the acute resistance to change was so strong that structuring for integration to the point of even defining what conditions needed to be changed to overcome shortcomings and design a new position for them was not possible. As trust was not present and despite my best attempts to earn it through being genuinely concerned about them, all attempts were seen more as patronizing and less about attempting to help them. On the occasion that they did ask for pay increases, I told them they would need to get their cumulative customer satisfaction scores up and also call volumes. Not interested in the position or excelling at it, these employees refused to improve and when let go, saw it as very personal given my continual efforts to help them…
Alexander, Kenneth O. "Worker Ownership and Participation in the Context of Social Change: Progress Is Slow and Difficult, but it Need Not Wait upon Massive Redistribution of Wealth. " the American Journal of Economics and Sociology 44.3 (1985): 337. ABI/INFORM Global. ProQuest. 25 Oct. 2008
Timothy Bartram, Gian Casimir. "The relationship between leadership and follower in-role performance and satisfaction with the leader:the mediating effects of empowerment and trust in the leader. " Leadership & Organization Development Journal 28.1 (2007): 4-19. ABI/INFORM Global. ProQuest. 24 Oct. 2008
Douglas Brownlie, Paul Hewer, Beverly Wagner, Gran Svensson. "Management theory and practice: bridging the gap through multidisciplinary lenses. " European Business Review 20.6 (2008): 461-470. ABI/INFORM Global. ProQuest. 24 Oct. 2008
Huei-Fang Chen, Yi-Ching Chen. "The Impact of Work Redesign and Psychological Empowerment on Organizational Commitment in a Changing Environment: An Example From Taiwan's State-Owned Enterprises. " Public Personnel Management 37.3 (2008): 279-302. ABI/INFORM Global. ProQuest 27 Oct. 2008
As in the model of Likert, progressively the concern for people increases as we move down the line from 'Exploitative authoritarian' to 'Benevolent authoritarian' to 'Consultative' to finally 'Participative', similarly in the Blake's Managerial Grid the mapping of high concern for people and low concern for production is seen as the score comes to be 1,9. On the other hand a close comparison of G2 stage of the Vroom-Yetton model and the Participative management of Likert model it is seen that both of them bear similarities. In G2 stage of Vroom-Yetton model, the leader shares the crisis and difficulties with the subordinates of his group and based on a consensus all the parties build and evaluate alternatives and try to arrive at a consensus on a solution.
oughly the same idea is conveyed in the Participative model of Likert wherein the management looks forward to build groups of employees who…
Conger, Jay a; Kanungo, Rabindra N. (1988) "Charismatic Leadership: The Elusive Factor in Organizational Effectiveness." Jossey-Bass Publishers. Retrieved at http://www.coastwiseconsulting.com/Charismatic%20Leadership%20-%20OCRed.pdf . Accessed on 10 February, 2005 del Val, Manuela Pardo; Rodr'guez, Sonia Das'; "Participative management and organizational culture." Retrieved at http://www.sses.com/public/events/euram/complete_tracks/managing_cultures_identities/pardo-del-val_perez_rodriguez.pdf . Accessed on 10 February, 2005
Inman, Mark Lee. (01 Jun 2000) "The relevance of traditional management theories to the 21st Century" Retrieved at http://www.accaglobal.com/publications/studentaccountant/32495Accessed on 10 February, 2005
Leadership Model and Theories" Retrieved at http://www.cda-acd.forces.gc.ca/CFLI/engraph/research/pdf/12.pdf. Accessed on 10 February, 2005
Likert's leadership styles" Retrieved at http://changingminds.org/disciplines/leadership/styles/likert_style.htm . Accessed on 10 February, 2005
Management Theory and Associated Urinary Tract Infections
Infection of the urinary tract constitutes a great share of all infections acquired in hospitals (Klevens, Edwards, & ichards, 2007); of these, most cases are of CAUTI or catheter-associated urinary tract infection, which is "reasonably preventable," according to the CMS (Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services). CMS doesn't reimburse medical facilities for this disease any more. Of the best strategies to reduce CAUTI is ensuring never to employ urinary catheters unless one perceives an appropriate symptom.
Several research works, some even dating back many decades, can be found, of ways to decrease or prevent the development of CAUTI. Over the years, a few of the recommendations have reformed; for instance, at one time, routine catheter irrigation was recommended; however, presently, the medical profession deems it as a practice that must be avoided. Therefore, it is imperative for healthcare organizations to make sure their…
Barnard, C.I. (1952). Leadership and the law. New York University Law Review, 27(1), 112-116
Fanning, M., & Oakes, D. (2006). A tool for quantifying organizational support for evidence-based practice change. Journal of Nursing Care Quality, 21(2), 110-113.
IHCI. (2011). How-to guide: Prevent catheter-associated urinary tract infections. Cambrige, MA. Retrieved from http://www.mnreducinghais.org/documents/CAUTI_How_to_Guide.pdf
Klevens, R. M., Edwards, J. R., & Richards, C. L. (2007). Estimating health care-associated infections and deaths in U.S. hospitals, 2002. Public Health Rep, 122(2), 160-166.
Total Quality Management Theory
Total Quality Management Development
How Total Quality Management (TQM) Theory can be applied to improve the airport passenger handling
Total Quality Management (TQM) specifically deals with work process and people. Implementation of TQM calls for team work and employee involvement. All operations, suppliers, and customers have to be involved. Besides, it also calls for performance measurement. TQM is normally implemented by business organizations to satisfy its customers. It improves organizational performance (Asher, 1996).
Work processes have to be coordinated for continuous improvement in business units to be realized. The underlying reason behind this is meeting customer expectations. TQM endeavors a scenario where quality is enhanced in all facets of an organization while costs are kept at bare minimum. Any organization irrespective of its size can implement TQM especially if it wants to meet the demands of the customers. A major setback has however been the non-compliance…
Alamdari, F. (1999). Airline In-flight Entertainment: The Passengers' Perspective. Journal of Air
Transport Management, 5(4).
Andrle, J. (1994). Total Quality Management in Public Transportation. Research Result Digest,
In addition to this, the event chain methodology is used in counteracting the effects of different biases. This model also requires the use of Gantt charts.
The thermostat model is a model of management control that is based on performance standards, performance measured at the output, and the difference between standards and measured values is used for correcting the process in order to reach the established standards (Koskela & Howell, 2002). The management as planning theory is represented by the operational level management referring to creation, revision, and implementation of plans. This theory focuses on the relationship between the project's actions and the objectives of the company. The dispatching model refers to the fact that the activities and tasks planned in project management can be performed based on the project manager's approval.
The PINCE 2 theory is a project management approach based on different methodologies developed by IBM. The objective…
1. Koskela, L. & Howell, G. (2002). The Theory of project
Performance Management Theories and Practices
Performance management is a continuous process by which an organization identifies, measures, and develops the performance of individuals. It aligns their performance, the resources and systems with the strategic goals of the organization. According to Leeuw and Berg (2011), companies that apply performance management practices generally perform better than those that do not.
The course has covered important performance management theories and practices. One key lesson learnt, for instance, is that for performance management practices to be effective, there must be constant communication between the management team and the employees; and it is imperative for the goals of the individual to be aligned with those of the organization (Pulakos, 2009). The performance management cycle also provided insight on how performance management systems should be implemented in the organization. The elements of this cycle include: setting the objectives; measuring the performance of individuals; providing feedback on…
Leeuw, S. & Berg, P (2011). Improving Operational Performance by Influencing Shopfloor Behavior via Performance Management Practices. Journal of Operations Management, Vol. (29) 3, 224-233. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com.proxy-campuslibrary.rockies.edu/docview/866083571/50E9B56B076C4E25PQ/1?accountid=39364
Pulakos, E.D. (2009). Performance Management: A New Approach for Driving Business Results. (1st Ed.). West Sussex, United Kingdom: Wiley-Blackwell Publishers.
The theory outlines three stages including the unfreeze, make changes and refreeze stages (Levasseur, 2001). In the unfreezing stage, the current processes are unearthed to examine how matters are undertaken. This implies examining each phase and human interrelation for prospective improvements. The second phase encompasses the deployment of the changes and providing guidance to the team as they adapt. In this stage, aspects such as constant communication, training and support are pivotal in order to restrict any for, of challenges in the transition. It also includes a change in the organization’s policies, norms, and policies. The final phase of refreezing is aimed to stabilize the new change to safeguard it from regressing. Frequent reviews need to be undertaken to ascertain that the new approaches are being adhered to (Hossan, 2015). In the first phase, the staff becomes cognizant of and acknowledges the need for a change. The…
The Garbage Can Model in Greater Detail
In theory, the GCM views the entire universe of organizational problems and solutions to those problems as a garbage can in which all problems and all possible solutions are tossed (Daft, 2005). The GCM also views the garbage can as containing solutions to some problems that might not have even manifested themselves yet in the organization but which might become useful in connection with some of those problems that materialize after solutions have already been devised generally (Daft, 2005).
There are four principal parameters that Cohen and March described in relation to the organizational problems encountered in anarchistic situations are: (1) Problems, defined as issues requiring change to the existing situation; (2) Solutions, defined as ideas proposed to address problems; (3) Participants, defined as employees who may come and go from the organization; and (4) Choice Opportunities, defined as situations requiring decisions (Daft,…
Daft, R. (2005) Management 7th Edition. Mason: Thomson South Western.
Organizational Change Management Theory
The organization this document will assess in terms of its readiness for change is Dataversity. It operates within the data management industry. Its primary operations are two-fold. It hosts a website centered upon the education of consumers and businesses for data-driven applications. Also, the company hosts myriad conferences each year. These conferences are also dedicated to data-driven applications and technologies. This organization is a small one. There are only five full-time employees. However, it strongly relies on contractors and their work. The organization has been in existence for the past 10 years. It started off as simply hosting conferences before it branched out to publishing in the way of its internationally renowned web site.
The primary human resources practice employed by Dataversity that could benefit from change is the way that it hires is contractors. Presently, there is a decided dearth of protocol and consistency in…
Jones, S. (2012). Reading, reflection and application in reality. www.nursingreview.co.nz Retrieved from http://www.nursingreview.co.nz/issue/november-2012/Change-management-A-classic-theory-revisited/#.WBJKyPnQfZj
National Collaborating Centre for Methods and Tools (2013). Organizational readiness to change assessment (ORCA) tool. http://www.nccmt.ca/ Retrieved from
Theory vs. Creativity in Design
Leaders have a task of moving the organization forward in a fashion that is supported by all stakeholders. After allocating resources to bolster organizational success, leaders must primarily assess and accept the risks related innovation. Innovation includes accepting new management theories to replace the outdated philosophies widely incorporated into an organization's procedures and policies over time (American Evaluation Association, 2004). This study aims to identify, discuss, and recommend strategies to create tension between existing management theories and management's ability to create new business paradigms. The study will also identify and discuss stakeholder attitudes towards innovation, ethics, and inclusion as primary drivers of a successful organization. While focusing on innovation and ethics, the study will suggest ways in which organizational leadership can prepare a company for the future and current environmental changes.
How leaders integrate innovative principles while adhering to industry and market mandates
American Evaluation Association. (2004). American evaluators association guiding principles for evaluators. American Evaluation Association. Retrieved from http://www.eval.org/p/cm/ld/fid=51
Bogan, C.E., & English, M.J. (2010). Benchmarking for best practices: Winning through innovative adaptation. New York [u.a.: McGraw-Hill.
Burton, R.M. (2008). Designing organizations: 21st century approaches. New York: Springer.
DiMaggio, P. (2011). The twenty-first-century firm: Changing economic organization in international perspective. Princeton, NJ [u.a.: Princeton Univ. Press.
reflect critically personal perspective philosophy managing change changed ( ) semester Drawing learning experiences semester (group case study, relevant change management theory, reflections relevant personal experiences organisational change), reflect critically personal perspective philosophy managing change changed ( ) semester.
The world we are living in is always changing. The nature of the business world today is very different than the way it was decades ago. Change is inevitable. This is because, as people are always faced with new problems and as such, come up with new ways of doing things in order to better their lives. The people therefore come up with new technologies to meet this needs. For an organization to remain relevant, it must be flexible enough to change with the changing times. Resisting to the wind of change will make the organization obsolete and lead to their collapsing Zilwa, 2010.
SINGH, M. & WADDELL, D. 2004. E-business innovation and change management, Hershey, Idea Group Publ.
WILLIAMS, A.P.O., DONBSON, P. & WOODWARD, S. 2002. Managing change successfully: using theory and experience to implement change, London, Thomson.
ZILWA, D.D. 2010. Academic units in a complex, changing world adaptation and resistance, Dordrecht, Springer.
Management Aptitude Analysis
The results of the management aptitude questionnaire were fairly conclusive and useful in regards to my propensity for this particular application in organizational behavior. My scores point out both my strengths as well as those areas in which I can use improvement. Additionally, this information is valuable to see what exact management skills I would be best suited to employ to help a contemporary organization progress.
The most encouraging part of this questionnaire was my score in conceptual skills, in which I achieved 25 points out of 30. In some ways, conceptual skills are the most important for a manager to possess, although human skills are becoming increasingly valuable as well (Daft, 2011, p. 11). However, conceptual skills are those in which a manager is cognizant of how the specific parts of an organization coalesce and work together. More importantly, conceptual skills are those which enable a…
Daft, R.L. (2011). Management. Mason: South-Western, Cengage Learning.
As organizations become larger in both scope and scale, the need for both management and leadership compounds. Many organization problems today, correlate heavily to a lack of true management. Aspects such as fraud, high employee turnover, product recalls, and strikes, all have origins with management. To better combat many of these negative influences, companies must hire, attract and retain talented management. In order to do so, many companies use the administrative management theory of management. This theory emphasizes the use of planned procedures, job specialization, and merit pay to help facilitate business objectives. I believe this theory to be the most useful in regards to managing an organization. For one, specialization of labor helps increase operational efficiencies with a business. In addition, planned procedures allow both employees and management to have clearly defined goals and job expectations. Finally pay based on merit provides incentive for employee and management to…
1) Manfred F.R. Kets de Vries The Dark Side of Leadership - Business Strategy Review 14(3), Autumn Page 26 (2003).
2) Stroh, L.K., Northcraft, G.B., & Neale, M.A. (2002). Organizational behavior: A management challenge. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
3) Paul C. Dinsmore et al. (2005) The right projects done right! John Wiley and Sons, 2005. ISBN 0-7879-7113-8. p.35-42
4) Lewis R. Ireland (2006) Project Management. McGraw-Hill Professional, 2006. ISBN 0-07-147160-X p.110- 116
In my opinion, valuable organizational change is a process. It is nothing that comes from one day to the other. It requires the combined efforts of the organization as a whole: Skilled managers and the commitment of an organization's workforce alike.
Discussion of the paper's results: What are the key findings? What does it add to the body of knowledge?
The key findings of the paper are threefold.
First, the current management of organizational change tends to be reactive in its response to the pace of change that has never been greater than today. Second, successful management of change within organizations is a highly required skill. Third, further research into the nature of change management needs to be conducted and a new and pragmatic framework for change management is needed as a critical success factor for the management of change. It adds to the body of knowledge, that managerial skills…
Long-Term Employment -- Japanese organizations tend to have longer employee cycles than U.S. companies. Many U.S. companies treat employees as replaceable parts. It is far more cost-effective and efficient to retain expertise than continually retrain. This keeps the knowledge base inside the company. Providing incentives for long-term employment, then, is an essential component of Theory Z
Consensual Decision Making -- hen employees feel that they have input into decisions that affect them, their jobs, and their daily processes, they are more likely to buy into those decisions and support change management.
Individual responsibility -- Moving away from 'the union mentality' and accepting measurement based on individual performance is tough for many Americans, but the balance between the group and the individual's participation actually empowers both.
Slow Evaluation and Promotion -- Rather than taking the short-term approach, as many American company's do, it is about the long-term strategy, not the monthly…
Barney, J. (2004). "An Interview with William Ouchi." Academy of Management
Executives.18 (4): 108-117.
Daft, R. (2004). "Theory Z: Opening the Corporate Door for Participative Management."
Academy of Management Executives. 18 (4): 117-22.
Behavior Management Theories and Applications
The Theory of Planned Behavior & Theory of easoned Action
The theory of planned behavior (TPB) is one of the most commonly mentioned and used behavior management theories. It is one of a carefully interrelated family of concepts, which follows a cognitive strategy to describing behavior, which centers on individuals' behavior and values. The TPB progressed from the Theory of easoned Action, which posited intention to act as the best forecaster of behavior. The intention is itself a result of the mixture of attitudes towards behavior (Dunlap, 2012). That is a good or bad assessment of the behavior and its predicted results, and very subjective standards, which are the social pressures used on a person as a result of their views of what others think they should do and their tendency to adhere to these. The TPB included a third set of aspects…
Dunlap, L.L. (2012). What all children need: Theory and application. Lanham, Md: University Press of America.
Ellis, S. & Tod, J. (2013). Behaviour for Learning: Proactive Approaches to Behaviour Management. New York: Routledge.
Florian, L., & Hegarty, J. (2007). ICT and Special Educational Needs. Maidenhead: McGraw-Hill International (UK) Ltd.
Henley, M. (2010). Classroom management: A proactive approach. Boston: Pearson.
Again, this might seem like simple good sense; making decisions based on the factual merits of the situation rather than on face-saving or boss-pleasing seems like the only rational way of doing business. Not paying attention to political whims, however, can have serious repercussions for individuals and organizations alike, and truly depoliticizing decisions requires a great deal of introspection, honesty, and self-awareness in the top management officials and decision makers in a company (Hamel 2009).
Achieving this depoliticization is certain to be even more difficult than establishing a democracy of information, as it is difficult to convince people to relinquish power willingly once they have it. The problem is that politicized decision making is only a hair's breadth away -- one might even say is simply a euphemism for -- corrupt decision making. Few debates or issues are more heavily politicized than long-term (and even short-term) government planning, and though…
Burk, M. (1999). "Knowledge Management: Everyone Benefits by Sharing Information." Public roads 63(3).
Hamel, G. (2009). "Moon shots for management." Harvard business review (February), pp. 91-8.
Newman, P. (2009). "Markets, experts and depoliticizing decisions on major infrastructure." Urban research and practice 2(2), pp. 158-68.
Management Theory vs. Organizational Functions
Herzberg's Two-Factor Theory is useful for raising awareness of the contribution between job challenge and responsibility in motivating employees toward higher productivity and employee retention. It has also been useful in identifying and assessing customer satisfaction characteristics. Fishbein's Reasoned Action Theory is useful for explaining why particular behaviors are happening and the underlying causes of the behavior. Both theories are useful for identifying problem areas and planning actions for improvement in organizational behaviors.
According to (Bolm, 2012), the Two-factor Theory claims individual perception of satisfaction or dissatisfaction relates to discrete intrinsic and extrinsic variables where a variable can uniquely influence satisfaction or dissatisfaction, but not both. Motivator (intrinsic) factors include achievement, recognition, and responsibility where hygiene (extrinsic) factors include policy, status, and security. Motivator factors, when present, increase job motivation and satisfaction, but, when not present, show no effect. Hygiene factors, when present, show no…
Bolm, J. (2012). Two-factor theory-at the intersection of health care management and patient satisfaction. Clinicoecon Outcomes Res., vol 4, 277-285 Retrieved from http:/www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3468274.
Dartey-Baah, K. & . (2011). Application of Frederick Herzberg's Two-Factor Theory in assessing and understanding employee motivation at work: A Ghanian Perspective. European Journal of Business and Management 3(9).
Peters, R.M. (2010). Theory of Planned Behavior, Self-Care Motivation, and Blood Pressure Self-Care. Res Theory Nurs Pract, 24(3), 172-186 Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm, nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3728772.
Sukato, N. & . (2009). A Model of Male Consumer Behavior in Buying Skin Care Products in Thailand. ABAC Journal, 29(1), 39-52 Retrieved from http://www.abacjournal.au.edu/2009/jan09/article03_JanApr2009.pdf .
Identify four factors that affect whether an industry does or does not present a company with a good business opportunity?
The business environment has become highly complex and challenging for firms due to various macro-environmental factors. These factors directly impact the operational and financial performance of firms in one way or another (Sharp, Bergh, & Li, 2013). The economic, political, legal, social, cultural, competitive, and technological forces collectively form the external business environment for business organizations (Hill & Jones, 2010). However, the four leading factors that drive the performance of organizations whether their industry does or does not present them with good business opportunities include: globalization, technological advancements, consumer behavior, and competitive intensity (Thompson, Peteraf, Gamble, Strickland, 2013).
Globalization has a significant influence on the performance of local and international firms operating in a country. Now firms not only have to compete with their domestic competitors, but…
Batra, S.K., & Kazmi, S.H. (2008). Consumer Behavior: Text and Cases, 2nd Edition. New Delhi: Excel Books.
Hill, C.W., & Jones, G.R. (2010). Strategic Management Theory: An Integrated Approach, 9th Edition. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin.
Hitt, M.A., Ireland, R.D., & Hoskisson, R.E. (2013). Strategic Management: Competitiveness & Globalization - Concepts, 10th Edition. Mason, OH: South-Western.
Johnson, G., Scholes, K., Whittington, R., & Pyle, S. (2011). Exploring Corporate Strategy: Text and Cases, 9th Edition. Harlow: Prentice Hall.
" (fom Wold envionmental news, Intenet edition)
Besides developing flexible legislation that will distibute the functions of ecycling between manufactues and municipal sevices thee has to be a definite and developed pogam that would specialize on the optimal and the most exhaust utilization of electonic waste, eduction of e-waste landfills and incineation. Recycling pogam should not be limited to the ecycling of CRT monitos, as thei ownes ae moe likely to bing the whole obsolete compute system to the ecycling, not just compute monitos.
The benefit of integal pogam of ecycling is that it allows using a vaiety of mateials used in the electonics manufactuing like pecious metals, semi-pecious metals, and some electonic items in the euse.
The most impotant pat of the e-waste management is seach of the most appopiate and qualified patnes in the technical o pactical pat of the poblem solution. This poblem is of the essential…
reference: being reused repaired and modernized; being recycled and the most ecologically disadvantageous solution is simply being land filled. But the realization of these practices faces a lot of obstacles mainly of financial character. All of them are quite expensive and do not bring desired return.
That's why scientists and economists agree in the following: recycling of e-waste has to be the concern of electronics manufacturers. Loop industry is the most optimal solution to the problem as the manufacturer becomes responsible for the recycling of the products he makes. Introduction of such practices has the negative outcomes of course. Because technological process becomes more complicated and intensive, requires involvement of additional equipment and facilities on the hand with new labour the net value of the production increases and so the customers would have to pay more for electronics.
Another direction in the solution of e-waste problem is export of e-waste to the developing countries, where the process of recycling is cheaper and the possibility of e-waste to be reused, repaired and modernized is higher. Moreover some third world countries use unpopulated territories for e-waste. Anyways, this kind of solution is not appropriate again, because most of these practices somehow avoid law regulations of these countries and cannot have a mass character. It only creates additional problem which would have to be solved in close future.
As most of experts agree that recycling of e-waste has to be the problem of e-products manufacturers they have to develop different effective strategies and technologies for the most optimal solution of this problem: starting form transportation of e-waste from customer to the process of recycling. At this point global environmental community has to cooperate and share new practices and approaches in solving this problem. It refers both to technology and legislative regulation of the problem.
And in developing own strategy for e-waste management the officials of different countries have to work together and adopt practices of each other that are being effective. Countries of European Union had already made the first steps to the solution of this problem, making manufactures to be responsible for the waste caused by their products. The United Sates and Canada should start to introduce these practices as well, if they want to achieve ecological balance and safe coexistence of scientific and technological progress with health of humanity.
Management and Leadership
Strategic Management and Leadership
Strategic management and leadership theories supporting organizational direction
This document focuses on the leadership theories based on transformational and contingency approaches as well as the management theories based on supporting the accomplishment of organizational objectives. It attempts to review the different approaches and deliver a subjective leadership style that will guide the organization to achieving its goals.
Application of leadership and management theories to support organizational direction
Organizations exist to make profit. That is the sole purpose of corporation and combined companies. Effective organizations are those that are able to adapt to ever changing forces in the general and task environment. Therefore strategic management plays a vital role in helping organizations achieve the means necessary to gain profits and build customer loyalty.
Strategic management is the set of decisions and succeeding actions taken by management that will provide a competitively superior fit…
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As the workplace and management techniques have developed over the decades, employees have enjoyed an increasingly powerful position in their companies. According to Eisler and Montuori (2001), the changes in both business and its surrounding environment in terms of society, the economy and the environment have necessitated new paradigms of the employer-employee relationship. It is no longer sufficient to mindlessly follow traditional methods such as marionette management. Instead, the workplace needs to be assessed in terms of which management styles will most efficiently drive the specific business.
Partnership management is one of these new paradigms. In partnership management, it is acknowledged that employees are more than entities to perform specific functions for a specific time during the day. In this management style, employees are recognized as an important part of business growth and success. As such, they are expected to provide input that would be valuable for the…
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Nowicki, Michael & Summers, Jim. (2003, Oct). "The benevolent autocrat: is it the right fit for the times?." Heatlhcare Financial Management. Online database: FindArticles.com
The change in the world structure population and the trend of migration of people from developing to developed countries raises critical issues that no company can ignore. Demographic changes are already influencing human resource and other departments of companies across major cities of developed nations like Japan, United States and German (Florian Kohlbacher, 2010). Demographic, therefore can be defined as the study of composition of social entity in terms of its members attributes which includes such factors such as gender, age, ethnicity, occupation, seniority, salary level and marital status (Kirton. Greene 2011).
However, during times of global economic and financial crisis, many companies usually deal with issues that seem to be more urgent, but with demographic change the issue is more complex, for example German's companies doing business in Japan need to face the challenges of demographic change in Japan population if they want to be successful in…
Resources in Latin America,
An Agenda for International Leaders book third edition
(2010). A Demographic Analysis -- Part II: Recruitment and Retention Issues
In the P & C. Insurance Industry In Canada
Constantinos, Fotakis (2010). DEMOGRAPHIC AGEING, EMPLOYMENT GROWTH
Managing Behaviors & Teaching Social Skills
Antisocial behavior in schools in on the rise and has become a concern in school systems, from both a learning perspective and from a safety perspective, as well. Previously, schools have dealt with such behaviors using punitive measures such as expulsion, or even law enforcement measures to attempt to discourage youth from behaving in an undesirable manner. These programs have had little or no effect on curbing behavior problems in schools. Second Step and Boys Town are programs, which implement a positive approach to behavior management. These programs teach youth alternatives to violence and stress problem solving, coping, and conflict management. These programs have had considerably greater success than their predecessors. This research will qualitatively explore the theoretical issues behind the success of these two programs and take a critical look at them to explore ways in which they may be further improved for…
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Managing Change in the Criminal Justice System
One organization within the American criminal justice system that has undergone significant changes during the last few decades is the parole board, which is the institution responsible for determining when a prisoner is eligible for early release. Historically, parole has been used by the criminal justice system to regulate overcrowded prison inmate populations, while providing rehabilitated criminals with a second chance to assimilate into society. Since the beginning of the 21st century, however, a confluence of increased security during the War on Terror, rising crime rates across the nation, and widely publicized instances of recidivism has spurred politicians and the public alike to call for the abolishment of the parole system. According to the United States Senate esearch Center's brief on the shifting landscape of parole boards in the American criminal justice system, "while some states have abolished parole, systems similar to parole…
Bahe, E. (2004, March 22). Organizational change: Managing transition -- part 1. weLEAD Online Magazine. Retrieved from http://www.leadingtoday.org/Onmag/dec04/eb - dec04.html
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Theory Help You to Make Sense of Your Own Organization and the Management Practices in Your Organization?
Too often, individuals get an idea stuck in their heads and they cannot dislodge it no matter how hard they try. In actuality though, most people who can only contrive a particular system for working, whether that be managing or running an organization, and there is no interest in change. I realize that falling back to a secure position is comforting, but it is also damaging from a growth standpoint. And, growth is the object in business; that is, aside from the fact that making money is probably the primary concern.
But making money has led to some troubling consequences in the world as businesses have grown greedy and managers have become overly authoritarian and sure of their stagnant methods. The reality is that "managing and organizing are not isolatable objects of study…
Akella, D., (2008). A reflection on critical management studies. Journal of Management and Organization, 14(1), 100-109.
Bourn, D. (2011). Global skills: From economic competitiveness to cultural understanding and critical pedagogy. Critical Literacy: Theory & Practice, 6(1), 3- 20.
Das, H., & Long, B.S., (2010). What makes management research interesting?: An exploratory study. Journal of Managerial Issues, 22(1), 127-140.
Delbecq, A.L., (1999). Rethinking management education. Administrative Science Quarterly, 44(2), 439-442.
Managing Diversity Matters
A Study on QANTAS
Women Representation at QANTAS
QANTAS' Focus on Diverse Needs of Customers
QANTAS Ideology Regarding Recruitment of Youth
Challenges Faced y QANTAS
In today's challenging global scenario where competition is rising every day, it is necessary for Multinational organizations to address the basic need of today's business world: diversity. Customers, employees, strategic alliances, competitors, industry norms etc.; they are all subject to changes every day. This is the reason why organizations must need to show adaptability to the change and address the diverse needs of all these stakeholders. Furthermore, while discussing MNCs, it is noticeable that one of the industries (with highest degree of diversity in its operations) is the aviation industry. Australia is one of the most culturally diverse in the world, according to a 2009 study by L. Leveson in the International Journal of Manpower. The study explored current attitudes to diversity…
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Previously the element of interest and personal motivation were found missing, the technical capabilities of the employees have never been a matter of debate, however the personal and mental capacities and limitations are either ignored or not respected which resulted in the poor performance of the organization. Apparently, the rise in the demands pertaining to the particpation of the employees and the industrial democracy has also distorted the professional environment. Such all complains were lately resolved and answered through the unique approach of the organization, the organization has understood the significance of the employees, and had realized that their performance is not based upon their professional capabilities, but rather it is the function of the mental capability of the employee related to the friendly and conducive environment offered to the employees occasionally. The need of the employees that focus upon peaceful, conducive and liberal environment has been ensured, which required…
Hamel, G. Leading the Revolution. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press. 2000. Pp. 123-124.
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Another 110 individuals would be necessary in administrative positions; 120 people in the cleaning crews and the rest of 150 should occupy diverse positions.
4.2. ecruitment, selection and hiring
Once the event coordinator has identified the staffing need, he moves on to recruiting and selecting the individuals to occupy the available positions. ecruitment and selection is generically "concerned with any means available to meet the needs of the firm for certain skills and behaviors" (Armstrong, 2000, p.201). What these processes generally do it to attract prospective employees and determine which of the candidates are best suited for the available positions. It is imperative that the processes of recruitment and selection be efficient, effective and fair (ACAS). As the best candidates are identified, the human resource manager, after an understanding with the executives, makes an employment offer to the individual. This employment offer will not only include the specification of the…
Acuff, J., Wood, W., 2004, The relationship edge in business: connecting with customers and colleagues when it counts, John Wiley and Sons, ISBN 0471477125
Armstrong, M., 2000, Strategic human resource management: a guide to action, 2nd Edition, Kogan Page Publishers, ISBN 0749433310
Arthur, D., 2001, The employee recruitment and retention handbook, AMACOM Div American Mgmt Assn, ISBN 0814405525
Bohlander, G.W., Snell, S., 2007, Managing human resources, 14th Edition, Cengage Learning, ISBN 0324314639
76). As automation increasingly assumes the more mundane and routine aspects of work of all types, Drucker was visionary in his assessment of how decisions would be made in the years to come. "In the future," said Drucker, "it was possible that all employment would be managerial in nature, and we would then have progressed from a society of labor to a society of management" (Witzel, p. 76). The first tasks of the manager, then, are to coordinate an organization's resources and provide a viable framework in which they can be used to produce goods and services effectively and efficiently. The second set of tasks concern guidance and control. In Drucker's view, this role is almost entirely proactive: "Economic forces set limits to what a manager can do. They create opportunities for management's action. But they do not by themselves dictate what a business is or what it does" (Drucker,…
Managing Organisational Culture
The values and behaviors that contribute to the unique social and psychological environment of an organization make up the organizations culture. Organizational culture is the summation total of an organization's past and current suppositions, incidents, viewpoint, and values that hold it together, and is articulated in its self-image, inner workings, connections with the outside world, and future prospects.
In dealing with the management of organisational culture, it is firstly essential to recognize as fully as possible the characteristics of the existing or new target culture to include the myths, symbols, rituals, values and assumptions that strengthen the culture. Organisational culture is not something that can be viewed very easily it is consequently quite hard to replace it. Usually when certain leaders form a company, their values are converted into the actions of the members of that organisation. When other leaders take over, it may not…
Background To Business in China. n.d. [ONLINE]. Available at: http://www.worldbusinessculture.com/Chinese-Business-Style.html [Accessed 18 August 2012].
Campbell, B. 2010. [ONLINE]. How To Improve Your Corporate Culture. Available at: http://www.bcbusinessonline.ca/bcb/business-sense/2010/05/28/how-improve-your-corporate-culture [Accessed 15 August 2012].
Differences in Culture. n.d. [ONLINE]. Available at: http://www.analytictech.com/mb021/cultural.htm [Accessed 24 August 2012].
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My Utopia Job: CFO
Being a Chief Financial Officer (CFO) for a major Fortune 500 company would be my dream job. Capitalizing on a core base of competencies in accounting, cash flow management, and risk management, the CFO sits in the C-suite with a greater sense of purpose and a role that is instrumental in guiding the organization’s strategies (“Chief financial officer (CFO) job description,” 2017). An understanding of management concepts, theories, and principles will help me achieve this goal to help me manifest a utopic career. For example, systems theory shows how the CFO fits into the overall organization and its interdependent, multilateral nature. Likewise, the CFO must have mastered the main management concepts like those we have studied in this class including control and coordination. The CFO is role that balances strategy, tactics, vision, ethics, and communication. To be a successful CFO, one must also master essential conceptual,…
management style for an entire country simply because there are too many possible variables. The citizens of a nation as large as Australia vary greatly from one individual to another - and even a single manager varies in style from one day to the next or one project to the next. Moreover, the management style of one industry is not likely to be the same for another industry with very different needs and goals.
However, these caveats aside, it is possible if one concentrates on a single industry to make some generally true statements about the management style of that industry throughout Australia. The particular industry chosen for this project may actually show greater uniformity of style than other Australian industries do since the topic - organic farming - is in fact one that tends to attract people who are like minded to begin with.
We should perhaps begin with…
James, Abigail. (2002). Personal communication.
Harvey, William. (2002). Personal communication. http://tbs-intranet.tees.ac.uk/international/ccd/ccd_block2b.htm http://www.bfa.com.au http:/www.ofa.org.au http://www.onepine.deuk/phof.htm http://www.stuart.iit.edu www.nre.vic.gov.au http://ww.bfa.com.au http://www.nre.vic.gov.au
Abigail James 2002. http://www.onepine.demon.co.uk/phof.htm
Specifically, Caesar masterfully showed how through building alliances one may achieve power and rise to the top of the leadership tier even in a group or society as vast as the Ancient Roman Empire (Abbott, 1901, p.385).
The Roman Empire also provides an example of organizational systems within the public domain through the Republican system. In the Roman Republican system of government, one man did not have the power to make law. Instead, power was balanced amongst three different branches of government: the executive, the legislative, and the judicial ("The Roman Empire"). In fact, this form of government introduced the concept of a senatorial body to the public. In Rome, the Senate was designed as a separate body of government from that of the Emperor so as to avoid the tyranny of one leader. Through the advent of the Senate, the Romans laid the groundwork for leadership structure of Britain…
Evolution of Management
A Brief History of the Evolution of Management Principles and Models
The evolution of management theories and principles in modern management thought began in the late nineteenth century and advanced rapidly all through the twentieth century up until the present day. The need to define management and the role of managers became a vital part of production as well as the need to effectively complete many business functions. This led to the foundation of various management theories that were aimed at orchestrating different business functions in an environment where the separation of labor demand some level of coordination. Classical management theories focused on the best methods for assigning the labor of various individuals and there related tasks. This line of thinking was not only necessary, but evolved into a robust field of academic study as well as professional practitioners that specialize in management. This paper…
Deming, W. (2011, September 22). The Deming System of Profound Knowledge. Retrieved from The W. Edwards Deming Institute: http://deming.org/index.cfm?content=66
Mind Tools. (N.d.). Henri Fayol's Principles of Management. Retrieved from Mind Tools: http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/henri-fayol.htm
Management of Organizations
Significance of Managers in Achieving Organizational Success
Organic vs. Mechanistic Organization
Process of Formulating Corporate Strategy
Meaning of Organizational Culture
Management of Organizations
Organizational management is one of the most crucial components for organizational success and productivity. This is primarily because the process entails handling various aspects that are geared towards achieving the organization's overall objectives. Some of the most important issues in organizational management include effective decision making and conflict resolution. These important aspects are usually handled by the organization's top management, which play a vital role in ensuring organizational success. For managers, the process also entails formulating corporate strategy and creating a suitable organizational culture that helps in realization of the overall goals and objectives.
Significance of Managers in Achieving Organizational Success
As previously mentioned, organizational managers play an important role in the success of an organization, especially in relation to decision making. Actually, organizational…
Cohen, S., Eimicke, W. & Heikkila, T 2008, The effective public manager: achieving success in a changing government, Jossey-Bass, New Jersey.
Gitman, L & McDaniel, C 2007, The future of business: the essentials, Thomson Higher
Education, Mason: Ohio.
Hill, C & Jones, G 2012, Strategic management theory: an integrated approach, Cengage
Management as a discipline is generally concerned with the art and science of getting a group of people to achieve a defined goal or objective (Griffin, 2008). The discipline has evolved significantly over the last one century or so (Roth, 1998). In the first half of the 20th century, emphasis was largely placed on structure, authority, and production; with little or no attention to employees (Adetule, 2011). There has, however, been a tremendous shift of management focus from structure and authority to people (employees) over the years (Griffin, 2008). The evolution of management theory over time depicts the ever changing role of managers or leaders in organizations. Each management orientation or school of thought, however, presents its own merits and demerits. With reference to Galaxy Toys, Inc., an American toy manufacturing company, this case study provides an analysis of how the style of management in the organization has evolved from…
Managing Human esources
Change and conflict are some of the manager's current challenges. This thesis tries to inquire into the change processes and managers response to conflicts that arise as a result of change resistance. The manifestation of conflict and the impact of conflict are also discussed. The thesis also looks into the different theories formulated to explain change process and their relationship to conflict management. Also covered is the way decision makers can mitigate conflict and bring sanity in their organizations.
Today's managers are faced with the trade off between change and conflict. Change has become an irresistible part of organization and managers must therefore come up withy strategies and policies of managing change in an order to reduce conflict that may hinder the performance and also to reduce performance gap.
Conflict is bound to occur when different individuals have different perception, opinion, ideas and thought. Change and…
Knudsen T.(2003).Human Capital Management: New Possibilities in People Management. Journal of Business Ethics, 21(2),42-45.
Humphreys, M. (2005). Natural Resources, Conflict, and Conflict Resolution: Uncovering the Mechanisms. The Journal of Conflict Resolution, 49 (4), 23-36.
Kindler, H.S. (2005). Conflict Management: Resolving Disagreements in the Workplace. London: Thomson/Course Technology.
Kotter, J. (1995, march-april). Leading Change:Why Transformation Efforts Fail. Havard Business School Review, 59-67.
In other words, he expects for his efforts to be accordingly remunerated or rewarded with a promotion, a full time job offer for a trainee and so on (Stuart-Kotze, 2008).
In implementing these individual needs, organizational managers have developed numerous incentive plans, such as the offering of increased wages, premiums, bonuses or promotions.
The four above presented theories are relevant in the context of driving the individual, which is then capable to influence the organizational behavior of his employing company. The responses generated by the economic entities relative to the motivational factors vary in terms of intensity, ability to implement or resources possessed, but fact remains that all organizations have attempted to integrate stimuli that increase the performances of the workers. The ultimate goal of each organization offering incentive plans to its staff members is that of best benefiting from their intense efforts.
Aside the offering of a pleasant, yet…
Fabozzi, F.J., Peterson, P.P., 2003, Financial Management and Analysis, 2nd Edition, John Willey and Sons Inc.
Hariss, J.O., Hartman, S.J., 2001, Organizational Behavior, 1st Edition, Taylor & Francis Inc.
Stuart-Kotze, R., 2008, Motivation Theory, http://www.goal-setting-guide.com/motivation-theory.htmllast accessed on September 15, 2008
2008, Official Website of the Microsoft Corporation, http://www.microsoft.com/en/us/default.aspxlast accessed on September 15, 2008
' The researchers did include one anecdote of a South African woman of Indian ancestry, and how she dealt with the unconscious racism of her colleagues, drawing upon a positive sense of community solidarity and avoiding some of the negative emotions such conflicts spawned in others. But other than her comment that professionalism and a strong sense of family identity was helpful in emotionally coping with racism, her remarks were not specifically insightful about working in a global, international organization in a formerly segregated area of the world.
The conclusions of the article regarding what organizational forces positively impact and do not impact identity seem fairly vague and generalized, despite the advantage that a case study format can have in terms of studying a highly specific context. Communication is suggested as the key to broaching identity conflicts, as well as having formal sensitivity training and grievance procedures. Although these…
Mayer, Claude H. (2009). Managing conflicts through strength of identity. Management Revue.
Retrieved through FindArticles.com on January 21, 2011. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa5454/is_200907/ai_n42039398/
This qualitative study, which used the methods of case study, in-depth interviewing, and focus group discussions (FGDs) is particularly vital to the implementation of change in organizational structures, from being a hierarchical to being decentralized. Like Perry, the study puts the manager's role as the most pivotal within the organization, primarily because s/he serves as the 'catalyst' for change and innovation in it.
Other literature also stress the role of power and control in helping the "new managers" of the 21st century to further develop their significant positions in the organization. Hill's (2005) study of managers for the century reflects how learning is achieved through experience, backs up theoretical assumptions that management for the 21st century does not demonstrate parallelism between its theories and actual applications. This assertion is mirrored in a theoretical study by Drejer (2004) and Klagge (1998), wherein he found out that training and learning for new…
Balogun, J. (2004). "Organizational restructuring and middle manager sensemaking." Academy of Management Journal, Vol. 47, Issue 4.
Callanan, G. (2004). "What would Machiavelli think? An overview of the leadership challenges in team-bases structures." Team Performance Management, Vol. 10, No. 3.
Drejer, a. (2004). "Back to basics and beyond: Strategic management -- an area where theory and practice are poorly-related." Management Decision, Vol. 42, Issue 3.
Hill, L. (2004). "New manager development for the 21st century." Academy of Management Executive, Vol. 18, Issue 3.
Some or all such authority may be in fact unlimited. This is when a committee can counterbalance authority and diffuse power within an organization since effectively only a small faction is making important decisions. The best use of committees is to have limited power to make decisions but have unlimited power to make recommendations on how things should be done.
2. Identify the initial issue that should always be thoroughly addressed when the establishment of a committee is recommended.
The initial issue that should be addressed is that of making sure that those on the committee are the people capable of carrying out the agenda of the committee and that the committee will have limited power to make organizational decisions.
3. In what ways may committees be said to dilute the recognition and diffuse the blame or responsibility? Where, based on your personal experience, have you seen one of these…
Baker, L. 2002. "Managed care, medical technology, and the well-being of society," viewed 21
February 2011, < http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12055455 >
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21 February 2011,
esearch Objectives and Scope
The main objective of the research then relates closely to the research problem. It is to research the problem of uncertainty as it manifests in the global business environment. Specific issues to be investigated include supply chain management and its related uncertainties, the production process itself and uncertainties related to it, as well as the post-production phase and market uncertainties that are related to it.
Time is also an important factor. Some industries require a long-term time frame in their planning process, which exacerbate uncertainties. The time factor should also be an important consideration in terms of creating a model that can effectively help businesses achieve their manufacturing and revenue goals.
To achieve these aims, the main objective of the research will then be to research industries and companies that operate on a global scale. They will be investigated for the models they have implemented to…
Alonso-Ayuso, A., Escudero, L.F., Garin, A., Ortuno, M.T. And Perez, G. An Approach for Strategic Supply Chain Planning under Uncertainty based on Stochastic 0-1 Programming. Journal of Global Optimization, No. 26, 2003. Retrieved from http://chentserver.uwaterloo.ca/aelkamel/che720/che720-methods-of-optimization-pse/stochastic_optimization/05100412180122714.pdf
Eppler, Martin J., Platts, Ken, and Kazancioglu, Emre. Visual Strategizing: the Systematic Use of Visualization in the Strategy Process. Institute for Corporate Communication, Dec. 2006. Retrieved from http://doc.rero.ch/lm.php?url=1000,42,6,20061207091432-KB/wpca0607.pdf
Gupta, Anshuman and Maranas, Costas D. Managing demand uncertainty in supply chain planning. Computers and Chemical Engineering, No. 27, 7 Feb. 2003. Retrieved from www.sciencedirect.com.
Kazaz, Burak, Dada, Maqbool and Moskowitz, Herbert. Global Production Planning Under Exchange-Rate Uncertainty. Management Science, Vol. 51, No. 7. July 2005. Retrieved from http://myweb.whitman.syr.edu/bkazaz/kazaz-MS-2005.pdf
Management Perspective on Aviaton Safety
Aviation Safety Management
However, this topic narrows substantially when one considers it from a management perspective. Management has a number of diverse concerns that it must consider in regards to aviation safety. For the most part, these safety issues are typically balanced out with issues related to cost and customer satisfaction. Although safety should always be the principle point of concern, management oftentimes has to temper this with practical considerations related to finances regarding time and money spent. Management can help to mitigate the severity of financial constraints, however, by involving as many people as possible in the safety and quality assurance process via a team-based approach. Additionally, there are certain Safety Management System (SMS) programs that can help to stratify different facets of safety management. Finally, it is important for management to make aviation safety a continuous process which is increasingly refined and improved.…
Burnside, J.E. (2013). "Top five pre-flight mistakes." Aviation Safety Management. Retrieved from http://www.aviationsafetymagazine.com/issues/33_5/features/Pre-Flight-Check-Mistakes_10554-1.html
Conyers, B. (2013). "Safety management systems: beyond theory." SM4 Safety. Retrieved from http://sm4.global-aero.com/articles/safety-management-systems-beyond-the-theory/?disp=pdf
Grosenick, C. (2002). "Quality assurance: how does it impact maintenance?" Aviation Pros. Retrieved from http://www.aviationpros.com/article/10387519/quality-assurance-how-does-it-impact-maintenance?page=3
Waikar, A., Nichols, P. (1997) "Aviation safety: a quality perspective." Disaster Prevention and Management. 6 (2): 87 -- 93.
Management of Work-elated Stress
Who is responsible for the management of work-related stress? While there are those who are convinced that the responsibility of managing work-related stress lies primarily with the management of an organization, others are of the opinion that individual employees have the primary responsibility for managing work-related stress. In this text, I not only state but also substantiate my position on these divergent points-of-view.
The Management of Work elated Stress
In basic terms, "stress is the experience of opportunities or threats that people perceive as important and also perceive they might not be able to handle or deal with effectively" (George & Jones, 2010, p. 245). It is important to note from the onset that although stress related to work is somewhat normal, excessive stress on this front could be counterproductive. This is more so the case in those instances where it affects both the emotional and…
George, J.M. & Jones, G.R. (2010). Understanding and Managing Organizational Behavior (6th ed.). New York: PH Professional Business.
Hawkins, L. (Ed.). (2003). Tolley's Guide to Managing Employee Health. Ohio: LexisNexis Group.
Managing to Keep Apple Fresh: Organizational Culture
Today, Apple can be regarded one of the most successful companies in the industry within which it operates. At some point, the company was headed for collapse. After Steve Jobs took control as CEO (from 1997), he instituted a drastic turnaround of the firm which has since then more or less dominated the industry. A number of factors have contributed to Apple's success; one of those being effective leadership skills. Steve Jobs knew how to set goals and get everyone to work towards achieving them by amongst other things aligning the organizational culture with the organizational goals. Apple's success story is proof that effective culture management is one of the ingredients of effective leadership. This text will explore the different culture-management practices that have been employed by Apple's leadership.
Organizational culture refers to…
Balthazard, P.A., Cooke, R.A. & Potter, R.E. (2006). Dysfunctional Culture, Dysfunctional Organization: Capturing the Behavioral Norms that Form Organization Culture and Drive Performance. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 21 (8), 709-732.
Bucker, J. & Poutsma, E. (2010). Global Management Competencies: a Theoretical Foundation. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 25 (8), 829-844.
Keller, D. (2007). Leading on Top of the World: Lessons from 'Into Thin Air'. Advances in Developing Human Resources, 9 (2), 166-182.
McLaurin, J.R. (2006). The Role of Situation in the Leadership Process: a Review and Application. Academy of Strategic Management Journal, 5, 97-113.
It is not that managers do not see the benefit in conflict that they eschew it; it is that conflict is high-risk and can have significant negative externalities, some of which linger with the organization for a long time. Managers are less enthusiastic about conflict because they are taking into account a longer time frame and the totality of externalities, which makes their views a reflection of better information and therefore more accurate than the views of academic researchers.
Recommendations. Carefully manage conflict -- do not use it wantonly. Conflict does not always create positive outcomes sufficient to outweigh the negative ones that are certain to accrue. Take steps to ensure that the conflict is task-focused and not personal. This will limit the amount of damage that accrues from conflict. Create conflict only when necessary -- large scale conflict for small scale problems is dangerous. Conflict is a powerful tool…
Vazquez, E. (2008). Managing conflict across generations in the workplace. Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Retrieved May 30, 2010 from http://dspace.mit.edu/bitstream/handle/1721.1/50103/462996891.pdf?sequence=1
Rahim, M. (2001,a). Managing conflict in organizations. Westport, CT: Quorum Books.
Cohen, C., Birkin, S., Cohen, M., Garfield, M. & Webb, H. (2006). Managing conflict during an organizational acquisition. Conflict Resolution Quarterly. Vol. 23 (3) 317-331.
Rahim, M. (2001, b) Towards a theory of managing organizational conflict. The International Journal of Conflict Management. Vol. 13 (3) 206-235.
Should the outcomes perform well against the goals, then the performance appraisal process must undergo a re-evaluation. Theories about the underperformance of key outcomes can be matched against feedback from the appraisers and the employees. From that point, a course of action can be developed that will alter the appraisal process to better align it with its objectives. The final step in the control mechanism is the adjustment process. The new ideas must be incorporated into the existing appraisal system. These new ideas must then be tested to determine if they have been as effective as intended, or if they have even moved the outcomes further from the objectives. At this point, the manager is engaged in a feedback loop that exists to continuously improve the performance appraisal process.
Performance appraisals are often conducted poorly, and this has led to considerable criticism of the tool. There are three fundamental…
Heskett, Jim (2006). What's to be Done About Performance Reviews? Harvard Business School. Retrieved November 26, 2008 at http://hbswk.hbs.edu/item/5563.html
No author. (2008). Performance Reviews. Carnegie Mellon University. Retrieved November 26, 2008 at http://www.cmu.edu/hr/hr_services/performance/reviews.html
Culbert, Samuel a. (2008) Get Rid of the Performance Review! MIT Sloan Management Review. Retrieved November 26, 2008 at http://sloanreview.mit.edu/wsj/insight/hr/2008/10/20/
No author. (2004) Performance Appraisal Handbook. United States Department of the Interior. Retrieved November 26, 2008 at http://www.doi.gov/hrm/guidance/370dm430hndbk.pdf
He wished to build the happiest place on the planet and this message continues to be handed over to the new recruits who join the organization presently also. Disney exists to give a guarantee to the Americans that are there for real. Disneyland is not just unreal, rather it is hyper-real. As a result it is possible to express of the corporate culture of Disney as being created. ("eading Organizations from behavior and experience to representation and experience," n. d.)
4) Explain how the four functions of management support the creation and maintenance of a healthy organizational culture
The four functions of management support the creation and maintenance of a healthy organizational culture as it leads to planning, organizing, leading and coordinating of resources and it is these 4 activities which recur across the institution and are extremely unified. Present features relating to management cover claims leading are distinct from…
Arnold, Paul. V. (2002) "Fixing manufacturing" MRO Today Magazine, Retrieved at http://www.progressivedistributor.com/mro/archives/mro%20coach/Lynch/FixingJJ02.htm
Bryman, Alan. (1995) "Disney and His World"
N.A. (2007) "Disney Institute Homepage" Retrieved at http://www.disneyinstitute.com/index.cfm
"The most important issues which have to be addressed here are precise monitoring (diagnosis) of current results and their comparison with what has been planned. Effective managerial control must always be followed by feedback for correcting initial plans " (http://www.bashedu.ru/konkurs/ibatullina/eng/function.htm).
The observation of the way in which people within an organization behave is of extreme importance. ut leaders and managers obtain feedback not just from observations, but directly from people. This provides them with a better understanding of the relation between the actions performed by the individuals and the beliefs which guide their behaviour. An efficacious control upon these factors implies the contribution to the creation and maintenance of a healthy organizational culture.
There are various strategies that an organization can choose to implement in order to make sure it preserves a healthy organizational culture. Among them we can mention the adoption of various principles, such as the following: a…
Baker, Kathryn (2002), Organizational Culture, 19 May, 2007, <
Four Management Functions, 19 May, 2007, http://www.bashedu.ru/konkurs/ibatullina/eng/function.htm
Schein, Edgar, H (1992), Organizational Culture and Leadership, San Francisco: Jossey -Bass Publishers
The people belonging to the third corporate culture are from the engineering culture. This culture is personified by engineers and technical specialists, who believe on the awesome power of the technology in solving the organizational culture. These people believe on the power of the machines in solving human and organizational problems.
According to Schein, people involved with any of the above three cultures often fails to see the other side and the perspective of other culture, often resulting failure in organizational learning. Although people belonging to each of the culture do great service for the organization, yet they fail to see the holistic picture of the organization and fail to share the similar meaning of the organizational problems. The main reasons for these problems certainly occur because of the people inheriting different norms, educational experiences, expectations, and rewards structures in their professions.
Therefore, it is now wonder that an organization…
Schein, Edgar H. (1996) Three Cultures of Management: The Key to Organizational Learning. Sloan Management Review, fall. 9.
Management Approach That Offers the Best Outcomes
for Knowledge Development
Understanding business, and what that process contains, is extremely complex. It takes years of study and focus to gain even a rudimentary idea of all a company has to do to remain viable. A company has to have employees who understand their jobs, clear work goals for all concerned in the business, accounting practices that tell the actual financial workings of the company and keep government agencies happy, along with many other processes among the strata. Threads run through all of the working practices of an organization which tend to bind it together. These can be tangible communication channels (email, phone lines, other forms of information technology), or they can be intangible. These intangible communication lines are another layer of complexity which the organizations managers have to control and mold. How people deal with one another is the way an…
Cohen, Debra J. "Knowledge Development -- Future Focus: Emerging Issues -- in Human Resource Management." HR Magazine (2003). Web.
de Dreu, Carsten K.W., and Evert van de Vliert. Using Conflict in Organizations. New York: Sage Publications, 1997. Print.
Fischler, Michael L. "From Crisis to Growth…Race, Culture, Ethnicity, Conflict and Change." Education 124.2 (2003): 396-398. Print.
"Knowledge." Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary. 2011.
Undercover Boss is a great show for illustrating core management concepts. A season five episode features the CEO of the Larry H. Miller Company, owner of the Utah Jazz along with eighty other concerns. This episode features issues related to occupational health and safety, customer service and marketing. In the episode about Modell's Sporting Goods, a family-owned business that has been around since 1889, issues related to logistics, wages, and social justice come to the fore. In the first season episode featuring the CEO and president of 7-11, issues related to management and corporate structure, customer service, and quality assurance are brought to light. These three episodes can all be used to better understand textbook concepts, from the particular skills managers need to succeed to ethics and social responsibility. Of these three episodes, the most engaging was the one about Modell's because of the way the owner came to…
Schermerhorn, J.R. (2012). Exploring Management. 3rd edition.
Undercover Boss Utah Jazz: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=f_Tc3qCOj68&feature=youtu.be
Undercover Boss Modell's: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8jadl9usH3s&feature=youtu.be
Undercover Boss 7-11:
Managing Across Cultures
Internationalization of the economy has influenced companies to operate their business globally. The global operation has impact managers with several challenges. Market, product, and production plans must be coordinated on a worldwide basis. The global operation necessitates organization structure to balance centralized home-office control with adequate local autonomy. As companies have started their business operation on the international front, the number of their employees has increased. Increase in the employee's abroad management is faced with new global challenges. The three broad international business management challenges were identified by the management gurus as follows (obert, Kossek & Ozeki, 1998):
a) Deployment: To get the right skills where it is required in an organization regardless of the geographical location.
b) Knowledge and creativity distribution: Spreading the knowledge and practices throughout the organization regardless of where they have actually originated.
c) Talent identification and development on global basis: To identify…
Drucker, P. (1988) The Coming of the New Organization. Harvard Business Review issue
Fadel, J. & Petti, M (1997). International HR policy basics.
Global workforce issue April 1997, pp. 29-30
Management, Science, and Technology
Who Is a Manager?
A manager is someone who knows how to take charge, organize, direct, and be accountable for individuals and groups of people operating under his guidance. Anyone who shows leadership skills can be a manager. A manager's goal is to work towards the common good. This means keeping persons on pace to meet their objectives, budgeting time wisely, and instilling in his inferiors a desire to care.
Top management impacts ethics within an organization by setting the tone and the standard for ethical practice. Superiors shape inferiors, not the other way around. Therefore, if top management encourages unethical activity through its own unethical behavior, an organization will, ultimately, be comprised of several unethical attitudes. A great example of this is Enron Corp. Top management of Enron encouraged poor ethical practices by practicing in a disingenuous manner themselves. They hoodwinked investors…
Holmes, C. (2007). The Ultimate Sales Machine. NY: Penguin.
McLean, B., Elkind, P. (2013). The Smartest Guys in the Room. NY: Penguin.