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The project of the League of Nations is yet another relevant example for pointing out the impact the "manifest destiny" idea had on the foreign policy of the United States. In this sense the basis for an organization that would prevent another war was the concept which emerged from the idealistic beliefs of the United States and especially of its president Wilson. However, the project failed to reach its actual power due to the absence of its initiator. Thus, the U.S. did not sign the Covenant and the role of the League of Nation was limited in its scope (Kissinger, 1995). Many consider this aspect to have been a great foreign policy mistake or at least hesitation. Therefore, for the first time in history, the U.S. did not stand behind its own political project (Kissinger, 1995). Still, the actual drafting of the organization represents a proof of the exceptional nature…
Allard, Phil. "Manifest Destiny Noble Ideal or Excuse for Imperialist Expansion?" Issues and controversies of the American History. April 10, 2006. 23 April 2008 http://www.philwrites.com/H_manifest_destiny.htm#h2
Calvocoressi, Peter. World politics since 1945. Budapest: Open Society Institute, 1996.
Gort, Thomas. "Woodrow Wilson's 14 Points. January 8, 1918." American History Page. N.d. 23 April 2008. http://www.hbci.com/~tgort/14points.htm
Haynes, Sam W., and Christopher Morris, eds. Manifest Destiny and Empire: American Antebellum Expansionism. College Station: Texas a&M University Press, 1997.
Mahan, who advocated creating a colossal navy and building bases, taking more land under MD. Growth is "a vital necessity to a nation," Mahan wrote, in justifying the position that the U.S. should annex the Hawaiian Islands. Lodge was a respected writer and historian, and he put forth the notion (Merk, 237) in articles that Cuba, the Hawaiian Islands, Canada and other territories should be conquered - but not Mexico, Central America, and South America. After all, the people and land there "were not of a desirable kind."
These ideas were well received, and Lodge was rewarded with an appointment in the McKinley administration as "Assistant Secretary of the Navy" - where he used his position to push for a bigger and better navy. In the end of his book, Merk (261) argues that those who were in positions of power and who could sway public opinion were "amoral" and…
Merk, Frederick. (1963). Manifest Destiny and Mission in American History: A Reinterpretation.
New York: Alfred a. Knopf.
Austin ("estward Expansion: Manifest Destiny," Digital History, 2007). "Aggressive nationalists invoked the idea [of Manifest Destiny] to justify Indian removal, war with Mexico, and American expansion into Cuba and Central America" ("estward Expansion: Manifest Destiny," Digital History, 2007).
On one hand, Manifest Destiny did allow poorer persons to migrate est, farm land, and make their fortunes with hard work -- but it also marked the end of a vital and unique culture, that of the Native American tribes and it also justified the United States flagrantly violating international laws and borders. Although some Americans called Manifest Destiny 'progress' at the time, in retrospect the American leadership's inability to locate America as one great nation part of a community of great nations, rather than a nation that can do as it please, seems jingoistic, illegal and cruel.
O'Sullivan, John L. "Manifest Destiny." 1839. Excerpted from "The Great Nation of…
O'Sullivan, John L. "Manifest Destiny." 1839. Excerpted from "The Great Nation of Futurity," the United States Democratic Review, Volume 6, Issue 23, pp. 426-430. [18 Feb 2007] Excerpt at http://www.mtholyoke.edu/acad/intrel/osulliva.htm
Westward Expansion: Manifest Destiny." Digital History. Updated 18 Feb 2007. [18 Feb 2007]
We are entering on its
untrodden space, with the truths of God in our minds, beneficent objects in our hearts, and with clear conscience unsullied by the past. We are the nation of human progress, and who will, what can, set limits to our onward march? Providence is with us, and no earthly power can. ('Sullivan 1)
Not all Americans believed in the concept of manifest destination. Many settlers from different countries actually got along with the Native Americans and did not adapt to the concept of slavery of any kind. Many German immigrants belonged to this group. The Germans and Native Americans actually got along quite well. ne would assume that the Germans treated that Native Americans much like others that came here. They did not treat them poorly, though. The Native Americans were considered indigenous and so too were the Germans when they first settled in the United…
O'Sullivan was not alone in his belief that the whites were superior over other races. Before the abolishment of slavery in 1865, many whites wanted to expand it over the entire American continent. This is a testament to the fact that they believed in their superiority and felt that they could expand across the country and possess the land and the people who were already inhabitants. Since the northern states rejected the notion of slavery, it made sense for those clinging to the doctrine of manifest destiny to extend slavery westward. The southerners who believed in slavery felt that the warm climates of the western states and Mexico would be the perfect reason to expand slavery to this area (Dunning 113).
The persistent push towards the west and the need for continuous expansion gradually increased the conflict between the early inhabitants of the land and the colonists, leading to aggression. Upon their arrival in Massachusetts Bay, after their first encounter with the Native Americans, the colonists were quick to resort to violence, as an attempt to please their God. After confronting the natives, many believed that "…it pleased God to vanquish their enemies and give them deliverance…" (Bradford 85), indicating the fact that God was used to justify every action taken on behalf of the American population. Conflict with the Native Americans continued with the rise of Native American Removal Act, which drove the Natives who remained in the East to move to reservations. Of the many incidents that occurred during the process of enforcing the removal act, the most well-known is the "Trail of Tears," when President Martin Van Buren (President Jackson's successor) ordered the removal of about twenty thousand Cherokee that remained in the East as a sign of rebellion against the government.
The U.S. troops rounded off the Cherokee, who were then sent off in groups of about a thousand each, on an eight hundred mile journey in which many died along on the path that is now commonly referred to as the Trail of Tears, the route in which the Native Americans followed from Georgia to the Indian Territory (Danzer 130). As reflected in the apathy portrayed towards the Cherokee, under the leadership of the American government, the United States Army did not tolerate any resistance to the removal, and with the clearing of the Native Americans, Americans concentrated on the development of transportation which was used to facilitate the volume of trade and manufacturing, as well as infrastructure. As the prospects of statehood over the majority of the western territories became more transparent, the nation tackled the issue of slavery in the West, contributing to the causes of the Civil War, which inhibited the rate of expansion. Nonetheless, expansion accelerated over the last several decades of the nineteenth century, after the completion of the rural and urban infrastructure, as well as the transcontinental railroad, and, the complete removal
Most scholars believe that the Negro Spirituals "proliferated near the end of the 18th century and during the last few decades leading up to the end of legalized slavery in the 1860s," the Spirituals Project explains on their eb site. In Africa, "music was called on to mark and celebrate virtually every event in tribal life, no matter how significant."
Those traditions and values were brought over to the North American continent on the slave ships, and became the foundations for Negro Spirituals song on the plantations. Yes, Africans from many diverse religious backgrounds were impressed with Christianity, albeit they reluctantly got involved with Christianity, the Spirituals Project reports, because they (rightly) viewed it as "hypocritical" when a slaveholder "espoused love and brotherhood." And yet many slaves were "fascinated with the Biblical stories, which seemed to parallel many of their own experiences."
So, they created songs, and though they…
Douglass, Frederick. (1852). What to the Slave is the Fourth of July? Retrieved Feb. 6, 2007, at http://douglassarchives.org/doug_a10.htm.
Eisenhower, John S.D. 1989. So Far from God: The U.S. War with Mexico, 1846-1848.
New York: Random House.
Public Broadcasting System. "American Experience: Bataan Rescue / Philippines." Retrieved Feb. 6, 2007, at http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/bataan/sfeature/sf_philippines.html#ql .
Louisiana Purchase and Manifest Destiny
The United States has a number of defining moments or eras in history, epochs that serve as a milestone for American greatness. Two of these important moments are the Louisiana Purchase and Manifest Destiny. The Louisiana Purchase marks the beginning of America's expansion westward, the origin of the belief that the United States future is linked with its territorial expansion. It is analogous to Manifest Destiny in the belief that the United States needed to expand its borders and with expansion comes national greatness. This paper will examine the historical aspects of both events and compare and contrast them. It will argue that while the basic motivation for the Louisiana Purchase and Manifest Destiny are similar and that the Louisiana Purchase is the precursor to Manifest Destiny. The paper will explore their enduring legacy in the modern era.
Louisiana before its acquisition by the United…
Howe, D.W. (2009). What hath god wrought: the transformation of America, 1815-1848. New York: Oxford University Press.
Kennedy, D.M., & Cohen, L. (2013). The American pageant: a history of the American people (15th ed.). Australia: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.
Miller, R.J. (2008). Native America, discovered and conquered: Thomas Jefferson, Lewis & Clark, and Manifest Destiny. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.
Nugent, W.T. (2008). Habits of empire: a history of American expansion. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.
Young American Males and Manifest Destiny: The United States Army as a Cultural Mirror," author Robert May examines the role filibustering has played in the United States nation-building activities prior to the Civil ar. May contends that filibustering was a natural offshoot of the country's policy of expansion, based on the doctrine of Manifest Destiny.
In fact, May further argues, the general political and social climate of the pre-Civil ar contributed to the proliferation of filibustering among the nation's young men. This gave rise to a "national filibuster culture," with an implicit goal of expanding United States territory further into Central and South America.
The author points out, for example, that filibuster expeditions continued, even though the practice was illegal. They were helped in large part by an adulating public, many of whom expressed support or even aided the filibusters directly by providing them with food and shelter as they…
May, Robert. "Young American Males and Manifest Destiny: The United States Army as a Cultural Mirror." The Journal of American History, 78(3): December 1991. JSTOR Database.
" In other words, republicanism in an expanding state would inevitably lead to more despotic, aristocratic, and monarchical regimes. Hence, if the U.S. were to follow a policy of expansion, it would, at least, theoretically conflict with its republican origins.
Interestingly, one of the leading proponents of republicanism, Thomas Jefferson had become the third U.S. President after an unexpected electoral crisis in the elections of 1800. He was a great champion of the rights of the individuals and the states rather than a strong central government. At the same time, the international political situation at the time -- with several European powers vying to consolidate their colonial presence in the Americas -- dictated an opposite direction for the U.S. foreign policy to safe-guard its national interests, i.e., a policy of Westward Expansion and the fulfillment of the Manifest Destiny to make the U.S. A dominant power in North America. The…
Bakeless, John. Daniel Boone, Master of the Wilderness. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 1989.
Decebal. (n.d.) "The Mexican-American War." All Empires Online History Community. Available at http://www.allempires.com/article/index.php?q=war_mexican [Accessed June 16, 2008]
Fleming, Thomas. The Louisiana Purchase. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 2003.
Greene, Jack P. And J.R. Pole, eds., a Companion to the American Revolution, Malden: MA, Blackwell Publishing, 2003
Defined as “an aggressive program of expansion,” Manifest Destiny characterizes American national identity (Haynes, 2006, p. 1). Manifest Destiny refers to both a philosophy and a strategy: a means of crafting the notion of American exceptionalism as well as the methods used to construct American geo-political power. The geographic shape of the United States today owes itself to the principles and widespread embrace of Manifest Destiny, in which Washington laid claim to lands that had to be taken by force, from the Louisiana Purchase in 1803 through to the acquisition of Texas and northern Mexico, to the takeover of Hawaii. The consequences of Manifest Destiny continue to reverberate more than two centuries after the initial rise of territorial expansion programs. Manifest Destiny emboldened the American experiment, fueling its economy, bolstering its military and political power, and exacerbating social unrest and disparity.
The relative ease with which the United States acquisitioned…
The term "manifest destiny" was coined by John L. O'Sullivan during the administration of President James Knox Polk in the middle of the 19th century. However, the concept of manifest destiny seemed to have guided the original settling of the European colonies in North America, with the accompanying sense of entitlement to the lands and people therein. Manifest destiny suggested that God ordained America to be special, and wanted Americans to conquer and amass as much land as possible. Territorial acquisition became the cornerstone of American politics in the 19th century. Under President Polk, the boundaries of the United States stretched as far as they could possibly go, warranting war with a neighboring state: Mexico. Therefore, the events leading up to the Mexican War were directly linked to the overall concept of Manifest Destiny.
However, there were other precursors to the Mexican War. ebellions in California led to…
University of Virginia (2013). American president. Retrieved online: http://millercenter.org/president/polk/essays/biography/1
"War Fever and Antiwar Protests." Digital History. Retrieved online: http://www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/disp_textbook.cfm?smtID=2&psid=3266
American Way of War
The history of the American Way of War is a transitional one, as Weigley shows in his landmark work of the same name. The strategy of war went from, under Washington, a small scale, elude and survive set of tactics practiced by what seem today to be relatively "quaint" militias, to -- in the 20th century -- a full-scale operation known as "total war." True, "total war" was not a concept invented by the Americans in the 20th century. The North eventually practiced "total war" against the Confederates when Sherman's campaign left utter destruction of civilian territory in its wake. The ancient Romans practiced it when, under the direction of Cato, they destroyed Carthage because its mere existence, they felt, posed a threat to their prosperity. In the 20th century, however, "total war" received an enormous boost of technical support when the inventors of the atom…
Butler, Smedley. War is a Racket. LA: Feral House, 2003.
Chollet, Derek and James Goldgeier. America Between the Wars. NY: Public Affairs,
Debs, Eugene. "Anti-War Speech," 16 June 1918. Web.
What were the primary motivations and factors that led to the U.S. shift from isolationism and continental expansion to imperialism by the late 19th and early 20th centuries?
America’s so-called “shift” from isolationism and continental expansion to imperialism by the late 19th and early 20th centuries was really nothing more than a natural evolution of America’s “Manifest Destiny.” Before the US could enter its imperial phase beginning with the Spanish-American War at the turn of the century, it had first to square accounts on the continent by pushing its borders as far as they could be pushed. Once the West had been thoroughly settled and the Union held together (the major conflict of the 19th century), the US could turn its attention to foreign lands and global plans to facilitate the spread of the American Empire. It would have been impossible for the US to achieve imperial objectives any…
Lease, Mary Elizabeth. Women in the Farmers’ Alliance. (1891). In Reading the American Past, Vol. 2. Ed. By Michael P. Johnson. Bedford/St. Martins, 2012.
O’Sullivan, John. "Manifest destiny." Sanford, Manifest Destiny (1845): 26-32.
Peck, Mary Gray. Carrie Chapman Catt: A Biography. New York: HW Wilson Company, 1944.
Smith, Adam. The wealth of nations. Aegitas, 2016.
Roark, James L., Michael P. Johnson, Patricia Cline Cohen, Sarah Stage, and Alan Lawson. Understanding the American promise, volume 2: from 1865: a brief history of the United States. Vol. 2. Macmillan, 2011.
It was also the driving force behind the annexation of vast territories by the United States in the West, including Texas, California, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah and Arizona, which were conquered from Mexico, and Louisiana, which was purchased from France (Lubbrage, 2003).
The newly acquired territories became a bone of contention between the Southern and Northern states as the slave-holding South wanted to create more slave-holding states in order to restore the balance of power with the North, while the North resisted the expansion of slavery mainly because of a fear of "Slave Power." Hence, Manifest Destiny, at least indirectly contributed to the start of the Civil War.
The Fugitive Slave Law
During the drafting of the U.S. Constitution in 1787, the delegates from the Southern slave states refused to join the Union unless certain specific provisions on slavery were agreed. One of the provisions relating to slavery introduced in…
The Free Soil Party Platform." (1848). Professor Mark Lause's Links. Retrieved on December 13, 2007 at http://www.geocities.com/CollegePark/Quad/6460/doct/848frsl.html
Hawes, R.F. Jr. (2007). "Nullification Re-visited." The Libertarian Enterprise. Number 411, April 1, 2007. Retrieved on December 13, 2007 at http://www.ncc-1776.org/tle2007/tle411-20070401-03.html
Lubragge, M.T. (2003). "Manifest Destiny: The Philosophy That Created a Nation." From Revolution to Reconstruction. http://www.let.rug.nl/usa/E/manifest/manif1.htm
Swogger, M.J. (1997). "Causes of the Civil War: The Compromise of 1850 and the Fugitive Slave Law." Suite 101. Retrieved on December 13, 2007 at http://www.suite101.com/article.cfm/american_civil_war_retired/4390
In other case the motive was rooted first in ideological assumption -- and that assumption was that ASP superiority was a given.
The issue of race and class finally came to a head as America continued its expansion westward. But the issue was political as well: hat right did the Federal Government have over State Government to say whether slavery should be abolished? ho was really in power in America -- the States and local government -- or federal national government? The Civil ar, of course, answered the question brutally and bloodily in 1865. But racism and classism did not end. In fact, the problems of race and class would continue even after the war for as long as American policy was determined by ASP elitism. That policy has not changed to this day.
In conclusion, issues of race and class were ingrained into the American fabric from the very…
Horsman, Reginald. Race and Manifest Destiny: the Origins of American Racial Anglo-
Saxonism. Harvard University Press, 1981. Print.
narrative analysis of historical content, themes, patterns, and events related to "race and empire in U.S. History. For this reason, six books have been considered. The paper will cover the narrative analysis of historical content related to race and empire in U.S. History, summary of the chronological themes, and the strengths and weaknesses for each book.
Manifest destinies: the making of the Mexican-American race
The key to the approach of Gomez is the thought that Mexican-Americans do not from ethnicity, in fact a race. The difference lies in societal construction. Rather than having inborn worth, race is history reliant and given meaning by social processes, institutions, and persons. In the view of Gomez, the identity of Mexican-American is a result of social attitudes and legal definitions during the era, after the war between U.S. And Mexico. In fact, for Mexicans, there was no proper racial model[footnoteRef:1]. [1: Gomez,…
8. Hardy, T.J.. Race as an Aspect of the U.S.-Australian Alliance in World War II. (Diplomatic History, 2013)
9. Mora, A.P.. Jose Angel Hernandez. Mexican-American Colonization during the Nineteenth Century: A History of the U.S.-Mexico Borderlands. (The American Historical Review, 118(3), 818-819., 2013)
10. Guyotte, R.L., & Posadas, B.M.. Filipinos and Filipino Americans, 1870 -- 1940. Immigrants in American History: Arrival, Adaptation, and Integration, 347, 2013
With localized colonial governments, world leaders demonstrated that empires could be founded on mastery of regional trade routes. At the beginning of the 20th century nations like Japan were at the forefront of the new model of imperialism.
Q3.Explain WWI? World War 1.
World War One was a natural outcome of the fall of the Ottoman Empire and the Austro-Hungarian Empire, and the subsequent imbalance of power those downfalls entailed. Moreover, the First World War was a direct consequence of the ages of imperialism, colonialism, and industrialization. The war paved the way for emerging states to create a free market economy based on capitalism or on the other hand, a closed-market system based on state-controlled resources.
Q4.The Paris Exhibition had two famous sculptures: one of Paris in an evening gown and the other of Rodin's the Thinker. Elaborate upon the meaning of both and its lesson for us in the…
As such, Yunus' business model for Grameen Bank directly contradicts Social Darwinism, since the former is giving collateral free loans to individuals who are not fiscally fit -- and who are oftentimes exceedingly destitute -- and enabling them to get the financial means to survive.
Additionally, it is critical to examine the role that women play in both Social Darwinism and in Yunus' enterprise with Grameeen. Women are the bearers of children, and regardless of what Social Darwin advances about the fittest of a species, no species can survive without the means of replicating itself. For humans, of course, such a conception prioritizes women over men. Therefore, it is highly significant that the bulk of the individuals receiving loans form Grameen are women. From a Social Darwinism perspective this fact is extremely noteworthy, since women can produce a more direct effect on the livelihoods of their children.
Still, it is…
"PBS New Heroes Ep1 01 Kailash Satyarthi Child Slavery India." (2011). Youtube.
Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zmHyARnDxI0
"PBS New Heroes Ep2 03 Fabio Rosa Low Voltage Electricity Brazil." (2011). Youtube.
Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LfmFEBRmgLU
Did America justly fulfill its manifest destiny? Explain your opinion.
America did fulfill its destiny. This occurred with the country uniting as one nation embracing these ideas of personal freedom and equality. While at the same time, it went from a series of small backward colonies to becoming a world power. These objectives were realized over the course of American history. (Kennedy, 2012)
The biggest reasons for the westward expansion were based upon the desire to obtain land and have access to various natural resources (i.e. gold, silver, coal and oil). This was a part of America's expansion into becoming a new nation that embraced the ideas of personal freedom. A classic example of this peaceful expansion occurred with the purchase of Alaska from ussia in 1867. To this day, it is continuing to contribute economically and militarily. (Kennedy, 2012)
However, the westward expansion often involved the use…
National Vital Statistics System. (2012). CDC. Retrieved from: http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/nvss.htm
Brewer, P. (2004). Near Zero Deficit Accounting with Sigma Six. Journal of Corporate and Accounting Finance, 15 (2), 67 -- 72.
Kennedy, D. (2012). The Brief American Pageant. Mason, OH: Southwestern.
Christianism passion "Atala" Chateaubriand. cites vivid examples .
Christianism and Passion in "Atala"
Francois-Rene de Chateaubriand's novella "Atala" is meant to emphasize the contrast between Christian communities and Native communities in North America during the eighteenth century. The text contains a great deal of Romantic narratives concerning the American background and practically turns the scenery into a heaven-like location. Even with the fact it is, at times, difficult to determine whether Chateaubriand wants readers to understand that Native American cultural values need to be respected or whether they need to be condemned, the truth is that the writer actually intends to highlight that Christianity is, to a certain degree, the only viable solution to a society that is unable to accept its destiny.
"Atala" relates to how primitive societies have a tendency to promote pious attitudes in spite of the fact that people are typically accustomed to associating them with…
Chateaubriand, Francois Rene, "Atala and Rene," (University of California Press, 01.01.1952)
Taylor, Joshua C. "Nineteenth-Century Theories of Art," (University of California Press, 08.02.1989)
Irony in the Story of an Hour by Kate Chopin
Kate Chopin uses the element of irony in her short story The Story of an Hour to emphasis the repressive role that marriage plays in a woman's life. The protagonist, Louise Mallard, is caught between the social expectations and moral obligations to love the man she married, and her desire for independence. This dramatic tension is manifested when Louise hears of the unexpected death of her husband, Brently, from her sister Josephine and her husband's friend Richards. Though the reader would expect Louise to be heartbroken at the news of her husband's demise, she is in fact elated by what she imagines to be the ramifications of the event.
An indication of the author's view on marriage can be ascertained through the description of the view from the open window in Louise's bedroom. Even though she has just been…
Chopin, Kate. "The Story of an Hour." Literature to Go. Ed. Michael Meyer. Boston, MA: Bedford/St.Martin's, 2011. 13-15. Print.
S. responded to the Great Depression by electing FDR, who brought out his Alphabet Programs which were supposed to put the nation back to work with public works projects. When that failed to restore the economy, the world elected to start with a new war: WWII. Germany had been buried by the Western powers following WWI -- and now the country threatened to assert itself once more. Russia was in the middle of its own revolution: Stalin was liquidating the kulaks and rounding others up and shipping them off to the Gulag. That did not help Russia's economy any more than FDR's Alphabet program -- but it did not matter: war was on the horizon. Japan was being strangled by Western powers: the American military-industrial-congressional complex essentially forced Japan to attack -- and then sat back and let it happen when Japan finally decided to bomb Pearl Harbor. Thus, America…
The relationship they had with one another included a fair division of land, and a good balance of trade. Unfortunately, after the settlers learned what they needed from the Native Americans and took what they could from them, they no longer had any use for the proud people whose land they had invaded.
The relationship between the settlers and the Native Americans began to change as settlers learned to do things for themselves, grow their own crops and breed their own animals for food. With the settlers being able to survive on their own, there was no longer any need for the Native Americans to help. The population of settlers was also growing, and new villages were being built on land that used to belong to the Native Americans.
The settlers kept expanding the areas that belonged to them, and this made the areas belonging to the Native Americans smaller…
An Outline of American History. 2002. From Revolution to Reconstruction. http://odur.let.rug.nl/~usa/H/1954uk/chap4.htm.
This Web site gives a timeline and outline of many of the things that took place throughout the history of the United States and ensures that individuals who are studying history are aware of the good and the bad that occurred.
Foreigners in our own country: Indigenous peoples in Brazil. 2005. Amnesty International. http://web.amnesty.org/library/Index/ENGAMR190022005.
Brazilians are struggling today because they are still losing land to foreign development. Because of that they are being forced to move into smaller and smaller areas and their resources are diminishing.
Theodore Roosevelt, elected as President of the United States in 1901 and 1904, was one of the most ambiguous characters in American history. His political beliefs and attitudes, both progressive and conservative, influenced and shaped many domestic and international events which took place in the early 1890's and into the opening years of the twentieth century.
In the years prior to Roosevelt's presidency, two of the greatest social/political problems facing America were based on the continuing warfare between the poor and wealthy classes and the expansion of "Manifest Destiny" in foreign lands. Domestically, the country was burdened by a financial panic in the 1890's which complicated the lives of the urban poor and made the wealthy even more prosperous. In the cities, people demanded democratic change in many areas, such as the twelve hour work day, the dangerous conditions in American factories, the exploitation of immigrant laborers, corporate resistance…
American President. Internet. Accessed February 6, 2003.
Ayers Website. Accessed February 5, 2003.
Racism and the American Ideals
Racial divisions in 19th century American culture excluded African-Americans and Native Americans from the American ideals of liberty and inclusion on a fundamental level. The pushing off the land (and slaughtering) of the Native American tribes by the U.S. government was an exercise in Manifest Destiny (O'Sullivan 5), which later came to be expressed in terms of New Expansionism once the borders of the frontier were at their natural limits. And as for African-Americans -- they may have been freed by Lincoln in order to help the North win the war against the South, but inclusion was never really on the table: Jim Crow laws sprang up in the South and racism continued to be expressed in terms of segregation and mob violence. Liberty was for the ASPs (hite Anglo-Saxon Protestants), the ruling elite of the political, economical and social establishment. No amount of noble…
Crevecœur, J. Hector St. John de. Autobiography. Gutenberg. Web. 26 Feb 2016.
Douglass, Frederick. Narrative of the Life. Web. 26 Feb 2016.
Franklin, Ben. "Remarks concerning the Savages of North America." Web. 26 Feb
Immigration and the Muslim Population
9/11 changed the world -- especially in the U.S. in terms of Muslim-American relations and the way the word "terror" and "terrorist" is used to identify or refer to a group of people.[footnoteRef:1] The issue of Islamaphobia became more pronounced and anti-Muslim immigration policies began to be discussed as a matter of national security.[footnoteRef:2] As -- has shown, the media has been complicit in both demonizing the Muslim community in America and promoting a view of American immigration policy that is anti-Muslim.[footnoteRef:3] This paper will show that the changes in U.S. immigration policy post 9-11 have negatively affected American Muslims in several ways as a result of inherently racist legislation specifically targeting all Muslims regardless of whether they are U.S. citizens or not. [1: Jigyasu, R. "Defining the Definition for Addressing the 'Reality'," in What is a Disaster?: New Answers to Old Questions, Ed. Ronald…
As Margaret Atwood points out, Americans have as much to be ashamed of as to be proud of.
When Barbara Kingsolver claims "The values we fought for and won there are best understood, I think, by oil companies," she refers to the way the American flag has been distorted. The issues the flag symbolizes, such as freedom and liberty, are myths for many people. As Kingsolver points out, the American flag has been used to justify many evils including wars like Vietnam and Iraq. Instead of delivering true freedom, liberty, and democracy, the American flag really brought economic dependence. Instead of associating the American flag with negativity, death, and intimidation, Kingsolver suggests that Americans reclaim it. The red stripes do not need to symbolize war. They can also symbolize "blood donated to the ed Cross."
The American flag is a flexible symbol that is often used in ways that manipulate…
Atwood, Margaret. "A Letter to America." Published on Friday, April 4, 2003 by the International Herald Tribune. Retrieved July 29, 2008 at http://www.commondreams.org/views03/0404-07.htm
Kingsolver, Barbara. "And Our Flag Was Still There." Published on Tuesday, September 25, 2001 in the San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved July 29, 2008 from Common Dreams at http://www.commondreams.org/views01/0925-08.htm
Streufert, Duane. "Evolution of the United States Flag." Evolution of the United States Flag. Retrieved July 29, 2008 at http://www.usflag.org/history/flagevolution.html
Pletcher puts forth the point that many wished to overtake Texas, for example, from Mexican control because of a certain level of hatred on the part of Americans for their neighbors south of the border. Perhaps, as well, there was a certain level of jealousy on the part of Americans for the extensive culture, lifestyle and tradition of the Mexican people, something which was not existent in any major way in the United States at that time.
It is said that history repeats itself, and in the connection between racism and early annexation, there is no exception. Pletcher is correct in his discussion of the very real possibility that the seeds of racism against Mexico that started so many years ago were something that was still alive and well in the 1970s. Also, this point is still emerging in the current events of today.
Southerners Seeking to Extend Slavery
Cuban Missile Crisis: Why we need more balance of power in the world.
Cuban Missile crisis in 1960s may raise a serious political question in retrospect i.e. should America be allowed to exist as the sole superpower and what could be the repercussions of such an existence? Now fifty years or so later, we are in a much better position to answer this question. United States or any other nation for that matter must not work as the sole superpower because it can cause many political upheaval as we recently witnessed. We will discuss the Cuban Missile crisis in detail but first we must establish that American history is fraught with events and wars that were fought on the false belief of America's superiority which made it an imperial power. Examples of these events include the Mexican-American War, the Spanish-American War and not to mention the current conflict with Iraq.…
Rothernberg. R.S. "Crisis Time." USA Today 130.2676 (2001)
Meagher. MR."In an Atmosphere of National Peril': The Development of John F. Kennedy's World View." Presidential Studies Quarterly 27.3 (1997):
Krenn ML. "Robert Weisbrot. Maximum Danger: Kennedy, the Missiles, and the Crisis of American Confidence." International Social Science Review (2002):
Nigro Jr. LJ. "High Noon in the Cold War: Kennedy, Khrushchev, and the Cuban Missile Crisis." Parameters 35.3 (2005)
The presidents that served between 1789 and 1840 helped shape the nation during its formative years. During this critical period in American history, statesmen laid the foundations for political culture, philosophy, and institutions. Although all the presidents during this fifty-year period had some influence on the early republic, several left a more outstanding mark and legacy. As a Founding Father and author of the Declaration of Independence, Thomas Jefferson undoubtedly deserves recognition as one of the most important presidents in the entire history of the country. As a slave owner who believed in a small central government, Jefferson also set a precedent for what would become a series of contentious compromises between Americans who supported racism and the slave trade and those who recognized the ways slavery contradicted the underlying principles of the democracy. Likewise, James Monroe carried on the American legacy of compromise, and is remembered most by the…
As a reader, the setting descriptions that the author used created an atmosphere of being "present" during the war. he maps used have helped the reader follow the warriors and deal with the facts surrounding the U.S. war with Mexico. he book really represents its era, as it is today, when it comes to the political and military problems and the relationship of the two countries.
he denouement of the plot happened, when at last, the reaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo was signed on February 2, 1848 by American diplomat Nicholas rist. he United States was given undisputed control of exas and established the U.S.-Mexican border of the Rio Grande River. he present-day states of California, Nevada, Utah and parts of Colorado, Arizona, New Mexico, and Wyoming were ceded to the United States. Mexico received $15,000,000 which is less than half the amount the United States had attempted to offer Mexico…
The denouement of the plot happened, when at last, the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo was signed on February 2, 1848 by American diplomat Nicholas Trist. The United States was given undisputed control of Texas and established the U.S.-Mexican border of the Rio Grande River. The present-day states of California, Nevada, Utah and parts of Colorado, Arizona, New Mexico, and Wyoming were ceded to the United States. Mexico received $15,000,000 which is less than half the amount the United States had attempted to offer Mexico before the war had begun. The $3.25 million debts that the Mexican government owed to the United States citizens were also assumed by the United States.
What if the United States did not colonize Mexico, would there be another nation to take charge? As Mexico has gained its independence as a republic in the years after 1836, it established diplomatic ties with Britain, France, and the United States. Nearly during those years, there was an existing political dispute between the United States and Britain over the Oregon territorial boundary. Although the United States has succeeded on conquering almost 40% of its territory, not all of the Americans were in favor of what had happened. One of the country's great men, then Lieutenant Ulysses Grant, who became the 18th President of the United States, also served in the Mexican-American War (1846-1848) under Generals Zachary Taylor and Winfield Scott. He was a genius and keen observer of the war as he has learned to judge the actions of colonels and generals. As written on his memoirs, he admitted that the war against Mexico was one of the most unjust ever waged by a stronger against a weaker nation. This was just a clear indication that, aside from the citizens' belief on the Manifest Destiny, considering the territorial dispute with another super power nation (Britain), the United States did the conquest primarily because of concerns that Britain might also attempt to occupy the area.
As you have finished reading the book, your thinking will be greatly influenced by the central idea of the book - the motives of each belligerent party; how they stood for what they believe and ought to achieve; the call for personal agenda; and the discovery of unsung injustice. This is somewhat a call from the author, as he stated in the introduction that this time should not be "relegated to the attic of memory."
... further, that it would be only a question of time until the entire Pacific coast region would be controlled by the Japanese.' Yet Japan's ultimate aim was not limited to California or the Pacific Coast but was global domination achieved through a race war. 'It is the determined purpose of Japan,' the report stated, 'to amalgamate the entire colored races of the world against the Nordic or white race, with Japan at the head of the coalition, for the purpose of wrestling away the supremacy of the white race and placing such supremacy in the colored peoples under the dominion of Japan.'
The presence of sizeable numbers of persons of Japanese origin in California and other Western states was seen as but the beginnings of a Japanese attempt to not merely expand territorially into the United States, but to literally substitute the existing racial order with a new scheme…
Asumah, Seth N., and Matthew Todd Bradley. "Making Sense of U.S. Immigration Policy and Multiculturalism." The Western Journal of Black Studies 25, no. 2 (2001): 82+.
Chang, Gordon H., ed. Morning Glory, Evening Shadow: Yamato Ichihashi and His Internment Writings, 1942-1945. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1997.
Elected as President of the United States in 1901 and 1904, heodore Roosevelt, while being one of the most ambiguous political figures in American history, was also extremely influential, both culturally and socially, and reflected the times in which he lived as no other President. His political beliefs and attitudes, both progressive and conservative, shaped many domestic and international events which took place in the early 1890's and into the opening years of the twentieth century.
In the years prior to Roosevelt's Presidency, two of the greatest social/political problems facing America and foreign nations were based on the continuing struggle between the poor and the wealthy classes and the expansion of "Manifest Destiny" into foreign lands. Domestically, America was burdened by a financial panic in the 1890's which upset the lives of the urban poor and made the wealthy even more prosperous. In the cities, people demanded democratic…
TR: The Story of Theodore Roosevelt. TR's Legacy -- The Environment. Internet. 2003. Accessed February 28, 2003. www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/tr/environment.
Morris, Edmund. Theodore Rex. New York: Random House, 2001.
Theodore Roosevelt's Influence. Bartleby.com -- Great Books Online. Accessed February 28, 2003.
This test, embodied in Article 10 of the treaty, said that land grants would be considered valid to the extent that they were valid under Mexican law" (Ebright 29). According to Montoya (2002), although the treaty was ratified, the subsequent years were clouded by legal battles over quiet title to the lands involved because of the absence of Article X: "The process of defining property rights and ushering in market capitalism that had begun by issuing such a large land grant would continue under the U.S. legal and economic system. But for the next fifty years, charges of patronage, absentee landlordism, and unjust claims would cloud title to the land" (36).
The research showed that the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo concluded the U.S.-Mexican ar and gained the United States Upper California, Texas and New Mexico in exchange for a paltry $15,000,000 and some nebulous assurances that the U.S. would…
Black's Law Dictionary (6th Ed.). St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co., 1990.
Ebright, Malcolm. Land Grants and Lawsuits in Northern New Mexico. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1994.
Montoya, Maria E. Translating Property: The Maxwell Land Grant and the Conflict over Land in the American West, 1840-1900. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2002.
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. (2007). Azteca Web Page. [Online]. Available: http://www.azteca.net/aztec/guadhida.html .
ather than continue the process that began in the first two books, in which the osicrucian Order first announced themselves, gave their history, and then responded to certain criticisms while making their position within Christian theology clearer, the Chymical Wedding can almost be seen as the first instance of literature written within the osicrucian tradition, rather than as part of its manifesto-like founding documents, because it does not seek to explain the history of osicrucianism, but rather explicate how the teachings and underlying beliefs of osicrucianism contribute to and alter one's interpretation of Christian scripture (Williamson 17; Dickson 760). Specifically, one can see a distinct connection between the Chymical Wedding and seventeenth-century attempts to expand Protestantism throughout Europe. The Chymical Wedding can be seen as a the most explicit attempt on the part of osicrucians and osicrucian supporters to wed the new (or newly revealed) society to the larger religious…
Andreae, Johann. The Chymical Wedding of Christian Rosenkreutz. N/a: Benjamin Rowe, 2000.
Case, Paul F. The True and Invisible Rosicrucian Order: An Interpretation of the Rosicrucian
Allegory and an Explanation of the Ten Rosicrucian Grades. York Beach, Me: S. Weiser,
Unequivocally, the most important results of the Mexican War and the Mexican Cession on the United States were the expansion of territory provided to the fledgling nation. This expansion of territory was well aligned with the notion of Manifest Destiny, or the inherent belief that the entirety of the western portion of the North American continent rightfully belonged to the new nation (regardless of the fact that large parts of it were occupied by Mexico). resident olk was one of the many who supported this view (Sang-Rae, 2011, p. 97).
erhaps the most tangible piece of evidence to support the above thesis is the 1848 Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, which capped the war the Mexican-American War that spanned from 1846-1848 (Dawson III, 2006, p. 253). This treaty was singularly responsible for the annexation of Texas and the demarcation of its border (the southern part of…
Porterfield, J. (2006). The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, 1848: A primary source examination of the treaty that ended the Mexican-American war. Library Media Connection. 25(1): 81.
Salvucci, R.J. (2009). Santa Ana never had an iPhone: some thoughts on the price of peace and the financial misfortunes of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo in 1848. Journal of the Historical Society. 9(1): 67-86.
Sang-Rae, L. (2011). Rethinking the Mexican-American War and Mexico's historical interpretations. Asian Journal of Latin American Studies. 24(3): 97-119.
U.S. President James Buchanan
James Buchanan, fifteenth President of the United States (James Buchanan, n.d.), was born on April 23, 1791 in Cove Gap, Pennsylvania (BUCHANAN, James, (1791-1868), n.d.). He moved when he was five to Mercersburg, Pennsylvania. He was born into an affluent merchant family. He went to school at the Old Stone Academy prior to going to Dickinson College in 1807. He then learned law and was admitted to the bar in 1812. He began his career as a lawyer prior to combination the military to fight in the ar of 1812. He was then selected to the Pennsylvania House of Representatives and then to the U.S. House of Representatives. In 1832, he was chosen by Andrew Jackson to be the Minister to Russia. He came back home to be a U.S. Senator in from 1834-35. In 1845, he was selected Secretary of State under President James K.…
"BUCHANAN, James, (1791-1868)." Bio Guide Congress, n.d. Web. 3 May 2011.
"James Buchanan." Answers, 2011. Web. 29 April 2011.
"James Buchanan." Tulane, n.d. Web. 3 May 2011.
Kelly, Martin. About.com, 2011. "James Buchanan - Fifteenth President of the United States."
They both fought and wrote, with little concern about journalistic objectivity, or even what 'journalism' was. (13)
Notions of American racial superiority were frequently played up in the press, as perhaps was understandable given the racial turmoil of the nation at the time, and also because of the biased nature of the reporting, written as it was by soldiers fighting for their lives. "It was not the only time that Mexicans were compared unfavorably with slaves in the American South," notes the author. The correspondents sneeringly wrote that even American slaves were better than these foreign fighting powers. (26)
Because of the narrative nature of the journalism, and its biased quality, this war had to have a 'bad guy' and a 'good guy,' and the guises assigned by the Mexicans and the Americans respectively, the correspondence had a quality, Johannsen suggests of a wild west show, and essentially created the…
10. Colorblindness will not end racism. Pretending race doesn't exist is not the same as creating equality. ace is more than stereotypes and individual prejudice. To combat racism, we need to identify and remedy social policies that advantage some groups at the expense of others.
To be able to eliminate the racism, we do not have to eliminate the concept of race. This is not a solution; this will only hide the problem and not solve it. ace must be seen as an identification and not a difference. Our government must eliminate laws that advantage only some groups in society. Doing that will make people see that we all are humans and equals even if our skin color is different.
1. Fredrickson, George M., acism: A short History, Princeton University Press, July 14, 2011
2. Berg, Manfred, Wendt, Simon, acism in the Modern World: Historical Perspectives on Cultural Transfer…
1. Fredrickson, George M., Racism: A short History, Princeton University Press, July 14, 2011
2. Berg, Manfred, Wendt, Simon, Racism in the Modern World: Historical Perspectives on Cultural Transfer and Adaptation, Berghahn Books, April 18, 2011
3. Garfield, Kathryn, Is There a Genetic Basis to Race After All?, May 7, 2007, Retrieved December 07, 2012 from the Discover -- the Magazine of Science, Technology, and the Future website: http://discovermagazine.com/2007/may/is-there-a-genetic-basis-to-race-after-all#.UMHVdoNwotp
4. Slavery in America, Retrieved December 7, 2012 from the History website: http://www.history.com/topics/slavery
American tourism in Mexico provides a window into understanding U.S.-Mexico relations. By promoting tourism as a path to economic development, Mexico shows that it is still dependent on the U.S. This is the same U.S. that fought a war with Mexico, took land from Mexico (the southwest region of America), and still continues to treat Mexico with condescension (threats of building a wall, calling all immigrants rapists and murders, and knocking down the culture of Mexicans). Yet, Mexicans should think that relying on Americans for tourism is a good thing? Instead of relying on the tourism industry for economic development, Mexico should be developing its industries. After all, the development of industry is what helped America create a strong economy. As Berger and Wood note: “tourism as a modern social practice first gained popularity with the advent of the railroad and steamship” (Berger & Wood, 2010, p. 2). Without…
Such ads have become increasingly common within the last fifty or so years, as other elements of cultural life tell Americans that the western frontier is closed. Therefore, commercialism is playing off our yearning for a new frontier, one which we can still romanticize.
The next step of the western frontier is through the World Wide Web. As print advertising has moved into massive online advertising, the western romanticized image has also gone digital. The online world itself represents a new frontier to be conquered, both by capitalism and the individual consumer; "Like the western frontier, the e-frontier is vitally significant to American economic and strategies of interests that were manifested first in continental (and now wired) expansion;" (McLure 458). It embodies the feeling of discovering a whole new world, a whole new playing ground which is then to be settled and explored. According to research, "the cyber frontier also…
McLure, Helen. "The Wild, Wild Web: The Mythic American West and the Electronic Frontier." The Western History Quarterly. 2000. 31(4):457-476.
Limerick, Patricia Nelson. "What on Earth is the New Western History?" Trails: Toward a New Western History. 1991.
West, Elliot. "Selling the Myth: Western Images in Advertising." Montana: The Magazine of Western History. 1996. 46(2):36-49.
The French colonial government actively sought means to control land and land use in Algeria, notes Sartre. Control over land and natural resources equals ownership of the means of production. Economic oppression also creates class conflict: the subjugated peoples become a clear and identifiable underclass. Even within the underclass, class conflict prevents political cohesion. The French and the Americans would have been far less successful in their colonial campaigns had the Algerians and the Native Americans been able to organize en masse in rebellion. Poverty pits neighbor against neighbor in the competition for limited resources.
Furthermore, race and social class become linked together and offered up as false proof that the oppressed groups are inherently inferior. Economic oppression also serves another key goal that helps perpetuate colonial rule: ignorance. Stripping the underclass of access to capital or to the means of production, the ruling class ensures lack of access to…
Churchill, Ward. A Little Matter of Genocide. City Lights Books, 1997.
Sartre, Jean-Paul. Colonialism and Neo-Colonialism. Translated by Azzedine Haddour, Steve Brewer. Routledge, 2001.
This view, however, fails in Limerick's mind, to adequately show how we can directly trace our current social, economic, and political order to Jamestown, Salem, and the Louisiana Purchase. "White Americans saw the acquisition of property as a cultural imperative" (Limerick, 55). How has that changed either before or after? Isn't that the justification used by the Virginia Company when establishing Jamestown? Isn't that the same as Sam Houston's justification for the subjugation and annexation of Texas? Isn't that the same as our ongoing destruction of the environment to create homes, shopping malls, and warehouses? Manifest Destiny existed in the European mindset even before the phrase was coined. Thus, Limerick observes that we have to see our history as part of that same kind of continuity of intent.
Indeed, Limerick promotes a moral significance on the history of the American West rather than a focus on specific dates and specific…
Limerick, Patricia Nelson. The Legacy of Conquest: The Unbroken Past of the American West. New York: W.W. Norton, 1987.
America at War 1865-Present
A Survey of America at War from 1865 to Present
Since the Civil War, America has seldom seen a generation of peace. In fact, a nonstop succession of wars has kept what Eisenhower termed "the military industrial complex" in lucrative business. From the Indian Wars to the World Wars to the Cold War to the war on Terror, Americana has expanded its foothold as an imperial power every step of the way -- even when isolationism appeared to be momentarily in vogue following World War I. This paper will look at the history of the progression of war in America from 1865 to present, showing how that history -- through social, economic, literary, political, and religious changes -- has both shaped and been shaped by American foreign and domestic policy.
Unit Once: 1865-1876
The Civil War had just ended on the home front, but that did…
Boyd, J.P. (2000). Indian Wars. Scituate, MA: Digital Scanning, Inc.
Jarecki, E. (2008). The American Way of War. NY: Free Press.
Jones, E.M. (2000). Libido Dominandi. South Bend, IN: St. Augustine's Press.
Morehouse, M. (2007). Fighting in the Jim Crow Army: Black Men and Women
Culture and Counseling
In her book The Spirit Catches You and You Fall Down, author Anne Fadiman recounts the life and death of a little Hmong girl living in Merced, California. Lia Lee had what Western doctors call epilepsy, and which the Hmong have a far more lyrical explanation that lends itself to the title of Fadiman's book. The most common neurological disease, epilepsy can be frightening and potentially debilitating. However, in cultures around the world and throughout time, from the Hmong to the ancient Greeks, epilepsy opens pathways to creativity and an increased understanding of the universe. Thus, as Fadiman points out, many epileptics become shamans. When Lia Lee first started having epileptic seizures, her mom Foua, speaking not a word of English, rushed her to the Merced Community Medical Center. There, doctors tended to the eight-month-old child as best they could under the circumstances. Because all she was…
Instead of valuing some parts of nature over others, we should cultivate a universal regard for all parts of nature, down to the lowliest tree in our back yard. Aldo Leopold would agree. His "land ethic" calls for a new philosophy that includes a moral respect for the land. Like Cronon, Leopold advocates an "ecological conscience," that includes a "conviction of individual responsibility," (435). Cronon realizes that humility and respect as well as "critical self-consciousness" should be the guiding forces of the environmentalist movement (p. 387).
However, Leopold too upholds a dualistic worldview that appears to be ingrained in American cultural consciousness. For Leopold, there are two different groups of people pulling in opposite directions: those who view land as soil and therefore commodity production, and those that view land as biota. Leopold makes a snickering comment about organic farming as well: "the discontent that labels itself 'organic farming' while…
S. government chose not only to ignore the great humanitarian tragedy but even refused to condemn the killing. The American inaction on the wandan genocide places a big question mark on any subsequent action of its government overseas for humanitarian reasons.
Besides being accused of using "humanitarianism" as a smokescreen for pursuing its own narrow national interests, the United States is also accused of undermining the United Nations and International Law in following a policy of unilateralism and pre-emption. The results of pre-emptive action by the United States for purportedly humanitarian reasons in recent times have been far from satisfactory. For example, when the NATO forces started its bombing campaign in Kosovo in 1999, there was a mass exodus of about 200,000 Serbs and other non-Albanian minorities as refugees from the province; there was an increase in the Serbs' attacks on ethnic Kosovan Albanians and their ethnic cleansing: as a…
Arima, Y. (2003). "The Way to Pearl Harbor: U.S. Vs. Japan." ICE Case Studies:
Number 118, December, 2003. Retrieved on September 9, 2006 at http://www.american.edu/TED/ice/japan-oil.htm
Introduction: The World of 1898." (1998). The Spanish American War-Hispanic Division: Library of Congress. Retrieved on September 9, 2006 at http://www.loc.gov/rr/hispanic/1898/intro.html
Parmet, H.S. (1993) "The History of American Foreign Policy: Thematic Essay." Encarta Yearbook, 1993: Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia, 2005, CD ROM Version
tephen Austin (1793-1836) is known as the Father of Texas because he was instrumental in leading the second and ultimately successful colonization of the region by U.. settlers. His name is on a number of streets, schools, parks, and Texas tate facilities. Based on the text, though, and the way that historical figures tend to become more mythic as their legend grows, I wondered about different points-of-view surround Austin and even the legality and morality of the Texas annexation.
I was surprised that initially Austin was reluctant to accept his Father's empresarial grant after he died, having to be persuaded by his mother. The situation, it seemed, was quite complex. Mexico granted land parcels under one government, and then changed the rules under another. I was also surprised that Austin supported anta Anna, who would ultimately become his enemy. Essentially, if one takes off the myth, it appears…
Haley, J. (2006). Passionate Nation: The Epic History of Texas. New York: Simon & Schuster.
Haynes, et.al. (2002). Major Problems in Texas History. New York: Houghton Mifflin.
American Foreign Policy
Since September 11, 2001
Over its history, American foreign policy has proven remarkably flexible. Indeed, critics have said it has been too flexible -- "too naive, too calculating, too openhanded, too violent, too isolationist, too unilateral, too multilateral, too moralistic, too immoral" (Mead, 2002). All of these criticisms have been true of U.S. foreign policy at certain points, but its flexibility has made it possible for the nation to grow and thrive in a swiftly changing world. It is often said that the events of September 11, 2001 changed the world. The scale and source of the terrorist attacks on U.S. soil were certainly different from those experienced by any other nation before that time. However, assertions that 9/11 changed U.S. foreign policy permanently are, I believe, based on a shortsighted view of national orientations towards guerilla warfare, preventive attacks, and alliance-building. Below, I will discuss the…
Mead, W.D. (2002) Special providence: American foreign policy and how it changed the world. New York: Routledge.
Barber, B.R. (1995). Jihad vs. McWorld. New York: Times Publishing.
United States became one of the most industrialized nations and sought to grow its industries at an alarming rate. For this purpose, the western part of United States, which had not yet been discovered, was subjected to massive development, economic growth, formation of industries and allowing settlers to move towards the west. Railroads played a significant role in contributing towards the development and urbanization of America's est. The goal of this paper is to analyze the impact of railroads on America's est in the lights of broad and diverse academic resources.
Railroads in America est
Railroads had been developed in United States during the nineteenth century and start of twentieth century. They owe their existence to Industrial Revolution. During the nineteenth century, Industrial Revolution promoted technological and industrial development and thus, laid down the foundations of railroads in United States. During this time, United States became one of…
Bain, David Haward. Empire Express; Building the first Transcontinental Railroad. Viking Penguin. 1999.
Banerjee, A.E.D. a. N.Q. "The Railroad to Success: The Effect of Infrastructureon Economic Growth," Providence, Brown University. 2006.
Beebe, Lucius. The Central Pacific & The Southern Pacific Railroads: Centennial Edition. Howell-North. 1999.
Bianculli, A.J. The American Railroad in the 19th Century: Locomotives. University of Delaware, Newark. 2001.
Space Travel Proposal
Developing Space Vehicles for Future Space Tourism.
The New Demand For Space Travel
The Rise of the Leisure Class
A New Manifest Destiny
Existing Space Tourism Companies
Other rising companies
Research and Development
The independent inventor's role
Alien intervention and other sources of data
Leadership and Guidance.
Who will lead?
A case for government to lead.
International governmental cooperation.
Better to build in space?
Better build on Earth and launch?
This essay will examine the idea of developing space vehicles for the new and demanding space travel and tourism industry. The purpose of the essay will be to highlight the key and important information regarding this topic and present the many differing options that this may be accomplished and ultimately achieved with purpose and…
Federalist Papers, the U.S. Constitution was ratified in the late 1780's by the original 13 states. But this new nation would experience a myriad of other changes by the turn of the century. With a new political system, westward expansionism and manifest destiny would guide the new American spirit. Of the most significant transformations on the American landscape of the late 18th and early 19th centuries were the parallel phenomena of the Industrial Revolution and the Second Great Awakening. One an unbridled attempt to expand the material world, the other a fanatical endeavor to revive religious sentiment, these movements were uniquely positioned in time. They would also pull the American psyche in two opposing directions.
The Second Great Awakening was a never-before seen Protestant revival movement that swept through the new nation. Preachers sought converts and converts sought church membership in record numbers. On the other side of the equation,…
Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia (2002), lack Elk (1863-1950) was a Native American religious leader of the Oglala Lakota band of the Sioux tribe. lack Elk, who at the age of 17 had a vision of the Lakota people rising up and freeing their lands from the white settlers, tried to find ways of reconciling his people's traditions with Christianity and the encroaching reality of white dominance. This vision was a famous one among the Sioux in which the Powers of the World told lack Elk of a "fearful road, a road of troubles and of war. On this road you shall walk, and from it you shall have the power to destroy a people's foes" (Neihardt, p. 29). Reality, unfortunately, would prove to be quite different. The whites were eventually successful in obliterating the Native Americans' way of life and subjugating the peoples.
This reality, however, was not easily accepted by…
Black Elk. Retrieved from Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia, December 10, 2002. http://encarta.msn.com/encnet/refpages/RefArticle.aspx?refid=762504935
Neihardt, John G. (Flaming Rainbow). Black Elk Speaks: Being the Story of a Holy Man of the Oglala Sioux. Lincoln, NB: University of Nebraska Press, 1972.
Ballantine, Betty and Ian Ballantine. Eds. The Native Americans: An Illustrated History. Atlanta, GA: Turner Publishing, 1993.
Josephy, Alvin M., Jr. 500 Nations: An Illustrated History of North American Indians. New York, Alfred A. Knopf, 1994.
QUESTION 2: In rebutting the word of the hitorian in Quetion 1, an equally perceptive cholar argued, "The mot damning force in America, 1900-1940, wa the rie of buine. Corporation produced little but hardhip and depair, and gave u nothing. Indeed, thi period wa marked by the rie of large corporation, but it wa the growth of the large corporation intead that doomed American ociety and detroyed democracy."
In the year prior to Theodore Rooevelt' preidency, two of the greatet ocial/political problem facing America were baed on the continuing warfare between the poor and wealthy clae and the expanion of "Manifet Detiny" in foreign land. Dometically, the country wa burdened by a financial panic in the 1890' which complicated the live of the urban poor and made the wealthy even more properou. In the citie, people demanded democratic change in many area, uch a the twelve hour work day,…
statement which virtually guaranteed that American capitalism, supported by the huge corporations, would endure well into the twentieth century.
With the demise of the Wilson Administration and the opening years of the Coolidge Presidency, America experienced tremendous growth in what has been called the "roaring twenties." Yet during this time, not all Americans were given an equal share in the prosperity. In 1929, the richest Americans controlled the vast majority of savings, while the remainder had no savings at all. A prime example of this disparity was the automobile mogul Henry Ford, who earned $14 million as compared to the average income of $7500 a year. As usual, the major reason for this disparity was due to the increased manufacturing output of the big corporations which saw immense gains in their profit margins while those of the common working man increased nominally. One other factor was the Revenue Act of 1926 which favored big business and the wealthy by reducing the federal income tax and inheritance taxes.
But the major event, beginning in 1929, which financially catapulted American corporations and the wealthy was the Great Depression, the worst economic catastrophe in U.S. history that affected every American citizen. Although many factors contributed to the Depression, the main cause centered around the unequal distribution of wealth and the speculations in the stock market. Once again, American corporations came out on top, due to the disparities between the rich and the middle classes. The stock market crash, a result of excessive stock speculations in the late 1920's, created a very unstable economy yet at the same time helped to foster the growing monopolies in American industries.
The Great Depression continued well into the 1930's, but with the election of Franklin Delano Roosevelt in 1931, the economy began to turn upwards and the working man, for the first time in more than half a century, experienced some financial gains. Roosevelt's "New Deal," designed to stabilize the economy and create a more equal society, included among others the Agricultural Adjustment Act and the Wagner National Labor Relations Act. In essence, Roosevelt's "New Deal" took power away from the wealthy business owners and gave more power to the growing labor unions which represented the working man. Yet with the onset of World War II in 1941, American corporations found themselves in another advantageous position which increased their power and wealth and helped to form the current system of corporate "Manifest Destiny" in American society.
Racial segregation remains one of the most fundamentally perplexing questions within the body of American history. Many people erroneously believe that the racial and social structures that existed prior to the close of the civil war in 1865 resulted in both fundamental and rapid changes for those who had been subjugated by slavery, immigration and even war. The truth is far more complicated and changes were much more gradual. The reality of segregation was both social, legal and economic and to some degree still exists today, in a de jure manner. "Although de jure segregation in the United States is most commonly associated with the South, segregation could be found at one time or another in every section of the country." (Finkelman, 2003) ("South, The " Columbia Encyclopedia, 2000) Though the fundamental struggle of the civil rights movements has largely forced the eradication of de facto, or legal segregation de…
Allport, Gordon. "The Nature of Prejudice." Race, Racism and American Law. Ed.
Derek Bell. Boston: Little Brown & Co., 1973. 84-87.
Gordon Allport is a leading social scientist discussing the foundations of race and prejudice as it effect the United States. His work, "The Nature of Prejudice," is recognized as one of the most influential analysis of the reasons for the perpetuation of racial prejudice.
Bell, Derek ed. Race, Racism and American Law. Boston: Little Brown & Co., 1973.
Origins of American Anglo-Saxonism
This article discusses how American Anglo-Saxonistic superiority began in the United States, and how Americans have consistently rejected other nationalities' superiority. The author's intent is to show how American ideas of superiority began, what fostered them, and how they have affected the country ever since. Obviously, the country's relationships with "inferior" races from "inferior" countries have long been tainted by our view of ethnic superiority. The section on Anglo-Saxons and Mexicans clearly illustrates how our feelings of cultural and racial superiority have clouded our relationships with Mexico for centuries. As the author notes, "The use of 'Anglo-Saxon' in a racial sense, somewhat rare in the political arguments of the early 1830s, increased rapidly later in the decade and became commonplace by the mid-1840s" (Horsman 209). Thus, as Americans became more comfortable with their own democracy and way of life, they urgently wanted to perpetrate their successes…
Horsman, Reginald. Race and Manifest Destiny: The Origins of American Racial Anglo-Saxonism. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1981.
As the two protagonists battle wits, a subplot becomes evident: choices must be made between the old order and the new order. The sturdy Brom Bones, with his practical, quaint Dutch upbringing, is a cog in a hole (or the whole, that is the village). Brom fits Tarry Town, and his rowdy mischievous nature functions as a pleasant diversion in the quiet little village. Brom represents the virtues of the old, tried-and-true order of the original settlers of the Sleepy Hollow area. Should Katrina choose Brom, she knows exactly what she will be getting. Not much will change in Katrina's life, one assumes, should she decide to marry the local fellow. Brom would be likely to assume some lesser role in the operations of his father-in-law's farm, which means that the happy couple will remain under the watchful eye of Katrina's doting father. Perhaps, over time, Brom will win over…
Burstein, Andrew. The Original Knickerbocker: The Life of Washington Irving. Basic Books. (2007).
Jones, Brian Jay. Washington Irving: An American Original. Arcade. (2008).
The Legend of Sleepy Hollow by Washington Irving, [read aloud on LibriVox by "Chip."] LibriVox_-_Sleepy_Hollow_-_Washington_Irving.ogg ?(Ogg Vorbis sound file, length 1 h 23 min 17 s, 61 kbps).
Westopia: An Epic Narrative Describing the History of the West post-Reformation and the Rise of New Peoples and Places in Conflict with the Old
In anno domini 1650, the God of the West -- of the World -- was banned in Maryland. The Pure had come, had been given land, had found shelter under the Toleration Act -- yet acted with intolerance towards those who went to God with hearts much different from their own. The Pure were proud and firm -- like the Chosen People of the Old Testament -- the children of Abraham.
Millennia had passed and the children were grown -- enveloping within them some sense of the God of the West -- Christ Who redeemed them -- yet their sense was separate from that of the past: their doctrine was steeped in the predestinated forms of the Protestors -- of Luther and Zwingli and Knox and…
......starting around noon, I visited the art gallery at the Woolaroc property. The property itself is a sprawling celebration of the landscape and wildlife unique to this part of North America: there are herds of buffalo on the property although we did not get to see any when we arrived. I headed straight to the gallery, which is locally renowned for its collection of paintings from the Taos group. Many of the artists on display I had heard of before, and was eager to encounter first hand and was not disappointed. Although I relished the paintings themselves for their objective aesthetic beauty, I came away from the experience with profound mixed feelings about the way Native Americans have been appropriated for use as subjects by white artists.
The objectification of Indians in European-American art parallels their subjugation as a people. Caldwell (n.d.) points out the "longstanding history and tradition of…
Civil War and Reconstruction Question 2: What does the Civil War show that failed in the United States in this period?
The Civil War and its aftermath showed that the United States failed to create a cohesive national character and ethical identity. The nation was truly divided, symbolized by the fact that Abraham Lincoln received not a single Southern electoral vote, and less than half of the popular vote, but still became President (Slide 5). The majority of Southerners allied themselves with the Southern Democrat platform, and failed to align their outdated beliefs about race and economic exploitation with the more progressive norms evident in the North.
Yet slavery was only one of the meaningful points of divergence between different geographic and cultural segments of the nation. The economies of North and South were completely different from one another, with the North cornering the market on manufactured goods and the…
Pocahontas Through the Ages
Robert Tilton's book, Pocahontas: The Evolution of a Narrative, is ultimately a story about a story. Tilton's study does not largely concern itself with the real life individual whom we have come to know as Pocahontas, nor the primary texts from the early seventeenth-century that documented the facts of her life as they originally occurred. In addition, Tilton does not engage in pointed discussion about the principle players involved in the famous rescue of John Smith, such as, the Powhatan people or key members of the Virginia plantation. He also side-steps the question of the historical authenticity of the rescue story -- a story that largely came into doubt amongst nineteenth-century critics and writers from the northern states who struggled to weaken the power of the mythic narrative being exploited by southerners, around the time of the Civil ar. The story of Pocahontas, Tilton argues, has…
Tilton, Robert S. Pocahontas: The Evolution of an American Narrative. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1994.