630 results for “Marijuana”.
Marijuana, also known as marihuana, is a drug that is taken from Cannabis sativa, a hemp plant. It is one of the most frequently used and popular drugs in the world along with caffeine, nicotine, and alcohol. The United States of America is one of the world's leading producers of marijuana where it is generally smoked and is also referred to as weed or reefer by the citizens ("marijuana").
Marijuana has been known for lowering testosterone levels and sperm counts in males and raising testosterone levels in females. It has a damaging effect on the fetus of the pregnant women and consequently results in poor development of the child. Evidence has proved the affects of marijuana on the normal maturation of teenagers. It is also found to affect the short-term memory and intellectual capacity of its users. Intense users of marijuana frequently sustain lung damage and its heavy…
Cooper, M.H. (1993, March 19). War on Drugs. CQ Researcher, 3, 241-264. Retrieved May 25, 2013, from http://library.cqpress.com/cqresearcher/
Duke, S.B. (2013). The Future of Marijuana in the United States. Oregon Law Review, 91, 1301-1318. Retrieved May 25, 2013, from http://law.uoregon.edu/org/olr/volumes/91/2/documents/Duke.pdf
"It Is Time to End the War on Drugs." (2009). Judicature, 93(2), 48+. Retrieved May 25, 2013, from http://www.questia.com/read/1P3-1898672201/it-is-time-to-end-the-war-on-drugs
marijuana from The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. (n.d.). Questia. Retrieved May 24, 2013, from http://www.questia.com/read/1E1-marijuan/marijuana
Marijuana Should Not Be Legalized
Physical Health Concerns
According to a Harvard University Law School document, it would be "…fallacious to conclude that because the chemicals in marijuana have been found to present fewer dangers…" than cocaine, heroin, alcohol and tobacco, that the recreational use of marijuana "is safe" (Harvard). In fact, even though many states authorize the use of cannabis for medical purposes (for AIDS sufferers and for those experiencing harmful side effects from cancer chemotherapy and glaucoma), marijuana has "potentially dangerous side effects" (Harvard).
Those "dangerous [physical] side effects" include: a) damage to cells in the bronchial passages that could cause chronic bronchitis; b) a decrease in the ability of the body's immune cells to "fight off fungi, bacteria, and tumor cells"; c) the possibility of getting "pulmonary infections and respiratory cancer"; and d) since one joint of powerful cannabis has "four times more tar than a cigarette,"…
Bernstein, Douglas A. (2007). Psychology. Independence, KY: Cengage Learning.
CNBC. (2010). Why We Should Not Legalize Marijuana. Retrieved December 12, 2012, from http://www.cnbc.com .
Drug Enforcement Agency. (2011). The DEA Position on Marijuana. Retrieved December 12,
2012, from http://www.justice.gov/dea/docs/marijuana_position_2011.pdf.
The Interplay between State and Federal Law
History of Criminalization
The Current ar on Drugs
The legal status of medical marijuana in the United States is something of a paradox. On one hand, federal government has placed a ban on the drug with no exceptions. On the other hand, over one-third of the states have that legalizes the cultivation, distribution, and consumption of the drug for medical purposes. As such, the usage of medical marijuana is an activity that is at the same time proscribed (by the federal government) and encouraged (by state governments through their systems of regulation and taxation).
This analysis will provide a recent overview on this unprecedented nebulous zone of legality in which an activity is legal and illegal (depending on the authority), an issue that one scholar on the subject has deemed "one of the most important federalism disputes in…
AMA. (N.d.). History of the American Medical Association (AMA) and Marijuana. Retrieved from ProCon.org: http://medicalmarijuana.procon.org/view.answers.php?questionID=000088
Christensen, J., & Wilson, J. (2014, January 22). Is marijuana as safe as -- or safer than -- alcohol? Retrieved from CNN: http://www.cnn.com/2014/01/20/health/marijuana-versus-alcohol/
Drug Policy Alliance. (N.d.). A Brief History of the Drug War. Retrieved November 30, 2013, from Drug Policy Alliance: http://www.drugpolicy.org/new-solutions-drug-policy/brief-history-drug-war
Garvey, T. (2012, March 6). Medical Marijuana: The Supremacy Clause, Federalism, and the Interplay BetweenState and Federal Laws . Retrieved from Congressional Research Service: http://assets.opencrs.com/rpts/R42398_20120306.pdf
However, someone sitting inside their own home smoking marijuana for pleasure is an important use in itself and one which should not be ignored. "Like sex, alcohol, or cigarettes, marijuana is one of life's little pleasures for some people," and although it can be a vice, the recreational uses are a definite reason for legalization (Messerli 2006). People should not be told what they should and should not enjoy; even if marijuana is a 'guilty pleasure' people should be given the opportunity to enjoy the drug. Furthermore, marijuana has value in enhancing visual and musical experiences, and is tied closely to some musical genres such as reggae music. Marijuana is even of value in certain, albeit rare religions. According to the doctrine of the Ethiopian Zion Coptic Church, a Christian religion, "Herb (marijuana) is a Godly creation from the beginning of the world" (the Ethiopian Zion Coptic Church). From the…
Gettman, John. "Industrial Uses of Marijuana." Lycaeum. Fall 2006. 10 Apr. 2007 http://leda.lycaeum.org/?ID=12426.
Hedman, Leighann. "Legalization of Marijuana." 8 Apr. 2007 http://www.usask.ca/education/ideas/tplan/sslp/values/legmarij.htm .
Helpful or Harmful?" American Academy of Neurology. 7 June 2004. Dalhouse University. 9 Apr. 2007 http://communications.medicine.dal.ca/newsroom/release83.htm .
Industrial Marijuana." The Hemp Historian. 2001. 9 Apr. 2007 http://www.glenwoodsmith.com/hemphistorian/industrial.html .
Since 1998, medical authorities including the editor of the New England Journal of Medicine and the National Academy of Sciences have documented marijuana's unique ability to relieve both intractable pain and nausea."
e're in the Money
The prohibition of marijuana costs American taxpayers a fortune, in the tens of billions per year, much of which is channeled toward the cost of law enforcement and incarceration (Beatty, Holman & Schiraldi). Prominent economists including Milton Friedman point out that "Replacing marijuana prohibition with a system of taxation and regulation similar to that used for alcoholic beverages would produce combined savings and tax revenues of between $10 billion and $14 billion per year," ("Costs of Marijuana Prohibition"). In addition to the accruement of costs associated with law enforcement, prohibition of marijuana, like the prohibition of alcohol, gives credence to a vast underground economy. The black market trade in marijuana takes away potential tax…
Answers to Frequently Asked Questions About Marijuana Use." Schaeffer Library of Drug Policy. Retrieved Aug 11, 2006 at http://www.druglibrary.org/schaffer/library/mjfaq1.htm
Beatty, Phillip, Holman, Barry and Schiraldi, Vincent. "Poor Prescription: The Costs of Imprisoning Drug Offenders in the United States." Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice. 2002. Retrieved Aug 11, 2006 at http://www.cjcj.org/pubs/poor/pp.html
Bonnie, Richard & Whitebread, Charles H. "The Forbidden Fruit and the Tree of Knowledge: An Inquiry into the Legal History of American Marijuana Prohibition." Virginia Law Review. Vol. 56(70). Oct. 1970. Schaeffer Library of Drug Policy. Retrieved Aug 11, 2006 at http://www.druglibrary.org/Schaffer/LIBRARY/studies/vlr/vlrtoc.htm
Costs of Marijuana Prohibition: Economic Analysis." Marijuana Policy Project. Retrieved Aug 11, 2006 at http://www.prohibitioncosts.org/
Another study showed that "marijuana use is associated with substantial clinical problems including cognitive impairments, poor school performance, and a risk for developing abuse or dependence" (Hopfer, Stallings, Hewitt, Crowley, 2003, p. 834).
Society would be much better served by teaching these individuals the pitfalls of smoking marijuana from both a short- and long-term perspective. The effects that the drug has on individual thinking, memory and attention are not benign in nature. One place to begin this education would be with the parents and families of at risk individuals. Since "adolescents rarely seek treatment on their own but instead are brought to treatment by their parents" perhaps earlier education focused on young couples will give them the information they need as their children mature to recognize the signs of marijuana use.
Since young people seem to be the most vulnerable to the long-term effects of marijuana it may also be…
Budney, a.; Kamon, J.; Stanger, C.; (2005) a contingency management intervention for adolescent marijuana abuse and conduct problems, Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Vol. 44, No. 6, pp. 513-521
DeLuca, a.; (2004) Addiction, pain and public health website, http://www.doctordeluca.com/Library/WOD/BrainsOwnMJ-SA04.htm , Accessed September 1, 2008
Dennis ML, Godley SH, Titus JC (1999), Co-occurring psychiatric problems among adolescents: variations by treatment, level of care, and gender. TIE Communique 5-8;
http://www.treatment.org/communique/CHIPtreatment.pdf, September 1, 2008
Secondly, because the law does not differentiate between hemp and marijuana, I believe that the legalization of marijuana would provide a major industrial and agricultural opportunity for hemp farmers and manufacturers. Hemp can be used in a variety of applications from specialty pulp, composites for autos, construction and thermal insulation, and geotextiles (Small & Marcus, 2002). If marijuana is legalized, money can be saved as the product no longer needs to be imported from foreign countries, hemp would become a viable cash crop, and it could be used in more industrial settings as listed above.
I believe that the billions of dollars that could potentially be saved by legalizing marijuana should be used to regulate marijuana and hemp production and distribution to generate more revenue and ensure that the public, which continues to use marijuana at an increasing rate despite its present illegality, is protected and made aware of…
Bates, S. (2004). The economic implications of marijuana legalization in Alaska. Alaskans for Rights & Revenues. Accessed 22 May 2013, from http://www.cannabis-commerce.com/library/Bates_Alaska.pdf
Miron, J.A. (2003, August). The budgetary implications of marijuana legalization in Massachusetts. Accessed 22 May 2013, from http://ukcia.org/research/MassachusettsBudgetaryImplications.pdf
Miron, J.A. & Waldock, K. (2010). The Budgetary Impact of Ending Drug Prohibition. Cato Institute. Accessed 22 May 2013, from http://www.cato.org/sites/cato.org/files/pubs/pdf/DrugProhibitionWP.pdf
Office of National Drug Policy. (2011, October). Marijuana legalization fact sheet. Accessed 22 May 2013, from http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/ncnu02/v5-284.html
Marijuana should be legalized. There is no sensible argument for the ongoing prohibition of marijuana. The prohibition of this plant robs governments of potential tax revenues, diverts spending to the prison industrial complex, leads to racially-biased incarceration rates, and violates America's principle of personal freedom. The counterarguments are rooted in fear, ignore evidence and impose the morality of one group of people on all. It is time to leave the past in the past, with the senseless, fear-based marijuana policy, and start using our brains a little.
There is a tremendous credibility gap between those in favor of ending prohibition and those in favor of sustaining it. Those in favor of ending prohibition frequently have little economic stake, and they consist of experts from a wide range of disciplines. A group of law enforcement officers -- LEAP -- has recognized that enforcing this prohibition is a poor use of…
Chaloupka, F. & Laixuthai, A. (1997). Do youths substitute alcohol and marijuana: Some econometric evidence. Eastern Economic Journal. Vol. 23 (3) 253-275.
Dingfelder, S. (2011). Teen marijuana use is on the rise. American Psychological Association. Retrieved February 18, 2014 from https://www.apa.org/monitor/2011/02/marijuana.aspx
Hartnett, E. (2005). Drug legalization: Why it wouldn't work in the United States. The Police Chief. Retrieved February 18, 2014 from http://www.policechiefmagazine.org/magazine/index.cfm?fuseaction=display_arch&article_id=533&issue_id=32005
Hawken, A., Caulkins, J., Kilmer, B., Kleiman, M. (2013). Quasi-legal cannabis in Colorado and Washington: Local and national implications. Addiction. Vol. 108 (5) 837-838.
Mice were exposed to a small amount of THC, and their blood vessel blockages were reduced by as much as 30% (Khamsi). The research is preliminary and involved pure THC as opposed to marijuana but nevertheless shows some areas for future research into the biological benefits of the drug's main psychoactive chemical.
Several similar studies show that marijuana and THC may benefit the heart and circulatory system. Marijuana may eventually be recommended o treat heart disease and ancillary problems (Roth, cited in Scienceeek). Moreover, marijuana may benefit the immune system. Some studies show an immune system regulatory function, but THC might also cause immunosuppression because of its effect on the synthesis of cytokines (Roth, cited in Scienceeek).
Long-term marijuana use may or may not be dangerous. Some research reveals possible cognitive dysfnctions associated with heavy, long-term use. For example, "brain imaging studies of cannabis users have demonstrated altered function, blood…
American Council for Drug Education. "Basic Facts About Drugs: Marijuana." 1999. Retrieved Nov 4, 2007 at http://www.acde.org/common/Marijana.htm
Brumfiel, Geoff. "Marijuana may make your brain grow." Nature News. Published on BioEd Online. Oct 13, 2005. Retrieved Nov 4, 2007 at http://www.bioedonline.org/news/news.cfm?art=2083
Khamsi, Roxanne. "Cannabis compound benefits blood vessels." Apil 6, 2005. Retrieved Nov. 4, 2007 at http://www.bioedonline.org/news/news.cfm?art=1705
Science Week. "Medial Biology: Marijuana and the Heart." Retrieved Nov 4, 2007 at http://scienceweek.com/2005/sw050617-5.htm
Marijuana is a substance nearly everyone from adolescence on has heard about, and nearly everyone has an opinion about it. Not everyone has accurate information about it, however. Some people believe that people who smoke marijuana will become addicted to it and feel desperate to have it when they do not. Others believe that it is not addicting, and not terribly dangerous, but creates a feeling of euphoria. Others note that smoking marijuana can make someone feel detached from people and things around them. ut none of this tells what the drug is really like and whether it is safe or not.
I heard about marijuana before high school. My parents talked to me about drugs, especially alcohol and marijuana. They warned me that both drugs could be dangerous but that friends might try to tempt me into trying them. They were so right. Only one person offered me marijuana,…
Author not available. 2005. "Blunt facts on marijuana use." Philadelphia Tribune, January 25.
Columbia. "Marijuana." The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2005. 2/24/2005
Sundeep. 2005. "Study: Treatment for marijuana abuse rose 162% from 1992-2002." University Wire, March 15.
Rabren, Karen. 2004. "Variables affecting students' decisions to drop out of school." Remedial and Special Education, September.
In addition to its effects on the body, marijuana also has distinct neurological actions. The primary psychoactive chemical in marijuana is delta-9 tetrahydrocannibinol, or THC. THC content in marijuana varies greatly, which is one of the reasons why it is difficult to generalize about marijuana effects. However, THC does have certain specific actions on brain chemicals and structures. According to Alexander, "THC has been proven to affect the transferring of pain in the brain and that it "interacts with the brain's endogenous opioid system, an important system for the medical treatment of pain." For this reason, marijuana is frequently recommended as a pain relief medication ("Medical Marijuana").
Marijuana affects neurons as well as neurological receptors. The specific brain receptors sensitive to THC include CB1, CB2 and anandamide. Anandamide is "a substance naturally produced by the body that acts at the cannabinoid receptor and has effects similar to those of THC,"…
Alexander, Alissa. "Neurobiological Effects of Medicinal Marijuana." Retrieved Dec 9, 2009 from http://serendip.brynmawr.edu/bb/neuro/neuro02/web3/aalexander.html
Hall, Wayne. "The Health and Psychological Effects of Cannabis Use." Current Issues in Criminal Justice 6(208). 1994-1995.
Hanson, Glen R., Venturelli, Peter J., and Fleckenstein, Annette E. Drugs and Society. New York: Jones and Bartlett, 2006.
"Marijuana Use and Its Effects." WebMD. 2008. Retrieved Dec 9, 2009 from http://www.webmd.com/mental-health/marijuana-use-and-its-effects
Already, "lawmakers in at least three states are considering joining the 13 states that have legalized pot for medical purposes. Massachusetts voters last fall decided to decriminalize possession of an ounce or less of pot; there are now a dozen states that have taken such steps." (Crary, 1)
And as demonstrated by the Appendix B contained below, there is a clear penetration of legalization in every region of the U.S., suggesting that the economic properties discussed here throughout make marijuana an appealing cash crop regardless of cultural and political orientation. Additionally, many physicians agree that for conditions such as the nausea produced by chemotherapy for cancer patients, the intraocular pressure caused by glaucoma, for anxiety, bulimia, migraines and other types of chronic pain, the availability of medicinal marijuana can be extremely beneficial. Essentially, the interceding economic, practical and medical imperatives discussed here suggest that the current legal status of marijuana…
Cohen, A. (2009). Time for Marijuana Legalization? CBS News. Online at http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2009/02/25/opinion/courtwatch/main4828659.shtml
Crary, D. (2009). Momentum Builds for Broad Debate on Legalizing Pot. Associated Press. Online at http://www.google.com/hostednews/ap/article/ALeqM5i_7aIzdypWz2A-dtVHeJ8VZ7vLFAD98R92S80
Drug War Chronicle (DWC). (2009). Marijuana Legalization Legislation in the Works in Portugal. Stop the Drug War.org.
McKeehan, S. (2009). Marijuana Legalization. The Seattle Times. Online at http://seattletimes.nwsource.com/html/northwestvoices/2009346413_marijuana_legalization.html
Marijuana became accused of being a "gateway" drug that led to the use of harder and more dangerous substances. The astafarian movement in Jamaica also re-introduced the role of marijuana as an aid to spiritual growth. Marijuana has been and still is considered to be a spiritual drug in India, which also fueled hippie interest in the drug. The Beatles and other famous rock bands championed its use, and marijuana became mainstream even if still illegal.
The war on drugs that began in the early 20th century escalated. Presidents Nixon and especially eagan demonized marijuana and during the 1980s penalties for pot possession, cultivation, and distribution became severe. American prisons have been long filled with non-violent drug offenders, and marijuana is the most widely used illict substance in the United States.
Actors and other celebrities ranging from Willy Nelson to Woody Harrelson to Bill Maher have spoken out against marijuana…
Abel, E.L. (1980). "Marijuana - the First Twelve Thousand Years." Schaeffer Library of Drug Policy. Retrieved Dec 15, 2008 at http://www.druglibrary.org/schaffer/hemp/history/first12000/abel.htm
Armentano, Pl. (2008). "President-Elect Obama, the People Have Spoken; Will You "Answer" Their Question?" NORML. Retrieved Dec 15, 2008 at
The state currently spends a great deal of money on detaining people on marijuana related offenses. Legalization could help to free up some of these resources which could then be used on more important programs throughout the state.
When examining the economic benefits of marijuana legalization it is important to weigh the social costs related to outlawing access to goods, because such restrictions create black markets. lack markets are associated with social costs because they assists in the perpetuation of that affects innocent citizens and communities. This violence takes place because gangs start to compete form markets and a natural outcome of black markets is a decrease in respect for established laws (oyd). Additionally one aspect of the impact of the black market that is usually overlooked is the cost of production that dealers are able to lower (oyd). Dealers on the black market do not have to adhere to…
Boyd L.W. nd the Budgetary Implications of Marijuana Decriminalization and Legalization for Hawai'i. Web. 14 May 2010. http://www.dpfhi.org/A_PDF/Budgetary_ Implications_ Marijuana_Decrim.pdf
Eastori, S. Legalize Marijuana for Tax Revenue. 26 March 2009. Web. 14 May 2010.
Galbiati, R. And P. Vertova 2008. 'How laws affect behaviour', mimeo, available at: http://
According to a 2001 survey published in the Economist, America's Illegal-Drugs policy is a dismal re-run of it's attempt to prohibit the sale of alcohol. One of the government's most controversial targets is marijuana. Although marijuana is generally disapproved of for causing lethargy and memory loss and shares tobacco's propensity for causing lung cancer, it is widely and safely used by a significant percentage of America's population. In several recent state initiatives, Marijuana decriminalization efforts were voted down. However, in some states such as Ohio, possession of small amounts of marijuana results in little more than a 100 dollar fine, while in California, marijuana cigarettes may be prescribed by doctors.
Attempts to stop marijuana use in the United States were initiated in the 1930's - the same decade that the federal government guaranteed a state's right to sterilize negros for being unfit to breed. The first "drug czar"…
2001, June 28). Survey: Illegal Drugs; Stumbling in the Dark. Economist, 1-3
2001, June 28). Survey: Illegal Drugs; The Harm Done. Economist, 6-9
Robert J. Blendon, ScD; John T. Young, MA. (1998, March 18). The Public and the War on Illicit Drugs. Journal of the American Medical Association, 279:827-832.
1995, November 11). Deglamorizing Cannabis. The Lancet, Vol. 346, #8985.
Marijuana is no more harmful to the individual than smoking cigarettes or drinking alcohol; in fact, it may be significantly less harmful than cigarettes in terms of the frequency and manner in which users typically consume both substances. Whereas marijuana may be consumed irregularly or once in a while by many of its users, virtually everybody who smokes cigarettes does so on a daily basis, usually consuming ten or twenty cigarettes or more every day. In all likelihood, the average cigarette smoker is at much greater risk from smoking than the average marijuana smoker is.
In principle, government could justify prohibition of marijuana, alcohol, and tobacco uniformly and without distinction without necessarily violating any logical or moral concepts. Admittedly, ingesting any form of smoke into the lungs unnecessarily is medically harmful and unnecessary. Especially since the cost of medical insurance and un-reimbursed medical expenses from public resources is such a…
Increases in any of these demographics is negatively correlated with polls in favor of partially legalizing marijuana use and possession, with the researcher's observations allowing some more detailed examination of the possible reasons, as well (Myers, 2011). Marijuana's association with violent crime and with a lax work ethic causes it to be more feared y Protestants and in communities with large minority populations, and individuals over the age of sixty-five are more likely to express disapproval or outfight fears of the drug and its potential to bring violence into a community (Myers, 2011). It is not that people fear the drug itself or its effects on them if they were to use it -- not a health concern, that is -- but rather that they fear what they have been told about the source of the drug, how it is traded, and the type of person that is associated with…
Beaudoin, C. & Hong, T. (2012). Media Use and Perceived Risk as Predictors of Marijuana Use. American Journal of Health Behavior 36(1): 134-43.
Goode, E. & Ben-Yehuda, N. (1994). Moral panics: culture, politics, and social construction. 20: 149-71.
Goode, E. & Ben-Yehuda, N. (2009). Moral panics: the social construction of deviance. New York: Wiley.
Myers, L. (2011). Do Status Politics or Racial Threat Theories Explain State-Level Variation in Medical Marijuana Laws? Thesis: Ohio State University.
They were simply caught up in the lawlessness and anarchy that the prohibition on marijuana causes. Laws and policies in the United States that are theoretically intending to protect the social order are causing chaos and disorder in Mexico, and for some reason the U.S. government thinks dead Mexicans are not a big problem. To have no soul or compassion for the victims of this prohibition is simply evil.
The worst part is that the entire prohibition against marijuana is not even working. Anybody can get marijuana if they want. Studies have shown that teenagers find it easier to obtain marijuana than alcohol (Armentano, 2009). The plant's usage for recreational, religious and medical uses has become mainstream in music and movies, and the majority of Americans are if favor of legalizing it (Hartman, 2012). Even members of law enforcement see that the demand and supply of marijuana are unchanged as…
Armentano, P. (2009). Study says it's easier for teens to buy marijuana than beer. NORML. Retrieved November 29, 2012 from http://blog.norml.org/2009/08/28/study-says-its-easier-for-teens-to-buy-marijuana-than-beer/
Gordon, D. (2012). The war on drugs is a war on freedom. Lew Rockwell.com
Hartman, R. (2012). Number of Americans who support legal marijuana. Yahoo! News. Retrieved November 29, 2012 from
Another important aspect of the medical marijuana debate that many people are not recognizing is the potential for additional revenue. States are taxing dispensaries on their sales, and adding much-needed revenue to their coffers. Another writer notes, "Colorado is now the second state, behind California, to tax and regulate medical-marijuana sales, a move that comes on the heels of the Obama administration's decision in October to leave enforcement of laws governing medical marijuana to the states" (ichardson A09). evenue opportunities are also available to cities who license these dispensaries. eporter ichardson continues, "Some cities have jumped on the revenue bandwagon by adding municipal taxes. Earlier this year, Oakland approved a 1.8% city tax on medical cannabis sales. Denver also plans to collect a city sales tax on medical marijuana starting in December" (ichardson A09). In tough economic times, it simply makes sense to take advantage of every revenue stream. In…
Berg, Jessica. "Smokescreen: The FDA Struggles to Keep Control." The Hastings Center Report 36.4 (2006): 49.
Cohen, Peter J. "Medical Marijuana, Compassionate Use, and Public Policy: Expert Opinion or Vox Populi?" The Hastings Center Report 36.3 (2006): 19+.
Editors. "Medical Marijuana." DrugPolicy.org. 2010. 2 March 2010.
There is a large, well-maintained drug smuggling organization that provides marijuana to American users, and many of those organizations are located in Mexico. They are violent, gang-oriented, they have a stronghold over Mexican society, and they dominate the drug culture in the United States, too. They control what is bought and sold, the prices, and the quality of the drug. Anyone who uses marijuana supports these drug cartels, either knowingly or not. These cartels are dangerous, even deadly members of society, and supporting them only supports the violence and illegal activities they continue. Using marijuana is dangerous to American society, because it encourages these cartels, and that is yet another reason it should remain illegal.
Marijuana use is an addiction, and just like any other addiction, it must be treated and managed. It can ruin lives, it can break apart families, and it can turn a productive, intelligent citizen into…
The debate over the usage of medical marijuana in the United States has been intense and marked by an extreme and virulent debate between parties that disagree wildly on the issue. The United States government, in particular, is opposed to the legalization of the drug for the purpose of medicinal use. The Drug Enforcement Agency, an arm of the United States Department of Justice focuses on the fact that marijuana has several extremely negative physiological effects that make it seem to be an unlikely candidate for use as a medicinal substance:
The harmful consequences of smoking marijuana include, but are not limited to the following: premature cancer, addiction, coordination and perception impairment, a number of mental disorders including depression, hostility and increased aggressiveness, general apathy, memory loss, reproductive disabilities, and impairment to the immune system.
Say It Straight")
Indeed, it is difficult to note this impressive series of…
Marijuana is a drug that is acquired from the cannabis plant. It is also referred to as cannabis and it is a psychoactive drug (Miller, Oberbarnscheidt and Gold 1). Marijuana is used for recreational or medical purposes. Across the world, marijuana is the most commonly used illicit drug and it is classified as Schedule 1 controlled substance. It alters the mood of a person and affects almost every organ in the body. The cannabis plant is normally dried out, ground up, and smoked. The drug comes in many forms and it can even be baked. In most instances, it is added in the ingredients for cookies and candies for it to be consumed. This produces the same effect as that of smoking it. Marijuana being a psychoactive drug alters perception. It contains tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), which is a chemical compound that causes the effects of the drug (Uhl, Koob and Cable…
Opiate crisis in New York
This comes as a letter of concerns and a motion to point out the adverse effects of the currently legalized opioids at the expense of the safe to use marijuana. A harm that particularly brings down the active youthful populations of New York, rendering them unproductive. It is to them that the legalization of marijuana policy as herein covered is directed since they stand to benefit the most.
The American population has over the years suffered from opiate addiction since this are drugs that are easily available on prescription. There are the prescribed opioids which include oxycodone, fentanyl, buprenorphine, methadone, oxymorphone, hydrocodone, codeine, and morphine. There are however other opioids such as heroin which are categorized as illegal drugs of abuse (U.S Department of Health & Human Services, 2017). Addiction to opioids is a long lasting health problem that has serious social, economic as well…
Marijuana is one of the most discussed drugs in the world because of arguments based on its benefits and perceived detrimental effects. Part of the reason for the arguments is that marijuana is still classified federally as a Schedule 1 narcotic, meaning it falls under the class of hard drugs—such as heroin, LSD and cocaine (DEA, 2018). Thus, many countries limit its use and sale. However, many people actually see marijuana is a useful drug with social and medicinal benefits, such as its ability to relieve pain (Joy & Mack, 2000). In some American states, for that reason, marijuana has been legalized, and people are free to use it for recreational purposes as well as medical reasons. Indeed, for many years, people have associated marijuana use with mental relaxation and with its ability to reduce depression and tension. However, there is not a significant sample size of studies that have…
This paper looks at the concept of legalizing marijuana nationwide. It examines what the current literature has to say on marijuana research, medicinal benefits, and legal history of the substance. It also includes a look at the economic benefits of marijuana legalization in states like Colorado. An analysis section follows the review of literature, and in the conclusion recommendations are made for further action.
Though the banning of marijuana began in the U.S. prior to Prohibition and continued on up through the 1930s across the majority of states, it was not until the Marihuana Tax Act of 1937 that it became illegal to possess or transfer cannabis under federal law (unless one was using it for medical or industrial purposes). And it was not until the 1970 Controlled Substances Act that marijuana was made illegal at the federal level even for medical use (Dragone, Prarolo, Vanin & Zanella,…
Cherry, Kendra. (2013). What is a cross-sectional study? About.com. Retrieved:
Cross-sectional vs. longitudinal studies. (2009). At Work, 55. Retrieved:
Guns don't kill people; people kill people
While I appreciate your efforts to apply the three criteria of judging causation to the question of gun control, I think there are other variables that must be taken into consideration in evaluating the first criteria. Even if the intention may be present regarding the desire to kill another human being, regardless of whether there is a gun present or not, it is difficult to argue that the presence of guns make the commission of a crime far easier than many other weapons. Stabbing or harming someone in a fist fight can be deadly, but it is much easier for someone to coolly and impersonally use a gun to commit murder from a distance.
Perhaps a better way of phrasing the…
Studies suggest that 98% of users of marijuana and other illicit drugs also binge drink.
I am prepared for the temptations that smoking marijuana might present as I go through college and will not be easily swayed by the lures of friendship and comaraderie that participating in such behavior might afford me. I can see the dangers and risks that it would expose me to and am not willing to risk a good education for something as dangerous as illicit drug use.
Fenzel, L. Mickey. "Multivariate Analysis of Predictors of Heavy Episodic Drinking and Drinking-Related Problems among College Students." Journal of College Students Development, Vol. 46, 2, March/Apr 2005.
Larimer, Mary, Kilmer, Jason and Lee, Christine. "College Student Drug Prevention: A Review of Individually Oriented Prevention Strategies." Journal of Drug Issues, Spring 2005. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3733/is_200504/ai_n14681915.
Rumstein, Regina. Marijuana: College Students' Expectations. March, 1978. Non-Journal Paper presented at the Annual…
Fenzel, L. Mickey. "Multivariate Analysis of Predictors of Heavy Episodic Drinking and Drinking-Related Problems among College Students." Journal of College Students Development, Vol. 46, 2, March/Apr 2005.
Larimer, Mary, Kilmer, Jason and Lee, Christine. "College Student Drug Prevention: A Review of Individually Oriented Prevention Strategies." Journal of Drug Issues, Spring 2005. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3733/is_200504/ai_n14681915 .
Rumstein, Regina. Marijuana: College Students' Expectations. March, 1978. Non-Journal Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Eastern Psychological Association (49th, Washington, D.C., March 29-April 1, 1978). http://eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/Home.portal?_nfpb=true&_pageLabel=RecordDetails&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED165065&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_accno&objectId=0900000b8010b16e .
Rumstein, Regina. "Marijuana: College Students' Expectations." Journal of College Student Personnel, v21 n2 p135-40 Mar 1980. http://eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/Home.portal?_nfpb=true&_pageLabel=RecordDetails&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=EJ220962&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_accno&objectId=0900000b800abb0b .
One very important aspect related to smoking marijuana concerns the number of deaths reported on an annual basis linked to using other legal and illegal substances. For example, according to the U.S. ureau of Mortality Statistics, 400,000 Americans die annually as a direct result of smoking cigarettes; 100,000 die prematurely from drinking alcohol; some 20,000 die from abusing legal prescription drugs like Oxycontin, Valium, Percodan, and other drugs prescribed by physicians; 2,000 die from the effects of consuming too much caffeine, mainly from heart failure, while the number of Americans who die from smoking marijuana currently stands at zero, an indication that smoking marijuana does not directly cause any known fatal and debilitating disease ("The Legalization of Marijuana," Internet).
Therefore, considering the number of Americans who die prematurely from consuming alcohol which has been legal since the end of Prohibition in the early 1930's, there is no logical reason not…
Franklin, Michael J. The Pros and Cons of Marijuana Legalization in the United
States. New York: Random House, 2006.
"The Legalization of Marijuana." 2009. Internet. Accessed November 24, 2009
Medical Marijuana Use and the National Drug Policy
It is clear that the marijuana plant covers numerous elements that may prove prized when it comes to treating a variety of symptoms illnesses or, leading numerous individuals to argue that it should be made legally obtainable for medical determinations. The states of Colorado and Washington in the United Sates have legalized marijuana for fun use. However, there is a quantity of other states which have legalized basic marijuana for "medical" utilization. esearch shows that even more states are passing laws that permitting individuals to start practicing medical marijuana. Therefore, if an individual lives in a state where medical marijuana is permitted and their physician trusts that it would benefit, they will get what is called a "marijuana card." With that said, this paper will discuss medical marijuana use and the national drug policy.
When it comes to national policy, twenty-three states…
Drug Policy: Marijuana. (2014, December 23). Retrieved from National Association of Drug Court Professionals: http://www.nadcp.org/drugpolicy
Marijuana Resource Center: State Laws Related to Marijuana. (2013, January 12). Retrieved from State of the Union: http://www.whitehouse.gov/ondcp/state-laws-related-to-marijuana
Marijuana, M. (2015, Janurary 18). Have Medical Marijuana Laws Contributed to Greater General Marijuana Use by Adults? Retrieved from http://medicalmarijuana.procon.org/view.answers.php?questionID=000242
State Medical Marijuana Laws. (2014, Janurary 17). Retrieved from National Conference of State Legislatures: http://www.ncsl.org/research/health/state-medical-marijuana-laws.aspx
psychological effects of drugs. Specifically it will discuss the psychological effects of marijuana on the brain. Many factors of marijuana use can affect the brain, and these affects can be long-term and very harmful. Using marijuana may seem harmless, and less harmful than other types of drugs, such as alcohol, but it is very harmful, and can have long-term affects on people who use it regularly.
Marijuana has many chemicals that are harmful. Doctors Bell and Hall note that THC is the most well-known and harmful of these chemicals. They write, "Among them, THC is the most psychoactive in humans, producing euphoria, relaxation, intensification of ordinary sensory experiences, perceptual alterations, diminished pain, and difficulties with memory and concentration" (Bell & Hall, 2005). These affects do not typically last longer than a few hours, depending on how much of the drug the subject ingests, but the affects on the brain can…
One of the reasons marijuana can be so harmful to the brain is because people tend to start to use it at a young age, like adolescence, when the brain is not fully formed and is still maturing (Agosti, Nunes & Levin, 2002). This early drug use can lead to the abuse of other drugs, but it can also have lasting affects on the brain and the way it functions, because it hits the brain before the brain is ready for drug use. Because marijuana and other illegal drugs are also usually very addicting, they create an urge in the user to continue using them, and so dependence on them can grow, adding to the problem of long-term damage.
There is another problem associated with brain function and marijuana use. Authors Agosti et al. note, "Longitudinal studies have also found a significant association between chronic cannabis use, mental disorders, and social morbidity" (Agosti et al., 2002). Therefore, use of marijuana, especially early use, can ultimately lead to the use of more dangerous drugs, and chronic use can lead to many mental problems. Unfortunately, studies show that marijuana is the most popular illegal drug in use in America today, and that 81% of illegal drug users use marijuana (Trevino & Richard, 2002). What this means for the brains of these users is that they will show additional memory loss, confusion, and other signs of brain damage as their life progresses, especially if they continue to use the drug throughout their lives. It can even lead to mental disorders and death as previously noted. Thus, marijuana is more dangerous than many people believe.
Many proponents of marijuana believe that it should be legalized, but about 55% of the American population is against legalizing the drug (Trevino & Richard, 2002). Proponents of the drug cite many studies that have not shown any damaging affects of the drug, but these studies have consistently been disproved by more effective studies such as those cited here. There will always be a segment of the population that wants to legalize marijuana, especially those who use it for its claimed medicinal affects. However, scientific studies show that marijuana use is harmful to the brain and to the overall health of the user,
ecently, Uruguay became the first country to legalize in its entirety and without qualification the marijuana trade. Uruguayan senators spent a total of twelve hours debating the issue, which was proposed by the country's President. The bill was described by its proponents as "an unavoidable response to reality, given that the 'war' on drugs had failed" (BBC, 2013, 1). The law allows registered citizens to buy up to 40g per month. The law is the first of what could be many as South American nations in particular are coming to the realization that drug prohibition, backed by American interests with the support of the United Nations, has left the continent with powerful and violent gangs that control the trade, while doing nothing to stem consumption (Ibid). Indeed, the UN has already weighed in by stating that Uruguay's legislation is in contravention of the international treaties that are enforced by…
BBC. (2013, 1). Uruguay becomes first nation to legalise marijuana trade. BBC.co.uk. Retrieved December 12, 2013 from http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-latin-america-25328656
BBC. (2013, 2). Uruguay marijuana move 'illegal' -- UN drugs watchdog. BBC.co.uk. Retrieved December 12, 2013 from http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-latin-america-25340324
Chaloupka, F. & Laixuthai, A. (1997). Do youths substitute alcohol and marijuana? Some econometric evidence. Eastern Economic Journal. Vol 23 (3) 253-275.
Chokshi, N. (2013). After legalizing marijuana, Washington and Colorado are starting to regulate it. Washington Post. Retrieved December 12, 2013 from http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/govbeat/wp/2013/10/09/after-legalizing-marijuana-washington-and-colorado-are-starting-to-regulate-it/
Why Marijuana Should Be Legalized in United States
Marijuana is a plant with extreme strong fragrance, and its dry leaves are an active ingredient of a number of hallucinogenic drugs. The liberty endorsing and preaching societies of the world are still in a fit to either legalize the usage of marijuana or not. The argument that forms the mainstream of the authorization of the usage and legal selling of marijuana in the United States has long been a subject of contention. Health hazards pertaining to the usage of marijuana are a common stance used to justify the illegalization of this drug in United States. The following paper tends to highlight the various aspects that will justify that marijuana should be legalized in the United States.
The most important reason that forms the mainstream of the stance that marijuana should be legalized in the United States is the rational choice…
Bowman, K. (2001, July). Attitudes toward Marijuana. The American Enterprise, 12, 62. Retrieved August 20, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000083032
Conservative Forum. (2002, February 4). Human Events, 58, 16. Retrieved August 20, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5035784226
Marandino, C. (1998, March). Fired Up. Vegetarian Times 18. Retrieved August 20, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5036612328
Notes & Comments: September 2002. (2002, September). New Criterion, 21, 1+. Retrieved August 20, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000823678
Marijuana Legalization and Public Health
Issues associated with the Public Health Implications of Marijuana Legalization
The legalization of marijuana use in various states in the U.S. has contributed to a surge in of a public health problem associated with marijuana use. A significant increase in the use over the past two decades points to an estimated quarter of the American population that has used the drug. Marijuana use amongst senior high school students has surpassed cigarette-smoking cases. Consequences of marijuana use emanate from a comprehensive and scientific research by the World Health Organization (WHO) and other health organizations on this subject (Department of Health and Human Services, 1982).
Findings on the health hazards caused by marijuana use include interference of mental functioning by marijuana due to the acute intoxication of the drug. The use has curtailed coordination of tasks, a skilled performance of activities such as driving, and complex tasks…
Basharat, P., Sussman, G., Beezhold, D. & Leader N. (2011). Hypersensitivity Reactions To Marijuana. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2011 Feb; 127(2)(Suppl. 1): AB178. From http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaci.2010.12.707
CDC. (2013). Notes from the Field: Severe Illness Associated with Reported Use of Synthetic Marijuana -- Colorado, August -- September 2013. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm6249a7.htm?s_cid=mm6249a7_w
Department of Health and Human Services (13 August 1982). "The Surgeon General's Warning on Marijuana." MMWR Weekly, 31(31);428-9. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/00001143.htm
Frizell, S. (2014). Obama on Marijuana Legalization: 'It's Important for It to Go Forward. Time. Retrieved from http://swampland.time.com/2014/01/19/obama-on-marijuana-legalization-its-important-for-it-to-go-forward/#ixzz2qzPk6zX1
Marijuana to Ones Health:
Marijuana is a drug that comes from the hemp plant Cannabis Sativa as a dry, shredded green and brown mixture of stems, seeds, and flowers. The drug is also known as hashish when it's in a more concentrated, resinous form as a sticky black liquid, hash oil. Marijuana is a mind-altering drug because its main psychoactive chemical is delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, or THC. In the United States, marijuana is the most commonly used illicit drug, which has significant health risks and effects on people. Since 2007, the use of marijuana in the United States has generally increased, particularly after a period of decline in the past decade. The increase in the use of this illicit drug is influenced by a diminishing perception of its health risks. According to recent annual survey data, many teenagers are currently smokers of marijuana than cigarettes. Despite of its increased use, there are…
Buddy, T. "The Health Effects of Marijuana - Negative Health Effects Are Numerous." About.com - Alcoholism. About.com, 4 Sept. 2013. Web. 21 Nov. 2013. .
"Marijuana." ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, & OTHER DRUGS. Brown University Health Education, n.d. Web. 21 Nov. 2013. .
United States. U.S. Department of Justice. Office of National Drug Control Policy. Marijuana Myths and Facts. National Criminal Justice Reference Service, n.d. Web. 21 Nov. 2013. .
The design of the study was to compare the patterns and frequency of recreational drug use of various types, and of the attitudes expressed by residents of California to the behavior and attitudes on the same issues in the 10 other states after California legalized marijuana for medicinal use in 1996. The number of respondents in California was 2,651 and a total of 12, 916 in the other 10 states. The Trevino and ichard study (2002) involved a sample of 188 drug users and non-drug users surveyed for their responses to questions about their opinions about the legalization of marijuana, and also of other illicit recreational drugs such as cocaine, heroin, and methamphetamines.
The Page, Verhoef, Stebbins, Metz, and Levy study (2003) utilized a self-reported questionnaire developed specifically as a tool for this study designed to identify differences in the choices made by patients with MS to use marijuana as…
Khatapoush, S. And Hallfors, D. "Sending the Wrong Message': Did Medical
Marijuana Legalization in California Change Attitudes about and Use of Marijuana?" Journal of Drug Issues, (Fall 2004): 751 -- 770.
Page, S.A., Verhoef, M.J., Stebbins, R.A., Metz, L.M., and Levy, J.C. "Cannabis Use
as Described by People with Multiple Sclerosis." Canadian Journal of Neurological Science, Vol. 30 (2003): 201 -- 205.
Legalization of marijuana has been a controversial topic in the media as of lately. Completely legalizing marijuana would mean allowing just about anyone to have access to it -- of course with some government regulation. However, opponents of this process argue that the health detriments are enough to merit harsher punishments and the complete ban of this substance. Despite opposition to marijuana's legalization, there are many more benefits that need to be taken into consideration before rushing to any particular judgment. Marijuana should be legalized because it will bring a much needed boost to the economy, it has documented health benefits, and it is a safer drug than alcohol and cigarettes, which are already considered to be legal substances (ABC 20/20). In order for the welfare of all of the aforementioned entities to be established, marijuana needs to be legalized.
As of 2012, the states of Colorado and Washington have…
ABC 20/20. "Should Marijuana Be Legalized?" ABC News. ABC News Network, 27 Aug. 0000. Web. 01 May 2013. .
Astaiza, Randy. "All The Reasons Pot Is Good For You." Business Insider: Science. Business Insider, 08 Nov. 2012. Web. 01 May 2013. .
Ferner, Matt. "Why Marijuana Should Be Legalized: 'Regulate Marijuana Like Alcohol' Campaign Discusses Why Pot Prohibition Has Been A Failure." The Huffington Post. TheHuffingtonPost.com, 28 Aug. 2012. Web. 01 May 2013. .
Robesonian.com. "Legalization of Marijuana Paying off." The Robesonian - Legalization of Marijuana Paying off. The Robesonian, 30 Apr. 2013. Web. 01 May 2013. .
Medical Marijuana Legislation and Civil Liberties
When the historic passage of legislation permitting medical marijuana use in states like Arizona (2010), Delaware (2011) and Massachusetts (2012) is considered in conjunction with the fact that 13 other states have similar legislation or ballot measures pending, the traditional conception of marijuana ingestion as a criminal act is being reexamined on a societal level. Further bolstering this assertion is the legal situation in California, Colorado and Washington, where marijuana has been decriminalized entirely and permitted for recreational sale by licensed dispensaries, providing the platform for a restoration of basic rights in these jurisdictions. With approximately half of the states in the union already affording citizens with medical needs the liberty to seek relief in the form of marijuana, while the federal government's ostensible ban on the substance remains in effect, the stage has been set for a national debate over the merits of…
Mill, J.S., Smith, J.M., & Sosa, E. (1969). Mill's Utilitarianism: Text and criticism. Belmont, Calif: Wadsworth Pub. Co.
legalization marijuana. Your written proposal include elements listed address considerations: •An analysis public policy criminal justice interrelate. •Why feel social change relevant criminal justice system important policy initiate foster change improvement.
There has been much controversy regarding the legalization of marijuana in recent years, as its number of supporters has increased directly proportional to the number of individuals opposing it. When considering matters from a perspective involving public policy, the legalization of marijuana is going to cause increased marijuana use. Consuming more marijuana can lead to people's health being negatively affected but it can also generated more revenue for the government as a result of taxes. Even with this, the fact that governments would gain control over marijuana sales would mean that they would be able to control the amounts that people use as a result of introducing more or less harsh taxes. Education would make the difference between a…
Fox, S., Armentano, P., & Tvert, M. (2009). Marijuana Is Safer: So Why Are We Driving People to Drink?. Chelsea Green Publishing.
Galston, W.A. & Dionne, E.J. "The New Politics of Marijuana Legalization: Why Opinion is Changing," Retrieved September 9, 2013, from http://www.brookings.edu/research/papers/2013/05/29-politics-marijuana-legalization-galston-dionne
Ruschman, P. (2009). Legalizing Marijuana. Infobase Publishing.
Even proponents of medical legalization concede marijuana cannot cure or even alleviate the symptoms of MS or glaucoma, merely act as a narcotic. True, other narcotics exist on the market today -- and like marijuana, they are also addictive. Whether they are more or less addictive than marijuana remains uncertain, but advocates say the chronically ill should be able to choose what works best for them while opponents say only tested, carefully titrated drugs should be used as palliatives.
Weighing the rights of the sick with marijuana's long and short-term side effects is a delicate balance. When marijuana is smoked, users often suffer similar short as well as long-term problems to those of regular smokers, including a smoker's cough and breathing problems. In fact, "marijuana smoke contains 50% to 70% more carcinogenic hydrocarbons than does tobacco smoke" (Legalization of marijuana, 2010, Legalization of marijuana). The active agent in marijuana, THC,…
Amsterdam drugs. (2005). Amsterdam Info. Retrieved July 14, 2010 at http://www.amsterdam.info/drugs/
DuPont, J. (2007, October 30). On the legalization or not of marijuana. The New York Times.
Retrieved July 14, 2010 at http://freakonomics.blogs.nytimes.com/2007/10/30/on-the-legalization-or-not-of-marijuana/
Legalization of marijuana. (20110). Legalization of marijuana.
Future of Marijuana in America:
Marijuana or cannabis was first identified by the Chinese in c. 2737 BCE and has since been used for medicinal purposes for millennia. The introduction or arrival of medicinal cannabis in America was characterized with an amazingly colorful and checkered history. Medicinal cannabis was characterized with initial robust use in the United States, which faded after the development of aspirin and opioids. The decreased used culminated in the criminalization of cannabis in America in 1937 despite of the contradictory advice of the American Medical Association, which was submitted on record to Congress. However, the use of marijuana has emerged as a major issue in the past few decades because of the renewed interest in medicinal cannabis. Actually, several stakeholders in the health care sector including the American College of Physicians, the Institute of Medicine, and the National Institutes of Health have supported further research and…
Aggarwal et. al. (2009, June). Medicinal Use of Cannabis in the United States: Historical
Perspectives, Current Trends, and Future Directions. Journal of Opioid Management, 5(3), 153-68.
Cardinale, A. (2014, January 14). A Brief History of How Marijuana Became Illegal in the U.S.
Retrieved July 16, 2014, from http://mic.com/articles/78685/a-brief-history-of-how-marijuana-became-illegal-in-the-u-s
marijuana should be legalized only for medicinal purposes.
The debate over medicinal marijuana usage and legality is a controversial one. Many experts argue the drug costs society too much money in terms of law enforcement and incarceration costs when the monies could be better spent in other law enforcement areas. A large majority of the American people does believe marijuana should be decriminalized for medical usage. In 2001, 34% of adult Americans believed marijuana should be legal, at least in small amounts, the largest percentage since 1969, and up to 70% of adults approved of using medicinal marijuana for certain ailments (Cauchon 01A). However, several questions regarding medicinal marijuana usage that must be addressed.
First, is marijuana a safe and effective medicine? Proponents maintain marijuana has been used medicinally for thousands of years and for a variety of uses. They claim that it is safe, no one has ever "died…
Author not Available. "Medical Marijuana Briefing Paper." Marijuana Policy Project. 2003. 22 March 2004. http://www.mpp.org/medicine.html
Cauchon, Dennis. "Marijuana Attains Record Support." USA Today, 24 Aug. 2001, pp 01A.
Fackelmann, Kathleen. "Marijuana on Trial." ScienceNews.org. 22 March 1997. 22 March 2004. http://www.sciencenews.org/pages/sn_arc97/3_22_97/bob1.htm
Frood, Arran. "Dope at the Wheel." NewScientist.com. 23 March 2002. 22 March 2004. http://www.newscientist.com/hottopics/marijuana/dopeatthewheel.jsp
Paternalistic legislation, even when warranted, must be logically consistent both in theory and in practical application, in the case of marijuana, prohibitions against its medicinal use, even if still unproven in clinical trials, is logically and ethically inconsistent with the legal status of substances like tobacco which are devoid of any possible beneficial use and which, unlike marijuana, have actually been proven to cause disease and premature death.
Governmental paternalism is appropriate in many instances, including ensuring the safety and efficacy of substances used for medicinal purposes. However, the application of paternalistic legislation must, if nothing else, be logically consistent.
Federal prohibition criminalizing marijuana, even for medicinal purposes, is completely unjustified, particularly in light of the legal status of tobacco, which has absolutely no beneficial medical use and whose recreational use accounts for tremendous human harm.
The American Medical Marijuana Association website, (2007)
Retrieved November 21, 2007, at http://americanmarijuana.org/…
Critical literary work on constitutional law, civil rights, and the moral justification for paternalistic legislation authored by attorney and Harvard University law professor, Arthur Miller.
Taylor, R. (1982) Freedom, Anarchy, and the Law: An Introduction to Political Philosphy. Buffalo: Prometheus
Critical literary work on the logical basis for social norms, laws, civil rights, and the morality of ethical principles in human life authored by renowned ethicist, and Cornell philosophy professor Richard Taylor.
In the shifting views about the health effects of marijuana, there is a general trend for states to relax the rules around this substance across the nation. Some states have already lifted the ban against marijuana for recreational purposes. The state of California set the pace in this discussion and shifting perceptions when it passed a proposal now popularly known as proposal 215 to allow possession of small amounts of the substance for medical uses (Murphy and Carnevale 2016). Other states have followed suit. The most notable among these states are the District of Columbia and six other states. They represent about 6% of the population of the nation. They have all allowed possession of marijuana; not for medical use only, but for recreational purposes.
There are several contributing factors to this phenomenon. One of the most outstanding reasons is that the much-touted war on drugs across the nation has…
President Richard Nixon chose to ignore and through the whole report into the garbage. Instead, he had the Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA) created and were given authority enter homes without knocking and to use wiretaps and gather intelligence virtually on anyone Milestones. In the 1980's President Ronald Reagan continued the war by advocated his own war and it was estimated that due to these wars, someone was arrested on a violation of a marijuana law every 38 seconds.
Thankfully, these wars have become more focused on the real drug problems that are primarily synthetic or man made or used in ways never imagined. But heroin and methamphitamines are clearly not health regimens. They kill people every day, cause real crimes and ruin families, lives and destroys entire groups.
The first step in changing the view of marijuana began with the legalization for medical usage. The compassions for the ill allowed…
"42.0 Milestones in the History of Marijuana." N.p., 9 May 2010. Web. .
Buchanan, Wyatt. "State's Voters to Decide on Legalizing Pot." San Fransisco Chronicle, n.d. Web. 9 May 2010. .
"Campaigns That Matter - Legalizing Marijuana in California." Campaigns That Matter - California Politics, California Political News, California Legislative News, Public Policy Information, California State Elections, California Political Campaigns, California Propositions. N.p., n.d. Web. 9 May 2010. .
Gray, Jim. Judgejimgray.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 9 May 2010. .
There is much more to the issue and how it is addressed than that (Seamon, 2007). These states are:
Washington (Seamon, 2007)
Criticisms of Decriminalization
The war on drugs has been in the news for some time now, and marijuana has been included in that war. It continues to be listed as important in the speeches of many politicians, and it continues to be at the forefront of a great many debates about how our tax money should best be spent (Gray, 2005; Pacula, 2003b). One of the main concerns of the war on drugs, however, does not deal with what politicians think about it. Rather, it deals with what police think about it. Police are, after all, the ones that are out there on the streets every day, trying to fight the…
Anslinger, H.J. & Tompkins, William F. n.d. "The traffic in narcotics." Drug Library. Retrieved at http://www.druglibrary.org/schaffer/people/anslinger/traffic/appendix1.htm
Austin, James. 2005. "Rethinking the Consequences of Decriminalizing Marijuana." Washington, DC: The JFA Institute.
Brazaitis, Tom. 2002. "U.S. Should Concede Defeat in the War on Drugs." Media Awareness Project. Retrieved at http://www.mapinc.org/drugnews/v02/n1827/a09.html?397
Clements, Kenneth, et al. 2005. "Two Short Papers on Marijuana, Legalisation and Drinking: (1) Exogeneous Shocks and Related Goods: Drinking and the Legalisation of Marijuana; and (2) Notes on Projections of Alcohol Consumption Following Marijuana Legalisation." Perth, Australia: The University of Western Australia Working Paper no. 05-14. Perth, Australia: The University of Western Australia, Department of Economics.
The active chemical ingredient, THC, is accessed by smoking marijuana and is used for both recreational and medical reasons. The pro-legalization supporters and the anti-legalization supporters are divided by ethical and medical viewpoints. The use of marijuana is linked with health risks, but it is also associated with beneficial medical and therapeutic uses. Opponents of legalization also raise concerns about marijuana abuse, dependency, and its stance as a "gateway" drug which could lead a user to try "harder" drugs. Tobacco smoking and drinking alcohol give concerns for abuse, dependency, and have been linked with the use of "harder" drugs, however these substances remain legal.
A total of 14 states have allowed for the use of marijuana for medical purposes, and some studies have indicated the benefits of decriminalization of marijuana as law enforcement efforts and resources can be used for more significant crimes. There is a concern that the legalization…
Drewe, M, F Drewe, and A Riecher. "Cannabis and risk of psychosis." Swiss Medical Weekly. 134. (2004): 659-663. Print.
Grossman, M, F Chaloupka, and K. Shim. "Illegal Drug Use and Public Policy." Health Affairs. 21.2 (2002): 134-145. Print.
Joffe, A, and W. Yancy. "Legalization of Marijuana: Potential Impact on Youth." Pediatrics. 113. (2004): e632-e638. Web. 5 Dec. 2011. .
Leung, Lawrence. "Cannabis and its Derivatives: Review of Medical Use." Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine. 24.4 (2011): 452-462. Print.
Recent ballot initiatives in states like California and Oregon asking for the decriminalization of marijuana use reveals a growing public acceptance of marijuana. The perception that marijuana is not dangerous has made drug enforcement even more difficult. Indeed, the debate over marijuana goes beyond health concerns, and touches issues such as crime and privacy as well.
This paper examines the debate to legalize marijuana. The first part of the paper examines the arguments of the pro-marijuana side, focusing on those who argue that the drug can have medicinal purposes. The next part then examines the potential dangers of legalized marijuana use, both to the individual and to public health in general. In the conclusion, the paper argues that marijuana use is not a "victimless" crime. The potential dangers that marijuana present to individual and public health are best upheld by keeping marijuana illegal.
Prohibitions against the…
Glasser, Ira. "Spotlight: Why Marijuana Law Should Matter to You." Marijuana. Louise I. Gerdes, ed. San Diego: Greenhaven Press, 2002.
Gottfried, Ted Should Drug Use Be Legalized? Connecticut: Twenty-First Century Books, 2000.
"Marijuana as Medicine: A Subtle Syllogism." The Economist. August 16, 1997. ProQuest Database.
Marshall, Donnie. "Drug Prohibition is Effective." Drug Legalization. Scott Barbour, ed. San Diego: Greenhaven Press, 2000.
The authors state: "The amphetamines occasioned dose-related increases in d- amphetamine-appropriate responding, whereas hydromorphone did not. Amphetamines also occasioned dose-related increases in reports of the drug being most like "speed," whereas hydromorphone did not. However, both amphetamines and hydromorphone occasioned dose-related increases in reports of drug liking and in three scales of the ARCI. Thus, some self-report measures were well correlated with responding on the drug-appropriate lever and some were not. Lamb and Henningfield (1994) suggest that self-reports are complexly controlled by both the private event and the subject's history of experience with the drug. Some of the self-reports they observed (e.g., feels like speed) are probably occasioned by a relatively narrow range of stimuli because in the subject's experience with drug administration, these reports have been more selectively reinforced by the verbal community relative to other reports (e.g., drug liking). They also suggest that these results imply…
Budney, Alan J. et al. (2006) Clinical Trial of Abstinence-Based Vouchers and Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Cannabis Dependence. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 2006. Vol.. 74 No. 2. 2006 American Psychological Association.
McRae, a.; Budney, a.; & Brady, K. (2002) Treatment of Marijuana Dependence: A Review of the Literature. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment 24 (2003)
Pathways of Addiction: Opportunities in Drug Abuse Research (1996) Institute of Medicine (IOM)
Kamon, J; Budney, a. & Stanger, C. (2005)a Contingency Management Intervention for Adolescent Marijuana Abuse and Conduct Problems. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. 44(6):513-521, June 2005.
Legalization of Marijuana
Marijuana is one of the most popular recreational drugs in the United States, exceeded in popularity by only alcohol and tobacco. Recent research reveals that "more than 70 million Americans have smoked marijuana at some point in their lives, and that 18-20 million have smoked during the last year (NORML, 1999)."
According to R. Keith Stroup, Esq., the executive director of National Organization for the Reform of Marijuana Laws (NORML, 1999), "Like most Americans, the vast majority of these millions of marijuana smokers are otherwise law-abiding citizens who work hard, raise families and contribute to their communities..." A national survey revealed that 32% of voting adults in the U.S. have acknowledged having smoked marijuana at some point in their lives.
The legalization of marijuana has been a topic of controversy for several years. Many proponents of the drug argue that marijuana should be legalized for both medical…
Marijuana Policy Project (MPP). (March 30, 1998). Multiple Sclerosis Patient Arrested for Using Medicinal Marijuana in U.S. Rep. Jim Rogan's Office. Retrieved from the Internet at http://www.mpp.org/releases/nr033098.html .
National Organization for the Reform of Marijuana Laws (NORML). (1999). Federally Commissioned Study Supports Medical Marijuana, Dismisses Drug's "High Potential For Abuse. Retrieved from the Internet at http://www.norml.org/medical/iomresponse.shtml .
National Organization for the Reform of Marijuana Laws. (1999). Testimony of R. Keith Stroup, Esq. Retrieved from the Internet at http://www.norml.org/recreational/testimony99.shtml .
Rosenthal, Ed. Kubby, Steve. (2003). Why Marijuana Should Be Legal. Thundermouth Press.
Decriminalize Marijuana in Canada
The question as to whether Canada should decriminalize the use, sale, and cultivation of marijuana has been debated over the past few years, and the debate has taken a sharper turn now that it is being decriminalized in Colorado and soon in ashington State.
hat are the economic and social benefits of making marijuana legal in Canada -- and what is the residual impact on human health? Given that today there are glaring inconsistencies in Canadian law regarding marijuana -- as opposed to the legal sale of alcohol and tobacco -- how does the Canadian government propose to adjust its current laws if indeed marijuana becomes legal? These are the pertinent questions to be answered in this paper.
Thesis: The position of this writer is that Canada should proceed to decriminalize marijuana and remove the label of "controlled substance" -- because marijuana does less harm to…
Danovitch, Itai. "Sorting Through the Science on Marijuana: Facts, Fallacies, and Implications for Legalization." McGeorge Law Review, 43.1 (2013): 91-108.
Flister, Larissa Ducatti. "The Economic Case for Marijuana Legalization in Canada."
Journal of Alternative Perspectives in the Social Sciences, 5.1 (2012): 96-100.
Riley, Diane. "Drugs and Drug Policy in Canada: A brief review and commentary." Canadian
Medical marijuana has increasingly been in the news as a growing number of states throughout the U.S. have passed measures or at least put on the ballot an initiative to legalize either medicinal or recreational marijuana usage. The history of marijuana in the U.S. is one that goes back as far as the country itself: hemp (a type of marijuana plant) was used for rope, paper and a number of other purposes because of its strong fibrous tissue.1 It was not until the Prohibition Era of the 1920s that marijuana began to be prohibited by law in the U.S.—and within a decade, it was regulated among most states under the Uniform State Narcotic Act.2 Thus, from its very first days as a crop grown by the Virginia Company for exporting to England by decree of James I—and in fact from the days of the first President of the U.S.…
Europe's more liberal drug policies are not the right model for America.
Most non-violent drug users get treatment, not jail time. (Legalization, 2010).
There are no benefits for society in the legalization of marijuana. The money from the taxing of the marijuana will end up being use to regulate and enforce the dispensaries. The money to treat the addiction will be another source of lost revenues from the taxation.
Increased usage by underage teens will be the same as cigarettes and alcohol and will increase as the price drops as it did in the Dutch experiment. Kids will be introduced onto the drug culture that leads to the use of the harder narcotics as a result of the increased access to the marijuana. The benefits will be just moved from one area to other areas of criminalization.
DEA website. 2010. etrieved on May 10,…
DEA website. 2010. Retrieved on May 10, 2010 from http://www.pbs.org/newshour/extra/features/jan-june01/drugs_marijuanaharm.html
"Feature: Hundreds of Los Angeles Medical Marijuana Dispensaries Face Closure Under New Rules Passed by Council" 2010. Retrieved on May 10, 2010 from
It has been proved that drug dealers succeed in selling their drugs, even with the measures introduced by the American government.
Countries like the Netherlands have become famous due to their tolerance of cannabis and millions of tourists visit them every year as a result. Considering the fact that the Netherlands has continued to have a great cultural value, and, that it has continued to have more tourists visiting it because of reasons other than its cannabis coffee shops, it is obvious that the Dutch have not been affected by the legalization of Marijuana.
Buckley Jr. illiam F. "Is Marijuana Fear a Myth?" National Review, Vol. 49, December 8, 1997.
Goode, Erich. "Marijuana." (Atherton: 1969)
isheit, Ralph A. "Domestic Marijuana: A Neglected Industry." (Greenwood Press: 1992)
Gerber, Rudolph J. Legalizing Marijuana: Drug Policy Reform and Prohibition Politics. (Praeger: 2004)
Chambliss, illiam J. "Another Lost ar: The Costs and Consequences of…
Wolf Shenk, Joshua. "Why You Can Hate Drugs and Still Want to Legalize Them." Washington Monthly, Vol. 27, October 1995.
"The War on Drugs: Fighting Crime or Wasting Time?" American Criminal Law Review, Vol. 38, 2001.
Souder Mark, Zimmer Lynn. "Q: Is the Government's War against Marijuana Justified as Public Policy?" Insight on the News, Vol. 13, January 12, 1998.
Decriminalization of Marijuana
he recent war against drugs in United States is causing much debate and discussion. In many cases the apparent result is a defeat for United States. Marijuana is known to be probably the drug that is used in maximum numbers in United States. However the method of prohibition for Marijuana is intrusive, divisive and very expensive. As a result the country is finally left with a drug problem that is worse than any other country that is afflicted by similar problems. (Decriminalization of marijuana in the United States) here is an urgent need to decriminalize Marijuana by the Federal government. his would permit society to transfer resources from the investigation, prosecution, and punishment, of drug offenders and enable the usage of these resources for more productive needs. Further such a course of action would eliminate the overcrowding of the jails, decrease the profits gained by organized crime…
The final decisions of National Commission on Marijuana and Drug abuse remain equally valid 25 years later. These tell us that use of marijuana for personal purposes should be decriminalized and possession of small amounts of the item should not be a crime. On the other side growing it or selling marijuana for commercial purposes, using marijuana in public, distributing marijuana to young persons, and driving under the influence of marijuana should be forbidden. The decriminalization of marijuana would be the first step in our move to a logical and sensible policy for drug control. This also includes the model used in Ohio. This should be the way to decriminalize the use of marijuana. When a person posses one ounce of marijuana or less, the fine on the individual should be $200 at the maximum, and if the person posses one ounce of it the punishment should a fine of $500 with or without a jail sentence. A lot of benefits will be seen immediately. (The Benefits of Decriminalization)
"Decriminalization of marijuana will in fact bring the perception of its usage closer to those held regarding alcohol and cigarettes: namely, kids won't start dropping tabs because they've smoked a joint" (Burn one down) The fact that use of marijuana follows a similar pattern to the use of alcohol has been shown through statistics. Most of the users of marijuana use it in a safe manner for recreation. These persons lead normal productive lives, with good careers, raise families and participate in civic life. There is also proof to show that marijuana has provided benefits in the treatment of many diseases and also provide a useful method of controlling pain in the case of terminally ill patients. When these contexts are seen there does not seem to be any rationale for the enforcement of prohibition on it in terms of the use being 'criminal'. (Marijuana Decriminalization) There have been many instances for possession of marijuana and consequent arrests -- as many as ten million from 1970. "While it may be a rare case these days that a person is put in prison for nothing more than smoking a joint, there is fairly solid evidence to conclude that at least 2.4% of total prison inmates are in for marijuana possession." (Friedman, Decriminalization)
There is also a case from the fact that 50,000 Americans have been punished with years of their lives taken away due to the possession of marijuana and this information hurts. This is a plant that about a third of Americans have used at one time or
" In fact, the hite House admits that "a direct cause and effect relationship between marijuana use and subsequent use of other drugs is hard to prove." At the same time, the hite House tries to convince readers that adults who were early marijuana users were more likely to have used cocaine, heroine, and other drugs. Both websites offer a balanced viewpoint on the gateway drug issue, but the MPP makes a more convincing argument.
The hite House publication called "hat Americans Need to Know About Marijuana" is available in PDF format, either as a full file or in sections. The PDF format is convenient for people who wish to save the document to their hard drive and read it at a later date, and is also easy on the eyes. However, there are drawbacks to PDF files, such as the lack of hypertext and the amount of memory usage…
Marijuana Policy Project website at http://www.mpp.org/index.html .
What Americans Need to Know About Marijuana." 2003. Online at http://www.whitehousedrugpolicy.gov/publications/amer_know_marij/ .
Legalization of Marijuana
SHOULD MARIUANA BE LEGALIZED IN THE UNITED STATES?
For over 40 years the United States has struggled with how the use of marijuana should be governed. On one side, proponents argue that it should be legal in the same way alcohol and cigarettes are, or legal in small amounts. They do not feel that people who have small amounts for personal use should be prosecuted in any way. Recently, the prestigious medical journal The Lancet has suggested that keeping marijuana illegal may do more harm to society than its actual use does. They point out that the negative effects from use of alcohol are far greater than any negative effects from the use of marijuana (offee & Yancey, et. al., 2004).
However, those in favor of maintaining marijuana's status as an illegal substance argue that marijuana is not harmless and that in some ways it is very…
Joffee, Alain, MD, MPH, and Yancey, Samuel, MD., with the Committee on Substance Abuse and the Committe on Adolescence. 2004. "Legalization of Marijuana: Potential Impact on Youth. American Academy of Pediatrics Technical Report." Pediatrics 113:6, June.
Portillo, Ely. 2005. "Web sites selling marijuana, paraphernalia proliferate." Knight-Ridder/Tribune News Serice, July 7.
Staff writers. 2005. "Safety - how alcohol affects the brain." New Straits Times (Science section), December 5.
For example, in the state of Montana, initiative organizers and supporters "face much opposition from local law enforcement and youth substance abuse prevention groups" that claim legalizing marijuana will lead to a great increase in the number of users. However, as the organizers of the low police priority initiative point out, the evidence to support this assertion does not exist; in fact, "We know that liberalizing drug laws in other places has not led to an increase in drug use. This assertion has also been equated with the "eefer Madness mentality," a reference to the film "eefer Madness" of the 1930's which depicted marijuana smokers as deranged criminals ("Lowest Law Enforcement Priority," 2006, Internet).
According to statistics provided by the National Organization for the eform of Marijuana Laws, voters in the city of Oakland, just north of San Francisco, "overwhelmingly approved the nation's first-ever business tax on retail marijuana sales,"…
"Ban with the Bull, Chill with the Bear: The Coming Collapse of Marijuana
Prohibition." (2009). NORML. Internet. Accessed July 22, 2009 from http://norml.org .
"California: Oakland Voters Approve Nation's First Marijuana Business Tax." (2009).
NORML. Internet. Accessed July 22, 2009 from
Like alcohol and tobacco, marijuana has been consumed in human societies for thousands of years, and likely since before recorded history. Also like alcohol and tobacco products, marijuana is associated with certain dangers that warrant appropriate government paternalism in the form of legislation prohibiting its use by minors, regulating its manufacture and sale to ensure its relative safety and quality, and preventing the use of any substances capable of altering human perception in connection with the operation of motor vehicles. However, there is no logical basis whatsoever for distinguishing between alcohol and marijuana in terms of criminal legislation, and both substances are considerably less harmful to human health in the manner of their typical consumption than tobacco products.
Instead of subjecting marijuana users to criminal prosecution, government authorities should simply apply the same approach to marijuana as has been traditionally applied to alcohol and tobacco. The Prohibition era…
Brecher, E.M. (1972). Licit and Illicit Drugs: The Consumers Union Report. Boston: Little, Brown & Co.
Dershowitz, a. (2002). Shouting Fire: Civil Liberties in a Turbulent Age. New York: Bantam Books.
Drug Policy Alliance. (2008). Medicinal Marijuana. Retrieved February 17, 2009 from the Drug Policy Alliance website, at http://www.drugpolicy.org/marijuana/medical/
Friedman, a. (2005). A History of American Law. New York: Touchstone.
legalization of marijuana and its benefits to the society. Our arguments are focused on its medicinal value, income generated (economic value) to the state as well as the possible losses to tax payer's money as a result of trying to implement its prohibition. Our analysis is done via a thorough review of relevant literature containing expert opinions. We support our proposition that marijuana can be a benefit to society through its legalization. This is due to its medicinal value, revenue stream to the state and the reduced cost attributed to decreased prohibition budgets.
Marijuana which is the most commonly used illicit drug has faced has been heavily debated on issues of legalization and safe use. The debate has been so intense to an extent of which it has turned political (NYT, 2008). A recent study by Angus eid concluded that a majority of Americans are in support of marijuana legalization…
Angus-Reid (2009).Majority of Americans Support Legalizing Marijuana
British Medical Association (1997). Therapeutic Uses of Cannabis. Harwood Academic Pub.
Bensinger, P. (2010, Octobe 15). Legalizing marijuana unacceptable, danger to society. Chicago Tribune .
Medical Use of Marijuana
Increasing use of medical marijuana
Having looked at the various areas that medical marijuana has been brought into use and the various forms in which marijuana is administered, it is also important to take note of the various challenges that come with it. There have been various researches that have been conducted that covers the medical as well as the ethical side of the medicinal marijuana, and there have been a dilemma in the balance of the two sides on whether to institutionalize the drug or to stop it, and even on whether the medicinal use can be made to work without the proneness to abuse as is the case at the moment.
Medicinal marijuana has neither medical nor ethical standing within the contemporary society where drug abuse is one of the biggest worries of governments across the world and the alternative medicines that medical research…
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Marijuana Legalization Marijuana, also known as marihuana, is a drug that is taken from Cannabis sativa, a hemp plant. It is one of the most frequently used and popular…Read Full Paper ❯
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References Cherry, Kendra. (2013). What is a cross-sectional study? About.com. Retrieved: http://psychology.about.com/od/cindex/g/cross-sectional.htm Cross-sectional vs. longitudinal studies. (2009). At Work, 55. Retrieved: https://www.iwh.on.ca/wrmb/cross-sectional-vs.-longitudinal-studies Guns don't kill people; people kill people…Read Full Paper ❯
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psychological effects of drugs. Specifically it will discuss the psychological effects of marijuana on the brain. Many factors of marijuana use can affect the brain, and these affects can…Read Full Paper ❯
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Marijuana ecently, Uruguay became the first country to legalize in its entirety and without qualification the marijuana trade. Uruguayan senators spent a total of twelve hours debating the issue,…Read Full Paper ❯
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The design of the study was to compare the patterns and frequency of recreational drug use of various types, and of the attitudes expressed by residents of California to…Read Full Paper ❯
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Legalization of marijuana has been a controversial topic in the media as of lately. Completely legalizing marijuana would mean allowing just about anyone to have access to it --…Read Full Paper ❯
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Medical Marijuana Legislation and Civil Liberties When the historic passage of legislation permitting medical marijuana use in states like Arizona (2010), Delaware (2011) and Massachusetts (2012) is considered in…Read Full Paper ❯
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legalization marijuana. Your written proposal include elements listed address considerations: •An analysis public policy criminal justice interrelate. •Why feel social change relevant criminal justice system important policy initiate foster…Read Full Paper ❯
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Even proponents of medical legalization concede marijuana cannot cure or even alleviate the symptoms of MS or glaucoma, merely act as a narcotic. True, other narcotics exist on the…Read Full Paper ❯
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Future of Marijuana in America: Marijuana or cannabis was first identified by the Chinese in c. 2737 BCE and has since been used for medicinal purposes for millennia. The…Read Full Paper ❯
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marijuana should be legalized only for medicinal purposes. The debate over medicinal marijuana usage and legality is a controversial one. Many experts argue the drug costs society too much…Read Full Paper ❯
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Paternalistic legislation, even when warranted, must be logically consistent both in theory and in practical application, in the case of marijuana, prohibitions against its medicinal use, even if still…Read Full Paper ❯
In the shifting views about the health effects of marijuana, there is a general trend for states to relax the rules around this substance across the nation. Some states…Read Full Paper ❯
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President Richard Nixon chose to ignore and through the whole report into the garbage. Instead, he had the Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA) created and were given authority enter homes…Read Full Paper ❯
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There is much more to the issue and how it is addressed than that (Seamon, 2007). These states are: Alaska California Colorado Hawaii Maine Maryland Michigan Montana Nevada New…Read Full Paper ❯
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The active chemical ingredient, THC, is accessed by smoking marijuana and is used for both recreational and medical reasons. The pro-legalization supporters and the anti-legalization supporters are divided by…Read Full Paper ❯
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Legalizing Marijuana Recent ballot initiatives in states like California and Oregon asking for the decriminalization of marijuana use reveals a growing public acceptance of marijuana. The perception that marijuana…Read Full Paper ❯
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" (1995) The authors state: "The amphetamines occasioned dose-related increases in d- amphetamine-appropriate responding, whereas hydromorphone did not. Amphetamines also occasioned dose-related increases in reports of the drug being…Read Full Paper ❯
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Legalization of Marijuana Marijuana is one of the most popular recreational drugs in the United States, exceeded in popularity by only alcohol and tobacco. Recent research reveals that "more…Read Full Paper ❯
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Decriminalize Marijuana in Canada The question as to whether Canada should decriminalize the use, sale, and cultivation of marijuana has been debated over the past few years, and the…Read Full Paper ❯
Introduction Medical marijuana has increasingly been in the news as a growing number of states throughout the U.S. have passed measures or at least put on the ballot an…Read Full Paper ❯
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Fact 9: Europe's more liberal drug policies are not the right model for America. Fact 10: Most non-violent drug users get treatment, not jail time. (Legalization, 2010). Conclusion There…Read Full Paper ❯
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It has been proved that drug dealers succeed in selling their drugs, even with the measures introduced by the American government. Countries like the Netherlands have become famous due…Read Full Paper ❯
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Decriminalization of Marijuana he recent war against drugs in United States is causing much debate and discussion. In many cases the apparent result is a defeat for United States.…Read Full Paper ❯
Sports - Drugs
" In fact, the hite House admits that "a direct cause and effect relationship between marijuana use and subsequent use of other drugs is hard to prove." At the…Read Full Paper ❯
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Legalization of Marijuana SHOULD MARIUANA BE LEGALIZED IN THE UNITED STATES? For over 40 years the United States has struggled with how the use of marijuana should be governed.…Read Full Paper ❯
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For example, in the state of Montana, initiative organizers and supporters "face much opposition from local law enforcement and youth substance abuse prevention groups" that claim legalizing marijuana will…Read Full Paper ❯
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S. Conclusion: Like alcohol and tobacco, marijuana has been consumed in human societies for thousands of years, and likely since before recorded history. Also like alcohol and tobacco products,…Read Full Paper ❯
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legalization of marijuana and its benefits to the society. Our arguments are focused on its medicinal value, income generated (economic value) to the state as well as the possible…Read Full Paper ❯
Sports - Drugs
Medical Use of Marijuana Increasing use of medical marijuana Having looked at the various areas that medical marijuana has been brought into use and the various forms in which…Read Full Paper ❯