84+ documents containing “marine biology”.
Negative Effects of Artificial Reefs
Artificial reefs are man-made habitats that are created from many different materials to build new marine life communities (Rodriguez, 2004). For many years, fish and shellfish habitats have been damaged or wiped out by the development of new coastal areas, accidents, and major storms. As a result, there has been a decline in different marine life populations. Artificial reefs provide food, shelter, protection, and spawning areas for many species of fish and other marine organisms. However, artificial reefs are not just used for fish. They are also created to provide areas for scuba divers and anglers to use, reducing the human pressures that natural reefs bear on a regular basis.
Natural reefs can be looked at as the rain forests of the seafloor, supporting a broad diversity of species (ourjaily, 2000). Like many other things found in nature, they often take centuries to mature. Due to….
Bourjaily, Phil. (February 24, 2000). Rebuilding the ocean's rain forests. Environmental News Network.
Dixie Divers. (September 2, 2004). State debates tighter regulations for creating artificial reefs. Retrieved from the Internet at http://www.dixiediver.com/DixieWatchDogNews/state_debates_tighter_regulation.htm .
Goldschmid, A. Yip, M. (November 22, 1998). A Natural Reef System and a description of potential Damages: An overview of Artificial Reefs, Advantages and Disadvantages of Artificial Reefs.
Rodriguez, M. (2004). What are artificial reefs and why do we need them? Retrieved from the Internet at http://scuba.about.com/library/weekly/aa121799.htm.
Marine Biology & Drones
Drones are being used with increasing frequency in the study of marine life, including for population counts, and behavioral studies. The news media has offered up dramatic images of studies underway, for example of orca populations off the coast of British Columbia, but there are many studies around the world that are using drones. The advantage of drones is that they can fly above marine environments, providing an overhead view of those environments. This can be valuable in terms of counting animal populations for example, because with drones animals typically do not change their behaviors (Schiffman, 2014). Drones have become a popular tool for field biologists in part because drone technology is improving and the cost of these devices is falling (Schiffman, 2014).
In some fields, such as the observation of marine life in Antarctic sea ice, it has been noted that the normal observation is risky, and….
Gremillet, D., Puech, W., Garcon, V., Boulinier, T. & Maho, Y. (2012). Robots in ecology: Welcome to the machine. Open Journal of Ecology. Vol. 2 (2) 49-57.
Kelly, N., Murase, H., Kitakado, T., Kock, K., Williams, R., Herr, H. & Walloe, L. (2012). Appraisal of methods and data used to estimate abundance of Antarctic minke whales within sea ice covered areas of the Southern Ocean. CSIRO/Australian Marine Mammal Centre. Retrieved November 1, 2015 from http://www.marinemammals.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0003/135615/SC-64-IA10.pdf
Schiffman, R. (2014). Drones flying high as new tool for field biologists. Nature. Vol. 344 (6183) 459
Vas, E., Lescroel, A., Duriez, O., Boguszewski, G. & Gremillet, D. (2015). Approaching birds with drones: First experiments and ethical guidelines. Biology Letters. Vol. 11, 1-4.
Dolphins commonly bear one calf at a time. Reproduction occurs every 2 to 3 years and as many as 8 times within their life span (each-Net Online).
Fishes are the typical foods of dolphins. Calves (young dolphins) start to eat fish at 3 to 4 months. Adult dolphins can eat up to 14 pounds of fish in a day (each-Net Online).
Dolphins' predators are the sharks. Sometimes, killer whales also feed on dolphins.
Are dolphins endangered?
Dolphins are endangered. Their population is not yet known however because different types of dolphins can be found in different parts of water around the globe. Following is a list of the endangered species of dolphins.
American Cetacean Society. http://www.acsonline.org/factpack/common.htm
Dolphins: The Facts of Life. http://www.beach-net.com/dolphins/biology.html.
Most fungi can also reproduce through sexual reproduction both with the same organism mixing gametes and with reproduction between two separate organisms. The cells of many fungi are primarily copies of each other, without differentiation of organs (except in the fruiting sections of the organism, such as the mushrooms and molds typically visible and known to humans).
Fungi are considered a separate kingdom for several reasons. They are different from plants in their inability to produce energy from sunlight, and in fact most grow in dark places. Unlike animals and many protozoa, they cannot move; unlike most protozoa, they exist almost entirely as multicellular and colonial organisms.
The various classifications of fungi are determined based on their method(s) of reproduction. Zygomycota produce both asexual and sexual spores, while Basidiomycota rarely produce asexually and produce a different type of sexual spore. Ascomycota produce asexual spores, and can also grow buds that break….
Species within a given population will differentiate due to a sudden and dramatic geological or climatological change. If a volcano erupted on an island like one of those on Vanuatu, the populations of local geckos would start to differentiate depending on where members of that population were before and after the eruption.
Statement/Hypothesis: If a volcanic eruption led to lava flows on one side of the island, but not on the other side, then the gecko population would differentiate based on the availability of food sources and also based on the remaining predators.
Geological Event: A volcano erupts on a small tropical island, part of the Vanuatu group. The types of observations necessary for the evaluation of the impact of the volcano on local lizard (gecko) species include size (length), coloration and visual patterns, and vocalizations. Behavioral observations would include territories occupied, feeding patterns, and mating patterns.
Characteristics of the Two Environments: Before….
"Tiny Gecko Species Discovered in Vanuatu Rainforest," (2008). Retrieved online: http://scienceblogs.com/grrlscientist/2008/11/08/tiny-gecko-species-discovered/
Uthicke, S. (1999). Sediment bioturbation and impact of feeding activity of Holothuria (Halodeima) atra and Stichopus chloronotus, two sediment feeding holothurians, at Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef. Bulletin of Marine Science 64(1): 129-141.
This discovery could lead to cleaner energy, including the technology that could be used by factories and cars to capture carbon dioxide before it reaches the atmosphere. Carbon dioxide is polluting the Earth's atmosphere along with damaging coral reefs and marine life and has impacts that are irreversible. Scientists believe that this will be important for potentially getting to a viable carbon dioxide-capture material with ultra-high selectivity. They are optimistic that is within their reach. Potentially, they think that they could create a material that could convert carbon dioxide into a fuel, or a material that can separate carbon dioxide with greater efficiency (Chemists Create Synthetic 'Gene-Like' Crystals for Carbon Dioxide Capture, 2010).
Chemists Create Synthetic 'Gene-Like' Crystals for Carbon Dioxide Capture. (2010). etrieved
February 16, 2010, from Science Daily Web site:
Environmental Biology: The Effects of Pollution in the Ocean
The oceans are being contaminated by pollution caused by oil spills, tanker discharges, untreated municipal wastes and agrochemical residues. Pollution is known to have destabilized many coastal ecosystems and is believed to be responsible for the decline in phytoplankton and consumable shellfish which usually thrive further out to sea. Medical wastes, beach visitors' garbage, waterfront businesses account for most of the toxic and most dangerous pollutants that lurk below the surface of the ocean. Oil spills and medical wastes only play a small part in ocean pollution (Energy Intelligence Group, 2002). Plants and factories spew over thirty-two billion gallons of poisonous chemicals and sewage into the sea every day. The Commerce Department's National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (2000) states that eighty percent of pollution to the marine environment comes from land-based sources, such as runoff pollution. Runoff pollution includes many small sources,….
Adler, T. (1996, Feb.). The expiration of respiration; oxygen - the missing ingredient in many bodies of water. Science News, (149) 88.
Boukhari, S. (1998, July-Aug.). Marine blues. UNESCO Courier, (2) 47.
Conformer." Glossary of Marine Biology. Retrieved November, 7, 2002 from: http://life.bio.sunysb.edu/marinebio/glossary.c.html .
Energy Intelligence Group. (2002, May). Oil spills play small role in ocean pollution.
Conservation of ocean or marine life has attracted significant attention in recent years given the devastating impacts of human activities on these ecosystems. This paper examines a study conducted to promote conservation of marine or ocean life across the globe. The review demonstrates the significance of combining policy interventions and management interventions to achieve this.
Ocean or marine areas cover approximately 71% of the Earth’s surface. Even though the depths of these areas are yet to be fully explored or exploited, they are habitats for a huge portion of the world’s biodiversity and essential in global climate change (Addis, p.5). Ocean or marine biodiversity is recognized across the globe as an essential component of life not only in the oceans, but also on Earth. The Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development states that ocean or marine areas are key components of the Earth’s ecosystem to an extent that without them….
The word biology means the study of life. It is a combination of "bio," which means "life," and "ology," which means "wisdom" or "science of." Thus, the term itself tells us what its meaning is: it is the science or study of life.
However, there are many fields in biology, which look at specific sectors or areas of "life." Because life on this planet is abounding and so complex, it is required that there be several fields of biological science. For instance, marine biology studies life in water (such as in oceans or lakes). Human biology studies the complexities of the human body. Cellular biology takes an even closer look at biological studies by closing in on the activities and structures of cells, which are just one part of life.
Advancements in biological knowledge have taken place over many centuries throughout the history of the world. In fact, all sciences owe….
Living organisms are subdivided into 5 major kingdoms, including te Monera, te Protista (Protoctista), te Fungi, te Plantae, and te Animalia. Eac kingdom is furter subdivided into separate pyla or divisions. Generally "animals" are subdivided into pyla, wile "plants" are subdivided into divisions.
Kingdom of Protista
Laminariales (kelps) etc.
Te Brown algae are a large group of multi-cellular algae, including various sorts of seaweed. Teir distinctive greenis-brown color comes from te pigment fucoxantin. Well-known members include kelps and bladder wrack. Genetic studies sow teir closest relatives are te yellow-green algae.
Te red algae (Rodopyta) are a large group of mostly multi-cellular, marine algae, including many notable types of seaweed. Most of te coralline algae, wic secrete calcium carbonate and play a major role in building reefs, belong ere. Red algae suc as dulse and nori are a traditional part of European and Asian cuisine and are used to make certain….
The role of the current in trajectory movements is significant, particularly in species such as the leatherback turtle, as it provides at times unexpected information regarding the animal's sense of direction and purpose in terms of its environment. In the conservation effort, it is therefore very important to consider the influence of current upon animal movement.
Conservation can only be effectively applied when behavior and movement are interpreted to the highest degree of accuracy. The study reveals the importance of current influence on marine life movement. Although larger and faster marine animals will not be as influenced by the current as the leatherback turtle, there will certainly be an impact. While important to study the movements of marine life, the influence of currents on the study of foraging behavior is even more important. This will determine the focus of conservation on specific foraging areas in order to ensure sustainability for….
brevis blooms are not a new phenomenon, and fish kills that result from red tides caused by K. brevis in the Gulf of Mexico have been described in the scientific literature since 1960 or so and have been reported anecdotally for more than two centuries (Naar et al. 2002). In this regard, Backer and her associates (2005) emphasize that, "The human health effects from consuming shellfish with high concentrations of brevetoxins in their tissues have been well documented. However, there is very little information describing human health effects from environmental exposures. It is ironic that we know the least about the aspects of the Florida red tide problem that poses the greatest public health hazard in terms of number of people affected" (645). Today, K. brevis blooms are monitored closely in order to mitigate the foregoing health hazards that are related to the consumption of shellfish and shellfish harvesting….
Aguirre, A. Alonso, Richard S. Ostfeld, Gary M. Tabor, Carol House and Mary C. Pearl.
Conservation Medicine: Ecological Health in Practice. New York: Oxford University
Backer, Lorraine C., Barbara Kirkpatrick, Lora E. Fleming, Yung Sung Cheng, Richard Pierce,
The fact is that numerous rooted macrophyte structures are not full of naturally strong and healthy particles and sediments and nutrients. It is because of the restriction or absence of these particles, sediments and nutrients that the study of these systems has not been as extensive and thorough as the concentration on the terrestrial structures when understanding the fate, sources and sinks of Co2 levels in the ecosystems and the plants structures (e.g., Drake and Leadley 1991). Researchers assert that "rooted macrophyte systems can be sources of CO2, Chapter 4 and other gases through microbial processing of organic matter in the sediments and direct emission from leaves" (Delaune et al. 1990).
Table 1. Total net primary production (NPP) from world systems (Modified from Valiela, 1984)
% of Total
% of Total
gC m-2 y-1
Algal eds & reef
Estuaries (exc. marsh)
Swamp and Marsh
Lakes and Streams
Abel K.M. (1984) Inorganic Carbon Source for Photosynthesis in the Seagrass Thalassia hemprichii (Ehrenb.) Aschers. Plant Physiology 76, 776-781.
Adam, P. 1990. Saltmarsh ecology. Cambridge Univ. Press. Cambridge. 461p.
Agren, G., R.E. McMurtrie, W.J. Parton, J. Pastor and H.H. Shugart. 1991. State-of-the-art of models of production-decomposition linkages in conifer and grassland ecosystems. Ecological Applications. 1:118-138.
Anderson, J.M. 1991. The effects of climate change on decomposition processes in grassland and coniferous forests. Ecological Applications 1:326-347.
9% of the turtles" -- and "plastics" dominated the debris found (Katsanevakis, p. 75). The list of plastic trash found in those turtles is too long to include in this research.
Seabirds (especially pelicans, gannets and gulls) often fall prey to "monofilament line"; albatrosses, petrels, penguins and grebes are not found entangled in plastic fishing line or other plastic debris as often as pelicans and gulls (Katsanevakis, 2008, p. 69). hat is particularly insidious about plastic is when it is ingested by marine animals is releases "toxic chemicals" due to the chemical additives that are added to the plastic during the manufacturing process. Once in the abdomen of the animal the toxic materials can block the digestive tract and block "gastric enzyme ingestion, diminished feeding stimulus, nutrient dilution, reduced growth rates, lowered steroid hormone levels, delayed ovulation and reproductive failure," Katsanevakis asserts (p. 71).
There is lethal danger for small marine organisms….
Hill, Marquita K., 2010, Understanding Environmental Pollution, Cambridge University
Press, New York City, 585
Katsanevakis, Stelios, 2008, Marine Debris, A Growing Problem: Sources, Distribution, Composition, and Impacts, in Hofer, T.N., ed., Marine Pollution: New Research, Nova Publishers, Hauppauge, New York, p. 54-75.
Moore, Charles, 2003, Trashed: Across the Pacific Ocean, Plastics, Plastics, Everywhere,
This is true in fresh and well as salt wate, zinc seems to spread more rapidly in sea water, even affecting higher animals (Taban, Cathiene and Burkard, 1982).
esearch Project - The term scientific method refers to a way of investigation or the acquisition of knowledge through the testing of a theory or hypothesis, then working through measurements (observation and empirical notes) to come up with a result, which should prove or disprove the original theory. Thus, the basic method consists of a) formulating a question or hypothesis, b) designing an experiment or means of collecting data, c) observation or experimentation, d) analyzing the results and considering the proof or disproof of the hypotheses, and e) suggestions for future research (Cary, 2003).
In this case, and because invertebrates are relatively easy to access regarding zinc the following is a simple introductory examination on the topic:
Freshwater crayfish, particularly the species of marbled….
Canicatti and Grasso. (1988). Biodepressive Effect of Zine on Humoral Effector of the Holothuria Polii Immune Response. Marine Biology, 99(3), 393-96.
Cary, S. (2003). A Beginner's Guide to the Scientific Method. New York: Wadsworth.
Emsley, J. (2001). Nature's Building Blocks. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Fosmire, G. (1990). Zinc Toxicity. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 51(2), 225-37.
Negative Effects of Artificial Reefs Artificial reefs are man-made habitats that are created from many different materials to build new marine life communities (Rodriguez, 2004). For many years, fish…Read Full Paper ❯
Marine Biology & Drones Drones are being used with increasing frequency in the study of marine life, including for population counts, and behavioral studies. The news media has offered up…Read Full Paper ❯
Dolphins commonly bear one calf at a time. Reproduction occurs every 2 to 3 years and as many as 8 times within their life span (each-Net Online). Feeding Fishes are…Read Full Paper ❯
Most fungi can also reproduce through sexual reproduction both with the same organism mixing gametes and with reproduction between two separate organisms. The cells of many fungi are…Read Full Paper ❯
Biology Species within a given population will differentiate due to a sudden and dramatic geological or climatological change. If a volcano erupted on an island like one of those on…Read Full Paper ❯
This discovery could lead to cleaner energy, including the technology that could be used by factories and cars to capture carbon dioxide before it reaches the atmosphere. Carbon dioxide…Read Full Paper ❯
Transportation - Environmental Issues
Environmental Biology: The Effects of Pollution in the Ocean The oceans are being contaminated by pollution caused by oil spills, tanker discharges, untreated municipal wastes and agrochemical residues. Pollution is…Read Full Paper ❯
Conservation of ocean or marine life has attracted significant attention in recent years given the devastating impacts of human activities on these ecosystems. This paper examines a study conducted…Read Full Paper ❯
Drama - World
Biology? The word biology means the study of life. It is a combination of "bio," which means "life," and "ology," which means "wisdom" or "science of." Thus, the term…Read Full Paper ❯
Living organisms are subdivided into 5 major kingdoms, including te Monera, te Protista (Protoctista), te Fungi, te Plantae, and te Animalia. Eac kingdom is furter subdivided into separate pyla…Read Full Paper ❯
Transportation - Environmental Issues
The role of the current in trajectory movements is significant, particularly in species such as the leatherback turtle, as it provides at times unexpected information regarding the animal's…Read Full Paper ❯
Business - Miscellaneous
brevis blooms are not a new phenomenon, and fish kills that result from red tides caused by K. brevis in the Gulf of Mexico have been described in…Read Full Paper ❯
Business - Miscellaneous
The fact is that numerous rooted macrophyte structures are not full of naturally strong and healthy particles and sediments and nutrients. It is because of the restriction or absence…Read Full Paper ❯
Business - Industries
9% of the turtles" -- and "plastics" dominated the debris found (Katsanevakis, p. 75). The list of plastic trash found in those turtles is too long to include in…Read Full Paper ❯
Transportation - Environmental Issues
This is true in fresh and well as salt wate, zinc seems to spread more rapidly in sea water, even affecting higher animals (Taban, Cathiene and Burkard, 1982). esearch…Read Full Paper ❯