Negative Effects of Artificial Reefs
Artificial reefs are man-made habitats that are created from many different materials to build new marine life communities (Rodriguez, 2004). For many years, fish and shellfish habitats have been damaged or wiped out by the development of new coastal areas, accidents, and major storms. As a result, there has been a decline in different marine life populations. Artificial reefs provide food, shelter, protection, and spawning areas for many species of fish and other marine organisms. However, artificial reefs are not just used for fish. They are also created to provide areas for scuba divers and anglers to use, reducing the human pressures that natural reefs bear on a regular basis.
Natural reefs can be looked at as the rain forests of the seafloor, supporting a broad diversity of species (ourjaily, 2000). Like many other things found in nature, they often take centuries to mature. Due…… [Read More]
Marine Biology & Drones
Drones are being used with increasing frequency in the study of marine life, including for population counts, and behavioral studies. The news media has offered up dramatic images of studies underway, for example of orca populations off the coast of British Columbia, but there are many studies around the world that are using drones. The advantage of drones is that they can fly above marine environments, providing an overhead view of those environments. This can be valuable in terms of counting animal populations for example, because with drones animals typically do not change their behaviors (Schiffman, 2014). Drones have become a popular tool for field biologists in part because drone technology is improving and the cost of these devices is falling (Schiffman, 2014).
In some fields, such as the observation of marine life in Antarctic sea ice, it has been noted that the normal observation is…… [Read More]
Dolphins commonly bear one calf at a time. Reproduction occurs every 2 to 3 years and as many as 8 times within their life span (each-Net Online).
Fishes are the typical foods of dolphins. Calves (young dolphins) start to eat fish at 3 to 4 months. Adult dolphins can eat up to 14 pounds of fish in a day (each-Net Online).
Dolphins' predators are the sharks. Sometimes, killer whales also feed on dolphins.
Are dolphins endangered?
Dolphins are endangered. Their population is not yet known however because different types of dolphins can be found in different parts of water around the globe. Following is a list of the endangered species of dolphins.
American Cetacean Society. http://www.acsonline.org/factpack/common.htm
Dolphins: The Facts of Life. http://www.beach-net.com/dolphins/biology.html… [Read More]
Most fungi can also reproduce through sexual reproduction both with the same organism mixing gametes and with reproduction between two separate organisms. The cells of many fungi are primarily copies of each other, without differentiation of organs (except in the fruiting sections of the organism, such as the mushrooms and molds typically visible and known to humans).
Fungi are considered a separate kingdom for several reasons. They are different from plants in their inability to produce energy from sunlight, and in fact most grow in dark places. Unlike animals and many protozoa, they cannot move; unlike most protozoa, they exist almost entirely as multicellular and colonial organisms.
The various classifications of fungi are determined based on their method(s) of reproduction. Zygomycota produce both asexual and sexual spores, while Basidiomycota rarely produce asexually and produce a different type of sexual spore. Ascomycota produce asexual spores, and can also grow…… [Read More]
Species within a given population will differentiate due to a sudden and dramatic geological or climatological change. If a volcano erupted on an island like one of those on Vanuatu, the populations of local geckos would start to differentiate depending on where members of that population were before and after the eruption.
Statement/Hypothesis: If a volcanic eruption led to lava flows on one side of the island, but not on the other side, then the gecko population would differentiate based on the availability of food sources and also based on the remaining predators.
Geological Event: A volcano erupts on a small tropical island, part of the Vanuatu group. The types of observations necessary for the evaluation of the impact of the volcano on local lizard (gecko) species include size (length), coloration and visual patterns, and vocalizations. Behavioral observations would include territories occupied, feeding patterns, and mating patterns.
Characteristics of…… [Read More]
This discovery could lead to cleaner energy, including the technology that could be used by factories and cars to capture carbon dioxide before it reaches the atmosphere. Carbon dioxide is polluting the Earth's atmosphere along with damaging coral reefs and marine life and has impacts that are irreversible. Scientists believe that this will be important for potentially getting to a viable carbon dioxide-capture material with ultra-high selectivity. They are optimistic that is within their reach. Potentially, they think that they could create a material that could convert carbon dioxide into a fuel, or a material that can separate carbon dioxide with greater efficiency (Chemists Create Synthetic 'Gene-Like' Crystals for Carbon Dioxide Capture, 2010).
Chemists Create Synthetic 'Gene-Like' Crystals for Carbon Dioxide Capture. (2010). etrieved
February 16, 2010, from Science Daily Web site:
http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2010/02/100211141144.htm… [Read More]
Environmental Biology: The Effects of Pollution in the Ocean
The oceans are being contaminated by pollution caused by oil spills, tanker discharges, untreated municipal wastes and agrochemical residues. Pollution is known to have destabilized many coastal ecosystems and is believed to be responsible for the decline in phytoplankton and consumable shellfish which usually thrive further out to sea. Medical wastes, beach visitors' garbage, waterfront businesses account for most of the toxic and most dangerous pollutants that lurk below the surface of the ocean. Oil spills and medical wastes only play a small part in ocean pollution (Energy Intelligence Group, 2002). Plants and factories spew over thirty-two billion gallons of poisonous chemicals and sewage into the sea every day. The Commerce Department's National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (2000) states that eighty percent of pollution to the marine environment comes from land-based sources, such as runoff pollution. Runoff pollution includes many small…… [Read More]
Conservation of ocean or marine life has attracted significant attention in recent years given the devastating impacts of human activities on these ecosystems. This paper examines a study conducted to promote conservation of marine or ocean life across the globe. The review demonstrates the significance of combining policy interventions and management interventions to achieve this.
Ocean or marine areas cover approximately 71% of the Earth’s surface. Even though the depths of these areas are yet to be fully explored or exploited, they are habitats for a huge portion of the world’s biodiversity and essential in global climate change (Addis, p.5). Ocean or marine biodiversity is recognized across the globe as an essential component of life not only in the oceans, but also on Earth. The Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development states that ocean or marine areas are key components of the Earth’s ecosystem to an extent that…… [Read More]
The word biology means the study of life. It is a combination of "bio," which means "life," and "ology," which means "wisdom" or "science of." Thus, the term itself tells us what its meaning is: it is the science or study of life.
However, there are many fields in biology, which look at specific sectors or areas of "life." Because life on this planet is abounding and so complex, it is required that there be several fields of biological science. For instance, marine biology studies life in water (such as in oceans or lakes). Human biology studies the complexities of the human body. Cellular biology takes an even closer look at biological studies by closing in on the activities and structures of cells, which are just one part of life.
Advancements in biological knowledge have taken place over many centuries throughout the history of the world. In fact, all…… [Read More]
Living organisms are subdivided into 5 major kingdoms, including te Monera, te Protista (Protoctista), te Fungi, te Plantae, and te Animalia. Eac kingdom is furter subdivided into separate pyla or divisions. Generally "animals" are subdivided into pyla, wile "plants" are subdivided into divisions.
Kingdom of Protista
Laminariales (kelps) etc.
Te Brown algae are a large group of multi-cellular algae, including various sorts of seaweed. Teir distinctive greenis-brown color comes from te pigment fucoxantin. Well-known members include kelps and bladder wrack. Genetic studies sow teir closest relatives are te yellow-green algae.
Te red algae (Rodopyta) are a large group of mostly multi-cellular, marine algae, including many notable types of seaweed. Most of te coralline algae, wic secrete calcium carbonate and play a major role in building…… [Read More]
The role of the current in trajectory movements is significant, particularly in species such as the leatherback turtle, as it provides at times unexpected information regarding the animal's sense of direction and purpose in terms of its environment. In the conservation effort, it is therefore very important to consider the influence of current upon animal movement.
Conservation can only be effectively applied when behavior and movement are interpreted to the highest degree of accuracy. The study reveals the importance of current influence on marine life movement. Although larger and faster marine animals will not be as influenced by the current as the leatherback turtle, there will certainly be an impact. While important to study the movements of marine life, the influence of currents on the study of foraging behavior is even more important. This will determine the focus of conservation on specific foraging areas in order to ensure sustainability…… [Read More]
brevis blooms are not a new phenomenon, and fish kills that result from red tides caused by K. brevis in the Gulf of Mexico have been described in the scientific literature since 1960 or so and have been reported anecdotally for more than two centuries (Naar et al. 2002). In this regard, Backer and her associates (2005) emphasize that, "The human health effects from consuming shellfish with high concentrations of brevetoxins in their tissues have been well documented. However, there is very little information describing human health effects from environmental exposures. It is ironic that we know the least about the aspects of the Florida red tide problem that poses the greatest public health hazard in terms of number of people affected" (645). Today, K. brevis blooms are monitored closely in order to mitigate the foregoing health hazards that are related to the consumption of shellfish and shellfish harvesting is…… [Read More]
The fact is that numerous rooted macrophyte structures are not full of naturally strong and healthy particles and sediments and nutrients. It is because of the restriction or absence of these particles, sediments and nutrients that the study of these systems has not been as extensive and thorough as the concentration on the terrestrial structures when understanding the fate, sources and sinks of Co2 levels in the ecosystems and the plants structures (e.g., Drake and Leadley 1991). Researchers assert that "rooted macrophyte systems can be sources of CO2, Chapter 4 and other gases through microbial processing of organic matter in the sediments and direct emission from leaves" (Delaune et al. 1990).
Table 1. Total net primary production (NPP) from world systems (Modified from Valiela, 1984)
% of Total
% of Total
gC m-2 y-1
15,355…… [Read More]
Sea around Us
Rachel Carson was a scientist and author who took a topic which had hitherto been only of interest to fellow scientists and opened it up to the masses. During her lifetime, she took up many causes in support of wildlife and the protection of species and protecting the natural landscape from potential molestation from developers and others who would destroy indigenous habitats. Among her many missions was to make people aware of the hazards of certain chemicals on the environment, such as pesticides on vegetation. In Rachel Carson's book The Sea around Us, the author strives to explain the mysteries of the sea. She begins with a discussion of the world of water from before recorded history, all the way up to the book's present which was the early 1950s. Her essential thesis of the piece is that although science has allowed the people of the world…… [Read More]
9% of the turtles" -- and "plastics" dominated the debris found (Katsanevakis, p. 75). The list of plastic trash found in those turtles is too long to include in this research.
Seabirds (especially pelicans, gannets and gulls) often fall prey to "monofilament line"; albatrosses, petrels, penguins and grebes are not found entangled in plastic fishing line or other plastic debris as often as pelicans and gulls (Katsanevakis, 2008, p. 69). hat is particularly insidious about plastic is when it is ingested by marine animals is releases "toxic chemicals" due to the chemical additives that are added to the plastic during the manufacturing process. Once in the abdomen of the animal the toxic materials can block the digestive tract and block "gastric enzyme ingestion, diminished feeding stimulus, nutrient dilution, reduced growth rates, lowered steroid hormone levels, delayed ovulation and reproductive failure," Katsanevakis asserts (p. 71).
There is lethal danger for small…… [Read More]
This is true in fresh and well as salt wate, zinc seems to spread more rapidly in sea water, even affecting higher animals (Taban, Cathiene and Burkard, 1982).
esearch Project - The term scientific method refers to a way of investigation or the acquisition of knowledge through the testing of a theory or hypothesis, then working through measurements (observation and empirical notes) to come up with a result, which should prove or disprove the original theory. Thus, the basic method consists of a) formulating a question or hypothesis, b) designing an experiment or means of collecting data, c) observation or experimentation, d) analyzing the results and considering the proof or disproof of the hypotheses, and e) suggestions for future research (Cary, 2003).
In this case, and because invertebrates are relatively easy to access regarding zinc the following is a simple introductory examination on the topic:
Freshwater crayfish, particularly the species…… [Read More]
Robert McCollough: Experiences from the past, pedagog for the future.
An onlooker into the courses taught by this professor would be surprised and little confused as to Robert McCollough's style. Robert strives to know each of his students individually, to the point that he can refer to them with nicknames and hash out class discussions in an almost informal manner. Students admire his candor and passion for knowledge, and are drawn to his courses. Somehow it is this magnetism that results in the ultimate success of his students, and with a class average of 4.0 it is no mystery that Robert McCollough is a student and university favorite.
A Lifetime Legacy
Robert McCollough was a first generation American, born into a Scottish family. His father was an air force pilot and part of an elite team known as the Flying Tigers. His father's work resulted in Robert moving to Japan…… [Read More]
When one hears the phrase "psychological testing" one might be inclined to think of a test to determine one's mental health, a test that could tell someone whether she or he was crazy or not. But psychological testing is hardly so clear-cut, nor does it deal with the highly subjective subject of sanity. Psychological tests instead measure a range of qualities and potentials, including one's aptitude for various kinds of jobs, one's IQ, one's cognitive functioning, one's ideal occupation, and one's personality type. There are also specific psychological tests for certain mental illnesses, such as depression. In this paper I will briefly describe the different types of psychological tests before addressing the concepts of validity and reliability.
All psychological tests share the basic criteria of any type of test. Tests are sets of either exercises or questions (or some combination of the two) that are used in a…… [Read More]
Clarkia Unguiculata: Onagraceae
Evolutionary (Pollination Ecology))
This study conducted by the department of ecology and marine biology of the University of California analyses the factors that contribute to the reproductive success of the plant CLARKIA UNGUICULATA. The purpose of the study was to research the possibility of the allelic variations affecting the male and female reproductive functions. For the study the researchers took pollen donors homozygous for C. And . alleles. The researchers used both selfed and out- crossed pollination using different homozygous pollen donors.
The tests were performed under both competitive (more pollen) and non-competitive conditions with mixed pollination. The amount of pollen used was also varied (high, medium and low) so as to discern the pre-fertilization performance of the pollens from their post fertilization performance. (Viability, abortion). All the plants used in the study were selected from the same place and the seedlings were germinated under same conditions.…… [Read More]
Similarly, this type of non-invasive acoustic and vibrational monitoring has been used by doctors to get a better assessment of in vivo hip conditions so that they can better comprehend things like total hip arthroplasty (Glaser et al., 2010).
"Acoustic emissions are elastic waves generated by a rapid release of energy at a localized source. They are produced by events such as particle impact, gas evolution, boiling, phase transitions, precipitation. Some processes produce emissions that can be heard. A lot more emit either outside the audible frequency or at too low an intensity to be heard (McLenna, 1995, p.338). Using non-intrusive acoustic monitoring is definitely a way to monitor an entire structure continuously and effectively (Wu & Abe, 2003). Acoustic signal-based monitoring can assess individual entities and mechanisms or total structures, pinpointing abnormalities, failures or red flags which need attention (Wu & Abe, 2003). It provides experts with…… [Read More]
The massive mollusks still do seem fantastical. Several of the irrational elements of 20,000 Leagues Under the Sea seemed more outrageous in the 19th century they do now. However, the novel continues to encapsulate the fantasy and science fiction genres because of its willingness to expand the boundary of what is real. Interestingly, 20,000 Leagues Under the Sea did not stretch those boundaries much further than hard science has.
On the other hand, novels such as the ones in the Twilight series are more squarely fantastical. Barring any major scientific discoveries, vampires and shape-shifters simply do not exist. Such elements of the absolutely impossible serve various literary functions. For instance, in New Moon Stephanie Meyer uses vampires and shape-shifters to develop the central character, a human being. As in Frankenstein, the impossible becomes the best means to explore human motivations, dreams, desires, and weaknesses.
Moreover, the fantasy elements are not…… [Read More]
Environment Influences the Body Plan of Organisms
The distinction between adiata and Bilateria, or organisms with a radial or bilateral symmetry, is that the latter have a dorsal/ventral polarity resulting in bilateral body axes (reviewed by Martindale and Henry, 1998). By comparison, species with radial symmetry, the adiata, have a single anterior/posterior axis in their body plan and no dorsal/ventral polarity. Another general distinction is the presence of three germ layers in the Bilateria, which are the endoderm, ectoderm, and mesoderm. These three pluripotent cell types will give rise to organs and internal epithelial layers, skin and nervous tissues, and muscle and connective tissues, respectively.
ole of Environment
adiata contain a digestive tract that is perpendicular to radial structures (reviewed by Martindale and Henry, 1998). For example, the cnidarians have a mouth that is surrounded by radial pattern of tentacles. After the food enters the mouth, it collects in a…… [Read More]
Biomimicry in Design
There is a set of trends in the 21st century regarding urban design, product design, and organizational studies. One of these trends is the act of biomimicry. Biomimicry is a design philosophy or perspective that mimics design patterns in nature. Products inspired by biomimicry are ecologically sound in design, production, and distribution processes, as well as solve human problems. Products reflecting biomimcry do not simply mimic the models, systems, processes, systems, and elements of nature for inspiration. These products mimic nature not only in design, but also in function as products of biomimicry solve problems. The design of nature avoids, anticipates, and solves problems. Thus the products inspired by nature do not mimic nature on a superficial level but on deeper levels of utility and sustainability. This paper will focus upon products that biomimic sharks. Using primary and secondary sources, the paper will evaluate the efficacy…… [Read More]
Computers are being used in applications that gauge the pollution in the air and water and other areas of the earth environment. These applications are useful in determining the source of the pollution and in assisting in informing researchers what might be done to reduce such pollution.
Air Pollution Emission
One such application in computing pollution is described in the work of Emad, Sayed, and Kassem (nd)[footnoteef:1] who report that smoke is one common source of air pollution. Specifically stated is that the "rising process of smoke depends on atmospheric ambient, meteorological conditions, emission parameters, such as the atmospheric stratification, initial emission momentum and temperature, wind direction and speed as well as turbulent behaviors, and so on." (Emad, Sayed, and Kassem, nd, p.1) The smoke dilution process and scope are of great interest to environmentalists since regional air quality is affected critically by dispersion of pollutants. eported as…… [Read More]
Atlantic Blue fin tuna is a pat of the Scombidae family and its scientific name is Thunnus Thynnus. It is also known as Nothen Blue fin tuna and is closely elated to the Pacific blue fin tuna and the Southen blue fin tuna. They ae a highly evolved fish species that have an aveage life span of 15 to 30 yeas.
The Atlantic blue fin tuna is one of the lagest fishes alive today. It has a metallic blue colo on top and a silvey white at the bottom to camouflage it in the deep oceans against pedatos such as whales and shaks. Thei body is shaped like a topedo and this gives them the speed to get away fom pedatos as quickly as possible despite thei big size and weight. An aveage Atlantic blue fin tuna can gow to about 6.5 feet in size and weigh a…… [Read More]
2005). The rules for deep-sea life are different than those for terrestrial species. Stratification plays an important role in species classification in vent environments. As the chimney grows in height the environment changes.
Tarasov and associates believe that deep-sea vents have a longer evolutionary history then shallow vents found closer to the surface. This is an important factor in understanding how hydrothermal vents are connected to early life on planet earth. Deep-sea hydrothermal vent communities represent a different phenomenon than shallow water vents. The chemical processes that take place in the deep-sea vent communities are very different from those in shallow areas. Shallow vent species receive light from the sun and more closely resemble terrestrial life forms. However, this is not so with deep-sea forms. Hydrothermal plumes are a rising column of hot water that can have sharp definitions in microhabitats. Similar species found inside the plume and outside of…… [Read More]
The Delta is also a habitat for many species of fish, birds, mammals, and plants, and it supports agricultural and recreational activities while also being the focal point for water distribution throughout the State.
The development of the Delta as it exists today started in late 1850 when the Swamp and Overflow Land Act transferred ownership of all swamp and overflow land, including Delta marshes, from the federal government to the State of California. In 1861, the State Legislature created the Board of Swamp and Overflowed Land Commissioners to manage reclamation projects, and in 1866, the authority of the Board was transferred to county boards of supervisors. The Delta now covers 738,000 acres interlaced with hundreds of miles of waterways, with much of the land below sea level, relying on more than 1,000 miles of levees for protection against flooding. 20
White sturgeon is one of the most spectacular native…… [Read More]
7) There are several subplots in the film. The first of these is Felix Happer, the chairman of the board of Knox Oil & Gas, and Mac's boss. He is extremely wealthy and powerful, but psychologically somewhat fragile. In order to help face his problems, Happer engages an "abuse therapist" to hurl various forms of ill treatment at him. He is also interested in furthering his chances of immortality. He addresses this need by compulsively scanning the skies for a comet to bear his name. This relates to the theme as a whole in its commentary on how fleeting and futile the world of business is. His extreme wealth does not make Felix Happer a happy man, nor does it bring him peace of mind or any sense of contentment. In contrast, the beachcomber/owner Ben Knox lives in complete poverty and utter contentment in the knowledge that no force on…… [Read More]
Aguirre, Alonso et al. “Infectious Disease Monitoring of the Endangered Hawaiian Monk Seal.” Journal of Wildlife Diseases. 40.2 (2007): 229-241.
This article seeks to monitor infectious diseases afflicting endangered Hawaiian monk seals. It should be noted that a study of this nature is not only relevant from a conservation point of view, but also a valid tool for assessing some of the prominent threats to the long-term survival of endangered Hawaiian monk seals. Two of the most prominent causes of mortality in this case have been identified as mitotoxin and ciguatoxin. The authors are of the opinion that the relevance of continued surveillance cannot be overstated as an approach to the early detection of various infectious diseases. Coupled with other conservation strategies, this is an approach that could immensely help in future conservation efforts. The fact that the authors in this case make use of an appropriate sample size further…… [Read More]
" (SD, 1)
McClintock goes on to connect this to pointedly negative consequences for marine life, arguing that many invertebrates are distinctly vulnerable because their protective shells require many of the nutrients naturally available in their surrounding water to maintain hardness or to develop at all. This is a concern which is also raised in the article by Monroe (2009), where the results of an experiment designed to confirm this effect were as expected. Accordingly, "[Victoria] Fabry, a biological oceanographer and visiting researcher at Scripps Institution of Oceanography at UC San Diego, studies the effects of ocean acidification on the mollusks known as pteropods. In one experiment, only 48 hours of exposure to slightly corrosive seawater caused normally smooth shells to become frayed at the edges on their way to eventual dissolution, severely diminishing their owners' chances of survival." (Monroe, 1)
This demonstrates that the increased acidification of the ocean's…… [Read More]
Consider the following quotation in which he reflects on the companionship between him and his peers.
ar is brutish, inglorious, and a terrible waste. Combat leaves an indelible mark on those who are forced to endure it. The only redeeming factors were my comrades' incredible bravery and their devotion to each other. The Marine Corps training taught us to kill efficiently and to try to survive. But it also taught us loyalty to each other -- and love. The esprit de corps sustained us (Sledge 152).
This passage provides a very vital means on interpreting many of the different events discussed within this memoir. It also answers a lot of questions in regards to the author's true esteem for war, which does not appear to be 'necessary' whatsoever. It is worth noting that this passage concludes the manuscript, and delivers a sort of insight and value to the book that…… [Read More]
It should not be a difficult question to answer: we must begin reducing ocean pollution and taking steps to prohibit overfishing of our ocean shallows.
The plan that is formulated to address the overfishing and man-made pollutants in the coral reefs must be conducted by authorities in marine and ecological sciences. It must be conducted on two levels: the fishing industry associated with the catches on the coral reefs; and the pollutants that are introduced into the coral reefs through contact with man. This can be done by monitoring commercial tourism and diving industries, which claim there is no residual effect on the coral reefs (Carrier, James, and McLeod, Donald, 2005, p. 315).
The Plan for Preserving the Coral eefs
Action Items in the correct order)
esearch and identify the effects of overfishing of species found in coral reefs.
eview fishing data as it pertains to catches,…… [Read More]
The research submarine, the NR-1 is provided by the U.S. Navy, and is the country's only nuclear-powered submarine used for underwater research. The submarine holds video cameras, sample-collection equipment and other tools that will help the researchers in their quest to map the sea floor.
Other technology to help the researchers with their work includes "telepresence" technology. This technology will be used for both commercial and expedition-related purposes. In terms of the former, the general public and interested members of the scientific community will be able to follow the expedition in real-time. In terms of the expedition itself, the principal researchers will also use the technology to lead the expedition. During the expedition, these researchers will be located at Mystic Aquarium & Institute or Exploration, where they will use a remote science console for their interactions with the team.… [Read More]
Sociologists do not see war as something humanity is genetically programmed to do, but the result of social forces. Why do they believe this? What is the evidence? If war is not caused by biology, what are some of the social forces that sociologists argue have contributed to it? Illustrate your points with concrete examples from the readings.
According to Howard Zinn, there is no evidence that human beings are innately predisposed to war, biologically or sociologically. War is generated by the actions of governments, not individuals. Zinn justifies his contention by the fact that citizens must be urged through propaganda and monetary rewards to die for the state. This shows that all wars are innately unnatural and totalitarian, given that the state demands that citizens act against their personal interests, such as living to see their children grow up, to die for an abstract concept such as 'national security.'…… [Read More]
Biodiversity is a term which refers to the amount and degree of diversity found within living biology. Biodiversity is likely best measured as the sum total of the number of existent creatures, systems, and variety of creatures found within the world at large (National Geographic, 2016). In order to best understand the significance of this statement, it is necessary to codify biodiversity into three different varieties. There are ecosystems, species, and genes which comprise all of the variety found within the notion of biodiversity (National Wildlife Federation, 2016). Therefore, all that is needed to determine biodiversity is to simply add the number of each ecosystem, species, and gene variation found.
The importance and benefits of biodiversity
Biodiversity is important because of the way that different living systems found within it interact with one another. Oftentimes there is a degree of dependence between those systems. It is worth noting…… [Read More]
" Because of the ability to reproduce in large amounts in a small amount of time, phytoplankton are considered as the first link in the food chain of nearly all marine animals. Phytoplankton provide food for a large variety of organisms, including the microscopic animals (such as the zooplankton), bivalve molluscan shellfish (like mussels, oysters, scallops, and clams), and small fishes (such as anchovies and sardines). To continue the food chain, these group of animals then provide their own kind of food to other group animals like crabs, starfish, fish, marine birds, marine mammals, and humans (Karl, et al., 2001).
Figure 1. Sample food chain involving phytoplankton
Mortality Rate of Phytoplankton
It was recorded that from 1980's to the present, phytoplankton have been continuously increasing in frequency and distribution worldwide. The reason for such continuing increase in biomass is yet to be determined, but scientists have provided several…… [Read More]
It is common knowledge that the human body consists of about 65% water. People cannot live any longer than five days without H20. Individuals of all ages love to sail the oceans, swim in the sea and soar under or speed across the waves. It comes as no surprise, then, that some part of the human psyche remembers millions and millions of years ago before animals came on shore. What is still questionable is how or why these animals made the move from water to land. The journal articles discussed below give some of the latest findings on this topic.
Early in the Devonian Era, close to 400 million years ago, all the continents were grouped closely together and surrounded by the seas. The climate ranged from dry weather to torrential rains as some tropical areas do today. Even flowers had not yet evolved on land, let alone vertebrates.…… [Read More]
This entity follows the California Clean Air Act and the Federal Clean Air Act so that it is responsible for air monitoring, permitting, enforcement, long-range air quality planning, regulatory development, and education and public information activities with regard to air pollution.
A more recent concern has developed as the first cruise ship to enter Monterey ay since 1966 caused environmental groups to demand increased protection for marine sanctuaries and to increase regulation of the cruise ship industry. The water around Monterey ay has also been affected by sewage spills at local beaches, leading to viral and bacterial contamination. In 2000, four Monterey County beaches were closed because of sewage spills, and twenty-five warning advisories were issued. In 2001, there was one beach closure and eleven advisories. It has also been found that there is inadequate storm pipe maintenance in cities on the Monterey peninsula.
The California Ground Squirrel is a…… [Read More]
Behavioral Episodes in elation to Leopard Seals
Leopard seals are widely known for their ferocity and have been acknowledged as top predators for a long time now. These are large but slender mammals, with females usually exceeding males in size and weight. The spotty coats, distributed along their bodies, define the leopard appearance and allure to the hunting abilities they possess. With powerful jaws and canine teeth, leopard seals can prey on creatures of whatever size. Their agility and reputation have long formed individuals' negative perception upon the former. This document is to try to dismantle the negative image leopard seals have been inoculated with for such a long time. This proposal looks at some of the facts that have led people forming drastic opinions as well as some episodes that appear to indicate how little we may in fact know in relation to leopard seals.
Statement of Problem
Explorers…… [Read More]
omen in Combat
The participation of women in the war against Iraq has once again focused attention on the question of women in the military.
Many have argued that because of biology and psychology, women are inherently unsuited for military life in general and to combat in particular. However, this argument ignores how women's participation in the military has steadily increased since the Korean ar. Today, women can now attend public military schools and are eligible for promotion to the highest ranks. This paper argues that as women's role in society continues to evolve, then so must the role of women in the military. This includes allowing women to serve in combat positions during times of war.
Those opposed to women in the military base their arguments on the assumption that biological differences between men and women make women unable to fulfill combat duties. Syndicated columnist Mona Charen, for example,…… [Read More]
living things are characterized by the following seven characteristics namely mobility, respiration, excretion, sensitivity or response to external stimulus, growth, feeding, and reproduction. Though there may be variations between animal and plant kingdom (ex, plants take in carbon dioxide and prepare their own food), these characteristics are commonly observed among all living things.
iology is a very broad field that encompasses the study of characteristics of living things. It includes botany, zoology and all other sub-disciplines that range from microbiology to evolution and ecology.
Evolution is the branch of biology that deals with the study of natural development of living organisms and the changes in them over time. Evolution refers to the heritable changes that occur in a population over a period of time. All the diversity that is observed currently in plant and animal kingdom can be ascribed to evolution over a long period of time.
Atoms are the…… [Read More]
Environmental Hazards as a Consequence of Crude Oil/Natural Gas Exploration, Transportation, Refining and Storage
Ever since crude oil was first successfully drilled in the U.S. In Titusville, Pennsylvania, in 1859, the demand for oil has only been increasing over the years in countries all over the world. (Camden, 1883) Crude oil, from which various petroleum products are obtained, is a naturally occurring hydrocarbon component found trapped in rocks below the earth. The word "petroleum" means "rock oil" or "oil from the earth." Natural gas is another form of hydrocarbon that is also found in nature. oth crude oil and natural gas have excellent combustibility and are good sources of energy. Crude oil is not used in the extracted form; but it is refined to obtained products such as gasoline, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), naphtha, kerosene, gas-oil and fuel oil. Secondary products during the purification of crude oil are obtained are…… [Read More]
The workforce should be clear about the implementation of technologies for protecting natural resources, through formulating strategies.
atification of the International Maritime Organization (IMO) 1984 Protocols
Domestic legislation on compensation and liability is needed to implement two IMO protocols related to compensation and liability. The United States should ratify the 1984 Protocols to the 1969 Civil Liability and the 1971 Fund Conventions. Expeditious ratification is essential to ensure international agreement on responsibilities associated with oil spills around the world' (A eport to the President: Executive Summary).
Introduction of Safeguards
It is imperative to establish such environmental safeguards so as to minimize the possibility of oil spillage, by improving transportation, production, storing facilities. 'The infrequency of major oil spills in recent years contributed to the complacency that exacerbated the effect of the Exxon Valdez spill' (CNN: Exxon found guilty).
Legislation on liability and compensation is needed
The Exxon Valdez incident has…… [Read More]
The chemical was found to turn on quorum sensing in V. fischeri, whereas it inhibited pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Also, the slow-release was shown to be far more effective than by applying the chemical directly as an aqueous solution. Since quorum sensing is also important for pathogen establishment this application could be important for inhibiting pathogenic bacteria from colonization of internal medical devices.
In summary, the V. fischeri and squid symbiotic relationship is an important model host-bacteria system. Aspects of colonization of host-symbiont and host-pathogen have been shown, using the V. fisheri and squid model, to be the same. Therefore, understanding the mechanism and complex transcriptional regulatory systems of V. fischeri could lead to potential new therapies and pharmaceutical applications. Likewise, understanding the environmental factors necessary for successful host-bacteria interactions could lead to novel drug targets. In addition to being important in understanding other harmful host-bacteria relationships the V. fischeri and…… [Read More]
English military to the year 1688. In order to undertsand the history of the English military, we must first examine the history opf England itself. The military has always been beholden to political and cultural factors and several developments in technology have changed the face of warfare and, by extension, the development of the military.
In the year 1688, King James II was forcibly removed from power and replaced by William of Orange. James II was a Catholic, and determined to reinstate Catholicism in England. After the birth of James' son and heir, a party of elder statesmen officially invited William of Orange, a Protestant, to come to England with a conquering army to save the kingdom from the Catholic rule of James II. This was known as the Glorious Revolution.
efore we can examine the history of the English military, we must examine the roots of England…… [Read More]
Otherwise more data and creative solutions would be required in order to get some sense of how to maintain eel populations. The notion of doing a population survey in the Sargasso Sea is tempting, although it is difficult to see how this would be accomplished. Perhaps serious monitoring efforts on the return of the juveniles -- taking the place of harvesting of these juveniles -- could give some sense of the abundance of the species on a yearly basis. Otherwise a fishing ban or limit on the adult eel could be enacted if the numbers are as seriously depleted as is feared. But obviously the unusual life cycle makes the commercial farming of eels extremely difficult, as they do not mate in captivity. If this could somehow be accomplished, it would be a useful way to raise the numbers of the species.
2. The Ecosystems Approach to Management notes that…… [Read More]
Evidence of this can be seen with the company being slow to provide information, on the total amounts of oil that are leaking into the ocean and the various restrictions that they have placed on media coverage. (Lack of Transparency Afflicts Oil Spill Response 2010) This problematic, because when there are restrictions and the company is slow to release information, it appears as if they have something to hide. At which point, the public will become furious with the company, from their perceived unwillingness to cooperate. This could have negative political fallout, as various Congressional Committees and regulators will demand all documents relating to the spill. Once this take place, it sets the stage for an ugly showdown with Congress and the White House. Where, they could seek to force the company to disclose more documents and engage in criminal investigations, as these actions give the appearance that executives are…… [Read More]
change is found and the second is to analyze where it is located in Parker's Western Way of War. These changes can be classified in any one of the three ways namely that of "fits and starts, punctuated equilibrium, and continuity."
Geoffrey Parker was the man who came up with the initial proposal for the Western means of War in his book. He put forward this concept to be studied further and in greater detail than before. This man had much to say about that concept. For instance, in his view throughout the history of western warfare there have existed a common set of practices which appear again and again -- generation after generation. Parker believes this is why the history of the west is a history of victory. In his opinion this also explains why the west has nothing to fear from any army save for themselves (Parker, 2000).…… [Read More]
Technology in the Modern Age
Technology's Attempts to Address the Human Need in the Modern and Post-Modern Ages
Literary rouping One: The crisis of World War I and the lie of a technology's ability to sustain the human body and soul
as!" With this one word, Wilfred Owen's poem "Dulce Et Decorum Est" encompasses the sense of failure that many soldiers felt, regarding the promise of technology, throughout the duration of the First World War and during its immediate aftermath. In the previous era of capitalist industrialization, technology was seen, as part of the progressive movement and mechanized progress, as life giving and life-sustaining. However, the lie, in Owen's poem, of the value of technology, runs just as deep as the lie that it is sweet to die for one's country. The innovations of technology simply yield new ways for humanity to destroy other humans, based on arbitrary national groupings.…… [Read More]
Nevertheless, it is a conceptual change from government-sponsored conservation efforts of the past, which might have focused specifically in the same region on the manatee population, and thus played a pure game of numbers. To regard the Florida manatee instead as part of a larger ecosystem that must be monitored in numerous different ways requires a change in approach which is not always easy for a government agency to implement.
2. The chief conservation implication of introduced invasive species is that the invasive species is often very difficult to eradicate without serious disruption to the host ecosystem. An excellent example of an invasive species is presented by the zebra mussel, a small freshwater species of shellfish originally native to the freshwater lakes of southern ussia. The introduction of zebra mussels into the freshwater habitats of North America has allowed them to spread at astonishingly fast rates: the zebra mussel reproduces…… [Read More]
Case Study: Climate Change and Dealing with Sea Level Increase
Rising sea levels have emerged as one of the major concerns in today’s world because of the increased devastating impacts of climate change or global warming. While increase in sea levels is expected to affect the whole world, some regions will be affected more than others. One of the regions that will be significantly affected by sea level increase in China based on a recent report from Climate Central. China is among one of the major Asian countries that has experienced tremendous economic growth over the past few years. The country is characterized by faster-growing coastal megacities and a population of more than 145 million people. Actually, these coastal cities account for approximately 70% of China’s big cities and 41% of her population (Chen, p.925). These coastal areas play a critical role in the country’s GDP and national industrial output…… [Read More]
Eggleston, W. (1961). The Queen's Choice. Ottawa, Ontario: The National Capital Commission.
The city of St. John's can also borrow a leaf from the City of Ottawa's Greenbelt that was put in place to avoid urban sprawl and provide open space for future development of natural areas. According to Eggleston (1961), the Greenbelt currently covers forests, wetland, and fields used for recreation conservation, farming, research, and forestry. The greenbelt has a variety of wildlife that fall under the category of mammals, birds, insects, reptiles and amphibians. Wildlife is a source of revenue especially when tourists come to watch them. The revenue earned from such activities can be used in bettering service delivery to the city residents. This is an economic benefit that the authorities of the City of St. John's stand to benefit from if they put in place nature and wildlife reserves within the city's vicinity. The…… [Read More]
ebsite Three: http://www.sciencedaily.com.
Authority: Respected science-based online magazine
Accuracy: (a) since the ocean's food chain is based on "the growth of billions upon billions of microscopic plants" (including phytoplankton), and since new satellite data shows that ocean warming is "reducing these plants" this imperils marine life and ocean fisheries
Currency: Data for this Science article take from the journal Nature.
Purpose: Global warming is due to rising levels of carbon dioxide (burning of fossil fuels is largely responsible for the heating up of the planet).
Lindell, Nicole. "A Discordant Sea: Global arming and its Effect on Marine Populations."
About.com. Retrieved May 2, 2012, from http://geography.about.com. 2008.
Mackenzie, Brian R., and Schiedek, Doris. "Daily ocean monitoring since the 1860s shows record warming of northern European seas." Global Change Biology, Vol. 13, 1335-
Murphy, Kim. "U.S. suggests no emissions limits to protect polar bears." Los Angeles Times.
Retrieved May 1,…… [Read More]
These gunboats would devastate wildlife area and other immense and indefinite environmental impact. These tankers would carry liquefied natural gas or LNG in cruising through Head Harbor Passage. It would take at least 90 minutes for each tanker, the size of Queen Mary, to cross the passage of whale and porpoise feeding areas, breeding grounds and nurseries as well as aquaculture sites and fishing grounds (Figart).
The Passamaquoddy people and their ancestors have, for thousands of years, lived, fished, hunted and cultivated land in the Quoddy region (Harvey, 2004). They have thrived on marine species for survival. ut over 200 years of permanent European settlement in the region since the late 18th century introduced environmental predators and developers. With the passing of the years, they increased and became more and more efficient (Harvey). In response to the situation, the United Nations Environment developed the Global Programme of Action…… [Read More]
The Leblanc alkali production processes were especially pernicious, but they followed along the lines of previous industrial processes. In other words, the first British environmental legislation was a response not so much to a qualitative change in industrial processes and their environmental impact but more to a quantitative increase in sources of pollution that had up to that point been (if only barely) tolerable.
Legislation Arising From Public Anger
At the center of the first British environmental legislation was the Leblanc process, an industrial process that produced of soda ash (which is chemically sodium carbonate) that came into use in the first decades of the 19th century. Named after its inventor, Nicolas Leblanc, it replaced an older process in which soda ash had been produced from wood ash. However, as the availability of wood ash declined (because of deforestation, a process that was occuring both in Great Britain and across…… [Read More]
International egulation of Tourism in Antarctica
Since the mid-1980s, Antarctica has been an increasingly popular tourist destination, despite the relative danger of visiting the largest, least explored -- and arguably least understood -- continent on earth. Beginning with the 1959 treaty establishing Antarctica as an international zone free of claims of sovereignty by nation's that had been instrumental in establishing research stations there, there has been almost constant negotiation about how to administer regulations pertaining to the preservation of life forms on the continent, what those regulations should be, and what sanctions should be applied and by whom.
To understand the depths of the negotiations, and the potential for discord, it is necessary to understand what the continent offer the 65% of global nations that are party to the 1959 and all subsequent treaties. To understand the possible future of Antarctica, it is necessary to outline treaty attempts to minimize…… [Read More]
Osmoregulation is the process, by which the body adjusts to a change in an environment of different water volume and amount of solutes in a cells and body fluid of organisms including vertebrates. Vertebrates are animals, which have a backbone, and can be warm either blooded or cold blooded. The body of such organisms adjusts in order to maintain the body balance both inside and outside their bodies in mild and harsh environments ranging from seawater, fresh water, and terrestrial habitats to very hostile environments. Endocrine glands found in such organisms play a major role in constant and persistent regulation of body balance, which secretes hormones directly into the blood whenever the body witnesses any environmental change (Bentley 45).
Endocrine glands present in vertebrates play a major role in controlling the level of water and salt in vertebrate's bodies. Hormones produced in vertebrates play a major role…… [Read More]
Genomics and Implications for the Future
The Human Genome Project has completed its monumental mapping of the genetic sequence in human DNA, and the field of genomics is taking advantage of these initiatives and innovations in technology to pursue scientific inquiries that could not have been imagined just a few years ago. More importantly, perhaps, new applications are being discovered based on the growing body of scientific evidence being developed by this emerging science. To determine what genomics is and how it is being used today and may be used in the future, this paper provides an overview of the biochemistry involved in the study of genomics, followed by an analysis of current and future trends in this field. A summary of the research will be provided in the conclusion.
Review and Discussion
Background and Overview.
Today, genetic-engineering techniques are increasingly being applied to a growing number of life forms,…… [Read More]
Structure of Animals
Two animal phyla that can be compared and contrasted are Nematoda and Annelida. Nematoda are roundworms. There are more than 15,000 known species, with scientists estimating there may be as many as half a million species yet to be discovered (Waggoner, 2009). Nematoda have a worm-like appearance outside and a simple internal body structure. The phylum Annelida includes earthworms and their relatives, leeches, and a large number of mostly marine worms known as polychaetes (Waggoner, 2006). Annelids are characterized by their segmented bodies. They also have bristles on their bodies. It is estimated there are approximately 9,000 species of annelids today.
The Animal Phylogenetic Tree ("Mastering Biology," 2012) is a useful visual learning aid that is helpful in demonstrating the similarities and differences between these two phyla. The first diagram shows eight phyla, of which Nematoda and Annelida are two. Only one of the phyla, Porifera, is…… [Read More]
Additionally, conservationists suggest increasing patrols to improve overall enforcement of existing laws, better boundary demarcation, and the development of stronger hunting quotas. All of these measures require significant and lasting funding.
This Park is in a state of crisis. ith most of its large mammals now extinct from the Park, and illegal users on the rise, Park Rangers are simply outmatched. Poachers can find a thriving market for illegal bushmeat and rare birds. Illegal loggers easily find buyers for rare trees. The Park is under-staffed and under-funded and soon to face new challenges if the upstream dam is built along the Gambia River as planned.
The Galapagos Islands and the Niokola-Koba National Park represent two of Planet Earth's most valuable treasures. They contain biodiversity that not only provides scientific opportunity but may support the health of the entire ecosystem in their respective regions. Both sites are listed…… [Read More]