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Marine/maritime insurance has a history that dates back many hundreds of years, but is also an important component of vessels on the high seas in 2013. This paper covers the history of maritime insurance and brings the subject up-to-date with material from the recent literature.
History of Maritime Insurance
The growth of maritime insurance companies in the eighteenth century was "…one of the major developments in the history of English commerce," according to A.H. John, writing in the peer-reviewed journal Economica (John, 1958, p. 126). John writes that the origins of maritime insurance go back "…to the later middle ages," just a very small amount of "underwriting" was conducted prior to the American Civil War because there was great competition from important European commercial centres like Antwerp, Amsterdam, and Hamburg (126).
The author of this article explains that the maritime insurance market in London did not really expand…
Hinkelman, Edward G. 2008. Dictionary of International Trade 8th Edition. Librix.eu: Czech Republic.
Institute Marine Cargo Clauses. 1982. English Marine Insurance Act. Retrieved January 20, 2013, from http://www.jus.uio.no/lm/private.international.commercial.law/insurance.html .
John, A.H. 1958. 'The London Assurance Company and the Marine Insurance Market of the Eighteenth Century,' Economica, New Series, vol. 98, 126-141.
Martin, Frederick. 1876 (digitized, 2008). The history of Lloyd's and of marine insurance in Great Britain: with an appendix containing statistics relating to marine insurance. Harvard University: Boston, MA.
Maritime Labor Convention
Many seafarers ply across waters distant miles away from their homes. The categories of people in the maritime transport include the seafarers and ship owners. These people are often from different nationalities as ships operate under different flags, from their origin to other countries. The seafarers often face difficult conditions of working from their occupational risks. The fact that they work far from homes exposes them to challenges such as exploitation, abuse, non-paid wages, and non-compliance to the contracts, poor diet, poor living conditions and sometimes abandonment in foreign ports. This necessitated the industry to contract laws and expectations governing the industry. This is what constitutes the Maritime Labor Convention 2006. These set out the expected conditions of working, to grow the maritime standards into globalized standards. The STCW is among the security and quality management bodies of ships.
The maritime labor convention
The Maritime Labor Convention…
Dimitrova, D.N., & Blanpain, R. (2010). Seafarers' rights in the globalized maritime industry.
Alphen aan den Rijn, The Netherlands: Kluwer Law International.
International Labour Office. (2008). Compendium of maritime labour instruments: Maritime
Labour Convention, 2006, Seafarers' Identity Document (Revised) Convention, 2003,
Those investors even with peaked interest were and still are clearly reluctant to explore and excavate for resources if they will ultimately be told that such minerals do not belong to them, as a result of the region from which they came, or build semi-permanent offshore exploration and collection facilities if they risk being told later that they must move them as a result of where they are
Likely the most essential issue at hand with regard to maritime border delineation is the maintenance and enforcement of security for seagoing vessels of all sizes and kinds as well as for the definitions of aggression War and state aggression cannot be determined if such is based at sea and security forces of any kind have no value if they cannot enforce laws and borders within a certain set of agreed upon guidelines for appropriate action In this climate vessels…
. Mathias Albert, and Lothar Brock, "1 What Keeps Westphalia Together? Normative Differentiation in the Modern System of States," in Identities, Borders, Orders: Rethinking International Relations Theory ed. Mathias Albert, David Jacobson, and Yosef Lapid (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2001), 39.
. Mathias Albert, and Lothar Brock, "1 What Keeps Westphalia Together? Normative Differentiation in the Modern System of States," in Identities, Borders, Orders: Rethinking International Relations Theory ed. Mathias Albert, David Jacobson, and Yosef Lapid (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2001), 39.
. Allen Buchanan and Margaret Moore, eds., States, Nations, and Borders: The Ethics of Making Boundaries (Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 2003), 115.
The objective of this study is to answer the questions of what are the specific security challenges in a port maritime environment. This work will additionally describe the following as they pertain to port management security: (1) security survey; (2) risk-based decision-making; and (3) cost effective risk assessment. Finally, this work will answer the question of what is asymmetric warfare and will describe the megaports initiative.
Maritime Environment Security Challenges
The work of haskar and Kemp (2011) report security in the maritime environment to include "The security of chokepoints in the region -- the Straits of Hormuz, the ab-el-Mandeb, and the Indonesian Straits" stated to have become a "matter of great strategic importance for all maritime powers." (p.3) In addition stated is security challenges related to the "conflict in the Persian Gulf and piracy near ab-el-Mandeb, due in part to the failed state of Somalia, are two issues…
A Workshop Report. February 23-24, 2011 India International Centre New Delhi, India. Retrieved from: http://cftni.org/2011.7.18FullWorkshopSummary.pdf
Bhaskar, CU, and Kemp, G. (2009) Maritime Security Challenges in the Indian Ocean Region
Doctrine for Asymmetric Warfare (2003) Military Review. July -August 2003. Retrieved from: http://www.au.af.mil/au/awc/awcgate/milreview/ancker.pdf
Megaports Initiative (nd) National Nuclear Security Administration. Retrieved from: nnsa.energy.gov/sites/default/.../singlepages_9-15-2010.pdf
As our research warns, piracy is today a mode for undermining industrial shipping nations such as the U.S. and, as a result, connects closely with the political imperatives for undermining U.S. foreign policies that drive many terrorist groups. And as we find in our readings, piracy and terrorism have increasingly worked to common ends. Indeed, "despite the romantic image of pirates, the violent seizure of merchantmen on the high seas is a growing problem; in 2001, 335 incidents occurred, a figure that rose the following year to 370. In the first six months of 2003, 234 attacks against merchantmen were recorded, with the waters of the Indonesian archipelago being regarded as the most dangerous." (Daly, 1) the danger of this pattern is reinforced by the events which actually preceded and served as portent to September 11th. hen terrorists bombed the U.S.S. Cole, a battleship at port in Yemen, they demonstrated…
Daly, J.C.K. (2003). Al Qaeda and Maritime Terrorism, Part I. The Jamestown Foundation.
Graffagnini, M.J. (2004). A practical proposal for maritime security. MONDAQ Business Briefing.
maritime search & escue
The search and rescue (SA) program in Canada aims to save and protect lives within the maritime environment. Its objectives are to ensure that 100% of the lives at risk are saved, reduce severity and number of SA accidents, minimize loss of life, injury property damage and any environmental risk, increase the awareness of SA program and providing humanitarian aid and assistance where needed. However it has become increasingly difficult to achieve these objectives. This is as a result of several challenges that SA administrators face as they try to improve the emergency response capabilities in Canada. The paper will look at some of the challenges that the Canadian maritime search and rescue program faces when it comes to an improvement of their emergency response capabilities.
The assistance of volunteers is an element that is key when it comes to the maximization of the efficiency…
Canadian Coast Guard. (2013). Maritime Search and Rescue (SAR) in Canada. Retrieved May 24, 2013 from http://www.ccg-gcc.gc.ca/eng/CCG/SAR_Maritime_Sar
Fisheries and Oceans Canada. (2012). Canadian Coast Guard Search and Rescue and Canadian Coast Guard Auxiliary Evaluation Report. Retrieved May 24, 2013 http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/ae-ve/evaluations/11-12/SAR-CCGA-eng.htm
Fisheries and Oceans Canada. (2013). Marine Search and Rescue in Vancouver. Retrieved May 24, 2013 http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/media/back-fiche/2013/pac-SAR-eng.htm
Tor Einar, B. (2010). Challenges for SAR operations in the Barents Sea. Retrieved May 24, 2013 from http://www.ifremer.fr/web-com/sar2011/Presentations/SARWS2011_BERG.pdf
Private vessels and cruisers have built a gap within the international provision for maritime security.
The maritime industry has been greatly been affected by the terrorist attacks. This is a different environment from the 9/11 attacks. However, there is no major credibility to the threats because they have little effect to the nation compared to land attacks. esearch shows that the maritime attacks affect only the seaborne trade and movement of ships leaving lesser costs on the nation. The methods used to counter the threats are general although new standards are in place and every ship should meet its requirements. These measures have come up with raised costs in maritime security. There are extra charges that have been put in order to meet the rising costs in the region. It is notable that the maritime security is not getting enough funds compared to other security departments like Homeland Securities.…
Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), Security in Maritime
Transport: Risk Factors and Economic Impact, Paris: OECD, July 2003, p. 5
Rommel C. Banlaoi, 'Maritime Terrorism in Southeast Asia -- the Abu Sayyaf Threat', Naval
War College Review, Autumn 2005, Vol. 58, No. 4, pp. 63-80.
Maritime Transportation System or MTS is one of the critical infrastructure systems that promote economic activity by enabling the transfer of goods between national and international destinations throughout the globe. As a result of its role in promoting economic activity, Maritime Transportation System is one of the most important elements for the United States national security. However, maritime systems have become increasingly vulnerable to risks that could jeopardize smooth operations and contributes to direct and indirect financial losses. Some of these risks include organizational and environmental risks as well as security risks like terrorism. The risks to the smooth operations and effectiveness of maritime systems are classified into four major categories i.e. human, natural, organizational, and technological factors since they emerge from natural and man-made disasters. In the past few years, there has been significant focus on promoting the sustainability of Maritime Transportation System through dealing with these risks and…
A Concept of a Sustainable Maritime Transportation System. International Maritime
Organization. accessed May 16, 2015. http://www.imo.org/About/Events/WorldMaritimeDay/WMD2013/Documents/CONCEPT%20OF%20%20SUSTAINABLE%20MARITIME%20TRANSPORT%20SYSTEM.pdf
Christopher, Kenneth. Port Security Management (2nd ed.). Boca Raton, FL: Taylor & Francis
Women in Maritime Sector
THE IMPACT OF POMOTING WOMEN IN THE MAITIME SECTO
The participation of women in the maritime sector has traditionally been low due to historical, cultural and social factors. Although the percentage of women making up the maritime workforce has increased in recent years as a result of women's liberation movements and globalization, women are still found to be concentrated in housekeeping and hospitality functions in cruise vessels as opposed to working in the marine or galley areas. By encouraging more women to enter into areas that have traditionally remained dominated by men, a number of positive political and economic changes can be brought about. At the same time, there is the likelihood that certain social and cultural challenges may have to be dealt with.
The Positive Impact of Promoting Women in the Maritime Sector
Promoting women in the maritime sector can result in significant political and…
Belcher et al. (2003) Women Seafarers: Global employment policies and practices. Geneva: ILO.
Brown, T., & Brown, E. (2007). Life at Sea Survey 2007/08: Seafarer Attraction and Retention Survey Report. Shiptalk Publishing. Accessed on 24 September 2012 from http://www.mastermarinersa.co.za/captainslog/Attraction_and_Retention_Survey_Report.pdf
ITF. (2011). Making a Difference: Women Transport Workers in the 21st Century. ITF. Accessed on 24 September 2012 from http://www.itfcongress2010.org/files/extranet/-2/24694/10Eng-%2042C_14_WTWC_2_Annex%202%20[ITF%20Women%20-%20Making%20a%20Differe..pdf
May, T., & Powell, J.I. (2008) Situating Social Theory. 2nd Ed. Maidenhead: Open University Press.
Maintaining Peak Efficiency: Shipyards, the Merchant Marine Fleet, and New Technology
Saudi Arabia, in order to develop a powerful maritime economy, should take note from the actions and attitudes of other maritime nations such as Norway. The Norwegian authorities have long supported a holistic approach to maritime management, which is reflected in their interest in maintaining equal footing for a variety of maritime interests. These interests include fishing/aquaculture, maritime traffic, and marine infrastructure (Pidersen 2006).
Among the most important element in the Norwegian approach to maritime policymaking is the focus on the development of efficient seaports and other marine infrastructure (Pidersen 2006). For Saudi Arabia, this is especially important as existing infrastructure and technology isn't necessarily up to the tasks required.
Saudi Arabia currently has five major commercial ports and two industrial ports. The commercial ports are at Jiddah, Dammam, Jizan, Jubail, and Yanbu. The industrial ports are at Jubail…
Appleyard, B. 2005, October 16, 'Waiting for the lights to go out', Times Online, Available at http://www.timesonline.co.uk/article/0,2099-1813695_1,00.html
European Commission -- Maritime Policy Task Force 2006, 'Towards a future maritime policy for the Union: a European vision for the oceans and seas', Commission of the European Communities, Available at http://ec.europa.eu/maritimeaffairs
Harboring ambitions' 2006, June 23, MEED, vol. 50, no. 25, p. 66.
Pidersen, H. 2006, 'The Norwegian perspective on maritime policy', CPMP Project "Europe of the Sea" Bergen Seminar, Available at http://odin.dep.no/fkd/english/news/speeches/
After meeting Ms. Aida Ortiz, CMA's Human Relations Specialist, she presented a brief overview of the office and explained the particular responsibilities my internship would encompass during the two-week period. The first "order" was to have my port ID made. After being officially identified as part of the intern program, Ms. Ortiz and I attended the 0930 morning operations meeting. After the meeting, I worked with Jackie Fisher, supervisor of CMC Equipment Control. hile observing her work practices, I gained a firsthand overview of the department processes, which included: Equipment assignment, Vessel reconciliations, and Seal and eight Verification. My intern experience this day also included work with electronic data interchange computer system. During the afternoon, I received hands on experience comleteing Vessel Reconciliation; ensuring the containers were "married up" with the right chassis.
Tuesday November 6, 2007 on this day, I worked with Gloria Pratts in Freight Services, who secured…
Crowley. Crowley Maritime Corporation. 2003. 26 Mar. 2009. http://www.crowley.com/default.asp.
Crowley Announces Management Changes." Maritime Activity Reports, Inc. 29 Oct. 2007. Maritime Reporter and Engineering News in partnership with MarineLink.com. 26 Mar. 2009 http://marinelink.com/enUS/News/Article/Crowley-AnnouncesManagement-Changes/315883.aspx .
Crowley Completes Discharge of Gas Plant Modules and Equipment Across Beach in Angola, West Africa." Business Wire. Business Wire. 2008. HighBeam Research. 26 Mar. 2009 http://www.highbeam.com .
A www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-172981688.html"Crowley's green initiatives garner continued recognition by chamber of shipping of America." Defense Transportation Journal. National Defense Transportation Association. 2007. HighBeam Research. 26 Mar. 2009
ail and water or maritime transport could be said to be a better protector of the environment compared to road and air modes of transportation, due mainly to the amount of fuel used or burned per ton of cargo moved. Also, water or ocean vessels can provide a very diverse form of intermodal transport. Container ships have huge capacities given the standardized containers, and the larger ships being constructed today. There has been a significant amount of press coverage about ocean or water transport as being a safe mode of moving freight into the U.S. port systems. eporters have been probing experts about the safety of our sea ports. So, you, as an expert, are to address this issue now. Your question is, "What are the challenges at these ports from a national security viewpoint? "
There are many challenges at America's seaports, specifically security related. Sea ports, unlike roads…
Feng, Cheng-Min and Yuan, Chien-Yun. (2007). "Application of Collaborative Transportation
Management to Global Logistics: An Interview Case Study." International Journal of Management. Vol . 32, No. 12.
Haibo, Kuang and Shuwen, Chen. (2007). "The production efficiency of Chinese ports: An empiracal investigation." Science Research Management Vol. 12, No. 7.
Port Reform Toolkit Lecture. (2010).
ISPS Code on Maritime Security
Shipping is a business that has experienced rapid development in the past five decades as reflected in its increase by more than 450% during this period. The increase in shipping activities implies that nearly 90% of the global trade volumes are carried out by sea since a huge number of ships have to transport cargo between different ports. The increased use of ships to transport cargo between different ports has in turn generated considerable security threats. In essence maritime security has become a major issue in the recent past given the need to enhance security at ports. According to Christopher (2009), the momentum for focused and extensive management of port security has been fostered through policy response by the government (p.17). An example of such governmental policy response is the enactment of the ISPS Code, which has had considerable impacts on maritime security.
Adolf Ng, K.Y. (2009). Maritime Security Instruments in Practice: A Critical Review of the Implementation of ISPS Code in the Port of Hong Kong. Retrieved from International Center for Maritime Studies -- The Hong Kong Polytechnic University website: http://www.icms.polyu.edu.hk/Papers/IFSPA09-Papers/8_M056.pdf
Atterbury, D. (n.d.). Maritime Security in the 21st Century. Retrieved October 14, 2015, from http://www.steamshipmutual.com/Downloads/Articles/HudsonTridentMS.pdf
Center for International Maritime Security. (2014, July 15). The ISPS-Code and Maritime
Terrorism. Retrieved October 14, 2015, from http://cimsec.org/isps-code-maritime-terrorism/12098
While the Act certainly has international motivations and consequences, most of the acts of compliance and non-compliance are done by Americans and in American waters and on American soil. All reports indicate that the vast majority of the American vessels and ports succeeded in coming into compliance by that date.
In evaluating the legislation and whether or not it can be determined to be successful, several considerations are important. In the case of a federal law, is this is an area appropriate for federal intervention? Does the law purport to fulfill one of our nation's critical needs? If so, does the law set about fulfilling these needs in the least invasive means possible? What is the financial cost-benefit ratio of the law? Who has been impacted by the law? By answering these questions, one can determine whether or not a law is fair, efficient and effective.
Code of Federal Regulations (CFR). 2003. Title 33; §104.115
Drakos, P. (2004). Understanding the Maritime Security Regimes
Retrieved from Http://Www.Blankrome.Com/Index.Cfm ?
However, the situation dramatically changed upon the end of the Second World War, when the Canadian naval forces numbered more than 150.000 persons employed in this industry, including technicians, specialists, naval strategy developers, making it the third largest Allied naval force.
The maintenance strategy was also unsuccessful, since the vessels needed more harbour stationing days that operational days. This situation led, in turn to a series of unfortunate situations - the Canadian navy could not maintain a well-cooperation and synergy within the convoys since the ships and the personnel were in a continuous change - one time in the war waters, and one time in harbour decks, performing maintenance and other regular procedures.
Factors that explain the situation
In the opinion of the article writers, the main responsibility for Canada's inability to provide a proper flee relies in the hands of Central authorities, more specifically the Government, the ritish Admiralty,…
1) Milner, Marc the implications of technological Backwardness: the Canadian Navy 1939-45, Canadian Defence Quartely, 9,3 Canadian Military History: Selected Readings Pg 298-312
2) Sarty, Roger the Maritime Defence of Canada, 1996, Pg 183-216
Subsequent to Bryant's editorial, of course, new policies and processes have been put in place, and the communication has seen vast improvement.
Many procedures for port safety are authored on Coast Guard Island, part of the city of alameda, where Coast Guard professionals keep their eyes on about 10,000 vessels "…on any given day," Carl Nolte writes in the San Francisco Chronicle. The procedure that is most important for the Coast Guard -- the "weapons system" -- is not gathering information but the careful analysis of information. "e track and predict events," said Coast Guard Commander Rocky Cole; the Coast Guard knows who is driving every ship, what the cargo is supposed to be, when it is expected into which port; and the Coast Guard receives this information from the CIA (that tracks vessels from satellites), from the Navy, and from news reports. Any suspected smugglers or terrorists are identified…
Bryant, Dennis L. (2001). Protecting U.S. Ports. Traffic World, 265(40), p. 19.
Caldwell, Stephen L. (2006). Maritime Security: Information-Sharing Efforts are Improving.
Testimony before the Subcommittee on Government Management, Finance, and Accountability, Committee on Government Reform, House of Representatives. U.S.
Government Accountability Office (GAO). Retrieved June 24, 2012, from http://www.gao.gov/cgi-bin/getrpt-GAO-06-933T .
Navies in American Revolution
For hundreds of years, maritime expansion represented the only way to reach distant shores, to attack enemies across channels of water, to explore uncharted territories, to make trade with regional neighbors and to connect the comprised empires. Leading directly into the 20th century, this was the chief mode of making war, maintaining occupations, colonizing lands and conducting the transport of goods acquired by trade or force. Peter Padfield theorized that ultimately, ritish maritime power was decisive in creating breathing space for liberal democracy in the world, as opposed to the autocratic states of continental Europe like Spain, France, Prussia and Russia. The Hapsburgs, the ourbons, Hitler and Stalin all failed to find a strategy that would defeat the maritime empires, which controlled the world's trade routes and raw materials. Successful maritime powers like ritain and, in the 20th Century, the United States, required coastlines with deep…
Black, Jeremy, "Naval Power, Strategy and Foreign Policy, 1775-1791" in Michael Duffy (ed). Parameters of British Naval Power, 1650-1850. University of Exeter Press, 1992, pp. 93-120.
Black, Jeremy. European Warfare in a Global Context, 1660-1815. Routledge, 2007.
Dull, Jonathan R. A Diplomatic History of the American Revolution. Yale University Press, 1985.
Kelly, J.K. "The Struggle for American Seaborne Independence as Viewed by John Adams." PhD Dissertation, University of Maine, 1973.
[footnoteRef:24] in the Archaic Period, Ancient Greece's initial maritime power was critical but also "sporadic."[footnoteRef:25] During the Classical Period, Athens in particular "pursued a policy of naval imperialism"[footnoteRef:26] and this Period saw the development of "siege warfare" in which the Greeks -- particularly the Athenians -- developed the skills to wage war on the open sea.[footnoteRef:27] in the Hellenistic Period, the scope of warfare was enlarged considerably, as whole areas of land were now in dispute. Consequently, there was an "ancient naval arms race"[footnoteRef:28] in which various kings extending beyond Greece fought for control of mainland Greece, islands of the Aegean, western Turkey and southern Syria.[footnoteRef:29] [21: EH.Net and C. Michael Hogan. "Economy of Ancient Greece." www.eoearth.org Web site. May 1, 2010. http://www.eoearth.org/article/Economy_of_Ancient_Greece (accessed January 17, 2013).] [22: Chester G. Starr. The Influence of Sea Power on Ancient History. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, Inc., 1989, 7.] [23: Ibid.,…
Women Participation in Marine Industry
The Relation Ship between the Participation of Woman in Maritime Sectors and Various Policy Organizations
Women represent a considerable portion of the world's labor force. However they face the hurdles of wage discrimination, harassment, and occupational segregation which ultimately limit their economic advancement. Historically, marine industry does not tend to be a successful career path for women. However, with the passage of time women have penetrated quite deeply in this marine industry. This essay highlights the participation of women in marine industry and the role played by policy making organizations like International Transport Federation (ITF), Seafarers International Research Center (SIRC), International Labor Organization (ILO), and International Maritime Organization (IMO). It explains the extent to which these various marine bodies are addressing the issue of gender.
The Relation Ship between the Participation of Woman in Maritime Sectors and Various Policy Organizations
Traditionally marine industry has been…
Belcher, P. Sampson, H., Thomas, M., Veiga, J. & Zhao, M. (2003). Women Seafarers: Global
Employment Practices and Policies, Geneva: International Labor Organization.
Dcomm (2003). Women seafarers: Fighting against the tide? As on land, so by sea: Women join
the ranks of seafarers, World of Work Magazine, 49, Retrieved September 29, 2012, from http://www.ilo.org/global/publications/magazines-and-journals/world-of-work-magazine/articles/WCMS_081322/lang -- en/index.htm
International Ship and Port Security (Isps) Code on Maritime Security
Impact of the International Ship and Port Security (ISPS) Code on Maritime Security
The study will be based on the question that "What is the impact of the International Ship and Port Security (ISPS) Code on Maritime Security." Answers will be sought to have this question addressed adequately.
The study feels that the ISPS Code has some impacts upon the Maritime Security in the world. Thus, the study seeks to uncover the various impacts that are realized by the Maritime Security as offered by the ISPS.
The influence and functionality of the existing ISPS Code run globally. Its effects, as part of its usefulness and importance, are felt by the Maritime Security among other agents of security in the world. Thus, the study will uncover the impacts caused by the ISPS Code on the Maritime Security in various parts…
At the time, the industry sought to examine both oil pollution in general and ocean dumping as well as land-based sources of ocean pollution. According to ang, "More significant was the rapid technological development in the design of large-sized oil tankers which required constant rule changes. By 1973 it was evident that the 1954 convention provisions were inadequate or outdated, and by then the likelihood of the 1954 convention coming into force was rather doubtful" (334).
The new protocol ultimately entered into force in January 1978. The 1973 version of MARPOL was comprised of 20 articles concerning general obligations under the convention (e.g., prohibition of violation of requirements, rules for ship inspection, enforcement, reporting on incidents involving harmful substances, and most importantly, five technical annexes or regulations on 1) oil pollution; 2) control of noxious liquid substances in bulk; 3) harmful substances carried by sea in package forms or in…
Advice on Impact of Reduction in Sulfur Content of Marine Fuels Marketed in the EU." (2002, January 1). European Commission Study C.1/01/2002.
Brewer, Stuart. (2005, March 15). "Marpol Annex VI sets sulphur test." DNV Germany. [Online]. Available: http://www.dnv.de/Publikationen/classification_news/class_news_1_2005/MarpolAnnexVIsetssulphurtest.asp.
Chasek, Pamela S. Earth Negotiations: Analyzing Thirty Years of Environmental Diplomacy. New York: United Nations University Press, 2001.
Consultation Paper regarding the European Commission's proposal for a Directive amending Directive 1999/32/EC as regards the sulphur content of marine fuels. (2003, July). European Parliament.
Flags of Convenience as they pertain to maritime oil pollution. The writer explores UN and MARPOL mandates and discusses the Flags of Convenience. The writer then ties them into maritime oil pollution and presents recommendations for how this might be solved. There were 15 sources used to complete this paper.
As the world populations continues to grow and live longer than ever before it has become apparent that natural resources must be guarded with the utmost care and protection. It is those natural resources allow mankind to survive therefore their preservation is paramount to the success of the future. One of the biggest threats to the eco-system today is the threat of oil pollution. Through spills, dumping and other accidents the oil pollution in the world has threatened significant areas of the eco-system that are depended on. In recent decades there have been measurements taken to prevent oil pollution from…
e. By salving the ship and cargo) (IMO, 1989). This was to acknowledge the need to treat environmental degradation as a global problem and to encourage sustainable practices on the part of all contractual parties involved international shipping.
Damage to the environment is defined as "substantial physical damage to human health or to marine life" and under the Convention the awarded "compensation consists of the salvor's expenses, plus up to 30% of these expenses if, thanks to the efforts of the salvor, environmental damage has been minimized or prevented (SCOPIC, 2007). The salvor's expenses and financial distress are defined as "out-of-pocket expenses reasonably incurred by the salvor in the salvage operation and a fair rate for equipment and personnel actually and reasonably used" (SCOPIC, 2007). The tribunal or arbitrator between the two parties alleging a breach of contract "may even reward 100% of the agreed upon sum, in light of…
"Chapter 5: Fundamental breach, deviation, quasi-deviation, and rupture of the contract."
July 8, 2009.
"International Convention on Salvage, 1989." International Maritime organization (IMO).
Is China a status quo or aggressive power?
Johnston (2013) argues that China's allegedly new assertiveness is nothing of the sort. He makes the case that this view underestimates the aggressiveness of past Chinese foreign policy, and that the country has not really changed its level of assertiveness. This aligns with the explanations that Fravel (2007) has of past hard power that China has used in border disputes, which also highlights that there has been aggression in the past. The author also argues that the assertiveness level of Chinese foreign policy since 2010 has been overstated. The crux of the argument made is that China was always assertive in certain contexts with respect to foreign policy, and it remains assertive in those contexts. The level of assertiveness has not actually changed much. Perhaps people are just noticing it more -- he literally shows a graph of news articles about…
Callahan, W. (2012). China's strategic futures. Asian Survey. Vol. 52 (4) 617-642.
Fravel, M. (2007). Power shifts and escalation explaining China's use of force in territorial disputes. International Security. Vol. 32 (3) 44-83.
Huang, Y. & Ding, S. (2006). Dragon's underbelly: An analysis of China's soft power. East Asia Vol. 23 (4) 22-44.
Hughes, C. (2011). Reclassifying Chinese nationalism: The geopolitik turn. Journal of Contemporary China Vol. 20 (71) 601-620.
New York Court of Appeals
The Honorable Jenny Rivera
African Diaspora Case
Should the court should affirm the appellate court's decision and reject summary judgment in favor of GYYC? Answering this overriding question requires examining whether the parties entered into a contract, but the issue of whether the contract was breached is a factual issue, which should be solved at trial, not through the summary judgment process. There are four issues related to whether or not the parties' actions formed a contract. First, is the Protocol an offer or, instead, a solicitation for an offer? If the Protocol is an offer, what are the terms of the offer? How does the Protocol evidence an intent by GGYC to be bound? Bound to what? If the Protocol is an offer, how can the offer be accepted? Has ADM accepted the offer? hat is the consideration in the contract alleged by ADM?…
African Diaspora Maritime Corp. v. Golden Gate Yacht Club, 109 A.D.3d 204 (2013), Majority & Dissenting opinions
African Diaspora Maritime Corp. v. Golden Gate Yacht Club, 38 Misc.3d 1214 (N.Y. Co. 2013),
Opinion of Justice Kapnick
Sargent v. N.Y. Daily News, L.P., 42 A.D.3d 491 (2d Dep't 2007)
The Maritime Revolution occurred at the turn of the 1500s and began in full swing around 1550. It was started by many nation states within Europe at roughly the same time. Spain and England were the two early contributors to the Maritime Revolution, and many other European states soon followed. The Tudors of England and Queen Isabel and King Ferdinand of Spain were the main drivers behind this revolution. For the first time, Spain had complete control over its government following the union of Ferdinand and Isabella, in the wake of peace they turned their sites to new conquests the expansion of Spanish control. As a result, the Maritime Revolution occurred as Europe hastened to explore the world to discover unknown territories and new outlets for commerce. Spain was the first to sponsor such expeditions with the most famous being Christopher Columbus and his discovery of the Americas. Columbus's predecessors…
The NATUNA SEA sinking incident occurred on October 3, 2000 on the rock-strewn outcrop of Batu Berhanti in Indonesia when it was headed to Jinzhou, China. The grounding of the NATUNA SEA took place approximately 6NM from the tanker’s manager’s office (Ferguson, 2002). This incident had devastating effects because of the oil spill into the sea, which was nearly 3 years after the EVOIKOS oil spill. Since the occurrence of this incident, the shipping industries in Singapore and Indonesia have embarked on several initiatives to prevent future accidents and their subsequent oil spills. These industries have also been keen in ensuring oil pollution from such incidents are avoided or mitigated. However, there is need for more initiatives to be undertaken by the shipping industry in order to prevent and deal with such incidents in an effective manner.
Brief Description of the Ship
NATUNA SEA was a Panamanian tanker that was…
International Safety Management
ISM safety code
Acting as a mandatory regulation, ISM Code usually lays down standards of shipowner's responsibility for safe management of ships and pollution prevention accepted internationally. The obligation of the shipment owner is to establish, maintain as well as implement a Safety Management System that is to meet the ISM Code's requirements.
The aspects of civil liability's impact is to be focused on the impact on liability of shipowner for cargo loss or damage, in addition to shipowner's legal right to limit his liability for claims. Some of the concepts such as seaworthiness, actual fault and privity, crew's negligence, the role of the designated person and recklessness with knowledge are to be considered. There has already been a change in the conditions in terms of policies that meet the requirement of the ISM Code through Hull and Machinery (H & M) underwrites and protection…
Gold, E (1996). 'Lessons in Corporate Responsibility: Learn From Disaster?' The
ISM Code Implementation in Practice- Corporate Risk: BIMCO Shipping Courses
Copenhagen, Denmark). BIMCO. Copenhagen: BIMCO, pg 15-18.
Levy, H (1996). 'The P & I Club -- How do the clubs evaluate the ISM Code'. The ISM Code Implementation in Practice -Corporate Risk: BIMCO Shipping Courses: Copenhagen, Denmark). BIMCO. Copenhagen: BIMCO, 15-18).
Fearfulness of non-state actors remains salient, but what is particularly interesting is the way ussia and China are singled out as nations with whom the United States is not currently engaged in war with but which nevertheless present peculiar threats. The Department of Defense's National Defense Strategy notes that China's blossoming wealth has also enabled the proliferation of its military, which threatens peace in the Straits of Taiwan and potentially beyond. ussia presents its own realm of problems, especially in light of the failure of democracy to take root there.
The supremacy of the United States as a global military power is an underlying message in these strategy papers, which are written as much to motivate and inspire as to guide policy. isk management is addressed within a characteristically confident framework, reflecting the overall ambition of America's military strategies. Commitments to far-reaching objectives in Iraq and Afghanistan are toughed upon,…
Department of Defense (2010). Quadrennial defense review report.
Department of Defense (2008). National defense strategy.
"The National Military Strategy of the United States of America." (2011).
"National Security Strategy." (2010).
A b) Fire, unless caused by the actual fault or privity of the carrier.
Perils, dangers and accidents of the sea or other navigable waters.
A d) Act of God.
A e) Act of war.
A f) Act of public enemies.
A g) Arrest or restraint of princes, rulers or people, or seizure under legal process.
A h) Quarantine restrictions.
A i) Act or omission of the shipper or owner of the goods, his agent or representative.
A j) Strikes or lockouts or stoppage or restraint of labor from whatever cause, whether partial or general.
A k) Riots and civil commotions.
A l) Saving or attempting to save life or property at sea.
A m) Wastage in bulk of weight or any other loss or damage arising from inherent defect, quality or vice of the goods.
A n) Insufficiency of packing.
A o) Insufficiency or inadequacy of marks.
Hakan, Karan (2005) the Carrier's Liability Under international Maritime Convention - the Hague, Hague-Visby and Hamburg Rules. Mellen Press. Online available at http://www.mellenpress.com/mellenpress.cfm?bookid=6235&pc=9
Reynolds, Frances (1990) the Hague Rules, the Hague-Visby Rules, and the Hamburg Rules. 7 MLAANZ Journal. Online available at http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/journals/ANZMLJ/1990/2.pdf
Tetley, William QC (2004) Interpretation and Construction of the Hague, Hague-Visby and Hamburg Rules. 2994 10 Jiml 30-70. Online available at http://www.mcgill.ca/files/maritimelaw/rulesinterpretation.pdf
The Hague-Visby Rules - the Hague Rules as Amended by the Brussels Protocol 1968 multilateral Lex Mercatoria www.lexmercatoria.org. Accessed online at http://www.jus.uio.no/lm/sea.carriage.hague.visby.rules.1968/doc.html
Military -- ritish Royal Navy
Great ritain's geography, society, economy and politics are all ideally intimately connected. The interplay of these forces, along with Great ritain's early and continuing recognition of their importance, fostered the strongest navy possible for protecting the nation's economic and military interests. As a result, the Royal Navy eventually grew to become the dominant maritime global force by the 18th Century.
The interplay among Great ritain's geography, society, economy and politics was so organic in the rise of the Royal Navy to a dominant maritime force by the 18th Century that it is difficult to examine one aspect without also speaking of the others. Geographically, Great ritain's financial districts had access to national and international markets through its multiple ports on the sea, which gave even the smallest ports of the nation the advantages and difficulties of international trade.[footnoteRef:1] Unlike France, for example, Great ritain's economic…
Kennedy, Paul M. The Rise and Fall of British Naval Mastery (Paperback). Amherst, NY: Humanity Books, 2006.
Rodger, N.A.M. The Command of the Ocean: A Naval History of Britain, 1649-1815. New York, NY W.W. Norton & Company, Inc., 2005.
Starr, Chester G. The Influence of Sea Power on Ancient History. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, Inc., 1989.
"When a court strikes a contract provision for unconscionability it is declaring that provision is so unfair or oppressive that the court will refuse to enforce it." (Gillespie, 2007). The Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution provides that, "Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction." (U.S. Const. amend. XIII, 1). The contract that the parties signed purported to make Mrs. Lowell the property of Mr. Lowell. Because the Lowells are Americans and purchased their ticket in America, it is unlikely that an American court would recognize Mr. Lowell's ability to contract away his wife's right to be recognized as a legal individual in a contract dispute. Furthermore, the Fourteenth Amendment guarantees Mrs. Lowell the equal protection of the laws, (U.S. Const. amend. XIV, 1)…
Cruise Lines International Association. (2008). Personal safety and security. Retrieved December 9, 2008 from Cruise Lines International Association
Web site: http://www.cruising.org/industry/personal_safety_security.cfm
Fl. Stat. 731.301(b)(1).
Gillespie, D. (2007). Survey of Illinois law: contract law. Retrieved December 9, 2008 from Southern Illinois University School of Law
History Naval Warfare
What was naval power in the age of sail and how did different sea going states exercise it from the period 1650-1850?
"There is a deep landlubber bias in historical and social research," writes Charles King. "History and social life, we seem to think, happen on the ground. What happens on the water…is just the scene-setter for the real action when the actors get where they are going. ut oceans, seas, and rivers have a history of their own, not merely as highways or boundaries but as central players in distinct stories of human interaction and exchange." Current essay is an exploration of the naval power and sea command during the period of the age of sail (1650-1850). The author has mentioned the war history and war strategies of major navies and sailors during this era. The author has also discussed how different sea going states exercise…
BibliographyAmes, Glenn Joseph. "Colbert, Mercantilism, and the French Quest for Asian Trade." DeKalb, IL: Northern Illinois University Press, (1996).Black, Jeremy. "Britain as a Military Power, 1688-1815." London: UCL Press, (1999).Boxer, C.R. "The Portuguese Seaborne Empire, 1415-1825." London: Hutchinson, (1969). Brewer, John. "Sinews of Power: War, Money and the English State, 1688-1783." Cambridge: Harvard University Press, (1988).Charles King, "The Black Sea: A History" Oxford: Oxford University Press (2004), 3.Diamond, Jared. "Guns, Germs, and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies." New York W.W. Norton & Co., (1997).Kennedy, Paul M. "The Rise and Fall of British Naval Mastery." Malabar, FL.: Robert E. Krieger, (1982).Pearson, M.N. Merchants and Rulers in Gujarat: The Response to the Portuguese in the Sixteenth Century. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1976.Timothy Brook, The Confusions of Pleasure: Commerce and Culture in Ming China (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1998), 12.Warren I. Cohen East Asia at the Center: Four Thousand Years of Engagement with the World (New York: Columbia University Press, 2000), 88.]
The author discussed the sea power in the age of sail i.e., 1650-1800 and how different countries adopt this power. For this purpose the author analyzed main sea powers during this period i.e., Purtogues, Dutch, French and English in the Atlantic Ocean and Chinese navy. The author concluded that sea power was the main source of authority for any country. The courtiers with powerful fleet ships and navy were dominant in the world.
Mostly the countries having command on sea used this dominance to expand trade. There are also evidences of unfair means to occupy other countries as well to maintain this occupation. The author also discussed how the British Royal Navy used impressments system to forcefully include the seaman in the Royal Navy.
Search and Rescue is the search that is done to provide aid to the people who are feeling distressed or any sort of obvious danger. The general field of SAR encompasses many sub-fields that are generally acknowledged by the sort of terrain over which the search has been conducted. The types of terrain include ground search and rescue, which also includes the use of dogs for search and rescue. This is a kind of search and rescue that is done in the urban settings. Other kinds include the mountain rescue, combat search and rescue that is done on the battlefield and finally the air-sea rescue that is done over water. In this paper, particular importance will be given with respect to the last kind of SAR.
In Malta, the responsibility of SAR pertaining to search and rescue comes under the Armed Forces of Malta. This is conducted by the maritime…
Arteaga, Felix (2007). State-of-the-art Operations: The Canary Islands Regional Coordination Centre (Centro de Coordinacion Regional de Canarias -- CCRC).
MaltaMedia News. (January 2008). "Search & Rescue meeting between Libya and Malta."
SAR Seamanship Reference Manual (2000).Minister of Public Works and Government Services.
Search and Rescue Training Centre - Armed Forces of Malta (2004). "Search and Rescue (SAR) in Malta."
The goods from Asia were shipped to Venice and Genoa from where they were carried over the Alps to France and Germany, or through the strait of Gibraltar to Britain and the Scandinavian countries. The Black Sea port of Caffa, controlled by the Genoese during the 14th century, was an important terminal point on the silk route. Apart from the fur and slaves that it normally imported, Caffa is also reputed to have introduced the dreaded "Black Death" epidemic to Europe through fleas on rats that traveled on Genoese ships to Constantinople. (Ibid)
Genoese Trade with the Ottomans
Until the rise of the Ottoman Empire in the 14th century, the Genoese had prospered in trading through their relations with the Byzantines, the Christian principalities of the East, and even their sworn enemies -- the Arabs, while fighting for domination of trade with Venice. Thereafter, most of their trading activities depended…
Carden, Robert W. The City of Genoa. London: Methuen, 1908.
Epstein, Steven A. Genoa & the Genoese, 958-1528. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1996.
Fleet, Kate. European and Islamic Trade in the Early Ottoman State: The Merchants of Genoa and Turkey. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 1999.
Genoese Trade Route." Roman Art Lover Website. N.d. September 1, 2005. http://members.tripod.com/romeartlover/Galata.html
This led to the development of different techniques such as ramming. As the presence of the Athenian navy, meant that there was a focus on those tactics that will benefit everyone the most in battle.
Once they disabled the enemy's ships, is the point when they had a significant advantage. This gives them the element of surprise by utilizing tactics that no one else is expecting. Furthermore, the Athenians continually were drilling for a variety of scenarios and exercises. This helped to better coordinate their fleet and prepare them for different situations they encountered.
These tactics were used in the Second Peloponnesian War to defeat the Corinthian fleet. In this particular case the Athenians deceived them; into thinking that they were retreating. However, after they were chased to a certain point, is when the Athenian navy turned around and attacked. This resulted in the Corinthians experiencing significant losses. These elements…
Baer, George. One Hundred Years of Sea Power: The U.S. Navy, 1890-1990. Palo Alto: Stanford University Press, 1996.
Starr, Chester G. The Influence of Sea Power on Ancient History. New York: Oxford University Press, 1989.
Turabian Format http://www.libs.uga.edu/ref/turabian2009.pdf
Baer, George. One Hundred Years of Sea Power: The U.S. Navy, 1890-1990. (Palo Alto: Stanford University Press, 1996).1-9.
Human Factor in Cargo Security
Is Human Factor important Cargo Security
Cargo security I one of the major issues handled with priority by Homeland security department in United States of America. It is regarded as a positional facilitator in terrorism activities. Another notable factor in implementing security measures for cargo was theft as a direct business cost for U.S. It is observed that businesses lost $15b to $30 billion as a loss to cargo theft in 2006. The research further states that personnel access, vehicles access, and proliferation of papers are one of the major causes of cargo theft. It is evident that certain factors have a direct influence on maintaining security for cargo. Technology, processes, procedures, systems, and all of the above human involvement are major issues in cargo security. It requires maintaining a high level of integrity for all these factors to reduce risk in cargo transportation.
Giermanski, J. (2011, June 01). Facing the realities and probabilities of enhancing supply chain security. The Maritime Executive, Retrieved from http://www.maritime-executive.com/article/facing-the-realities-and-probabilities-of-enhancing-supply-chain-security/
Giermanski, J. (2012). Global Supply Chain Security. USA: Rowman & Littlefield.
Iseby, J. (2008). 9/11 Comm Recommendations. USA: Nova Science Pub Incorporated.
Ivanov, D., & Sokolov, B.V. (2010). Adaptive supply chain management. London: Springer verlag.
Norwegians are credited with being the first Europeans to discover North America. The Norwegian/Icelander Leiv Eiriksson reached America by way of Norse settlements in Greenland circa A.D. 1000, nearly five centuries before Columbus. It is usually agreed that the Norwegian settlers in Greenland founded the capital settlement of Vinland at L'Anse aux Meadows, and that their territory included the entire isle of Newfoundland. Just how much they explored further past the Canadian Maritime Provinces in North America has been a matter of discussion for the past hundred years among romantic and ethnic nationalists as well as some lay historians. Some widely disputed evidence suggests that Norwegians having made a lot of settlements much further into the North American mainland than was thought before (Norwegian-Americans, 2011).
Norwegian migration to North American is thought to have started in July 1825, with the sailing of the sloop estauration from Stavanger bound for…
A Brief History of Norwegian -- American Immigration. (1999). Retrieved from http://homepages.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~norway/na1.html
Douglas, D.V. (2011). Norwegian-American Immigration and Local History: Introduction.
Retrieved from http://www.loc.gov/rr/genealogy/bib_guid/norway.html
Norwegian-Americans. (2011). Retrieved from http://www.norway.org/News_and_events/Norway-in-the-U.S./Norwegian-American -
Aux Bons Soins Enterprise Systems Strategy
Strategic Assessment of the Aux Bons Soins (ABS)
Information Technologies (IT) and Enterprise Systems Strategy
Having grown both from a series of acquisitions and a continual series of internal strategies to retain and grow their customer base, Aux Bons Soins (ABS) Information Technologies (IT) infrastructure has grown widely distributed to the point of being fragmented. The acquisitions of General Maritime Protection and Western General Insurance have created significant challenges in integrating their IT infrastructures into the ABS IT systems platforms and architectures. The senior management team anticipated a certain degree of overlap of system licensing, resources, functions and roles, yet didn't realize how much the duplication would slow response to customers. Concerned with the slow response to customers and market conditions, in addition to the continual discovery of just how inconsistent the reporting processes are across the three divisions, the senior management team initiates…
Jackson, G.. (2011). Leading an IT Organization Out of Control. EDUCAUSE Review, 46(4), 32.
Bjorn Johs. Kolltveit, Bjorn Hennestad, & Kjell Gronhaug. (2007). IS projects and implementation. Baltic Journal of Management, 2(3), 235.
Karen Lindquist. (2007). HR's role in mergers and acquisitions. Strategic HR Review, 6(3), 3. R
Vincenzo Morabito, Marinos Themistocleous, & Alan Serrano. (2010). A survey on integrated IS and competitive advantage. Journal of Enterprise Information Management, 23(2), 201-214.
AFICA'S PETOLEUM AND CHINA'S ECONOMIC GOWTH AND DEVELOPMENT
How Africa's Petroleum Supply Is Important to China's Economic Growth and Development
While China continues to grow, its oil demand is poised to grow rapidly. For China to ensure its oil security, it must obtain oil from the global world because it lacks adequate domestic resources to quench the thirsty appetite of the country's rapid economic development. Any approach for growth that the country takes in its demand for oil is likely to affect the global oil market and influence existing system and order of international oil. As one of its oil strategy, China's firms are reaching every corner of the world to purchase oil or invest in oil fields showing to have opportunities disregarding the possible enormous risks. Some of China's national oil enterprises have made outstanding investment activities in African countries (Ma, 2010). Today, China's largest imports from Africa continue…
Bhaumik, T.K. (2009). Old China's new economy: The conquest of a billion paupers. New Delhi: SAGE.
Brewer, J. & Miklancic, M. (2013). Convergence: illicit networks and national security in the age of globalization. Published for the Center for Complex Operations Institute for National Strategic Studies By National Defense University Press Washington, D.C.
Buss, T.F. (2011). African security and the African command: Viewpoints on the U.S. role in Africa. Sterling, VA: Kumarian Press.
Cheung, Y.-W., & Haan, J. (2013). The evolving role of China in the global economy. Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press.
Oceans have, since long in history, been known as a means of transportation. However, in contrast to a couple of decades ago, ships today transport goods more than they do people. The emergence of intercontinental air travel made air transport relatively cheaper and perhaps more preferable to sea travel over long distances. As a result, sea travel today is largely limited to recreational cruises and shorter trips such as ferry services.
As globalization increased, markets became more open to trade; as a result, demand levels escalated, and so and did shipping volumes. The international trade growth rate was consistently reported to be twice that of aggregate economic activity between 1950 and 2000 (Clark, 2002). Between 2000 and 2001, for instance, world trade grew at an average annual rate of 5.4%, while economic activity, measured by global GDP, only grew at annual average of 3%. This trend has seen global…
Clark, R.P. (2002). Global Awareness: Thinking Systematically around the World. Lanham, Maryland: Rowman and Littlefield Publishers.
Hofstra University. (2014). The Geography of Transport Systems. Hofstra University Library. Retrieved 1 April 2014 from http://people.hofstra.edu/geotrans/eng/ch3en/conc3en/benefits_containerization.html
permissive attitude towards London sailor-town exist during the 1850-1860, and how did it change during the 1900-1910?
The main Theories Fronted
Although the marine community came from diverse backgrounds, the seafarers ashore had acquired a debauched image long before the 16th Century. The seafarers have won the appraisal of researchers for their role since then. According to Lee[footnoteef:1], seafarers had delinked themselves from the usual expected bonds and roles in society as otherwise expected of all humans. They were believed to be vulnerable to being misled and were believed to be strangers to the civilized, polite norms of contemporary human decorum. Once seafarers went ashore, they were inclined to being irresponsible beings. They could engage in drunkenness as of habit. They practiced little restraint in general. The seafarers most likely committed many other ills while at sea. The lack of societal control that normally provides a steadying influence meant that…
Beaven, Brad. "The resilience of sailortown culture in English Naval Ports, c. 1820 -- 1900." Urban History 43, no. 01 (2016): 72-95.
Burton, V.C., 1985. Counting Seafarers: The Published Records of the Registry of Merchant Seamen 1849 -- 1913. The Mariner's Mirror, 71(3), pp.305-320.
Casson, Mark, and Mary B. Rose. "Institutions and the evolution of modern business: Introduction." Business History 39, no. 4 (1997): 1-8.
Edwards, J. and Holm, P., North Sea Ports and Harbours. Adaptations to Change. In Second Nord Sea History Conference, Esbjerg 1991.
The concept of Marine insurance is something that has been developing at a fast rate of late. (Marine Insurance: Barlow, Lyde and Gilbert) What exactly is insurance and how long has the concept been recognized? Insurance can be defined as a form of provision of a safety net for the distribution of risks. This is generally made in the form of a financial provision that is meant to protect against losses that may occur due to certain unavoidable reasons. Insurance works like this: a person who wishes to insure an object or possession or belonging of his will pay a certain amount of money that has already been fixed by the insurance agent in order to offer the security of the money to distribute the risks when the insurer happens, by misfortune, to lose his possession or damage it because of an unavoidable reason. The insurer, by the…
Admiralty Law.com" Retrieved at http://www.admiraltylaw.com/papers/2000.htm. Accessed on 19 September, 2004
Averagium" Retrieved at http://harvey-ashby.co.uk/Averagium%20-%20Winter%202002.pdf. Accessed on 19 September, 2004
Commercial Hull" (2004) Retrieved at http://www.veromarine.co.nz/dirvz/marine/marine.nsf/content/ProductsHullCommercialHullAccessed on 19 September, 2004
English Marine Insurance Act 1906" Retrieved at http://www.solarnavigator.net/english_marine_insurance_act_1906.htm . Accessed on 19 September, 2004
The CBP (Customs and Border Protection) is a unit in the homeland security department and is the agency responsible for regulating, monitoring and facilitating flow of products at the points of entry. CBP policy formulation is done is such a way as to ensure that there is smooth movement of cargo through the border line. CBP enforces the customs and trade rules which are put in place with a view of protecting businesses and customers in the U.S. and collect revenue. CBP also enforces security laws for imports formulated with an objective of preventing illegal drugs, mass destruction weapons and contraband commodities from accessing the U.S.A. The U.S. congress is charged with the duty of defining and authorising the functions of international trade within CBP, allocation of funds for conducting program CBP oversight. The current laws authorising facilitation of trade and enforcing CBP functions are centred on a…
Sea Cargo and Transportation
Maritime Transportation is the main channel of international trade; however, the share of its weight sustained by the sea is difficult to come across. Increase in population, increasing living standards, quick industrialization, congestion of roads, over-exploitation of local resources, and removal of trade barriers all play a role in the ongoing development in maritime transportation. In nations with passable rivers or long shorelines, or in nations made up of several islands, water transportation might play a vital role in domestic trades, for instance, Japan, Greece, Indonesia, USA, and Norway (UNCTAD, 2004).
The load carrying capacity of the world fleet reached 857 million tons at the conclusion of 2003, which is an increase of 25% over 1890. There was also a rapid growth in the capacity of the container ships fleet with about 727% increase. These substituted the general cargo ships in main liner trades. To…
European Commission, (1997). Green paper on seaports and maritime infrastructure, COM (97) 678 Final, European Commission, Brussels.
Fisenko, A. I. (2013). CONDITION AND PROSPECTS OF MARITIME FREIGHT TRANSPORTATIONS IN THE SOUTHERN ZONE OF THE RUSSIAN FAR EAST.Asia-Pacific Journal Of Marine Science & Education, 3(1), 59-65.
Higginson, J. K., & Dumitrascu, T. (2007). Great Lakes Short Sea Shipping and the Domestic Cargo-Carrying Fleet. Transportation Journal (American Society Of Transportation & Logistics Inc.), 46(1), 38-50.
Persson, J.A. & Gothe-Lundgren, M. (2005). Shipment planning at oil refineries using column generation and valid inequalities. European Journal of Operational Research 163, 631-652.
Trees cover nothing less than one-third of the earth's surface, and it is estimated that around 3 trillion trees exist worldwide. Forests are found in different climates and locations, they exist in wet, dry, sweltering and bitterly climates. Each of these forests types have the natural peculiarities that allow them to develop in their respective climate (Motivans). Unfortunately, in the past few decades, there has been an enormous level of commercial activities that have subjected forests all over the world to a dire consequential threat with adverse felt by most of the woodlands around the world. Deforestation, road and building constructions form a major part of human threats on the woodlands. Adding to the human activities is the climate change, which has been very devastating on many of the species that inhabit these forests. The threats on their inhabitants are a direct danger of extinction to these woodlands, as what…
Major Subordinate Element
Depict Command Relationships
JTF-50 COA Presentation Format
DJMO C340 EXERCISE MATERIAL
Air and naval strikes, in coordination with Sof and Marine for Operation theater entry.
Additional forces are brought to the shore whenever it is necessary.
With control area being denied to enemy forces
That could be of a big threat to mine clearing operations.
With central areas denied to enemy forces that could threaten other areas, mine clearing operations commence in the Strait of Mormuz
With the straight being open, some of the forces that are ashore and then withdrawn.
Phase II-Seize Initiative
Some Chinese researchers assert that Chinese flutes may have evolved from of Indian provenance.
In fact, the kind of side-blon, or transverse, flutes musicians play in Southeast Asia have also been discovered in Africa, India, Saudi Arabia, and Central Asia, as ell as throughout the Europe of the Roman Empire. This suggests that rather than originating in China or even in India, the transverse flute might have been adopted through the trade route of the Silk Road to Asia. In addition to these transverse flutes, Southeast Asians possessed the kind of long vertical flutes; similar to those found in Central Asia and Middle East.
A considerable amount of similarities exist beteen the vertical flutes of Southeast Asia and flutes from Muslim countries. This type of flute possibly came from Persians during the ninth century; during the religious migration to SEA. Likeise, the nose-blon flute culture, common to a number of…
Purple highlight means reference from his thesis, chapters 1-5
Blue highlight means reference from his raw research that was sent (17 files)
Yellow highlight means that writer could not find reference; one of the 17 files received
Gray highlight means writer found this source
Petersburg, would not discuss in detail SI's other work for agencies such as Special Operations Command, but said he hopes this work eventually will amount to a $36.5-million Navy contract. U.S. ep. Bill Young, -St. Petersburg, who has used his clout to funnel Defense Department dollars to the region, sees a bright future (Krueger).
Since 2007, SI St. Petersburg has grown to almost 70 staff members as its &D activities have expanded. In addition, the U.S. Naval Air Systems Command awarded SI and its National Center for Maritime and Port Security a five-year, $36.5 million contract to develop a maritime domain awareness system to improve port security in the United States. Other SI &D projects have included development and local testing of an innovative, energy-producing buoy device; mapping the floor of Tampa Bay in conjunction with a maritime homeland security experiment conducted by the U.S. Navy, Coast Guard and other…
Hundley, Kris. (2007). Incentives seem like small change for SRI. St. Petersburg Times. 4 Jan 2007.
Krueger, Curtis. (2008). Tech firm SRI slowly blossoming, St. Petersburg Times. 27 July 2008.
Pinellas County, (2006). Governor Bush Announces SRI International Selects St. Petersburg. 01 Dec 2006. Retrieved November 24, 2008 at http://www.pced.org/newsroom/news_view_print.asp?int_newsroomID=4324
Silva, Cristina. (2008). SRI tech research facility brings jobs, Tampa Bay Times, 29 Oct 2008.
Seaports Vulnerability to Submersible Vessels
All countries of the world are struggling hard to provide peace to its residents and masses. After all the efforts and struggle, countries are still not completely safe from the dangerous attacks on the borders including dry ports and seaports. In America, it is a severe issue to understand how to secure and protect the seaports of the country. The topic of discussion is also related to the protection of seaports of the country from different types of attacks such as nuclear attacks and submersible vessels (Jaffee and Russell 1997).
It is very important to understand all the seaports security issues and then suggest roadmap for protection policies development as well as its implementation immediately. There are three large seaports in America such as Los Angeles, Long Beach, and Oakland. These are the largest seaports of America and these ports are most vulnerable to…
Chalk, Peter, Bruce Hoffman, Robert T. Reville, and Anna-Britt Kasupski. Trends in Terrorism: Threats to the United States and the254 Future of the Terrorism Risk Insurance Act. Santa Monica, California: The RAND Corporation MG-393-CTRMP, 2005.
Crist, Phillipe. Security in Maritime Transport: Risk Factors and Economic Impact. Paris: Maritime Transport Committee, Directorate for Science, Technology and Industry Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, 2003.
Flanagan, William. "CSI Operations and Overview," presentation to Fifth International Conference on Export Controls. Public, Hungary: Budapest, 2003.
Flynn, Stephen E. "America the Vulnerable,. Public, Washington D.C: " Foreign Affairs Department," 2002.
International Community's esponse to Somalian Piracy. To date, the primary response by the international community to maritime piracy off the coast of Somalia has been to employ combined international naval forces to protect commercial shipping (Maritime Piracy and elated Kidnapping for ansom, 2011). In addition, in January 2009, the international community launched a coordinated initiative targeted at stopping pirate attacks in Somali waters called the Contact Group on Piracy off the Coast of Somalia (Counter Piracy and Maritime Security, 2011).
The Contact Group currently partners with the following: (a) EUNAVFO Operation Atalanta; (b) Combined Maritime Forces Combined Task Force 151; (c) NATO Operation Ocean Shield; and (d) National Counter-Piracy Missions (China, India, Japan, Malaysia, ussia, Saudi Arabia, South Korea, Yemen) (Counter Piracy and Maritime Security, 2011). The Contact Group could benefit from further collaborative efforts with the U.S., including the intelligence-sharing efforts described below.
Pursuant to the Piracy off the…
'Background note: Somalia.' 2011. . U.S. Department of State. [online] available: http://
'Counter Piracy and Maritime Security.' 2011. U.S. Department of State. [online] available:
etrieved 21 Mar. 2013 from http://www.justice.gov/usao/eousa/foia_reading_room/usam/title9/65mcrm.htm#9-65.700.
Doyle, Charles. (2011). Crimes of violence committed against federal official or employees: A brief overview of federal criminal law. Congressional esearch Service. etrieved 21 Mar. 2013 from http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/41574.pdf.
New York State Division of Criminal Justice Services. (2005). Crimes Against Police Act. Criminal Justice.NY.gov. etrieved 2 Apr. 2013 from http://www.criminaljustice.ny.gov/legalservices/ch765_crimes_against_police_act.htm.
Office of Coast Survey. (n.d.). Law of the sea. History of the maritime zones under international law; From the cannon shot rule to UNCLOS. Office of Coast Survey, National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce. etrieved 2 Apr. 2013 from http://www.nauticalcharts.noaa.gov/staff/law_of_sea.html.
Peters, ichard (ed). (1846). The Public Statutes at Large of the United States of America from the Organization of the Government in 1789, to March 3, 1845. Arranged in Chronological Order with eferences to the Matter of Each Act and to the Subsequent Acts on the Same Subject and Copious Notes of…
References to the Matter of Each Act and to the Subsequent Acts on the Same Subject and Copious Notes of the Decisions of the Courts of the United States Construing those Acts, and upon the Subjects of the Laws. Boston, MA: Charles C. Little and James Brown. Retrieved 2 Apr. 2013 from http://books.google.com/books/download/The_public_statutes_at_large_of_the_Unit.pdf?id=wyY3AAAAIAAJ&output=pdf&sig=ACfU3U1p_NxuSBziJjvhBnUoaVRPjOo_lA .
Santos, Fernanda. (2012, Nov. 8). Gunman in Giffords shooting sentenced to 7 life terms. New York Times, A16. Retrieved 21 Mar. 2013 from http://www.nytimes.com/2012/11/09/us/gunman-who-shot-giffords-to-be-sentenced.html?ref=jaredleeloughner .
United States v. Jared Lee Loughner 672 F. 3d 731 (2012).
One of the most crucial factors towards the success of a shipping company is effective operations management. Shipping companies establish organizational structures and cultures that seek to promote effective operations management. Some of the major divisions in ship management include commercial, operation, administration, finance, and technical departments. Operations department is mandated with the task or responsibility of handling all issues relating to shipping management and ensuring that the shipping company undertakes activities that focus on achievement of respective business objectives. However, this department works in collaboration with the other departments to ensure that all functions and activities are coordinated and streamlined. Through the coordinated activities, the operations department has several responsibilities and authority that enable it to act as a link between the ship and the office. This paper discusses the authorities and responsibilities of the operation department as a link between the ship and the office.
Overview of Operation…
Like most litigations on such complicated issues the company had little to do but show reasonable accommodation, adopt better surface practices and wait out a lengthy period before their liability was reduced substantially by the courts.
The key ethical issues of the case are pretty clear, did the captain knowingly endanger the environment by continuing to retain his position and navigate tankers through the area and did the company know that such was the case. Both ethical dilemmas are clear and were ruled upon by many hours of court time and subsequent appeals, though the final Supreme Court ruling on Exxon's liability for the spill was split 4:4 every other deciding body laid full responsibility on Exxon's lap. ("Exxon Valdez Damages educed," June 2008, NP). An additional ethical issue, though much less openly understood or known by the average American is weather it was ethical to pay fishermen…
Feinman, J.M. (2000). Law 101: Everything You Need to Know about the American Legal System. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Exxon Valdez Damages Reduced," June 2008, Business Law Prof Blog Retrieved November 18, 2008. http://lawprofessors.typepad.com/business_law/2008/06/on-wednesday-th.html
Greely, J. (1989, May 29). Alaska over the Barrels: The Spills and Spoils of Big Oil. The Nation, 248, 721.
Jasanoff, S. (2006) "Transparency in Public Science: Purposes, Reasons, Limits." Law and Contemporary Problems 69.3, 21.
S. transportation infrastructure is a bad idea. But in contrast to these doom and gloom pessimists, a restructuring and revitalization of U.S. transportation infrastructure is not only an excellent idea, but is very necessary if the U.S. economy is going to survive and continue to be a major global economic superpower (Lindsey, 2007).
Without the highway infrastructure, the U.S. would have been unable to grow as it did in the 1950's and 1960's. The same idea is true for future growth. Since the 1960's there has been little development of the current system and many of the U.S.'s bridges and highways are falling into disrepair as other priorities, like the War in Iraq, have taken priority. But the transportation infrastructure, the skeleton and circulatory system of the U.S. economic body, is vastly important for both economic and political stability and security.
US power plants and the internet infrastructure are grossly…
IMPA. (2010). IMPA Homepage. Accessed via web on August 19, 2010 at .
The chambers approach may be more suitable for states that seek a quick resolution to a particular dispute or for other compelling reasons; however, like the full Court, these alternatives are likewise voluntary in nature and require the consent of the disputants to have the case heard by one of the three foregoing chamber types. According to the Court's published information concerning "Chambers and Committees" (2009), "Despite the advantages that chambers can offer in certain cases, under the terms of the Statute their use remains exceptional. Their formation requires the consent of the parties. While, to date, no case has been heard by either of the first two types of chamber, by contrast there have been six cases dealt with by ad hoc chambers."
Given the significant representation by most of the countries of the world in the UN, the UCJ has the capability to provide a valuable forum in…
Alvarez, Jose E. And Thomas M. Franck, "Judging the Security Council." American Journal of International Law, 90(1), 2 (1999).
Basic Facts about the United Nations, Department of Public Information. New York: United
Black's Law Dictionary. St. Paul: West Publishing Co. (1990).
In that same year as well, Portuguese ships reached China, re-establishing direct trade for the first time since its termination 150 years prior. The Chinese were particularly eager to purchase Spanish silver from the Andes, which the Portuguese provided in exchange for Chinese silk, highly coveted throughout Europe. The Portuguese even went as far as Japan, where they established contact briefly before that country's isolation. Expeditions were also sent to conquer Malacca and explore Borneo in 1511 and 1524.
Odd as it may seem, the Portuguese were the first to establish viceroys to govern over their colonies in India. Beginning under King Manuel I, the Portuguese presence in India was cemented by the appointment of the first viceroy, Francisco de Almeida, who governed from 1505-08. His capital was established at Cochin, where he waged wars against a number of Indian rulers for control of commerce in the region. His successor…
Feudalism." Middle Ages.Org. n.d. Middle Ages.Org. 19 October 2008. http://www.middle-ages.org.uk/feudalism.htm
Kreis, Steven. "Renaissance Humanism." 2004. Lectures on Modern European
Intellectual History. 19 October 2008. The History Guide. http://www.historyguide.org/intellect/humanism.html
Middle Ages Religion." n.d. Middle Ages. Org. 19 October 2008. Middle Ages.Org. http://www.middle-ages.org.uk/middle-ages-religion.htm
Cross-oundary Offshore Oil & Gas Resources
Joint Development Agreements & Frameworks
[Type the company name]
Table of Contents
1. Introduction 3
2. The rule of capture 3
3. The CooperationApproach 4
4. Legal framework to develop trans-boundary offshore O&G resources 5
4.1 Cross-border unitization agreements 6
4.2 Joint Development Agreements (JDA) 6
4.3 National law and its application in Co-operative Agreements 7
4.4 ilateral treaties for trans-boundary oil and gas exploration 7
4.5 The Framework Agreement Approach 9
4.6 The Third Party approach to dispute resolution 10
5. Conclusion 10
Treaties & Conventions 11
Subsea resources such as petroleum and natural gas are important sources of meeting the energy demand of countries. Cross-territory disputes are arising among different countries. Advancement in technology in exploration and extraction of subsea resources has expedited the overall procedure of competitive drilling. This…
Treaties & Conventions
Cross boundary petroleum cooperation between the UK and the Kingdom of Norway 2005
Treaty, Timor Sea. "Agreement between the Government of Australia and the Government of the Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste relating to the Unitization of the Sunrise and Troubadour fields Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade, Canberra (Dili, 6 March 2003)(1)." Accessed from
U.S-Mexico Trans-boundary hydrocarbons agreement 2012
¶ … Mexico faces an array of drug-related problems ranging from production and transshipment of illicit drugs to corruption, violence, and increased internal drug abuse. Powerful and well-organized Mexican organizations control drug production and trafficking in and through Mexico, as well as the laundering of drug proceeds. These organizations also have made a concerted effort to corrupt and intimidate Mexican law enforcement and public officials. In addition, the geographic proximity of Mexico to the United States and the voluminous cross-border traffic between the countries provide ample opportunities for drug smugglers to deliver their illicit products to U.S. markets. The purpose of this study was to develop informed and timely answers to the following research questions: (a) How serious is the trade in illicit drugs between Mexico and the United States today and what have been recent trends? (b) How does drug trafficking fund terrorist organizations in general and trade between…