How Isps Code Has Impacted Maritime Security Essay

Excerpt from Essay :

ISPS Code on Maritime Security

Shipping is a business that has experienced rapid development in the past five decades as reflected in its increase by more than 450% during this period. The increase in shipping activities implies that nearly 90% of the global trade volumes are carried out by sea since a huge number of ships have to transport cargo between different ports. The increased use of ships to transport cargo between different ports has in turn generated considerable security threats. In essence maritime security has become a major issue in the recent past given the need to enhance security at ports. According to Christopher (2009), the momentum for focused and extensive management of port security has been fostered through policy response by the government (p.17). An example of such governmental policy response is the enactment of the ISPS Code, which has had considerable impacts on maritime security.

Summary

There have been numerous studies that have been carried out on maritime security given the increased use of ships to transport cargo between different ports and the resultant security threats. Actually, port security management has been a critical issue for many researchers in this field because of the increase in the threat of terrorism and other security threats that could affect the smooth and effective operations of ports. As these issues have attracted considerable attention from researchers, governments and policy makers have also been concerned and developed several governmental policy responses toward enhancing maritime security such as the implementation of the ISPS Code. In this study, the researcher will identify articles that examine port security management, especially in relation to ISPS Code and its effect on maritime security. The author will use deductive research methodology in which the conclusions will be based on varying theoretical statements combined with realities in the field of study.

Research Aims

This proposed study will be guided by two major research aims that help in shaping the overall purpose of the research. The research aims are

1. To examine the impact of the ISPS (International Ship and Port Security) Code on the security of ship and port facilities.

2. To assess how workers in ship and port facilities interpret security levels in global shipping before and after the implementation of this code.

Research Objectives

The researcher has also identified several research objectives that will guide the study and help in fulfillment of the research aims. These research objectives include

1. To provide insights on the implementation of the ISPS Code as a policy measure for enhancing port security in light of the increasing security threats, particularly terrorism.

2. To highlight the impacts of the implementation of the ISPS Code in enhancing maritime security.

3. To demonstrate the importance of ISPS Code for governments, the shipping industry, and maritime administrators with regards to port security.

4. To evaluate the positive and negative consequences of the ISPS Code on ship and port activities and facilities.

5. To assist the shipping industry, maritime administrators, and governments to identify any need for improvements on the ISPS Code.

6. To determine the success or effectiveness of the ISPS Code in achieving its defined purposes and goals after its implementation.

7. To analyze the vulnerability of port and ship facilities to security threats even after the implementation of the International Ship and Port Security Code.

Importance of this Study

Maritime security is relatively similar to cyber security in light of the increased security threats that brought by the development of sophisticated means for conducting crime. Ship and port activities have been increasingly characterized by increased attempts to smuggle or steal cargos as well as more attempts to use global transportation to realize illegitimate goals and objectives. One of the measures that have been developed to deal with these security threats is the International Ship and Port Security Code, which is based on risk management initiatives and constant risk assessments. This Code was established in order to provide a standardized and global framework for risk evaluation in maritime transportation sector. Since the code was enacted more than a decade ago, it's important to examine its effectiveness in enhancing the security of port and ship facilities and activities. This study is important because it provides important insights to various relevant stakeholders on maritime security with regards to the implementation of the code in dealing with the increasing security threats.

Initial Literature Review

To obtain knowledge regarding the research topic, the researcher has also conducted a literature review based on several key words including port facilities security, maritime security, ISPS Code, implementation of ISPS Code, port security management, and effects of the ISPS Code on maritime security. Through this search, the researcher identified the numerous studies and articles that exist in current literature relating to the topic area.

In his study on maritime security instruments, Adolf Ng (2009), state that the vulnerability of global transportation services to security threats, particularly terrorism, was highlighted by the 9/11 terror attacks that revealed the brittleness of the global transportation system. Atterbury (n.d.), seeming supports this view by arguing that the 9/11 attacks changed maritime security, which was characterized by little motivation to invest in protection of ports or vessels. In concurrence with this, Mazaheri (2008) and Mazaheri & Ekwall (2009) states that the 9/11 terrorist attacks forced the IMO to develop the ISPS Code, which is geared towards ensuring that ports, ships, and other organizations in marine industry tighten their security operations and measures. According to Center for International Maritime Security (2014), the ISPS Code was largely implemented in response to the 9/11 terror attacks, which reflects the fact that most legislation in the maritime industry are influenced by some form of security incidents, accidents or disasters.

ISPS Code is defined as a series of measures to improve maritime security and contains two parts i.e. Part A, which is compulsory and Part B, which provides guidelines for implementing the various security provisions in Part A (Mazaheri & Ekwall, 2009, p.327; Adolf Ng, 2009; Mazaheri, 2008; Maritime and Port Authority of Singapore, 2009). Hellberg (2009) state that the ISPS Code enables the port authority to detect and evaluate vulnerabilities and threats to port facilities. Port authorities are also mandated with the responsibility of creating and executing an incident response plan if an emergency occurs (McNicholas, 2008, p.90). The United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (2007) reported that ISPS Code generates widespread obligations on port facilities, shipping companies, and governments and incorporates cost and probable financial implications.

Mazaheri & Ekwall (2009) argue that the impact of the ISPS Code on maritime security on the specific security needs for the local port (p.327). In ports with high security, the impact of the ISPS Code is lower while in ports with low security, the impact of the code is higher. According to Port Technology (n.d.), the ISPS Code has seemingly had positive effects because there has not been any major security threat of global port and ship facilities since its enactment. Mazaheri & Ekwall (2009) further state that the code has generated positive outcomes on maritime security such as restricting unauthorized access to these facilities, promoting better control of port area, and generating a better work environment. This is also supported in a study conducted by Mazaheri (2008) in which the positive impacts include enhancing security level and improved effectiveness and competitiveness. However, the ISPS Code has also had negative outcomes such as increased administration works, increased annual costs, high costs of operations, and high costs of implementation (Mazaheri & Ekwall, 2009; Mazaheri, 2008).

Design and Methods

A research design or method is usually used as a tool for developing a framework and structure that helps in conducting the study based on research objectives. In this study, the researcher will conduct literature-based study, which will entail selecting previous studies that have been conducted on the topic issue. In this case, the researcher will first identify studies that have primarily been carried out on the issue of maritime security and port security management. The researcher will then narrow down to existing literature on the implementation of the ISPS Code as a tool for enhancing maritime security, especially in relation to the emerging security threats in the recent past like terrorism. The research will then conduct a review of these studies in light of the impact of ISPS Code on maritime security by examining security levels in ship and port activities and facilities before and after the implementation of the ISPS Code. To obtain knowledge regarding the research topic, the literature-based research in this study will be based on several key words including port facilities security, maritime security, ISPS Code, implementation of ISPS Code, port security management, and effects of the ISPS Code on maritime security.

The literature-based research in this study will also be based on deductive research strategy, which implies that the author's conclusion and findings will be based on different theoretical statements that are combined with realities in this field of study. The deductive research strategy will be…

Sources Used in Document:

References

Adolf Ng, K.Y. (2009). Maritime Security Instruments in Practice: A Critical Review of the Implementation of ISPS Code in the Port of Hong Kong. Retrieved from International Center for Maritime Studies -- The Hong Kong Polytechnic University website: http://www.icms.polyu.edu.hk/Papers/IFSPA09-Papers/8_M056.pdf

Atterbury, D. (n.d.). Maritime Security in the 21st Century. Retrieved October 14, 2015, from http://www.steamshipmutual.com/Downloads/Articles/HudsonTridentMS.pdf

Center for International Maritime Security. (2014, July 15). The ISPS-Code and Maritime

Terrorism. Retrieved October 14, 2015, from http://cimsec.org/isps-code-maritime-terrorism/12098

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