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Market Outcomes and Asymmetric Information
Words: 1614 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 53479415
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Asymmetric Information and Market Outcomes

In the contemporary business environment, the insurance market has faced challenges in dealing with the problems of asymmetric information, adverse selection, and moral hazard. The objective of this study is to discuss the concept the asymmetric information, adverse selection, and moral hazard in the insurance market. The paper also discusses the market responses to asymmetric information, moral hazard, and adverse selection.

Market esponse to Asymmetric information

Asymmetric information is a type of situation where one party in a business transaction has superior or more information than other parties. In other words, asymmetric information occurs where sellers have superior or more information than buyers. Although, the reverse may happen in some situations. (Lillo, 2013). Potentially, this type of transaction can be harmful because a party in the transaction can take the advantage of the lack of knowledge of another party. The asymmetric information is problematic in…


Illinois Public Health (2014). Sugar-Sweetened Beverage (SSB) Taxes Facts and Responses to Myths and Industry Arguments. Illinois Public Health Institute.

Lillo, F. (2013). Tutorial An introduction to asymmetric information [Video file]. Accessed April 27, 2016, Retrieved from 

Smith, P. (2013). Econ in HD: Moral Hazard and Adverse Selection [Video file]. April 27, 2016, Retrieved from 

Tomlinson, S.(n.d). Market Failures Uncertainty Understanding Moral Hazards in Markets. Cengage.

Failure of Economic Policies Exploring
Words: 3002 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64003955
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Japan was once on a stellar track to economic prosperity. The end of the twentieth century saw promising chances for the island nation's economy. In 1991, the government spending was one of the lowest the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OCED) and 31.6% of the nation's GDP (Utt 2008). That same year, Japan's national income was at 86% of the U.S. gross national per capita income, a big improvement from just 20 years ago when the nation was only making 66% of the U.S. per capita income. This was an impressive feat for the nation to embark on. Yet, this was to change in the following years dramatically. During the later decade of the 1990s, the Japanese government took on the practice of vastly increasing government spending as a way to stimulate an economy that was beginning to lag. As the growth of the economy began to go stale,…


Associated Press. 2009, 'North Korea 'Panic' After Surprise Currency Revaluation,' Guardian [Online] Available at 

Bozyk, Pawel. 2006. Globalization and the Transformation of Foreign Economic Policy, Ashgate Publishing Ltd.

Chait, Jonathon. 2010, 'The Budget-Cutting Cycle: Delusion, Failure, Recimination,' the New Republic, [Online] Available at 

Eberstadt, Nick. 2007, the North Korean Economy: Between Crisis and Catastrophe, Transaction Publishers.

Market Screening for Final Exporting
Words: 1493 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 7957189
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It revealed the fact that customers were willing to buy chocolate in order to be in fashion.

The government, which is a communist one, has imposed chocolate importers to mark the country of origin in order to provide the customers with the accurate information about the products they offer.

Size, number, and financial strength of competitors. If we take into consideration the report mentioned above, the main competitors are: Dove (38.61%), Cadbury, Le Conte, Nestle, Hershey's, Golden Monkey, Ferrero Rocher, M&M's, Tresor Dore and Shenfeng. These ten producers account for 90% of the chocolate market, while the first three cover about two thirds of the market share. However, among these ten best companies we can only depict two internal brands. These are Golden Monkey (2.94%) and Shenfeng (1.58%). Due to the new regulations regarding the percentages and quality of the ingredients used, many national producers may not be able to…


Chocolate Strives for Standard.,(2004) Retrieved on Nov 28th, 2006 from China Daily, web site: 

Parry, Richard Lloyd, (2006), For Lovers of Chocolate, future could be very dark., Retrieved on Nov 28th, 2006, from The Times, web site:,25689-2079799,00.html 

Sachs, Jeffrey D. (2004), Welcome To The Asian Century. By 2050, China and maybe India will overtake the U.S. economy in size. Retrieved Nov 28th, 2006, from Fortune, web site:

Failure of Mergers
Words: 2225 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23409073
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Failures of Merger

Failure of Mergers

The objective of this study is to examine why it is that most mergers fail and will provide real-life examples of the failure of mergers. Toward this end, this work will examine relevant literature in this area of study and specifically academic and professional literature and publications that are peer-reviewed in nature. The work of Weber and Camerer (2003 ) entitled "Cultural Conflict and Merger Failure: An Experimental Approach" reports that most mergers fail and that failure occur "on average in every sense: acquiring firm stock prices tend to slightly fail when mergers are announced; many acquired companies are later sold off; and profitability of the acquired firm is lower after the merger." (Weber and Camerer, 2003) There is a great deal of conflict reported during the process of a merger that results in a high rate of turnover." Disappointment was expressed by participants…


Chiriac, Irina Sandu case (2011) Mergers -- Success or Failure? CES Working Papers, III [1] 2001. Retrieved from: 

Cross-Border Mergers & Acquisitions: Reducing the Risk of Failure (nd) Communicaid,. Retrieved from:

Dumon, Marv (2008) Biggest Merger and Acquisition Disasters. Investopedia. Retrieved from: 

Elwin, Toby (2010) Mergers and Acquisitions Failures are Project Management Failures. 30 November, 2010. Retrieved from:

Nursing Market
Words: 2250 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23920233
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Health Care Economics

Monopsony power is defined as a situation where there is only a single buyer in the market (Investopedia, 2014). In a monopsony situation, all of the bargaining power rests with the buyer, such that the seller is a price taker, and also a taker on term as well. The buyer therefore pays what it wants, and on whatever terms. A monopsony is an unusual natural market condition. In some situations, monopsony is related to monopoly, a good example being health care in Canada, where the government is the employer. With a government monopoly, there is also only one buyer for health care supplies, and health care labor. Unions can also constitute a monopsony in labor, in situations where non-union workers are prohibited. One must work to the terms that the union has negotiated, or not at all. This paper will look at the nursing shortage in the…


Buchan, J., Parkin, T., & Sochalski, J. (2003). International nurse mobility. World Health Organization. Retrieved December 1, 2014 from 

Goodin, H. (2003). The nursing shortage in the United States of America: An integrative review of the literature. Journal of Advanced Nursing. Vol. 43 (4) 335-350.

Investopedia. (2014). Monopsony . Investopedia. Retrieved December 1, 2014 from 

Link, C. & Landon, J. (1975). Monopsony and union power in the market for nurses. Southern Economic Journal. Vol. 41 (4) 649-659.

European Market Has Been an
Words: 1316 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 31150727
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" During the third and final stage, the European Central bank would be in operation. According to the agreement, this was to occur no later than 1999 and for three years thereafter Euro coins and banknotes would be issued (Eichengreen and Frieden).

By 2002, the Euro had been implemented as the single currency for member states. However, the implementation and consequent use of the Euro appeared to be a bit rocky. According to an article found in the journal Challenge, the value of the Euro had fallen slightly. The author blamed this fall on the central bank and its efforts to shore up the Euro (Bibow). The author contends that this unrelenting support stifled economic growth. According to the article

Between the start of 1999 and October 2000 the euro lost some 20% of its initial external value (even 30% vis-a-vis the U.S. dollar). After a brief rebound toward the…

Works Cited


Housing Market Externalities in the Housing Industry
Words: 699 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48759953
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Housing Market

Externalities in the Housing Industry (Additional Pages Request)

The housing industry is quite profitable a venture, though it is one that has caused many problems in today's economy, for two main reasons. First, the housing market has been quite volatile, simply because it has been under-regulated in certain areas and has therefore been the subject of a game of chess led by big corporations. Second, the housing industry is often a local matter, and is thus something that cannot be easily moved, transported, or transplanted, and for this reason it is in many ways unique. In order to better understand the way in which this industry works, this paper will discuss externalities, goods and services within this arena, as well as the many other concepts that relate to these terms.

Just as many other sectors of an economy, the housing industry is subject to positive and negative externalities.…

Works Cited:

N.A. (2012). Market Failures and Externalities. Basic Economics. Retrieved January 22, from .

N.A. (2012). Private Goods and Public Goods. San Jose State University. Retrieved January 22, from .

Failure of it Systems Evaluation
Words: 953 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 57996356
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Once this data is captured, the third objective of building an equilibrium-based model that conceptually defines the relationship of companies who chose to invest from a strategy standpoint over those that were functionally-driven and the differences in profitability as a result. This model will also be used as the basis of creating a four-step maturity model that will attempt to show how over time strategy-based implementations are more effective at creating collaboration within and between firms choosing this approach.


The most significant benefit of this study is determining what factors contribute to the success or failure of CM systems, taking into account implementation planning and strategies to mitigate resistance to change. The success or failure of CM system implementations is often with the area of change management and alignment of these systems to business strategies (Foss, Stone, Ekinci, 2008). The proposed research will show through an equilibrium model and…


Band, W.. 2009. Risk-Proofing Your CRM Initiative. Customer Relationship Management, March 1, 12.

Foss, B., M. Stone, and Y. Ekinci. 2008. What makes for CRM system success -- or failure? Journal of Database Marketing & Customer Strategy Management 15, no. 2, (March 1): 68-78.

Sudhir H. Kale. 2004. CRM Failure and the Seven Deadly Sins. Marketing Management 13, no. 5, (September 1): 42-46.

Natalie Petouhoff. 2006. The Scientific Reason for CRM Failure. Customer Relationship Management, April 1, 48.

Market Mix as it Apply to the
Words: 742 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76042311
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market mix as it apply to the product and discuss why each of the 4-P decisions would be important when marketing my product

Over the past year, the I Pad has become one of the most sought after products on the market. Part of the reason for this is because, it has features and applications that are changing the way many people receive their personal information. As they are demanding smaller and more portable devices that are offering many state of the art features. (Ross, 2010)

When you apply this to the four P's of marketing mix, it is clear that this device has a number of distinct advantages over competitors. Evidence of this can be seen by looking at how it compares to the different elements of this strategy (i.e. The product, promotion, price and placement). As far as product is concerned, what makes the I Pad so unique…


The Marketing Mix. (2010). Net MBA. Retrieved from: 

Kneen, N. (2010). The I Pad and Social Media. 4 Ps of Marketing. Retrieved from: 

Kneen, N. (2011). I Pad Exceeds Expectations. 4 Ps of Marketing. Retrieved from: 

Lake, L. (2010). Developing Your Marketing Mix. About. Retrieved from:

Market Dominance
Words: 663 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40993660
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Antitrust Practices and Market Power

The modern business environment is increasingly characterized by the proliferation of emerging monopolies in various industries. One of the industries that have experienced an increase in budding monopolies is Information Technology, particularly with the growth and development of social media and networks. Technology companies have rapidly developed into monopolies because of the connection between attractive business opportunities. The growth of leading technology companies into monopolies has also been fueled by their efforts to gain and maintain market power. However, some of these companies such as Google, AT&T, Standard Oil, Microsoft, and Facebook have been investigated for antitrust behavior.

Similar to Google, Facebook is company whose growth and development is partly attributed to the failure by Microsoft to strangle it like it did to Netscape a decade before. Facebook's business and operations are entirely built on focusing on developing network effects since the firm's value for…


European Commission (2014, October 24). Antitrust: Commission Probes Allegations of Antitrust Violations by Google. Retrieved November 13, 2014, from 

Fox, J. (2013, January). The Web's New Monopolies. Atlantic Monthly, 30-34.

Windrum, P. (n.d.). Back from the Brink: Microsoft and the Strategic Use of Standards in the Browser Wars. Retrieved November 13, 2014, from

Failures Across a Diverse Base
Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 35300493
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6. Success throughout Latin America was driven by the build-out of banks and financial institutions in Brazil and other nations, combined with mergers and acquisitions to strengthen their overall market position.

7. Walmart learned valuable lessons globally and decided to revamp stores and remodel the oldest ones to further increase the quality of the shopping experience in the U.S.

8. Walmart learned how powerful having good relationships with foreign governments can be when the Chinese communist party allowed them to open 10 wholly owned subsidiaries and also pursue joint ventures throughout the nation. The key lesson: wining the trust of a foreign government is key to global growth.

9. Brazilian market expanding as Walmart finds new approaches to selling the idea of mass merchandising to this nations' citizens. Growth in India, Russia and South Africa all driven by Walmart's ability to better understand variations in cultural requirements and needs.


Market Driven Management
Words: 25695 Length: 75 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 32150042
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Pharmaceutical industries have to operate in an environment that is highly competitive and subject to a wide variety of internal and external constraints. In recent times, there has been an increasing trend to reduce the cost of operation while competing with other companies that manufacture products that treat similar afflictions and ailments. The complexities in drug research and development and regulations have created an industry that is subject to intense pressure to perform. The amount of capital investment investments required to get a drug from conception, through clinical trials and into the market is enormous. The already high-strung pharmaceutical industry is increasingly investing greater amounts of resources in search of the next "blockbuster" drug that can help them gain market position and profits. Laws, regulations and patents are important to the industry while spending billions of dollars in ensuring the copyright of their products.

It is the intention of this…


Ansoff, H.I. (1957). Strategies for diversification. Harvard Business Review, 35(5), 113-124.

Ansoff, H.I. (1965). Corporate Strategy. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.

Ashour, M.F., Obeidat, O., Barakat, H., & Tamimi, A. (2004). UAE Begins Examination of Patent Applications. Retrieved January 18, 2004, from the World Wide Web: 

Bain, J.S. (1954). Economies of scale, concentration, and the condition of entry in twenty manufacturing industries. American Economic Review, 44, 15-36.

Dispersed Knowledge Within Markets and Companies as
Words: 2631 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72626254
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Dispersed Knowledge Within Markets and Companies

As the world has penetrated into the age of advancements and innovations, it has given rise to increased globalization, which has resulted in intense and fierce competition in the marketplace on a universal platform. Companies and firms on a broad spectrum are now confronting numerous new challenges because of the competition that has rapidly grown within the marketplace. Therefore, it has become significant for the companies to be vigilant so that they can develop and implement the systems that meet the requirement of innovation of the current market and have the potential to act promptly in response to the new changes (itzer 2011).

A general perception has been developed that multinational corporations were the widespread firms that extensively practiced the dispersed knowledge. The globally dispersed locations of the firms confronted a need to assimilate geographically dispersed knowledge in order to create value to the…


Birner, J. & Hayek. (1994). Coordination and Evolution: His Legacy in Philosophy, Politics, Economics and the History of Ideas, First Edition, Routledge, London, USA and Canada.

Doz, YL, Santos, J. & Williamson, P. (2001). From Global to Metanational: How Companies Win in the Knowledge Economy, Harvard Business Press, USA.

Foss, N.J. & Klein, P.G. (2012). Organizing Entrepreneurial Judgment: A New Approach to the Firm, First Edition, Cambridge University Press, New York.

Gilpin, D.R. & Murphy, P.J. (2008). Crisis Management in a Complex World, First Edition, Oxford University Press, New York.

What Does it Takes to Be a Good Failure
Words: 1012 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 67369918
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At one point or another in everyone's lives, they have probably felt like a failure. However, not everyone deals with failure in the same way. Some people take failure so harshly that they become suicidal. Others become isolated or depressed. Many realize that failure is a fact of life and bounce back relatively quickly, making the choice to use failure to create something good.

When Sergio Zyman, an executive with Coca-Cola, made the mistake of taking Coke off the market and replacing it with New Coke, it was a total failure and an extremely public one at that (The Recovery Times, 1995). Zyman was basically driven out of the company because of his failure.

However, while many people would have felt like crawling under a rock, Zyman refused to let failure get the better of him. He created his own consulting firm and was soon hired back by Coca-Cola.…


Coping with failures (1995, November). The Recovery Times: The Living Stones Newsletter.

Dziuk, Philip. (2002). Have You Had a Really Good Failure Recently? Phree Philosophy. Retrieved from the Internet on 2/26/03 at .

Navarro, Anna. (2002, August 26). Good Failure/Bad Failure. KWMU, University of Missouri, St. Louis.

Business Failure All Businesses Are Started With
Words: 1010 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50272503
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Business Failure

All businesses are started with the intention of success, although this intention alone cannot guarantee immunity from failure. Whether or not businesses experience success or failure depends on several factors. Some of these factors are in the control of the business owners themselves, such as quality of management, while some factors are out of the control of the business owners, such as current economic climate. The following discussion highlights factors involved in why businesses succeed or fail, and how certain factors such as sex of the business owner or location of the business play into the equation.

avindran (2008) described how studies have demonstrated that approximately 50% of small businesses experience failure within their first four years of existence. This failure is most often a result of lack of knowledge regarding proper workings of businesses and poor management (avindran, 2008). Another crucial factor involved in the failure of…


Ravindran, N.. "Why businesses may fail: why some businesses fail and why some succeed is debatable. There are various factors behind business failures. We look at some common mistakes that can sink a business in no time." Today's Manager. Singapore Institute of Management. 2008. Retrieved March 12, 2011 from HighBeam Research: 

Robinson, Sherry. "Business failure rates: a look at sex and location.(Statistical table)(Survey)." Academy of Entrepreneurship Journal. The DreamCatchers Group, LLC. 2007. Retrieved March 12, 2011 from HighBeam Research:

Sub-Prime Market in the U S
Words: 1761 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 53094928
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The largest majority of subprime housing property has been noted in this study to be located in minority and low-income neighborhoods and therefore the subprime lenders are flooding the housing markets and specifically the low-income housing market with housing in neighborhoods that generally do no bring healthy prices on the housing market. With the housing market flooded with this class of housing the properties values of these homes will be pushed even lower and this with interest rates simultaneously at their lowest possible rate. In fact, what has resulted from subprime lending practices is the lenders worst nightmare in that prices are very low, interest rates are very low, and prospective buyers are very low as well.


Isidore, Chris (2008) New Recession Worry: ank Failures - Recession Watch 2008. 3 March 2008. Online available at

Goldman, David (2008) Fed Officials: Housing Crisis Critical. Eyes on the Fed -CNN…


Isidore, Chris (2008) New Recession Worry: Bank Failures - Recession Watch 2008. 3 March 2008. Online available at 

Goldman, David (2008) Fed Officials: Housing Crisis Critical. Eyes on the Fed -CNN News 29 Feb 2008. Online available at 

U.S. files New Lawsuit Against Countrywide (2008) Reuters News Service 4 Mar 2008. Online available at 

Weil, Judy (2008) Housing Market Tracker - What will Replace Subprime Lenders. 28 Feb 2008. Seeking Alpha. Online available at

Business Failures Reasons for Failure Business Failures
Words: 1975 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 14449164
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usiness Failures

Reasons for Failure

usiness failures have become a properly investigated field of study in the past few years as a struggling economy and an overall difficult business environment have combined to discourage potential entrepreneurs from entering the market place and to cause many existing business owners / entrepreneurs from continuing their endeavors. This interest in business failures is precipitated by the fact that the number and nature of business failures impacts negatively on the overall business climate and examining possible causes in an effort to forestall further such failures is vital to maintaining a healthy business environment. The emphasis in recent years has shifted from examining why and how businesses fail toward an analysis of how to avoid and prevent business failures.

The failed business that I chose to review was a small ice cream / restaurant in my neighborhood. The name of the business was Charlie's Ice…


Goltz, J. (2011, January 5). Top 10 Reasons Small Business Fail. New York Tmes .

U.S. Small Business Administration. (n.d.). Standard Operating Procedures. Retrieved May 25, 2011, from SBA: 


Moral Criticisms of the Market Moral Criticisms
Words: 891 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5865326
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Moral Criticisms of the Market

Moral Criticisms Market This assignment requires read article Ken S. Ewert (found eading & Study folder). Note article, Ewert defending free market "Christian Socialists." He states position a rebuttal

Moral criticisms of the market: A critique of Ewert's analysis

It is interesting to read Ken S. Ewert's 1989 criticisms of 'Christian socialists' in light of current debates on other types of economic policies today. Ewert portrays Christian, leftist defenders of socialism as impervious to logic, in contrast to other former critics of capitalism, who grew more acclimated to capitalist principles in light of the failure of the Soviet Union Similar criticisms are made of 21st century religious fundamentalists, who stress the need for private enterprise to address societal problems 'on principle,' even when public regulation might be helpful and who try to define science, including science education, in religious terms rather than in terms of…


Ewert, Kenneth. (1989). Moral criticisms of the market. FEE. Retrieved:

New Product Failures Analysis of
Words: 791 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82872617
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The lack of cultural sensitivity and focus led to EuroDisney only attaining 5% of their anticipated volume on opening day. If all of these problems with the marketing of the concept to the government, selection of leaders, definition of concessions and rides weren't enough, the pricing was outside the range of what many French families could afford. In the first years of its existence, Disney partnered with high-end rail service Eurostar to get families from England, which had a strong conversion rate with the British Pound, to visit. This further angered the French, and also made Disney appear elitist, which is a big problem in France, which prizes its egalitarianism. It has since cost Disney well over $1B to manage their way out of this problem (Curwen, 1995).

Microsoft Windows Vista

Introduced in January, 2007, Windows Vista is easily the worst operating system produced in the last ten years. It…


Curwen, Peter. (1995). EuroDisney: The mouse that roared (not]). European Business Review, 95(5), 15.

Rosen, Deborah E., Jonathan E. Schroeder, Elizabeth F. Purinton. (1998). Marketing High Tech Products: Lessons in Customer Focus From the Marketplace. Academy of Marketing Science Review, 1998, 1.

Aaron Weiss. (2006). Who needs Windows Vista? NetWorker, 10(4), 18-26.

Management the Success and Failures
Words: 1990 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 84009930
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The level of the investment also isolated them more in the case of a failure. They paid attention to the wrong details. Disney acted on American views of Europe rather than on native views, which could identify the important cultural differences. It appeared that the managers were too confident in their success to research the small details about European cultures.

In planning Euro Disney there were not any contingency plans put into place. The attitude towards customer habits was very complacent. They assumed that there would be so many customers every day, each staying an average number of nights spending an average amount of money. In America this would have worked because there is already a well established theme park culture. The European market proved to be a lot more unpredictable.

Up until now, Disney's venture into China has been anything but magical. The Hong Kong theme park, which opened…

Works Cited

Balfour, Frederik. 2009. "Disney Shanghai: Good for China, Bad for Hong Kong." 28 June,

2010. Business Week. Web.

Liu, Ling Woo. 2009. "Disneyland in Shanghai: A Second Try in China." 28 June, 2010. Time.


Leadership Failure That Has Impacted
Words: 1064 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 31185393
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Aside from the obvious impact upon the Ford employees who found themselves out of jobs, a general effect was the increased unemployment rate. And this was not only because of the positions lost within Ford, but also because of the jobs indirectly lost due to the crisis at the American manufacturer. In a more simplistic formulation, the automobile maker had ongoing contracts with various suppliers and other intermediaries, purchasing various technologies and vehicle components. Once the demand for Ford automobiles had decreased and their supremacy was lost to the Japanese producers, they no longer required the services of all of their purveyors. Then, as the demand and production became reduced, there was also limited need for dealers store to sell the cars. Ergo, additional jobs were lost and the lives of more and more individuals were impacted.

The negative outcome could have been avoided had the company been more receptive…

Works Cited

Burgos, a., July 12, 2005, Ford Layoffs Could Hit 30,000, Business News Bulletin

Burgos, a., September 15, 2006, New Layoffs at Ford, Business News Bulletin

Ramstack, T., May 23, 2001, Ford Plans Total Recall of Wilderness at Tires, the Washington Times

Randall, K., August 2001, Ford to Cut Up to 5,000 white-collar Jobs in North America, World Socialist Website,  accessed on June 23, 2008

Sunrise Medical Market Growth in Wheelchairs Is
Words: 2922 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14459745
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Sunrise Medical

Market growth in wheelchairs is favorable for a few reasons. The growth in the industry is concentrated in higher-priced segments, with 12-15% each. This means that the relevance of the standard wheelchair is declining, despite that segment remaining the highest volume wheelchair at around 208,000 units or 61.3% by volume and 31.4% of dollar sales. Projecting current growth rates out five years, the industry will looks as follows:

1998 Wheelchair Market

1998 unit share

1998 $ share






Standard wheelchairs are going to lose unit share and are going to decline significantly in dollar share as well. The other three categories are going to increase in importance, so it is important for firms to capture a share of these markets. ight now, the power market is not served by Sunrise, so the company is essentially competing for what will be 38-39% of the total…


QuickMBA. (2010). Porter's five forces. QuickMBA. Retrieved February 22, 2012 from 

Blank, S. (2010). Here's why the first-mover advantage is extremely overrated. Business Insider. Retrieved February 22, 2012 from

McGahan, A. (1993). Sunrise Medical's wheelchair products. Harvard Business School 9-794-069

Nationmaster. (2012) Age distribution tables: United States. Retrieved February 22, 2012 from

Which Organizational Diagnosis Model Is Best to Use at Whole Foods Market
Words: 1676 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 54512187
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Whole Foods Market

Which Organizational Diagnosis Model Is Best to Use at Whole Foods Market

Open Systems Theory

Weisbord's Six-Box Model

McKinsey 7S Framework

Likert System Analysis (1967)

High-Performance Programming

Nadler-Tushman Congruence Model

Methods to use this Tool

Analyze each key element separately


ecognize the people that can help to get the work done and help in accomplishing the goals of the organization

Organizational Structure


Analyze how these Elements Interrelate in the Organization

Plan to Create and Maintain Congruence

Issues of Whole Foods Market

Poor Working Conditions

Failure to Support Farmworkers

Best Model to esolve Issues of Whole Food Markets



In this modern competitive era of rapid transformation and advancement, new organizations must be evolved and developed continuously. More effective learning processes need to be adopted and goal setting and planning processes must be learned and time should be spent to improve and advance the goal-setting…


Hedge, J.W. (2002). Implementing Organizational Interventions: Steps, Processes, and Best Practices. San Francisco: Jossey Bass.

Lusthaus, C. (2002). Organizational Assessment: A Framework for Improving Performance. Ottawa: International Development Research.

Miner, J.B. (2002). Organizational Behavior: Foundations, Theories, and Analyses. Oxford.

Pheysey, D.C. (1993). Organizational Cultures: Types and Transformations. New York: Routledge.

Ethical Issue in Financial Market
Words: 1173 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 16864124
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" The code also states when communicating investment information care must be taken to ensure that it is fair, accurate and complete as well as make full and fair disclosure of all matters that could reasonably be expected to impair their independence and objectivity or interfere with respective duties to their clients, prospective clients, and employer.

Evidence indicates Lehman's senior financial executives knew of the Repo 105 transactions and certified the accuracy of Lehman's financial statements and disclosures despite having full knowledge that the company had engaged in the use of these transactions to hide their toxic assets and make their financial statements appear to be in good health when, in reality, they were not. These executives were fully aware that the financial statements were misleading and did not fairly present the true position of the company.

Hiding toxic assets and releasing favorable financial statements to investors each quarter clearly…

Works Cited

Ahrens, Frank. "Lehmann Brothers, the Evil Repo 105s and the Danger of Off-

Balance-Sheet Deals.", 20 April 2010. Web. 18 March 2013.

"Code of Ethics and Professional Standards" CFA Institute, Vol. 2010, No. 14, June 2010. Web. 18 March 2013.

Jeffers, Agatha E. "Lehman Brother -- the Thin Line between Aggressive Accounting and Unethical Behavior." European Journal of Management, Vol. 11, Issue 4, Winter 2011. Web. 18 March 2013.

Apple Success and Failure Factors
Words: 625 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 241154
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Failure Factors

Despite the diversification of its product and service offering, a source of failure has been constituted by the limited applicability of the Apple applications. In this order of ideas, the Apple software is only applicable on the Apple hardware, meaning as such that the freedom of the buyers is restricted. Another source of failure has been constituted by the low amounts of financial resources employed in marketing efforts. While number one competitor and industry leader Microsoft has placed promoted the organizational products and services on multiple media channels, Apple's approach has been limited. These disappointments are often attributed to the volatile and extremely challenging environment in which Apple operates, but its competitors also operate in this background, and their failures have been less obvious.

An important source of failure has been the departure of co-founder Steve Jobs for a ten-year period, during which the managerial style revealed numerous…


Jackson, J., 2009, Apple Inches into the Workplace, Government Computer News,  last accessed on July 13, 2009

Rosmarin, R., 2006, Apple's Biggest Duds, Forbes,  last accessed on July 13, 2009

1989, New Product Weds Video and Apple IIs, T.H.E. Journal (Technological Horizons in Education), Vol. 17

2009, Key Developments for Apple Inc., Reuters,  last accessed on July 13, 2009

Strategy VF Markets All of Its Diverse
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Strategy: VF

VF markets all of its diverse brands as eco-friendly, sporty, functional products that are useful for its outdoorsy customers. They are meant to leave a light carbon footprint yet also are helpful for consumers who wish to pursue more 'extreme' sports like hiking and trail running. Even its 'Lucy' brand of yoga sportswear is marketed in such a fashion. This fashion-friendly, yet functional marketing strategy seems ideally suited to the demographic likely to use VF clothing. VF consumers are young, but old enough to have established themselves enough financially to participate in pricey sports like skiing, snowboarding, and climbing. Because their sports are played outdoors and because of their age, relative affluence, and education, they are likely to care about the environment. VF fuses these two concerns. Its products are stylish, and suited to the needs of the sport because they are functional and durable. A good example…


VF Corporation. (2011). Official website. Retrieved November 15, 2011 at 

Yum! China. (2011). Official website. Retrieved November 15, 2011 at

U S Bond Market I Agree With Standard
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U.S. Bond Market

I agree with Standard & Poor's (S&P) downgrade of the U.S.'s credit rating. It was motivated by the fact that Congress and the Obama Administration had been unable to come up with a budget or fiscal plan that would stabilize the nation's medium-term debt dynamics. Furthermore, they cited serious problems with U.S. monetary and fiscal policy, which they felt left the United States very vulnerable in a time of high-volatility in the global financial markets (Paletta & Phillips, 2011). In other words, S&P was looking at the federal government's failure to come together and address the serious financial problems facing the nation and anticipating that this failure would lead to some type of gridlock. In hindsight, the nation has experienced exactly that type of predicted financial gridlock. The country is in significant debt and one party is opposed to raising taxes on those who can most afford…


Dorning, M., Detrixhe, J., & Katz, I. (2012, July 16). Downgrade anniversary shows investors gained buying U.S. Retrieved September 20, 2013 from Bloomberg website: 

Paletta, D. & Phillips, M. (2011, August 6). S&P strips U.S. Of top credit rating. Retrieved September 20, 2013 from The Wall Street Journal website:

Hih Failure of Australia's Largest
Words: 608 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 1942161
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" ( Case Study Online) Many were affected by the collapse of HIH Insurance Company with stakeholders being the company employees, policyholders of the company, as well as the Australian taxpayer who will help shoulder this debt and finally those who are referred to as the "whistleblowers" or those that tipped off regulators that something was amiss.

There has been a strong campaign for protection for whistleblowers for both private and public sectors in Australia for the last ten years. Protection for whistleblowers serves public interest through exposure and elimination of waste, fraud and impropriety within a corporation or company. If those who would report such actions against a company were protected then collapses such as HIH's and other companies recently in the news might be altogether avoided or at the least minimized as to the impact, which they have.

Recommendations are for ethical and proper business dealings on the…


HIH Insurance Case Study (2001) Online at

HIH ERisk Case Study (nd) Online at:

Boyle, Charles E. (2001) Australian Insurer HIH Seeks Bankruptcy Protection as Losses Mount, Insurance Journal Online at  01/04/09/features/17957.htm

More Troubles in Australia Following HIH Collapse (2001) Insurance Journal 2001 May 24 Online at  / 24 / 12940.htm:

U S Housing Market Boom to
Words: 5097 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 39295058
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(Der Hovanesian, 2010)

Increased Promotion of Discounted mortgages.

The way that subprime lending practices, and some call predatory lending practices affect the housing market has yet to be realized on such a large scale, as these tactics have always been carefully controlled by lending institutions, due in large part to their historical long-range view. Subprime lending on the other hand is fundamentally not a long-term view practice; it is a short-term tactic that is now being dealt with on a massive scale as foreclosures mount and more and more families see foreclosure looming in their future and more and more banks take on this debt, with the added burden of holding on to mortgages that far exceed the new depleted value of homes as the market corrects naturally from the housing bubble. The marketing for such subprime lending was absolutely saturated as nearly every individual was admonished to buy a…


"Construction. Country Profile. United States," the Economist Intelligence Unit Limited (2007), p42-43, Retrieved from Database Business Search Premier December 4, 2010: 

Der Hovanesian, M. (2006). Nightmare Mortgages. BusinessWeek, (4002), 79-80. Retrieved from Business Source Premier database December 10, 2010 

Gopal, Prashant (November 29, 2007) Northeast Home Prices Remain Strong. Business Week Online, 11/29/2007, p1, Retrieved from Database Business Search Premier December 4, 2010: 

Killelea, P. (Dec, 1, 2010) Housing crash continues -- it's a terrible time to buy an expensive house: Why? Retrieved December 10, 2010 from

Financial Market in New Zealand
Words: 1808 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14727278
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The decision of investing or not here then depends on the personal adversity to risk of each individual investor. The general theory states that each investor should construct a diversified portfolio, which adequately balances high risk-high gain shares with medium or even low rates of risk and gains (Hagin, 2004). New Zealand could then be assimilated with a medium risk-medium gain share, and as such would be perceived as a valuable addition to one's portfolio. In this order of ideas then, the recommendation would be that of investing in the country.


Amadeo, K., 2009, An Introduction to the Financial Markets, About, last accessed on December 17, 2009

Hagin, ., 2004, Investment Management: Portfolio Diversification, isk and Timing -- Fact and Fiction, John Wiley and Sons

Healy, J., 2001, New Zealand Capital Markets, Ministry of Economic Development, last accessed on December 17, 2009

Malkin, B., 2009, Financial Crisis:…


Amadeo, K., 2009, An Introduction to the Financial Markets, About,  last accessed on December 17, 2009

Hagin, R., 2004, Investment Management: Portfolio Diversification, Risk and Timing -- Fact and Fiction, John Wiley and Sons

Healy, J., 2001, New Zealand Capital Markets, Ministry of Economic Development,  last accessed on December 17, 2009

Malkin, B., 2009, Financial Crisis: Australia and New Zealand Guarantee All Ban Deposits, The telegraph,  last accessed on December 17, 2009

Foreign Market Entry Strategies GM
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GM's Chevy Volt and its all-electric design, as well as diesel-electric and conventional gas-electric hybrids could and must replace the image of the 'old' GM in the public's imagination. The company has shed the Hummer stigma, now it must create a new image for itself in the future, not just domestically, but internationally.

orks Cited

Gas-free cars future priority. (2009, April 20). China Daily. Retrieved August 6, 2009

General Motors. (2009). Company history. Updated August 4, 2009. The New York Times.

Retrieved August 6, 2009.

Hu, Lei. (2008). GM's joint venture is China's top-selling brand in 2007. Edmunds.

Retrieved August 6, 2009.

Jason. (2004). The global hybrid race: Is Europe catching the fever. GreenHybrid. Retrieved August 6, 2009 at

ald, Matthew. (200, August 5) $2 million in grants to speed up electric car manufacturing.

The New York Times. Retrieved August 6, 2009.

Ying, Tina &…

Works Cited

Gas-free cars future priority. (2009, April 20). China Daily. Retrieved August 6, 2009 

General Motors. (2009). Company history. Updated August 4, 2009. The New York Times.

Retrieved August 6, 2009.

Toxic Waste Feasibility of Market
Words: 3454 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 26566486
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Another unfortunate reality is that simply banning the discharge of effluents into the Olifants River will only stymie efforts to improve the economic situation of the region. New mining, agricultural, and electrical interests are being encouraged to invest in the region because they will facilitate economic growth and propel communities out of poverty. An outright ban on the discharge of effluents into the Olifants River will have the net result of undermining economic growth and crippling the communities that already rely on this economic base for their livelihood.

Many communities and governments, however, are experimented with market-based solutions to situations in which the interests of many firms, individuals, and organizations must be balanced with the larger desire to protect valuable environmental resources so that all can utilize them. The Australian government, in particular, has pioneered efforts to introduce market economic into pollution control and regulation. Their experiences with this method…

Works Cited

Helmer, Richard and Hespanhol, Ivanildo (eds.). "Water Pollution Control -- a Guide to the Use of Water Quality Management Principles." London: Thomson Professional, 1997.

How the Scheme Works." Hunter River Salinity Trading Scheme. New South Wales Environmental Protection Agency. 27 Nov. 2003. 15 Nov. 2007 .

James, David. "Environmental Incentives: Australian Experience with Economic Instruments for Environmental Management." Environmental Economic Research Paper No. 5. Australian Government: Department of the Environment and Water Resources. 1997. 15 Nov. 2007

Olifants River Basin, the." International Water Management Institute. 31 Oct. 2007. 13 Nov. 2007

Policy Analysis Market Over Its
Words: 1643 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 50284095
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In my opinion, the disadvantages of PAM were a little too numerous and too consistent to justify its creation and capacity to operate and I think time would have conclusively shown this as well. The accuracy of the information on the market is sensitive to the subjectivity of the investors and it is difficult to make a positive evaluation on the effects PAM would have had.


1. Policy Analysis Market. On the Internet at retrieved on December 9, 2006

2. Hanson, Robin. The Informed Press Favored the Policy Analysis Market. August 2005. On the Internet at retrieved on December 9, 2006

3. Khallow. The Policy Market Analysis. August 2003. On the Internet at retrieved on December 9, 2006

4. Pennock, David M. Commentary: The Good Side of the 'Terror Futures' Idea (Yes, There is One). 2004. On the Internet at retrieved on December 11, 2006…


1. Policy Analysis Market. On the Internet at  retrieved on December 9, 2006

2. Hanson, Robin. The Informed Press Favored the Policy Analysis Market. August 2005. On the Internet at  retrieved on December 9, 2006

3. Khallow. The Policy Market Analysis. August 2003. On the Internet at  retrieved on December 9, 2006

4. Pennock, David M. Commentary: The Good Side of the 'Terror Futures' Idea (Yes, There is One). 2004. On the Internet at retrieved on December 11, 2006

CDO Market the Recent Recession
Words: 1221 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33661738
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Hansel & Krahnen (2007) conducted a study that noted the equity beta of banks engaged in the marketing of CDOs increased relative to banks that did not market CDOs. This again highlights the risk associated with CDOs, especially given that the impact on the firm's beta was more pronounced in smaller, less well-capitalized banks.

hile CDOs introduced more risk into the banking system, they also encourage more risk in the credit markets. CDOs accomplished this by providing a secondary market for credit assets. There was only a limited secondary market for low-grade corporate debt and for subprime mortgages prior to the rise of CDOs (Deng, Gabriel & Sanders, 2008). The increase in the amount of subprime loans granted in the U.S. correlates with an increase in the availability of a secondary market for such debt in the form of CDOs. In turn, this encourage the adding of more subprime debt…

Works Cited:

Barnett-Hart, a. (2009). The story of the CDO market meltdown: An empirical analysis. Harvard College. Retrieved May 1, 2011 from 

Deng, Y.; Gabriel, S. & Sanders, a. (2008). CDO Market implosion and the pricing of CMBS and sub-prime ABS. Real Estate Research Institute. Retrieved May 1, 2011 from 

Hansel, D. & Krahnen, J. (2007). Does credit securitization reduce bank risk? Evidence from the European CDO market. Gothe University Frankfurt. Retrieved May 1, 2011 from 

Lannin, S. (2011). Lehman expected CDO market to worsen. ABC News. Retrieved May 1, 2011 from

Davis Enter the Mass Market With the
Words: 1535 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 49592521
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Davis enter the mass market with the Eggsercizer? Why or why not?

The three types of marketing strategies available to any company are mass marketing, niche marketing and skimming. The method that Davis at the moment is adapting is skimming. Why? He seems to rely on the trade shows and the occasional retailer who is interested in the product and skims the surface of the market potential. His product is a niche product that has applications in more than one sector. Thus the company has not been able to establish a niche yet. The aim of mass marketing is to capture a large segment of the market and retain it, either by a slow penetration process or by a rapid program where the market is captured by creating a mass awareness and demand. (Avlonitis; Papastathopoulou, 2006)

The methods of the rapid or the slow penetration requires many variables that build…


Avlonitis, George J; Papastathopoulou, Paulina. (2006) "Product and services management"


Burke, W. Warner; Lake, Dale G; Paine, Jill Waymire. (2008) "Organization Change: A

Comprehensive Reader" John Wiley and Sons.

Housing Market Economic Analysis to
Words: 2240 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 68197804
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Even Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac should be made totally independent from the government. This should be followed up by other methods to increase the individual ownership of housing and at the same time reduce the costs of owning a house. Even if the housing sector cannot be made totally private, it is important that the government make statements saying that it has no intentions of supporting Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac any further, and at the same time, try to improve the operations of these two companies. This can be achieved by limiting the amount of debt that these regulatory deposit organizations can hold and also focusing clearly with the two institutions on the sections of the housing market where their activities would provide the best social benefits. (Fannie Mae, Freddie Mac, and Housing Finance: Why True Privatization Is Good Public Policy)

The weakness comes from the feeling that…


After the Housing Boom. 11 April, 2005. Retrieved at . Accessed on 30 April, 2005

Cederholm, Fred. Is the Housing Market Going to Crash? Retrieved at . Accessed on 30 April, 2005

Federal Home Loan Bank System. Retrieved at Accessed on 30 April, 2005

Housing' Direct Economic Impact. 2005. Retrieved at  on 30 April, 2005

Risks in Export Market There Is Need
Words: 2999 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15394285
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isks in Export Market

There is need for companies to develop a professional approach before venturing into the exporting business. The management of the company is supposed to be committed extremely as well as devoting time and money in commencing the campaigns of export. A company is supposed to be ready to face greater competition as well as more stringent rules and regulations concerning products and packaging due to the variance in rules to which or across which the company will be exporting.

In the process of exportation, there are a number of risks that the company will face. These elements of risks are encountered in every commercial transactions as well as the complexity of the environments that exporters operate in. The content of this paper will analyze risks that a company can face while entering the field of exporting as well as discussing the roles of intermediaries in the…


Aaby, N. & S. Slater. (1989). Management Influences on Export Performance: A Review of the Empirical Literature1978-88. International Marketing Review, 6: 7-26.

Andrew B. Bernard & J. Bradford Jensen & Stephen J. Redding & Peter K. Schott, (2007). "Firms in International Trade," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 21(3), pages 105-130, Summer.

Barney, J. (1991). Firm Resources and Sustained Competitive Advantage. Journal of Management, 17: 99-120.1997. Gaining and Sustaining Competitive Advantage. Reading, MA: Addison.

Cornelius Bothma (2012). Managing your export risk. EXPORTHELP. Retrieved April 13, 2012 from

What Is the Future of the Housing Market of 2011 Into 2012
Words: 1352 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43415984
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Future of the Housing Market

The housing crash that began in 2007 resulted in the worst economic catastrophe in the United States since the Great Depression of the 1930s, although few observers who realized that the bubble was about to burst truly understood the severity of the depression that would follow. In reality, it led not only to a collapse of the housing market but also to the failure of large banks, mortgage and insurance companies and very quickly to mass unemployment. The much touted service sector that was supposed to be the engine of the economy in the postindustrial age came to a grinding halt and had to be bailed out by the largest government expenditures since the Second World War. For a public that was accustomed to decades of rhetoric about the virtues of laissez faire and free markets, all this came as quite as shock, perhaps even…


Goodman, L.S. (2010). "Dimensioning the Housing Crisis" Financial Analysts Journal 66(3), May/June 2010, pp. 26-37.

Holt, J. (2009). "A Summary of the Primary Causes of the Housing Bubble and the Resulting Credit Crisis: A Non-Technical Paper" Journal of Business Inquiry 8(1), 2009, pp. 120-29.

Myers, D. And S. Ryo (2008). "Aging Boomers and the Generational Housing Bubble" Journal of the American Planning Association 74(1) 2008, pp. 17-33.

Vitner, M. And A. York. (2008). "How Far Will Housing Prices Fall?" ABA Banking Journal, August 2008, p. 56.

Morality of the Economic Market
Words: 608 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18596469
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McGurn suggests that even the highly complex modern economic markets and financial institutions reflect the values and morals of the community; collectively, they merely manifest the free will exercised by the individuals who control their operations and strategies. In that respect, McGurn reminds us that economic systems and institutions are inanimate and not capable of exercising either moral judgment or immoral exploitations. Rather, morality is a duty of individuals and of the human community to establish through appropriate social values. On the whole, McGurn argues that even the most disastrous economic catastrophes play a role in allowing corrective mechanisms to evolve internally; no interference from government is necessary.

Analysis and Criticism of the Religious Approach to Economic Market Regulation

In principle, the a priori assumption that religion is a beneficial perspective for human conduct and that of institutions is patently flawed. Secular moral theorists might argue (rightfully) that memorizing moral…

Influence of 2007 Economic Crisis on American Car Market
Words: 24230 Length: 88 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 81822842
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2007 Economic Crisis on American Car market

Effect of the 2008 global economic crisis on automotive industries

Crisis in the United States

Crisis in Canada

Crisis in ussia

Crisis in European markets

Crisis in Asian markets

Effects by other related crisis events

In this paper, we will review the effects of 2008 global automotive crisis. Our main focus will be on the American car manufacturers and the negative impact they suffered due to the crisis. We will also have a look at how this crisis had affected car manufacturers in other major markets around the world notably Europe, Canada and the prominent Asian markets such as China and India. Finally, we will look at some of the other factors which were important to this event namely the energy crisis since the cost of fuel is directly related to the car industry.


The automobile industry is a very important part…


Lee, C. (2003). Financial Liberalization and Economic Crisis in Asia. New York: Routledge.

Pempel, T.J. (1999). The Politics of Asian Economic Crisis. New York: Cornell University Press.

Arestis, P. (2001). What Global Economic Crisis? New York: Palgrave.

Liou, K.T. (2002). Managing Economic Development in Asia. Westport, CT: Praeger.

Shadow Banking Failure of Regulation During the Sub-Prime Crisis
Words: 2890 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 57764477
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shadow banking system, its role in the subprime mortgage crisis, and failures of regulation within the shadow banking system. The term "shadow banking system" was coined by PIMCO's Paul McCulley in 2007 (Spanos, 2012) and refers to a banking system that includes financial intermediaries that are involved in creating credit across the global financial system, whose functions are not subject to regulatory oversight (Investopedia, 2012). The question has been debated as to whether shadow banking meets the definition of true banking. Given that the two systems perform similar functions, including credit intermediation and maturity transformation, the two should be considered parallel systems (Noeth and Sengupta, 2011).

The term shadow banking is used to describe any provision of credit taking place outside of the traditional deposit-funded lending system. This definition includes institutions that range from pawnbrokers and consumer finance companies to securities dealers as well as firms that issue corporate bonds.…

Reference List

Armstrong, R., 2010. Q+A -- Regulating the shadow banking system. Fox Business. [online] Available at: [Accessed 20 April 2012].

Beckworth, D., 2010. "Deposit insurance" for the shadow banking system. [online] Available at: [Accessed 20 April 2012].

Drum, K., 2012. The shadow banking system speaks: It's not time for austerity yet. MotherJones. [online] Available at: [Accessed 20 April 2012].

Hsu, J. And Moroz, M., 2009. Shadow banks and the financial crisis of 2007-2008. Research Affiliates LLC. [online] Available at: [Accessed 20 April 2012].

Business Failure the First and Perhaps the
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usiness Failure

The first and perhaps the most obvious cause for business failure is fraud. Indeed, fraud is quintessential to business failure, mainly because it takes different forms and appearances, from intentional bad management to accounting frauds that lead to legal issues.

The most important example of how fraud brought down a bank that had been financing many important operations for the last three hundred of years is the arings ank. Unfortunately, arings was also a perfect example of how one single employee can actually bankrupt a company.

Indeed, Nick Leeson began his activities with arings after a short period spent with Morgan Stanley and he was soon sent to Singapore to clear the back office mess and futures trading that was on the way there. Initially operating only as general manager, Leeson soon began to trade on the Singapore Exchange (the SIMEX), especially in financial derivates, such as futures…


1. Barings Debacle. On the Internet at

Barings Debacle. On the Internet at

Money Banking and Financial Markets
Words: 2353 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Article Review Paper #: 75747613
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economic crisis in Europe and the increasing costs for European countries to borrow money and bail out other Euro countries in financial distress. The EU nations that use the Euro have experienced a crisis among certain countries with high debt requiring bailouts for Greece and Ireland and the likelihood that Portugal and Spain may also need a bailout. Postponing the restructuring of high interest debts has led to further crisis rather than resolving any of the problems faced by insolvent countries. Huge transfer payments from the more powerful Euro countries, like Germany, to the failed economies of Greece and Ireland have made investors nervous and led to less investment at a crucial time. The author suggests that the debts of troubled countries need to be restructured now in order to create a sustainable payment to increase confidence and secure future payments.

Creditors will also have to shoulder some of the…


Bamberger, K.. (2010). Technologies of Compliance: Risk and Regulation in a Digital Age. Texas Law Review, 88(4), 669-739. Retrieved January 21, 2011, from ABI/INFORM Global. (Document ID: 1995143041). 

Corder, J. (2009). The Federal Reserve System and the Credit Crisis. Public Administration Review, 69(4), 623-631. doi:10.1111/j.1540-6210.2009.02011.x

Europe finance: Time for Plan B. (2011, January). EIU ViewsWire. Retrieved January 19, 2011, from ABI/INFORM Global. (Document ID: 2241366821).

Barrier Analysis Failure Mode Analysis & Effect Analysis
Words: 870 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82251359
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Barrier Analysis

Two nationally recognized computer manufacturers compete for market share of lap top sales. Company B. has 50% market share for lap tops within the United States, while Company A has 10% share. Company A plans to use competitive advertising in order to acquire more market share. Since the remaining 40% U.S. market share is dispersed among various companies with no clear path to substantial acquisition, Company A decides that Company B's market share represents a target for its streamlined acquisition of market share. Effectively, Company A's advertising team devises to pull market share directly from Company B. Negative advertising poised to make Company B. appear to have inferior products relative to Company A's lap top offerings threatens Company B's market share.

However, Company B. does have a collective, non-physical barrier in place to thwart the results of negative advertising imposed by Company A. A few aspects combine to…

Enron Ethics and Leadership Failures
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Ethics and Leadership Failures: The Enron Case

Gibney's 2005 documentary film Enron: The Smartest Guys in the Room reveals some of the main ethical weaknesses in an unbridled neoliberal capitalist market system. Barely addressing environmental and social justice issues, the filmmakers instead choose to focus on organizational culture, leadership, and ethical decision making within the corporation. The film illustrates the core concepts of business ethics and shows how executives shape company values and behaviors. Disturbingly, the Enron case also shows how unethical corporate behavior is linked with unethical behavior in government.

Summarize in one paragraph how you would explain Enron's ethical meltdown

Enron's ethical meltdown is a result of two interrelated issues: unethical individuals making unethical decisions, and an organizational culture that enables unethical decisions to proliferate. The unethical decisions and behaviors mainly have to do with stock market manipulation and the falsifying of information related to the actual performance…

Nike Manufactures and Markets Sports
Words: 6524 Length: 25 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 47122026
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5% of total liabilities. Their retained earnings, on the other hand, total $5.073 billion. The heavy use of retained earnings is partially explained by their view of themselves as a growth company. hile they pay a dividend, Nike prefers to re-invest much of its profits back into expansion. They do not feel that the market has matured sufficiently to stop their aggressive growth strategy. Another consideration in their capital structure is the cost of capital. On account of its low volatility, Nike has a low cost of debt, approximately 6.8% using CAPM. Their long-term debt is primarily a revolving credit facility. The rate, based on their a+ rating, is LIBOR + 0.15%, which would equate to 4.12% based on the October 15th price of the 1-year LIBOR. If anything, Nike could become more financially efficient by increasing their use of debt financing.

Nike places strong emphasis on human resources. They…

Works Cited

Cohen, Marshal (2007). USA: Athletic footwear is significant portion of overall footwear market. Fibre 2 Fashion. Retrieved October 21, 2008 at 

Some financial information, ratios from Reuters. Retrieved October 21, 2008 at 

Nike 2008 Annual Report. Retrieved October 21, 2008 at 

Nike 2006 Annual Report. Retrieved October 21, 2008 at

Dayton OH Media Market
Words: 2693 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 50724963
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Telecommunications Act of 1996 was a high point in the history of telecommunications in the United States. It was coming twelve years after the breakup of AT&T; the Act endeavored to reposition all telecommunications markets in the direction of opposition. The Act imagined antagonism in all telecommunications markets, both in the markets for the numerous elements that included the telecommunications network, along with the final services the network generated. Going on the knowledge of the long distance market, which was distorted from a monopoly to a successfully competitive market over the last twelve years, the Act attempted to endorse opposition in the hitherto dominate local exchange markets. The Act acknowledged the telecommunications network as a network of consistent networks. Telecommunications contributors were obliged to intersect with applicant at any possible point the entrant desires. Most prominently, the Act commanded that current local exchange carriers ("ILECs") lease parts of their network…


Overbey, Jason. (1996) Telecommunication Act of 1996,

October 23,2002.

OET, (2001) OET Telecommunications,.

October, 23, 2002.

The Failure of Hedge Fund as a an Investment Vehicle
Words: 1228 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 39270060
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Long-Term Capital Management

The Failure of Long-Term Capital Management

The Long-Term Capital Management is a popular term relating to hedge funds that experienced massive failure. The fund was initially a success from the time it was launched accumulating over $100 billion in just three years (Yang, 2014). It became highly attractive on Wall Street for everyone because of the astounding profits it made. Despite being run by highly experienced personalities like professors and finance experts, their performance turned sour in 1998 (Yang, 2014). Banks that were giants in the American banking industry were facing a loss of over $1 trillion because of their demise (Yang, 2014). The problem of LCTM occurred and accelerated so quickly that in less than twelve months, $4.4 billion that was part of the $4.7 billion capital had vanished. LCTM was on the verge of collapsing towards the end of 1998, and if it did then,…


Amadeo, K. (2016). What Was the Long-Term Capital Management Hedge Fund Crisis?. The Balance. Retrieved 31 May 2017, from 

Jorion, P. (1999). The Story of Long-Term Capital Management. Investment Review. Retrieved 31 May 2017, from 

Rimkus, R. (2016). Long-Term Capital Management. Econ crises. Retrieved 31 May 2017, from 

Yang, S. (2014). The Epic Story Of How A 'Genius' Hedge Fund Almost Caused A Global Financial Meltdown. Business Insider. Retrieved 31 May 2017, from

Project Failure
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Project management is an important component in the success of projects undertaken by modern business organizations or enterprises. Organizations embark on project management initiatives to help promote the success and effectiveness of their various projects. However, organizations across the globe face substantial project failure rates, which are often costly since they waste millions of dollars in the process. Given the likelihood of project failures, organizations undertake several measures to help enhance the success of their projects. Despite these efforts, project failure is still a reality that many organizations worldwide have to struggle with. This paper examines three reasons why a project can fail and discusses solutions that can be utilized by organizations to eliminate the problem and turn the project or initiative into a successful venture.
Reasons for Project Failure
Pinto & Mantel (1990) states existing literature on project management has different definitions and unique examples of the concept of…

Attribution and Cultural Differences Attribution of Failure
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Attribution and Cultural Differences


Attribution of failure and cultural differences in business

'Personal responsibility' is a common buzzword in American political and business life. Americans are often more forgiving of politicians and CEOs who accept responsibility for the mistakes they have made. Individual responsibility is seen as a positive value, but this is not true of all cultures. In more collectivist cultures, the stress is upon collective and 'team' responsibility when things go wrong. "In some cultures (those in the West), it is the individual that has agency, as the group is merely the context within which individuals act. In some cultures (those in the East), it is the group that has agency. In Asian cultures, individual agency is constrained by family roles and social rules so that there is less individual 'innovation and improvisation'" (Friedman et al. 2007: 857). As a result, in the media and in society,…


Dickie, Mure. (2011). Stigma of failure holds back Japanese start-ups. The Financial Times.


Friedman, Ray, Liu, Wu, Chen Chao C., Chi, Shu-Cheng Steve. (2007). Causal attribution for interfirm contract violation: A comparative study of Chinese and American commercial arbitrators. Journal of Applied Psychology 92 (3) 856 -- 864

Netflix Expansion into Overseas Markets
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According to the article listed above, what were the most important strategic moves that propelled Netflix’s successful international expansion?
According to the article the most important strategic moves related to Netflix’s expansion were associated to its planning. First, Netflix did not attempt to enter all markets simultaneously. Instead, it elected to enter into markets that shared many of the same market characteristic of the United States. Namely, the company was looking for a strong rule of law as it relates to intellectual property, streaming rights and so forth. Next, the market needed a burgeoning middle class similar in to size and scope of the United States. The middle class needed a sufficient amount of discretionary income that was allocated to entertainment purchases. The middle class also needed to have strong employment figures throughout an economic cycle. The country itself needed to be innovative and have the streaming capabilities needed to…

1. Schechner, S. (2014, Sept. 7). Netflix tries charm in France to smooth expansion; Online media firm also moves into Germany, Austria, Belgium, and Luxembourg. Wall Street Journal. Retrieved from
2. Segal, D. (2013, Feb. 8). The Netflix fix. The New York Times. Retrieved from
3. Spangler, T. (2014b, Apr. 8). Amazon streams more video than Hulu or Apple, but it’s still miles behind Netflix. Variety. Retrieved from

Economics Market
Words: 2306 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 10718187
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North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). Specifically, it will present the pros and cons of NAFTA, and how it will affect the apparel industry, especially in the California and/or Los Angeles market. It will consider such factors as how it affects the job market, manufacturers, contractors, etc.


The NAFTA agreement has been controversial since it first began in 1992. Many experts felt that the United States would lose a large amount of jobs to Mexico, because of lower wages and fewer trade union restrictions. It created Free Trade between Mexico, Canada, and the United States, and eliminated a large number of tariffs on a sliding scale over the next fifteen years. "On 12 August 1992, the United States, Canada, and Mexico agreed on a plan for free trade that would gradually eliminate tariffs over fifteen years and stimulate trade and investment. hile protecting the 1988 free…

Works Cited

Clement, Norris C., et al. North American Economic Integration: Theory and Practice. Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar, 1999.

Editors. "NAFTA and Workers' Rights and Jobs." Public 2002. 

Gianaris, Nicholas V. The North American Free Trade Agreement and the European Union. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 1998.

Rosenberg, Jerry M. Encyclopedia of the North American Free Trade Agreement, the New American Community, and Latin-American Trade. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1995.

Change to Overcome IT Project Failure
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Change Management in IT

Overcoming IT Project Failure

Any enterprises' ability to remain agile and quick to respond to external opportunities and threats is in large part predicated on the innate skill sets of the project and programme managers guiding projects in progress. The synchronized efforts of project and programme managers working in conjunction with cross-functional department leads and senior management form the foundation that assures an enterprise can change rapidly in response to opportunities and threats. Not only is this ability to manage change at a corporate, cross-functional level important, it is an essential attribute of any effectively managed organization (Partington, Pellegrinelli, Young, 2005). In the case of exceptionally costly and time-consuming project failures, the capacity of project and programme managers, in addition to entire enterprises to recover from setbacks and develop a corporate-wide resilience is essential if change is going to be made an innate strength of the…


Lycett, M., Rassau, A. & Danson, J. 2004, "Programme management: a critical review," International Journal of Project Management, vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 289-299.

Partington, D., Pellegrinelli, S. & Young, M. 2005, "Attributes and levels of programme management competence: an interpretive study," International Journal of Project Management, vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 87-95.

Pellegrinelli, S., Partington, D., Hemingway, C., Mohdzain, Z. & MahmoodShah 2007, "The importance of context in programme management: An empirical review of programme practices," International Journal of Project Management, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 41.

Organizational Recruitment Failures for an Unnamed Retail
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Organizational Recruitment

Recruitment Failures for an Unnamed Retail Giant

The quality of a professional organization will be deeply and directly contingent upon the quality of the personnel that it employs. Such is to say that a company's success begins with its recruitment strategy, where the manner in which it shapes and conveys its demands to applying candidates will be critical to the screening and vetting processes. It is this recruitment strategy that will determine not just who a company hires but, indeed, who among its employees are likely to become long-term assets or to advance within an organization. For the purposes of this discussion, we will consider the recruitment policies of a leading global retail chain. For proprietary reasons, we will refrain from identifying this firm by name, but the discussion will demonstrate how negative recruitment strategies can be connected to poor public image performance and a poor record on…

Works Cited:

Clark, J. & Irwin, E.G. (2006). The local costs and benefits of [-], The Ohio State University.

Gatewood, R.D., M.A. Gowan & G.J. Lautenschlager. (1993). Corporate Image, Recruitment Image, and Initial Job Choice Decisions, The Academy of Management Journal (36)2, p. 414-427.

Hays, C.L. (2004). What [-] knows about customers' habits. The New York Times.

Nester, M. (2006). Strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats of [-] in the United States, University of Kansas Engineering Management Field Projects.

Management Planning The Failure of
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By "spreading these large expenses over decades rather than years," WorldCom's appeared to do the impossible: "cut annual expenses, acknowledge all MCI revenue, and boost profits from the acquisition" (Moberg & omar 2008).

Who wouldn't want to invest in such a profitable company? Investors, mislead by such accounting data, flocked to buy the stock, Based upon analysts' recommendations, many people used the stock to bolster investment portfolios designated for retirement and college savings. While it is acknowledged that buying stocks always entails some risk, WorldCom's inaccurate financial reporting made an objective evaluation of its policy impossible. Upon acquiring companies, WorldCom management chose also chose to ignore credit department lists of customers who had not paid their bills for a long time, thus discounting the financial drain of non-collectable bills.

Management planning: Contingency planning and corporate social responsibility

The complete lack of contingency planning on the part of WorldCom management was…


Moberg, Dennis & Edward Romar. (2008). WorldCom. Mark Kula Center of Applied Ethics.

Santa Clara University. Retrieved January 3, 2010 at 

Planning function. (2009). Management study guide. Retrieved January 3, 2010 at