It is important to acquire goodness in order to understand the meaning and purpose of life.
Distressed and hopeless people do not consider or think about the meaning of life. For them, the meaning of life becomes inappropriate when their existence is at stake and when their life is a mixture of worries and perplexities. On the other hand, people who are not desperate mull over the meaning of life. It becomes a problem for such people to reflect on the meaning of life who count on endurance, relief, safety measures, and pleasure. For desperate people, life is to be lived one moment at a time. However, those who consider the meaning of life as important consider it every day and very well know that they should step back from the moment to see and observe life in a long-range context (Baumeister 3).
It is a fact that every…… [Read More]
strong issue with the ideas of David Benatar and James Lenman (1997), which I regard as simply absurd, or more likely a case of academics striking a pose and writing in a sarcastic and cynical manner in hopes of getting a rise out of their readers. If the latter is true, they certainly succeeded with me, since I cannot accept the notion that non-existence is always preferable to existence or that it does not matter if the human species becomes extinct. In fact, I assert that such theories run contrary to the basic survival instinct and self-regard that most humans have, even under conditions of extreme suffering and brutality. For whatever reasons, even in the worst situations, something in the human species drives its powerful desire to survive. People may not always be loving and humane with themselves or others, but most of them do have a strong sense of…… [Read More]
Philosophers much older and wiser than I have wrestled with the thorny question of life's meaning, and risen from the mat covered with scratches and welts, but still without answers. The questions regarding life's meaning plague mankind at times. During times of prosperity and success, culture and man's conscious is understandably silent on the issue. There is no reason to struggle with the weighty matters of my purpose on this planet when my bank account is filled, and my family is healthy, and I can generally attain those things I want in my pursuit of life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness. But often, society's prosperity gives birth to trouble. The economic prosperity of the 60's and 70's brought an increase in pollution, and families unexpectedly had to adjust to polluted groundwater, smog, and a general increase in pollution diseases.
These changed in our lives do not always come…… [Read More]
.....deathbed, Morrie reflects on his life, and relays several messages about the meaning or purpose of life. Ironically, one of the main messages of the story is that life does not necessarily have a greater or cosmic meaning. Meaning is found in what is immediately before us, in the day-to-day existence and especially in relationships with others. Life's meaning is found in accepting life for what it is rather than wishing it could be something else. The meaning of life can therefore be best understood by appreciating what we have now instead of wishing we were different or that things were different.
Second, and following from this, the meaning of life is located in the small details, things we can frequently overlook -- finding beauty and joy in every day, even on bad days and in situations that are painful or uncomfortable. Meaning is especially found in friendship, caring for…… [Read More]
A number of literary, philosophical, psychological, religious and other writers are of the view that the subject of 'the meaning of life' forms one among the most central issues experienced by people. Tolstoy (Rowlands) claims that science is unable to provide assistance in this regard. While it can describe what life is, it is incapable of describing its meaning. It is able to explain the things in this world and what's possible; however, it is unable to explain their meaning and importance. Tolstoy states that faith provides an answer to this question. Hence, he asserts that irrespective of the answers provided by faith, it accords the finiteness of humanity's existence a sense of infiniteness, which fails to get vanquished under conditions of death, afflictions, and hardship (Tolstoy). As a result, faith alone provides the possibility and meaning of life. One may describe faith as knowledge regarding life's meaning, as…… [Read More]
He believed strongly in the government's protection of civil rights and equal opportunities for all its citizens. If a government failed to do so, he called for civil disobedience. King (1986) stated that freedom must be taken from the oppressors (p. 292). His concept of meaning was formulated in the crucible of unjust laws and centered on the notion of social justice. This meant attaining freedom, dignity, and social equality for all, not just for the privileged. His advocacy of non-violent protest aligned him with Socrates, as did his subversive speech. He felt strongly that it was every person's ethical duty to stand up peacefully but powerfully against all forms of oppression, and like Socrates he was willing to face death bravely for his cause. As opposed to Aristotle and close to Socrates, he affirmed that one must work to change the material conditions of life as well as social…… [Read More]
Life in a Godless orld
For as long as mankind has contemplated its own creation philosophers have pondered the meaning of life largely within the context of humanity's relationship to the divine, from Aristotle's metaphysical conception of God as all actuality to Descartes' systematic attempt to develop a proof of God's existence. The dominance of Christianity throughout much the civilized world invariably constrained the ability of great thinkers to challenge many of the religion's most fundamental precepts, from the concept of free will to the nature of good and evil, leaving much of the early philosophical canon regrettably limited by a reliance on unquestioned faith. After the European Renaissance validated the structural foundations of scientific inquiry, the glaring inability to empirically observe God in any conceivable form prompted many to privately question the dogmatic assertions of the Pope and his church. It wasn't until the momentous contribution of the German…… [Read More]
Frankl, many people seek therapy because of the "feeling of the total and ultimate meaningless of their lives," (p. 62). Frankl mainly refers to the "super-meaning" or to the ultimate meaning of life from a general existential or cosmological perspective -- not the personalized meaning in one individual's purpose in life, which is a different question (p. 74). A state of meaninglessness is the inability to move forward and progress through pain, not just in spite of pain and suffering but because of it. Meaningless is a "feeling of emptiness," and an "existential vacuum," (p. 143). Meaninglessness is the inability to learn from suffering, and thereby transform suffering into something that is meaningful. According to Frankl, meaningfulness cannot be located in the propagation of the species because one must find meaning whether or not one procreates. Meaning comes from feeling useful, and feeling useful needs to arise independently of external…… [Read More]
I am the founder and owner of a 25-year-old vocational school and still lecture daily. I have been married to the woman of my dreams for almost 40 years; have two children and two grandchildren. e are building a second home on a lakefront about an hour from the school with the plan that I will lecture for three days and spend four days per week at the lake. Certainly, the school and tangible income has allowed us to be comfortable and educate our children, as well as put away a bit for the future. However, when I reflect, what I really find as "meaning" is the way in which, in some small manner, we have helped transform the lives of so many students who are now successful businessmen and women, who have families, and who are continuing with some of the ethical and moral principles engrained at school. The…… [Read More]
Virginia Woolf, the author focuses her attention on a number of scenes to bring home a central idea to her reader. Through her considerations of people, insects, and a variety of other elements Ms. Woolf considers the deeper meanings of life and the various meanings it might have for individuals and the collective of humanity. By a variety of essays that range from the death of a simple moth at a window to the complex writings of Horace Walpole, Virginia Woolf appears to contemplate the many ways in which life might make itself meaningful via death, perpetual pain, and creativity.
Virginia Woolf's interpretation of death as life's ultimate purpose in its simplest form is provided in "The Death of the Moth." The author describes a moth that flies "by day," which is caught at a window. She also describes night moths as somewhat pleasantly exciting a sense of darkness, which…… [Read More]
Life Is Worth Living
People are living longer than ever before. With the advances of medical science, longer and higher quality of lives are more possible than they were a few decades ago. With the ability to live longer than previously enjoyed how does one decide a life is worth living? I believe it has to do with the heart and the mind.
I have a friend who recently lost the ability to walk. Before this happened to my friend I had a much different idea about what makes life worthwhile. Watching my friend rise above the challenge and find many things to live for made me think about the true value and meaning of life. I realize now it is not what one cannot accomplish, but what one can accomplish that defines the value of a life.
I believe that a life is worth living if a person can…… [Read More]
Women identified their hrist Jesus who was food during mass as the redemption of humanity. The women believed reaching spirituality was through food, since naturally they were food from their ability to breastfeed. The Medieval women associated the breast as seen in Holy mother, Mary's own breastfeeding as a Eucharistic feeding of the soul.
The painting also indicates that to the Female saints of the Middle Ages, prayer was an important element in their connection to God. In the "The life and Miracles of Saint Godelieve," Godelieve makes prayer requests and offerings of food to God, that are answered by angels who bring delicacies for the poor.
Amy Hollywood. "Sensible Ecstasy: Mysticism, Sexual Difference, and the Demands of History (Religion and Postmodernism)," University of hicago Press, (2002).
This article carries out an analysis of anthropological studies of the medieval times, and looks into the connection of the body,…… [Read More]
Life of the Buddha:
What was the Buddha's name? How else do Buddhists refer to him?
His name is Siddhartha Gautama and he is often referred to as the 'awakened' or 'enlightened' one.
What are the circumstances in which the Buddha grew up?
Siddhartha was born in 563 B.C. He lived in a place called Lumbini and then was raised in Kapilavashtha, Sakya Kingdom's capital. During this time, Northern India was made up of various small and independent states. It is during this period, people came to challenge and question Vedic philosophy through a number of new religious and philosophical schools. There was a strong moral vacuum present.
What are the "four passing sights"?
The first is an old man that reminded Buddha of aging. The second was a sick person that reminded Buddha of pain and disease. The third was a corpse that reminded Buddha of…… [Read More]
The entire look and feel of Kunming was different because of the way factories were developed and houses were built. People had fewer options and opportunities.
In spite of the hardships that communism posed for Chan and her family, she remained strong. She never lost hope that one day she would start a new business. It was years before her dream came true, and it was not easy. The move to the United States was challenging because it made Chan feel "like a baby, starting again." She had no friends and only a few family members to help her. Gradually, though, she put together the financing for the business. She viewed it as a matter of personal pride but also as a way to leave something to her grandchildren. Chan illustrates how women can balance family and career and not succumb to the social pressures that suggest that business is…… [Read More]
This is a very important concept that has not been touched upon in the book but can actually serve as an impetus for good in one's life.
Religious counseling is an important field and one that works on the same principles as general counseling but integrates religion into it. When a Christian counselor works on the mind of his patient/client, the key objective is to align them to the teachings in the scripture without intimidating the client. In other words, it is the job of the counselor to learn as much as he/she can about the behavior, values and attitude including mindset of the client by providing a trustworthy and comfortable environment. Focus is placed on facilitation of communication where the client talks feeling completely safe in the presence of the counselor. He is given the maximum opportunity to express his views on various things in order to seek his…… [Read More]
It is impossible for science to "overtake" the light but not impossible for humans to experience it. hile light is pleasing, it is not lasting for the poet. hen it is no longer present, what remains is something that is almost opposite to light. The poet describes the experience as a "quality of loss / Affecting our content, / As Trade had suddenly encroached / Upon a Sacrament" (17-20). Here we see the emergence of despair and loss when the light is gone. The light is a severe contrast with the darkness alluded to in the other poems mentioned here but above all, the contrast demonstrates the poet's ability to write about diverse topics.
Death is a source of inspiration for Emily Dickinson and while this make seem creepy to many readers, it is actually brave for the poet because death, even today, seems taboo for many artists. This may…… [Read More]
Though her mother had passed, there would be maternal, familial and nurturing love to be found in the warmth and kindness of those whom she would meet here. ith the Black Madonna photograph as a compass and the pressures of the changing Civil Rights climate as a motor, Lily ultimately had found personal redemption in the implications of both. It is no matter of coincidence that the author so aggressively intertwined the conditions of Lily's confrontation of her own demons concerning the death of her mother with the personal revelations that, on a broad social scale, underscored the Civil Rights Movement as a whole. Indeed, the resolution finds Lily in a place of relative emotional equanimity, having confronted the truth about her mother, having faced the anger of her father and having ultimately settled on her life in the Boatright's community. Accordingly, "August and her community become Lily's new family,…… [Read More]
At the same time, a series of interrelated events occur between the communication partners over time and space.
The active sender is comprised of encoder / interpretation / decoder. The passive-recipient, on the other hand, constitutes decoder / interpreter / encoder. Similar to the Shannon & eaver theory, each encodes and decodes the message according to her own interpretation of content.
Ultimately, communication is made up of signs. It is we who invest it with meaning and who provide those signs (or symbols) with a referent. The person on the other end (the decoder) cannot always understand the referent, or, if of a different culture, may have no knowledge of that referent altogether. Language is also diachronic, meaning that is constantly in flux from situation to situation. Thinking of the gap in the middle as well as the attendant 'noise' and the fact that the recipient always changes helps us…… [Read More]
What's more embarrassing is that I had to sit in the front row so I ended up like a superstar being watched by the whole class. It was not fun. It really wasn't. But in the end I think it is better to be looked over than to be overlooked. And if my classmates would talk about me, well, I would say, "there is only one thing in life worse than being talked about, and that is not being talked about." I am glad I am at the better side.
When I was younger, my mother would always tell me, "Son, honesty is the best policy. If you are honest, people may cheat you, but be honest anyway." George Washington once said "it is better to offer no excuse than a bad one." I believe that's true, very true actually. But a voice keeps telling me to remain silent and…… [Read More]
In this example, morality is decided by the gain, pleasure, and other self-interest of the individual donning the ring. Such individuals would more than likely obtain this gain by committing illicit activities, such as robbing a bank, but use their winnings for fairly self-absorbed means to further their consumption of whatever suits their fancy. Houses, cars, women and other material items would more than likely be procured, for the simple fact that the individual is sating his own personal desires. In this case there is no need to act ethically, since the bearer of the ring is outside of the judgment (both literally and figuratively) of others, whose morals no longer apply to that individual.
The Rashomon effect describes the degree of subjectivity involved in the recollection of a memory, and is what is attributed to the fact that different people may recall the same incident with conflicting descriptions of…… [Read More]
life is an issue that has been plaguing thoughtful people since the first Cro-magnons evolved into modern homo sapiens with the power to think rationally and creatively, and most importantly, self-consciously. Aside from humorous attempts to explain the meaning of life such as Monty Python's movie The Meaning of Life, the question is a serious one. It cuts to the core of every human life, causing the individual to question his or her purpose and mode of living. Many people look to religious guidance as a means of discovering meaning in life, and religion remains the most effective way of providing people with a roadmap. Even if the absolute meaning of life is not revealed, we can at least learn to accept that God has a plan and that plan is inherently meaningful. Philosophers, however, have debated the efficacy of religion's ability to provide life with meaning. Existentialism is the…… [Read More]
How Does a Person Live a Meaningful Life?
One of the questions which have perplexed humankind is how to live a meaningful life. This is because there have been a number of theorists and philosophers, who provided insights about the best ways to achieve these objectives. Over the centuries, these views are constantly shifting. This is because experiences and social attitudes will shape a person's insights.
To fully understand the meaning of life requires focusing on key ideas from the different philosophers. This will be accomplished by discussing central figures from each module in terms of their contribution, the pros / cons of their ideas and how this relates to their understanding of life. Together, these different elements will illustrate how each one of these theories is influencing the way someone can live a fulfilling life.
Epictetus -- Freedom
Epictetus is focused on several different areas to provide a…… [Read More]
Life worth Living
In order for life to be worth living it should have a purpose and for our life to be meaningful we must have some aspiration that makes it worthwhile. A life without any purpose or aim is futile. Different individuals have different factors that add meaning to their life. Meaningfulness is an essential component of our life. It gives us the hope, determination and passion to achieve the things that we believe make our life complete.
Most of the people fail to find a purpose for their life and lead a meaningless life. They have nothing to strive for and to achieve. This is because people usually wait for that purpose and they believe that it will come to them by itself. Adding meaning to our life does not necessarily mean that we must achieve something in return. Sometimes giving something to the outside world, to our…… [Read More]
This sense of leading a purposeful life sustained Frankl in the concentration camps during orld ar II. There he witnessed other Jews finding meaning in their lives. Some men found that their love for their wives made life meaningful while others found meaning in religious faith. Finding meaning in the world helped them cope with what would otherwise be unbearable sorrow and travails.
Frankl believed that the super-meaning of life, the ultimate purpose of human existence could only be understood or put into words by ordinary people. The super-meaning of life was infinite, but the human capacity to understand the world beyond our own narrow terms and limits was finite (Hanes 2001). Still, human beings must try to make limited meaning out of their lives to be psychologically healthy and to make the most of human existence.
Hanes, Martin. (2001). "Man's Search for Meaning." orld Religions. Retrieved 27…… [Read More]
Mortality and Life eview
For most of us, a sense of impending mortality prompts a need to find closure, conduct a full life review and reconciliation (Clarke, 2007). The reality that death is a natural process -- leading towards an inescapable final destination -- seems implausible at first glance. For a variety of reasons, death has become a taboo subject that no longer represents an accepted progression of life, but something unnatural to be wrestled against. Coming to terms with impending mortality is challenging and calls forth a range of deep emotions that need to be expressed. Expressing these intense feelings and reviewing one's life is essential to finding peace and allowing true healing on an emotional and spiritual level (Sand et al., 2009).
The definition of the life review process is described as a "naturally occurring, universal mental process" (Butler, 1963). In other words, it is a normal developmental…… [Read More]
When Henry Adams described the "task of education" as being "this problem of running order through chaos, direction through space, discipline through freedom, unity through-multiplicity," it appears that he was referring to something that people today would more readily refer to as the meaning of life. This may seem a loose phrase that risks cliche, but in fact it is the easiest way to make sense of Adams's set of paradoxes about education. After all, the events of life are a pure chaos of one event after another, unless one has obtained the mental criteria to evaluate them. Similarly, life is directionless unless one has a specific purpose, and life is marked by a bewildering freedom of options unless one is restricted to certain choices, and life can appear as numerous unique phenomena unless we have learned to recognize the underlying patterns and categories in those events. In some…… [Read More]
Thus, God represents a loving, kind, and good man, but He is also a just man, and therefore, his chosen people must be just and fair as well. They also saw great meaning in all the happenings around them, and felt God was sending them a message to act justly and if they did not, they would pay the price. Justice and morality ensured their stability and so, they maintained the standard of justice and gave it premier meaning in their lives. They understood they must be merciful and just, and that they must suffer, as well. To be the chosen people is not easy, they have to live up to the task, and their meaning and belief in God and justice helped them feel worthy.
Perhaps the thing that most sets the Jews apart and helps indicate their faith is their long-standing reverence for tradition. They have created historic…… [Read More]
Psychology of Happiness and a Life Well-Lived
In this paper, I have discussed that happiness as well as morality (meaningful purpose) are actually the ultimate goals and the true sign of a life well-lived. I have tried to explain how morality must be considered as the most important factor to signify a well-lived life. I have also given the ideas of Aristotle and Plato regarding morality and happiness and have tried to assess the literature on my chosen factor.
If we ask people to elaborate the definition of a well-lived life, we would surely get very different answers. For some, money will be considered as the means to be happy and successful; others may count recognition of peers as the basis of a well-lived life. A well-designed and useful product will be the success for some; for others it can be a beautiful garden. Good relationships would be a mode…… [Read More]
Role as a Nurse/Life Helper in a Long-Term Care Facility
Nursing in a long-term care facility would be the prescription for burnout and depression for many people. And yet, it is an essential activity in the current society. There are ways to approach the profession, however, that help explain its purpose and also allow the nurse to place his or her activities into a context at once useful and conceptual. There are traditions from almost every philosophy and religion that point to the same things; the value of service, humility, compassion, and transcendence all arising out of the desire to do good works (nursing) and the will to create the skills necessary to do those works.
A knowledge of some of these is essential to place the activities of nursing into a scheme that will give the best result possible for all concerned, the nurse, the patient, the patient's family…… [Read More]
Philosophies of Life:
Personal and Traditional
hen one considers the many aspects of one's "inner life," it becomes clear that most, if not all of them are based upon some philosophical conception. Psychologists have long known that individuals, who have a strong sense of their life's purpose, as well as a spiritual, religious, or ethical viewpoint, tend to live longer, healthier lives. Further, they are less likely to suffer from depressive episodes (Hassad, 2000). Although each person's individual "philosophy of life" is different, there are some well-known philosophical interpretations that can shed some light upon common attitudes concerning personal identity. Six famous life philosophies are attributed to Socrates, Freud, Albert Camus, Thomas Hobbes, John Locke, and Muhammad.
Although there are several ways in which one can interpret the meaning of life and personal identity, perhaps one of the most useful steps one can take in the process is to recognize…… [Read More]
Tree of Life is, in fact, a mini-journey -- not through Heaven and Hell -- but through time and space: we witness the creation of the world, a segment of life in 1956 Texas, and the Resurrection at the end of the world. atching Tree of Life is less like watching a film than it is like contemplating and meditating upon the meaning of life itself. As Roger Ebert said, the film is a prayer -- and for that reason, one's engagement with it depends upon one's desire to communicate with the Divinity, whose presence is at the heart of the narrative.
The narrative of Tree of Life is another thing that is non-traditional. The plot is non-linear: it flashes through points in time in disorienting ways to show that time itself is fleeting and that only the soul is eternal -- therefore, prime importance should be given to the…… [Read More]
Fulfillment in Life
The aim of this discussion to ascertain three of the qualities a person needs so that they can lead a life of fulfillment. The three qualities discussed will be love, integrity and knowledge. These three traits are part of the essence of being human and, combined with other humanistic traits such as sympathy and passion, these traits separate humans from the other, soulless animals in the world.
The first of these qualities to discuss is love. Love is a quality that no life can be without. The ability to build nurturing and loving relationships with another person is integral to our emotional fulfillment. It brings us the greatest joy we can possibly experience. Love can do many things including alleviating loneliness, such as the kind of "terrible loneliness in which one's shivering consciousness looks over the rim of the world into the cold, unfathomable abyss" (ussell,…… [Read More]
But whether it is suitable for all remains in doubt. An individual searching for a meaningful occupation after college, for example, or who has just lost a loved one and cannot stop asking 'why,' may benefit from the presumptions of logotherapy. However, an individual seeking an immediate solution to a psychological problem of a specific onset and duration may require a form of therapy that is more directed. Individuals who are not particularly articulate about their feelings, or who find the implications of religion or philosophy intimidating might be stymied rather than encouraged to open up with the theory's stress upon philosophy and larger, rather than immediate context of their problems.
Under the most extreme circumstances, Frankl stresses, one can find a will to survive, if one has a reason to do so. For a therapist, he or she must find such a reason within the patient's psyche and life…… [Read More]
After finishing chapter 1 of Genesis it seemed clear that when God created human beings it was with the intention of their purpose being to master and reign over the world. During chapter 2, the clarity of this meaning becomes a bit more muddled. e are left with the uncertain conclusion that God's creation needed regular upkeep and that humankind was put on the earth to make sure that it happened. Some theologians have argued that the subsequent naming of all of the animals in Genesis 2:19-20 suggests dominion over the world through the act of naming. However, in contrast to the explicit earthly authority granted humans in Genesis chapter 1, the "power to name animals" rings a bit hollow.
Nonetheless, despite these contradictions between chapters 1 and 2 in Genesis, a rough picture of the purpose -- if not the explicit meaning -- of life for human beings takes…… [Read More]
Jesus' Teachings, Prayer, & Christian Life
"He (Jesus) Took the Bread. Giving Thanks Broke it. And gave it to his Disciples, saying, 'This is my Body, which is given to you.'" At Elevation time, during Catholic Mass, the priest establishes a mandate for Christian Living. Historically, at the Last Supper, Christ used bread and wine as a supreme metaphor for the rest of our lives. Jesus was in turmoil. He was aware of what was about to befall him -- namely, suffering and death. This was the last major lesson he would teach before his arrest following Judas' betrayal. Eschatologically speaking, the above set the stage for the Christian ministry of the apostles, evangelists and priests. Indeed, every Christian is called to give of him or herself for the Glory of God and the Glory of Mankind. The message at the Last Supper was powerful. People have put themselves through…… [Read More]
Constructed Myths and Man's Purpose
Since Nietzsche declared that God was dead, science and mankind have begun a twofold search. Nietzsche's declaration asserted that the need for God in the society's constructed identity no longer existed. The understanding of the times was that the scientific method could break down any problem into is components, and uncover both the purpose and the source of all of mankind's desires, tangible and intangible alike. The accompanying hopes for a utopian society would also be ushered in by modern thought. Modern, logical and rational thought would be able to replace oppressive superstition, religious, and myth of ignorant and uneducated people who used religious beliefs to explain those elements of life which previously could not be understood. Since the publishing of his work, along with Jung, Kant and a myriad of others, the social sciences have searched to identify the purpose of religious life within…… [Read More]
Religion & Life Cycle
Different religious visions, different life cycles: The religious experience according to Rosenstock-Huessey and the Medicine Rite
Religion has always been the binding force that enabled humanity to create meaning in their lives and maintain unity among them. As a way of expressing spiritual reality, religion is instrumental in providing humanity a way of converting into concrete form (i.e., rituals and religious symbols) the different emotions associated to one's belief in a religion. Perhaps one of the most important functions that religion has for humanity is that it is able to depict humanity as the most important creature that the Supreme Being (or God) had created in the universe. That in our attempt to give meaning and purpose in life, we humans subsist to religion in order to validate that we, indeed, matter the most to God above anything else. This spiritual reality, despite its selfish nature,…… [Read More]
What is Good Life?
The Consequentialism Debate
Utilitarian reasoning is regarded as "consequentialist." The other approach of human actions' analysis is called "deontologist" reasoning. Utilitarian and deontological reasoning have very little in common. They are similar only in the sense that they both attempt to establish which human actions are appropriate and which ones are not. Apart from that, there is no other similarity. The differences arise in their adopted approaches in attempting to establish and distinguish the right actions and behavior from what is wrong (van Staveren, 2007).
As the term implies, judgments of "consequentiality" are founded on the consequences of an individual's actions. Here, an action is categorized as right or wrong based on the results of actions. Its ethics have nothing to do with whatever the individual intended to do. Taking an extreme case, assume that I am driving and I notice a person I…… [Read More]
" By imagining Sisyphus happy, it then becomes possible to find our own happiness in no matter what situation.
Camus begins his argument with a powerful statement about suicide, noting that it is the most important of all philosophical problems. The question of suicide cuts to the core of whether life has any meaning. If life has no meaning then it only makes sense to end the life, and seek meaning elsewhere. Camus claims that accepting absurdity negates the function of suicide, and renders suicide itself an absurdity. To commit suicide is no different than perpetuating blind and useless faith in an abstract God. Both acts entail surrendering the personal will. Suicide and blind faith both deny personal responsibility and instead project and expect meanings onto the universe. Camus' argument is self-empowering. Instead of having faith or hope, holding out for the revelation of true meaning, the individual has the…… [Read More]
This is when Silas realizes the larger principle of happiness and welfare. A realization that is confirmed by Sewell, the minister. As a result, Lapham endorses Tom and Penelope's union so that two people could be happy instead of a marriage that would ultimately cause unhappiness for all the parties involved.
Silas Lapham is also forced to face up to the truth about himself when his business begins to flounder. for, this is when he realizes that no man can be an island, and that humans have to necessarily depend on each other for their existence as well as progress. Thus, when he is faced with a situation where his ex-business partner, Rogers, and some English agents are willing to purchase his mill property at a price far higher than its true worth, he refuses to do so on pure principle. This, in spite of the fact that the situation…… [Read More]
Recurring Western Preoccupation
One of the most frequently recurring themes in Westernized culture is that of death. This motif is certainly evinced in a number of forms of literature -- particularly those esteemed to possess literary value -- including Leo Tolstoy's "Death of Ivan Ilyich" and in Henrik Ibsen's "Hedda Gabler." Death dominates the plot of both of these works of literature. There are multiple deaths in Ibsen's work, whereas the protagonist in Tolstoy's realizes early on that he is fated to die and the proverbial shadow of death looms over the ensuing pages. An analysis of the thematic device of death and its importance in both of these works reveals that it largely functions as a petty escape in Ibsen's text, and is a means to a more profound level of transcendence in that of Tolstoy.
There is a point of despair that accompanies both of the deaths portrayed…… [Read More]
Some Ancient Greeks even went as far as to think that women started to have deeper voices consequent to the moment when they lost their virginity (King 28).
Euripides also acts as one of the principal Ancient Greek scholars who damaged the role of women in his society, given that his writings relate to the role of women as individuals who are generally persecuted by the masses. omen were practically promoted as being responsible for society's problems as characters like Hippolytus put across their opinion concerning females and actually insisted that gods inflicted great damage on humanity through introducing women (Euripides 18).
Ancient Greeks seem to express no interest in acknowledging the role of women as housewives and mothers and focus on presenting them as useless individuals who spend most of their time consuming and generally having a negative influence on the public. Hipponax perfectly (although he somewhat exaggerates) describes…… [Read More]
The process of studying Scripture usually requires and involves more than reading surface text because an individual has to conduct an in-depth study. An in-depth study of text is a necessary process towards understanding the meaning of a passage from Scripture and grasping it fully. In essence, for an individual to gain a rich understanding of the meaning of a passage from a Scripture from different perspectives, it is important to conduct an in-depth study rather than just surface reading of the text. One of the most important aspects of gaining understanding of the meaning of a text is identifying who or what determines the meaning of that passage from the Bible. There are several exegetical methodologies and methods for Biblical interpretation that help in in-depth study of Scripture in order to know its meaning.
There are different methods of Biblical interpretation that are utilized to help…… [Read More]
life that what once may have been a derogatory word for something may have, over the years, come to mean something entirely different, and in a similar fashion, what was once a term of endearment or something commonplace may have evolved through the years, into something that would have derogatory connotations. (World Wide Words) For example, when one interviewer asked an American about the origin of the word 'Bozo', he had to refer to a Dictionary, and what he was about to discover amazed him. This was because of the fact that most Dictionaries tended to avoid the word Bozo for some reason or another, giving a vague and uncertain 'origin uncertain' as the explanation. As a matter of fact, the term Bozo seems to have initially appeared in the year 1916, and one of the first meanings for the word probably meant 'man' or a 'fellow'. Later on, it…… [Read More]
Still, Goffman's point is, when both members of the team play their roles that send a message that those new people in the audience will now expect to see. This is "team performance" and in this case, and others like it, each member of the team has the power to ruin the show, or keep it on track, by his or her behavior. This is the "bond of reciprocal dependence" (p. 82).
In Chapter III ("Regions and Region Behavior") there is more to learn, this time about "regions" (such as a cocktail party where several couples gather in one room in "subgroups" which "constantly shift in size and membership") (107). People talking and responding to others in regions are actually putting on a performance. Some realize it, some don't. Decorum is the expected polite behavior while in a region. "Make-work" is the performance that workers put on when the supervisor…… [Read More]
I would incorporate much in the way of nonverbal communication to entice the students to remain engaged while listening to what I had to say. I think the best method of deliverance would be the use of live communication followed up by literature the students would take with them. The use of media, including interviews with other students and their experiences with drug and alcohol abuse would be relevant and useful in this context.
Using the Yale attitude changing approach, I would establish credibility by approaching students as a peer and victim of abuse; the messages I provided would allow for two sides of the argument, meaning students could offer their own objections to what it is I had to say. The messages given would be of support rather than designed to persuade students directly, so I would take a peripheral route to persuasion. Using these methods and approaches will…… [Read More]
The objective is to impede rumination. 3. In the third stage -- relapse prevention or rehabilitation -- Mr. Thomas will be encouraged to participate in activities (such as hobbies that he enjoys, listening to music, socializing, his work and so forth) and to move towards increased interest in his work, and other components of his life outside of his depressing domestic situation. The whole model would focus around prevention and intervention where prevention aims at reducing the individual's psychobiological vulnerability (via for instance reducing the stress facing Mr. Thomas by enlisting the aid, for instance, of his children and coworkers) whilst intervention seeks to strengthen that same vulnerability (via for instance cognitive-behavioral techniques or other depression-reducing interventions).
oemtiems, conflicts in commucantion occur inthis type sof stiaution when ethical condudresm are invoeld such as a perosn wishing to die whislt eveyroen else wants her to live on, or the gnawing unceratiny…… [Read More]
Lives is a 1946 film by director William Wyler. The story traces the lives of three soldiers who return home after the end of World War Two. The soldiers' names are Fred Derry (played by Dana Andrews), Homer Parrish (Harold ussell), and Al Stephenson (Fredric March). One of the main themes of The Best Years of Our Lives is how difficult it can be for an individual to adjust to a "normal" life after living a life consumed by combat. The title of the movie refers to the fact that soldiers often lose the best years of their lives to war.
War has the potential to tear apart families. For example, Al is married to Milly, and has two children: Peggy and ob. Although his life seems normal on the surface, it is apparent that like his fellow G.I.s, Al has post-traumatic stress disorder. He drinks more than he should…… [Read More]
Life captures a very important moment in Chinese history, when the Three Gorges dam flooded an area of the Yangtze. Ancient and traditional villages were wiped away, displacing over one million people and forever transforming the idyllic landscape of this region of China. The filmmaker captures the beauty -- both the lost beauty and the eternal beauty -- of this region. Scenery shots are not the only compelling thing about Still Life, however. This is a film about people. I especially appreciated the filmmaker's ability to blend the stories of the individuals within their natural, social, economic, and political environments. I care about the people because they seem real, as the acting is subtle and it almost feels as if we are watching a documentary at times. I also like the fact that the film captures the nature of Chinese culture as being very long-term oriented, which is why the…… [Read More]
lives of two women depicted in separate books. The writer explores the way they suffered as well the struggles they went through during their lives. The writer uses each book to show how much of a struggle life can be as one ages through their life. There were two sources used to complete this paper.
Authors of literature who want to become successful use their talents to show the reader a story. Many times the element that makes a book a classic is the fact that the human element become involved therefore the reader gets attached to the story and the characters that are in the story.
In the Time Of the Butterflies by Julia Alvarez and Searching for Life: The Grandmothers of the Plaza de Mayo and the Disappeared Children of Argentina by ita Arditti the authors draw the readers in until they become attached to the ladies of…… [Read More]
By conducting a peer led focus group the interaction between the participants allows for sharing of stories and experiences and opens up the lines for a deeper, more meaningful discussion. Instead of the participants directing their responses to questions and statements asked of the researcher to the researcher, participants will be able to converse with one another. The researcher will still be a part of the focus group, but his role will not be as prominent as it would be in a traditional style focus group. Instead, the researcher will observe, take notes and steer the group in the right direction if they start to discuss other topics which are not a part of the study.
Because this research deals with the dynamics of welfare recipients as opposed to how many people are on welfare, a qualitative approach is best. The only information that could be dealt with…… [Read More]
The beginning of the essay focuses on the formulation of the thesis statement that ensures that the idea of the essay is sent across to the audience. Therefore, the beginning is the part of the essay that should capture most of the thinking process because it also outlines the way in which the essay would be later developed and constructed.
Another part that is crucial in the writing process is the one related to the construction of coherent paragraphs and proper combination of simple yet strong sentences. In this sense, each paragraph should have an opening statement that announces the idea of the paragraph. The supporting sentences should be simple, yet able to provide the added value each paragraph should bring to the construction of the essay. From this point-of-view, the sequence of paragraphs in the essay is extremely important and should be thought of from the very beginning.
Finally,…… [Read More]
Separate Corporate Personality
Explain the meaning of and the rationale for the principle of separate corporation personality.
Personality in this case does not have anything to do with an actual person, but that personhood is given to something. Also, this does not mean that the corporation in question has the traits or quirks given to it by the people who work there. The concept of identity in the corporate realm is something else entirely. The concept of separate corporate personality can be equated to the fact that an individual has and individual personality, and that no one else is responsible for what that individual does or says. The fault or benefit is that person's alone. A separate corporate personality means that the corporation is an entity that is separate and that the component parts that make up the organization are not responsible, legally, for any action taken against…… [Read More]
waking up one morning and suddenly you are a bug. Last night, when you went to sleep you were an ordinary man. Today, you're a bug. Gregor Samsa does just that, and suddenly his life is thrown completely off track. No longer is he the sole breadwinner for his mother, father and sister. He is now the burden that they have been to him. His mundane job as a traveling salesman has been replaced with the confusing life he lives as a bug. It is this image of the bug he has become that is the focus of Frank Kafka, and it is the bug that represents Gregor's ultimate desire to no longer bear the responsibility of a family, and what eventually brings his family's true character to light.
Gregor is not the narrator in the story, but the narrator is right along with Gregor through his discoveries of his…… [Read More]
Purpose of orks
Central goal of writings
Comparison between writings in England and America
Comparison to other authors
Use of Imagery
Taylor's orks Compared
The Life and orks of Edward Taylor
No study of Puritan literature would be complete without the works of the man often called the best Puritan writer of them all, Edward Taylor. Except for a brief few, the works of this great Puritan author remained unpublished during his lifetime. In 1939, they were discovered by Thomas H. Johnson at Yale, and have since become a valued and praised addition to the other works from the Puritan era. So important are these works that the Norton editors refer to them as "one of the major literary discoveries of the twentieth century" (Rowe). These…… [Read More]
Although many modern Christians do not realize it, an understanding of Jesus' historical context is extremely helpful, perhaps even essential to true understanding of Christianity. After all, it is only once one understands the geographical, political, religious, and social environment of Jesus' time period that one can truly understand the impact of Jesus Christ. One of the reasons that a historical perspective is important is because many modern-day Christians are separated from their Jewish roots. However, one must always bear in mind that Jesus was not a Christian; Jesus was a Jew and his life and death had been foretold in Jewish prophecies for hundreds of years. In addition:
Jesus addressed his gospel- his message of God's imminent kingdom and of judgment, of God's fatherly providence, of repentance, holiness, and love- to his fellow countrymen. He preached only to Jews. Not a syllable shows that he detached this message…… [Read More]
Self-knowledge is a prerequisite for wisdom. For Socrates, self-knowledge or self-understanding is the precursor of the ability to probe the world outside of the self. In fact, Socratic wisdom is wisdom that is manifest and known. The Socratic process of probing and inquiry is designed specifically to eliminate that which cannot be known or that which is irrelevant to the pursuit of wisdom and understanding. The process of Socratic dialogue is coupled with the process of arguing ad absurdum, until the kernel of truth remaining after the inquiry may be recognized as wisdom. Yet before a person can even begin to explore the universe, the person must explore the self. The exploration of self is not a narcissistic inquiry but rather, an inquiry into the nature of human being. It is important to understand the human experience, the human mind, and human patterns of perception and cognition.
Socrates also…… [Read More]
obstacles to becoming a successful manager is getting an understanding of one's own innate strengths and weaknesses. While every person may have leadership potential, leadership comes more naturally to some people than to others. Moreover, the best leaders are those who are aware of and capitalize on their own strengths, while taking actions to minimize their own weaknesses. The Life Styles Inventory (LSI) is one tool that people can use to help identify their own innate personal styles and learn how those styles can impact them in their roles as managers and leaders.
This paper examines my own LSI scores. Not only does it assess my strengths and weaknesses, but also how those traits fit into my overall character profile. The LSI is broken into three broad categories: constructive styles, passive/defensive styles, and aggressive/defensive styles. The constructive styles reflect positive behaviors and include humanistic-encouraging, affiliative, achievement, and self-actualizing styles. For…… [Read More]
And it is the tragedy of not knowing that Marin imagines in the story's last paragraph, when she envisions the family he left behind in Mexico as they "wonder, shrug, remember" the pretty boy who vanished and was "never heard from…again."
Cisneros arranges "Geraldo No Last Name" around two basic structural facts. One is the filtering of the story through Marin's consciousness, so that the subject of the story is not really Geraldo's brief life and death -- it is about what somebody like Marin thinks about when she contemplate somebody like Geraldo. And the second fact is, of course, the emphasis given to the different elements of what Marin considers: in some sense, the sad fact of Geraldo's death is subsidiary to the sad facts of his actual life as an illegal worker in a foreign country, who will die without ever seeing his family again. The fact that…… [Read More]
The word biology means the study of life. It is a combination of "bio," which means "life," and "ology," which means "wisdom" or "science of." Thus, the term itself tells us what its meaning is: it is the science or study of life.
However, there are many fields in biology, which look at specific sectors or areas of "life." Because life on this planet is abounding and so complex, it is required that there be several fields of biological science. For instance, marine biology studies life in water (such as in oceans or lakes). Human biology studies the complexities of the human body. Cellular biology takes an even closer look at biological studies by closing in on the activities and structures of cells, which are just one part of life.
Advancements in biological knowledge have taken place over many centuries throughout the history of the world. In fact, all…… [Read More]