Media Censorship Essays (Examples)

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Censorship Is it Ever Permissible to Restrain

Words: 1377 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17255611

Censorship: Is it ever Permissible to Restrain Speech?

"Censorship." The word is such a powerful one that to many Americans the idea of any type of censorship seems to be the worst human rights violation imaginable. After all, if speech is controlled, how can people express differing political views and bring about desired social change? This viewpoint of the primary importance of free speech in a free society is a very American approach to the concept of censorship. However, as the internet has made it possible for people to cross country and boundaries with simply the click of a mouse, more and more people are becoming aware that American ideals of free speech are hardly universal. In other countries, some human rights are seen as even more important than the freedom of speech. This paper will explore the concept of free speech as it exists in America, limitations on free speech in other countries, and the possible conflict that will may exist between American and foreign free speech laws when a company provides internet services to people in multiple countries.

Americans base their right to free speech in the First Amendment to the U.S. Constitution. The First Amendment provides that,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Allen, Jennifer and George Norris. "International Comparisons of Approaches to Hate Speech."

Race, Racism, and the Law. 1-5. 2011. Web. 14 Nov. 2012.

Freedom Forum. "Limits of Freedom of Speech." Education for Freedom. N.p. 2012. Web.

14 Nov. 2012.
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Censorship on the Internet

Words: 863 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29814351

Censorship on the Internet

Kaul, V. (2012). "The pros and cons of new media and media freedom." Journal of Mass Communication and Journalism, Vol. 2, Issue 5.

In his research study, author-researcher Kaul discussed the implications of using the Internet technology in launching what is called the new media, both in the context of journalistic/press freedom and freedom of expression of the civil society in general. More specifically, the author provided a comparison of the "old" (traditional) versus "new" (Internet/online) media, considering both as tools for freedom of expression, albeit the latter is more accessible. However, the article also discussed how the rise of the new media has not 'revolutionized' press freedom in some countries (namely, countries in South Asia and South Africa). What Kaul emphasized is the proliferation of new media as a replacement of old media, but without the expected improvement in press freedom. Instead, what occurred is a simple "transplantation" of old media to new media, maintaining the limited freedom in expression of the press and the general public.

Merlis, S. (2005). "Preserving the Internet expression while protecting our children: Solutions following Ashcroft v. ACLU." Northwestern Journal of Technology and Intellectual Property, Vol. 4, Issue 1.

Merlis…… [Read More]

The rise of the Internet as an influential and central source of information globally has even permeated countries such as China, wherein Internet content is highly regulated by the government. In the analysis conducted by Hom et al., the authors acknowledged that the Internet technology has spurred governments like the Chinese government to take radical actions to censor online content in the country, while at the same time, other countries, including developed ones in the North American and European regions, are confronting issues of "global governance" online. Thus, while the authors call for "relaxed control" of the Chinese government of online content as a form of recognizing human rights (the right to freedom of expression and right to information), they also recognize the need for governance of online content across all countries in the world taking advantage of and benefiting from Internet technology.

Karhula, P. (2011). "What is the effect of WikiLeaks for freedom of information?" International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA).

Karhula centered his discussion on the issue of WikiLeaks as a case for analyzing freedom of expression and right to information using the online platform. In discussing the specifics of the WikiLeaks incident, Karhula argued that the WikiLeaks case is compelling in that it begs the question of whether information leakage about government conspiracies, inappropriate conduct, and even corruption would be best "leaked" or accessed through a public, online forum. The author questions if the WikiLeaks case actually contributes to the "kind of transparency which would support democracy and civil society." It is possible that while it gave online users the information it needed about specific political and economic issues of the world, it could also pose as a propaganda mechanism that seeks to discredit governments and public officials from various governments all over the world. At present, the WikiLeaks case remains a compelling case for governments and civil societies to scrutinize and rethink about the way information is regulated and proliferated online.
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Media Society Book Section Summary Croteau

Words: 947 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64535589

Vietnam films have rewritten the winners and the losers of that saga and action-adventure films reinforce cultural norms of violence and power (175). Despite the increased real presence of women in positions of power, often media representations of women and other formerly disenfranchised groups remain stereotyped or relegated to marginal or token roles, although this is changing. Still, certain outlets like women's magazines often function as advertisements that perpetuate corporate images that make women feel worse, rather than better about themselves (188). Furthermore, a hegemonic ideology is implied by supposedly mainstream news organizations. Consider the construct of 'economic news.' This implies that the 'economy' is in a neat little box, and that social issues of race and political disenfranchisement, limits on wealth and access to education and power, have no role in who possess wealth and who lacks wealth in society. Economics as separate from other issues is essentially an anti-Marxist stance by the modern media, not a neutral one (171). Advertising and corporate sponsorship also plays an ideological role: "Some people are more valuable [as audience members] than others," in short, wealthier Americans buy more things (216). But through some media, such as the arts, alternative points-of-view are articulated…… [Read More]

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Media and Violence Contradicting Causes

Words: 4155 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68376205

A in millions)

Current in millions)

Provided by Federal Bureau of Investigation as of September 18, 2006."

CHART: National Correctional Populations

National Correctional Populations

The number of adults in correctional population has been increasing.

A in millions)

Current million in millions)

Provided by Bureau of Justice Statistics as of November 30, 2006. (Social Statistics Briefing Room, 2006)

More Statistics

Violence in the Media

Huston and colleagues have estimated that the average 18-year-old will have viewed 200,000 acts of violence on television (Huston, a.C., Donnerstein, E., Fairchild, H. et al. Big World, Small Screen: The Role of Television in American Society. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 1992.)

41% percent of American households have three or more televisions (Nielsen Media Research, 2000).

56% of children ages 8-16 have a television in their rooms (Annenberg Public Policy Center, 2000. Media in the Home 2000)

Percentage of television-time children ages 2-7 spend watching alone and unsupervised: 81 (Kaiser Family Foundation, 1999. "Kids and Media @ the New Millennium.")

Television alone is responsible for 10% of youth violence. (Senate Judiciary Committee Staff Report, 1999.)

Average time per week that the American child ages 2-17 spends watching television: 19 hours, 40 minutes (Nielsen Media…… [Read More]


Alter, Jonathan. "Moving Beyond the Blame Game. (Panel Discussion)," Newsweek, May 17, 1999.

Beyer, John. "PERSPECTIVE: How movie and TV violence hits children; Is there too much violence on television and is it time to curb it? John Beyer, director of the organization mediawatch-uk argues that media viol," Birmingham Post, March 21, 2007.

Chatfield, Joanne E.. "Influence of Media Violence on Children." American Family Physician, February 15, 2002.

Children's Hospital Boston. "Teen-Rated Video Games Loaded With Violence;
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Media Accompanying the Military to Battle

Words: 792 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69392831

Media With the Military in Battle


There must be a cost-benefit analysis performed before formally agreeing to attach reporters to military units during active engagements. There are pros and cons for the side of the press and on the side of the military. It has become practice or tradition since the Vietnam War for journalists to be permitted to accompany and document the activities of various military units. Therefore, there is a fairly substantial precedent set for this form of cooperation. When considering this situation, imagining the outcome can assist in adequately preparing both sides for the accompaniment.

The military units that would have journalists should be provided as much notice as possible. This would give the commanding officers a chance to prepare assignments that would both satisfy the journalists and provide a respectable amount of operational secrecy. The journalists should receive some kind of basic military training and debriefing regarding the conditions into which they will enter with the military. Awareness is critical during battle situations. If the journalists have some kind of idea as to how military operations work, what kind of conditions the units live in, and what some of the more common situations they will…… [Read More]


Constitutional Rights Foundation. (2012). Press Freedom vs. Military Censorship. Web, Available from: . 2012 November 09.

Ricchiardi, S. (2006). Dangerous Assignment. American Journalism Review, Web, Available from: 2012 November 10.
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Media Images Are Not Harmful

Words: 1696 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29893817

Providing a strong cultural and personal role model may be more important than attempting to socially engineer the messages teens and all citizens receive. The lesser susceptibility of certain ethnic groups to media pressures to live up to an ideal of thinness or physical perfection highlights the complex interplay between cultural, social, and psychological factors that produce self-esteem and what might be called body image. The interplay of these factors is more important in creating a 'body image' than what constitutes an individual's media exposure.

This is an important topic of research because it highlights the fact that censorship of media has limited value in engineering positive social results. While it would be tempting and easy to suggest that developing minds and bodies should be shielded from toxic media influence as though it were the plague, this type of isolation would have a limited effect. It would not screen out the cultural and personal influences that impact an individual's susceptibility to the media, and certainly would do little to impact the biological and genetic hard-wiring within some brains that predispose them to develop eating disorders and other mental conditions. Part of growing up is becoming a critical consumer of the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Girls get anorexia 'because their brains are wired differently' (17 Dec 2007). The Daily Mail. Retrieved 26 Oct 2008 at ttp:/ /

Holmstrom, Amanda J. (2004). The effects of the media on body image: A meta-analysis.

Entrepreneur. Retrieved 26 Oct 2008 at

Media's effect on girls: Body image and gender identity. (2008). National Institute on Media and the Family. Retrieved 26 Oct 2008 at
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Media Institutions and Regulations A Discussion on

Words: 1753 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84474612

Media Institutions and Regulations:

A Discussion on the Twitter Phenomenon

Words change meaning all the time. Take, for example, awful. Today, it means something terrible, but it used to mean filled with awe (aweful). In this case, a different spelling has led to a different interpretation. Yet sometimes, the same word may mean the same exact thing, only in a completely different context. This refers to the example of Twitter. Traditionally, "twitter" as a verb meant "to utter a succession of small, tremulous sounds, as a bird" or "to talk lightly and rapidly, especially of trivial matters." In this day and age, however, a mention of "twitter" will conjure up images of the phenomenon that the technological age has brought about. Yes, twitter can still mean trivial talk, even in this technological context, but most likely, it will refer to the "information network" that connects friends to coworkers and even celebrities in a matter of seconds. This paper will thus discuss the benefits and dangers of the so-called "twitterverse" and the "twitter" phenomenon in general, and will focus to these aspects especially when compared to traditional news publications and traditional media outlets. [1: No Author. "Definition of Twitter." 2011.…… [Read More]

"Beyond the dippy lingo, the idea that something intelligent, something worthy of mindshare, might occur in the space of 140 characters -- Twitter's parameters were set by what would fit in a text message on a phone -- seems unlikely. But it was clear […] the primary news platform was Twitter, with real-time annotation of the panels on stage and critical updates about what was happening elsewhere at a very hectic convention." [9: Carr, David. "Why Twitter Will Endure." New York Times, 2010. ]

A further perusal of this particular article reflects further opinions, though similar ones, including the fact that the history of the internet suggests "cool" website that go in and out of style, and Twitter is one of those rare ones that are more likely to stay in style than go in and out.

Traditional media outlets are changing all over the world. From Facebook, to Twitter, to Flick, to Linkedin and many others, the new generation is putting its stamp on the vast landscape of information, its retrieval and dissemination. This is important to note, because this change comes with positives and negatives, some of which can harm humanity. However, it is also important to note the progress and the continuation of it, and promote such media outlets for the benefit of advancement.
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Media Critical Analysis Hamlet Hamlet

Words: 4649 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32409674

Yes, the Oedipus complex aspect of Shakespeare it gives us and which in turn invites us to think about the issue of subjectivity, the myth and its relation to psychoanalytic theory. (Selfe, 1999, p292-322)

Hemlet and Postcolonial theory

Postcolonial theory was born as a result of the publication of the famous work of Edward Said, Orientalism (1978). This theory claim that some authors (Paul Gilroy, Achille Mbembe, Francoise Verges, etc.) and that seem so elegant in its formulation, in my opinion raises three fundamental problems: At a time when we are witnessing the emergence of new expressions of colonialism (colonialism, cultural, political and economic globalization, neo-colonialism nestled in the relationship between the hegemonic colonial past and their old colonies, colonialism in disguise that structure the relationship between international institutions and developing countries, institutions from the rest behest of the former colonial powers according to their interests), speak of post-colonial era seems a utopia. (Elsaesser, 1998, p9-26)

At a time when some thought and creative dynamic scramble to raise new concepts to identify the problems of today, new concepts that go beyond the usual talk of post-colonial era seems redundant, boring and not very inventive. (Miller, 1997, p11-18)

The school intends…… [Read More]


Aragay, Mireia, and Gemma Lopez. 2005. "Inflecting Pride and Prejudice: Dialogism, Intertextuality, and Adaptation." Books in Motion: Adaptation, Intertextuality, Authorship. Ed. Mireia Aragay. Amsterdam and New York: Rodopi, p201-19.

Aragay, Mireia, ed. 2005. Books in Motion: Adaptation, Intertextuality, Authorship. Amsterdam and New York: Rodopi, p88-96.

Baetens, Jan. 2007. "From Screen to Text: Novelization, the Hidden Continent." The Cambridge Companion to Literature on Screen. Ed. Deborah Cartmell and Imelda Whelehan. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, p226-38.

Balides, Constance. 2000. "Jurassic Post-Fordism: Tall Tales of Economics in the Theme Park." Screen 4 I .2: p139-60.
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Media's Coverage of Terrorism

Words: 544 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54958227

Media and Terrorism

The role of the media and its impact in reporting terrorist cases has attracted significant concern in the recent past given the increase in terrorist activities across the globe. The increased concern has contributed to controversy and debates on whether the media helps in advancing the agenda of terrorists. Actually, some scholars argue that too often the media assists in advancing terrorists' agenda while others disagree. However, the determination of whether the media promotes terrorists' agenda requires an evaluation of the intentions of terrorists and the goals of the media during coverage of terrorist attacks.

While terrorists carry out their activities for various reasons including ideological, religious and nationalist objectives, some terrorist groups and organizations utilize the media as a means of obtaining recognition or publicity for the causes and goals of their groups. In contrast, media's role in coverage of terror attacks is to providing information and knowledge of events that are taking place in the world. This implies that the media does not necessary promote terrorists' agenda through it coverage of terror attacks. Even though some of the coverage may play into terrorists' agenda, especially those that want to gain publicity, the media does not…… [Read More]


Anderson, T. (1993). Terrorism and Censorship: The Media in Chains. Journal of International

Affairs, 47(1), 127.

Mahan, S. & Griset, P. (2008). Media Coverage of Terrorism. In Terrorism in perspective.

Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
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Front-Page War How Media Complicity

Words: 3781 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19321252

The British government has learned that Saddam Hussein recently sought significant quantities of uranium from Africa, (George W. Bush, State of the Union Address, Jan. 28, 2003) the claims were quickly picked up and repeated by the media. So were claims that Iraq had nuclear weapons. "We believe [Hussein] has, in fact, reconstituted nuclear weapons." (Dick Cheney, NBC's Meet the Press, March 16, 2003) Yet, after the search for chemical and nuclear weapons was eventually called off without any actual discover of such weapons, the media made startling little of the fact that Donald Rumsfeld said "I don't believe anyone that I know in the administration ever said that Iraq had nuclear weapons." (Senate appropriations subcommittee on defense hearing, May 14, 2003)

In fact, shortly thereafter "USA Today and the Los Angeles Times, echoed this fudging -- last year 'weapons,' this year 'programs' -- declaring that 'the jury's still out' on whether Iraq had WMD and that 'I am a long way at this stage from concluding that somehow there was some fundamental flaw in our intelligence.'" (Scheer et al.) similar phenomena occured with another major falsehood widely distributed in the media, albeit less vociferously insisted upon by the administration…… [Read More]

Ridge, George. "Embedded: the media at war in Iraq." Military Review. January-February 2004.

Roberts, Paul Craig. "The Brownshirting of America." AntiWar.Com. 16 October 2004.

Scheer, Christopher; Scher, Robert; Chaudhry, Lakshmi. "Bush's Lies About Iraq." The Nation. 11 March 2004.
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Chip Censorship Vchip Significance

Words: 2391 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7676598

Parents who are predisposed to limit children's exposure to violence will do so as a matter of course. Parents who don't feel that way, will not. Therefore, if parents can't be relied upon to police their children, then society must- because what social order wants to have violence-overloaded children heaving their criminal behavior upon it?

In the mid-1950's a Senate sub-committee began to investigate the "sources of the moral rot at the core of an otherwise flourishing postwar America," (Knox, 4). This committee looked at the comic book industry, movies, and particularly at television. While these efforts did little to nothing to curb interest in subjects considered to be anti-American, or "immoral," it does show the depth of time and effort that has been spent on this issue - at every level. However, over the course of time, television has become more liberal rather than less. So, in response, the television industry, governmental, and citizen bodies banded together again in the mid-1980's to begin the process of looking into alternative ways to actually keep children from watching violent acts in a society that maintains that freedom of expression is a critical part of our social order (Hornaday N01). One of…… [Read More]


American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. (2007). Children and TV Violence. Online. Internet. Avail: 12 Oct, 2007.

Duncan, P. (2006). Attractions to Violence and the Limits of Education. The Journal of Aesthetic Education. 40:4; 21-38.

Hornaday, a. (Aug 6, 2006) Parents Fret About Children's Entertainment. The Washington Post. Sunday Arts, N01.
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Media Favorite Form Media You Choose

Words: 1332 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27116073

media / favorite form media. You choose . Analysis

In my opinion, the most preferable form of mass media is the fairly conventional compact disc. CDs are an excellent sociological tool in learning about one's environment and the relevant issues that affect society today. Additionally, CD's allow for a highly limited form of intervention between the message that the music artist is attempting to convey and its reception by the listener. Conversely, I believe that one of the least preferable forms of media is the internet. Despite the fact that there are vast amounts of information accessible to users on it, there are a number of ways in which using the internet inherently impinges on the privacy of a particular user. Cookies and other sorts of intelligence metrics track the particular activity of people. Moreover, this capability of the internet, when combined with aspects of data governance, data stewardship, and business intelligence, can preserve this information for inordinate amounts of time, sell it or transfer it to other users, and effectively monitor the habits and activities of internet users.

CDs predominantly have a positive impact on the life of music consumers and aficionados such as myself. In addition to providing…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Godwin, Allotey. "Libertarian V. Social Responsibility." Allotey Godwin. 

No Author. "Introduction to Mass Communication." No date. Web.

No author. "Theories of Communication." 2012. Web.

Naveed, Fakhar. "Normative Theories of Mass Communication." Ask For Mass. 2012. Web.
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Media Savvy Kids

Words: 303 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62134296

Raising Media-Savvy Kids." (November/December 2004)

"Every one' knows the 'common sense' cliche -- television is bad, the mass media is bad, anything learned over the Internet is especially bad and of doubtful truth, and today's children would be better off in a technology free-zone, locked in stimulation-free rooms that are lit by candlelight and filled with nothing but volumes of the collected works of Shakespeare and perhaps conduct books from the past century.

Not so, says the author of "Raising Media Savvy-Kids." The media, like so many things, must be approached with a 'use it or lose it' strategy by parents and educators. Use the media to your advantage, parents and educators, or lose children to the media's worst excesses. Disdain the media at your own risk!

Rather than viewing the media with hostility and attempting to eradicate its presence from children's environments -- a Quixotic quest, at best…… [Read More]

Rather than viewing the media with hostility and attempting to eradicate its presence from children's environments -- a Quixotic quest, at best -- children must learn how to become good consumers of the media, and to use media strategies in intelligent and proactive ways, such as deploying positive public relations posters for good causes like 'Earth Day.'

In the article, one educator even compares media 'protections' of children as a kind of book burning, or censorship. Rather, she encourages critical and creative approaches to media consumption in her students. For example, she purchased a 1919 conduct book over eBay for young women of the turn of the century. The teacher read from it to the class, and encouraged students to critique this historical artifact.

This book, of course, was a media representation in and of itself. The implication is not simply, that one cannot stand against the changing technological tides of history -- but perhaps the good old days before the Internet and the mass media weren't as good or pure either, of misinformation and stereotypes!
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Controlling the Media in Egypt

Words: 4404 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87859540

Media Control in Egypt

The media in Egypt is much more controlled than in many other countries, including the United States. That control began with President Gamal Abdel Nasser, moved through Anwar Sadat, and then on to Hosni Mubarak. During that time, the television and newspapers were strictly controlled, and only what the president wanted people to see was placed in them. There is significant evidence that the control of the media in Egypt was done largely to oppress the people, and to make sure they were only hearing and seeing what the government wanted them to hear and see. Social, political, and economic factors are all significant in the control of the Egyptian media, which many believe should be uncontrolled and independent. That would allow it to provide actual, factual information, instead of only what the government agreed that the people were allowed to know.


The Egyptian media is an important facet of life in that country, and worth discussing on a number of levels. It is largely controlled by the government, which can leave the Egyptian people wondering whether what they are being told is accurate, or whether it is tailored to provide them only what the…… [Read More]


Amin, Hussein, and I- Chapter One: General Status. "Report on the State of the Media in Egypt." The Arab Center for the Development of the Rule of Law and Integrity Project Title: Strengthening the Rule of Law and Integrity in the Arab World Report on the State of the Media in Egypt Second Draft Author: Dr. Hussein Amin. Arab Rule of Law. (n.d.). Web.

"Egypt." Freedom House. 2012. Web.

Elmasry, Mohamed Hamas. Journalism with Restraint: A Comparative Content Analysis of Independent, Government, and Opposition Newspapers in Pre-Revolution Egypt. 2012. Web.

El Zahed, Hala. "Egyptian Press and the Transition to Democracy." Egyptian Press and the Transition to Democracy: A Study of the Conditions and Challenges Facing National Print Media Post. 2011. Web.
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A concise Analysis of Department of Censorship the Internet and Schools

Words: 985 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39291110

Censorship, the Internet, and Schools

Describe two implications for schools from the CIPA policy rulings, and two reasons for opposition to the policy

The Children's Internet Protection Act (CIPA) was legislated in the year 2000, obliging public schools and libraries to set up specific technology that restricts internet access to graphic depictions that are indecent, child pornography, or detrimental to minors (Finsness, 2008). One of the implications of these policy rules is that it infringes on intellectual freedom. This is in the sense that it goes against the First Amendment, as intellectual freedom is the right of every person to seek as well as receive information from all perspectives devoid of limitation. Secondly, there is the implication of impacting the capability of students to gain access to information they require for school (Finsness, 2008). Being in a fast-paced technological area and with students having to attain such skills for writing papers and obtaining knowledge, one of the implications of the policy is that it restrains students from such know-how.

There are reasons as to why parties oppose to the CIPA policy. One of the reasons is that several schools block extensive amounts of information that ought to gain access to…… [Read More]


Batch, K. R. (2014). Fencing Out Knowledge: Impacts of the Children's Internet Protection Act 10 Years Later. American Library Association, Policy Brief No. 5.

Finsness, L. S. (2008). The implications of internet filters in secondary schools (Doctoral dissertation, UNIVERSITY OF MINNESOTA).

Flowers, B. F., & Rakes, G. C. (2000). Analyses of Acceptable Use Policies Regarding the Internet in Selected K -- 12 Schools. Journal of Research on Computing in Education, 32(3), 351-365.

Hu, Q. (2004). To Censor or Not to Censor at the School Library. State University of New York.
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Effects Mainstream Social Media Today's Children

Words: 1902 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10387507

Children and Media

Technology surrounds everything that children participate in nowadays. From using computers to watching television, the media influences children in just about every activity that they are a part of. The mainstream and social media have had a great impact on the behavior of children, as they are consistently exposed to numerous forms of the media at all times. As technology advances and children are more and more prone to watching television and participating in activities over the Internet, children will always be affected by how the media is presented to them. It can be difficult to shelter children from the growing media influence, however, the effects of this phenomenon on both the psychological and cognitive development of children need to be analyzed and considered (Christakis & Zimmerman, 2009).

Social life has been completely revolutionized due to the existence of the Internet and the development of social media. Social media venues target just about every population in the world and children are no sort of exception. The biggest issue with the existence of the social media world is in the lack of privacy that these mediums offer (Bargh & McKenna, 2003). Privacy is a concern among adults from…… [Read More]


Anderson, D.R. & Hanson, K.G. (2009). Children, media, and methodology. American Behavioral Science. 52(8), 1204-1219.

Bargh, J.A. & McKenna, K.Y.A. (2003). The internet and social life. Annual Review of Psychology. 55, 573-590.

Chau, C. (2010). YouTube as a participatory culture. New Directions for Youth Development. 2010(128), 65-74.

Christakis, D.A. & Zimmerman, F.J. (2009). Young Children and media: Limitations of current knowledge and future directions for research. American Behavioral Science. 52(8), 1177-1185.
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Global Media

Words: 1874 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45318100

Censorship and Freedom of the Press

In 2009, Frank Bainimarama, the self-appointed Prime Minister of Fiji said that freedom of speech causes trouble and is to blame for his country's political turmoil (ABC News, 2009). This is only a small portion of controversial remarks and actions made by Bainimarama surrounding the announcement made by President Iloilo stating the abrogation of Fiji's constitution, the dismissal of the judiciary, and the deferral of democratic elections until 2014 (Puppet show, 2009). Iloilo's decision, given its relationship to Bainimarama's interim regime, which took power in a coup in 2006, being declared illegal by ruling of the Court of Appeals demanding that a neutral leader replace Bainimarama immediately with dissolution of the existing government and elections to commence as soon as possible (Puppet show).

Bainimarama expressed his grievance towards this decision by the Court and did not hesitate to ignore it as he showed up in his offices with his full cabinet the next day (Puppet show, 2009). The abrogation of the constitution and dismissal of the judiciary allowed him to be immediately reappointed (Frank Bainimarama, 2010). He went on to make several speeches targeting all the measures of reform that he believed were necessary…… [Read More]


ABC News. (2009). Retrieved from 

Alley, R. (2010). Fiji Under Bainimarama. Journal of Pacific History, 45(1), 145-153. Retrieved from Academic Search Premier.

Dikotter, Frank. (1996, Winter). Culture, race, and nation: The formulation of national identity in 20th century China. International Affairs, 49(2), 592.

Evans, M. (2011). Exacerbating social cleavages: The media's role in Israel's religious-secular conflict. Middle East Journal, 65(2), 235-251.
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History of the Media in America Media

Words: 2710 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32475062

History Of the Media in America

Media America, a History

Media incorporates mediums such as advertisements, magazines, newspapers, radio, television, and now -- the Internet. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, it was only in the 1920s that people began to actually talk about 'the media,' and a generation later, in the 1950s, of a 'communication revolution,' however, the art of oral and written communication was actually quite important in ancient Greece and Rome. It was studied in the Middle Ages, and with greater enthusiasm in the Renaissance.

Until Johannes Gutenberg invention of the moveable type in 1450, information was spread primarily orally. That is, it was town criers, ministers from the pulpit, and bartenders who disseminated information or news. "Town criers, for example, broadcast royal edicts, police regulations, and important community events, such as births, marriages of princes, war news, and treaties of peace or alliance."

Less than a century after Gutenberg's invention of the moveable type, printing was brought to the Americas -- an area of the world that was unknown fifty years earlier.

When Father Juan de Zumarraga, first bishop of Mexico, arrived in Mexico in 1528, he perceived that if the church could establish a printing…… [Read More]


Breen, T.H. The Marketplace of Revolution: How Consumer Politics Shaped American

Independence. Oxford University Press, 2005.

Briggs, Asa. Social History of the Media: From Gutenberg to the Internet. Polity; 3rd

edition, 2010.
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Social Media by Business Using the Best

Words: 1521 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53801089

social media by business, using the Best Buy case as an example. The benefits of social media in the business context are explained, as are the downsides. There are also recommendations with respect to the use of social media by a law firm, and in this case it is recommended that the law firm should not engage in social media. Compared with a retailer -- especially one with a connection to technology -- there is less upside for a law firm and more downside risk. Understanding the benefits of social media as well as the business context is essential to developing an effective social media plan.

Best Buy has successfully embraced social media, something that fits with its brand image, but also something that has helped to enhance its business. This report will outline the principles of successful social media usage, the value that social media has to business, and also provide a blueprint for social media success for the law firm.

Overview of Social Media

Businesses use social media for a number of reasons, not the least of which is promotion. There are a number of reasons why businesses utilize the promotional power of social media. One of the…… [Read More]


Dunn, B.J., (2010, Dec). Best Buy's CEO on Learning to Love Social

Media, Harvard Business Review, 88(12), 43-48. Retrieved from EBSCO.

Reed, T. (2008, May 1-7). Blogging: 21st Century Marketing: Small

Businesses sell the 7Cs by using blogging as a marketing tool. The Tennessee Tribune, 19(6), 9. Retrieved from ProQuest.
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Power of Media

Words: 911 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32798443

Power of the Media

Few things in life have much power to influence individuals and society as a whole, either negatively or positively. The media is one such medium. Whether it is books, the Internet, magazines, movies, music, newspapers, radio, television, or some other form, the media has tremendous power to impact both individuals and society as a whole, both negatively and positively. In recent years, there has been great controversy over whether the media has the power to promote or curb violence.

This paper analyzes and examines the power of the news and print media to promote or curb violence. Part II gives an overview of the role of the media in general. In Part III, how the media promotes or curbs violence is reviewed. Lastly, this paper concludes with recommendations for balancing the relationship between the media's need for freedom of expression and society's desire for less violence.


The media, in all its forms, serves a variety of useful functions. First, the media serves an informational function, i.e., to inform the public of breaking news such as medical advances, crime threats, political news, etc. In this respect, the media is highly responsible…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Morgan, Joan. "From Fly-Girls to *****es and Hos."
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Communications Media

Words: 1676 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56247823

War coverage-Media obsession

To argue about the role of media in our lives would be only redundant since we already know and acknowledge the influence of media over our perception of the world. How the various news media including newspapers, television, radio and more recently Internet affect our thinking and shape our perception requires some close analysis of the way these agencies gather and present news. There is an interesting process that works behind the seemingly simple task of news presentation. For one the media is almost always biased regardless of how they defend their impartiality. We must remember that journalists are capable of molding our perception because they have a certain hidden agenda and if they were unbiased in their opinion, they would have had little impact on our thinking. In an unbiased news piece, it is up to the viewer or reader to decide whom he would side with. However the same kind of liberty is not given by traditional and modern news media as journalists almost always start their piece on an event with biased and pre-conceived notions. Either they are totally in favor of what happened or they are against it; whatever may be the case,…… [Read More]


Stuart Allan, News Culture. Open University Press: Buckingham 1999

William V. Kennedy, The Military and the Media: Why the Press Cannot Be Trusted to Cover a War.: Praeger Publishers. Westport, CT. 1993.

The Washington Times. Lynch, West and Common Sense. November 23, 2003. B05.

Christopher Hanson, American Idol: The Press Finds the War's True Meaning. Columbia Journalism Review. Volume: 42. Issue: 2. July-August 2003, 58+.
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China Media Framing in China

Words: 1137 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56222113

The introduction of reform for the good of the Chinese people has not been framed by the authorities, nor is it framed in the minds of most of the population, as the ability to disagree with the government. Thus "freedom of the media is more a lessening of Party control than any media liberalization in the Western sense" where the media operates independently of the ideas and interests of the state rulers (Winfield & Peng, 267). The locus of dissemination of propaganda has shifted to private rather than governmental entities, but the actual messages disseminated by such entities are not free.

Pamela E. Oliver and Frank Johnson have criticized frame theory for being insufficiently attentive to the impact of ideology in influencing frame narratives, thus they might see the framing of capitalism through the Chinese lens of ideology as distinct from an unregulated and uncensored press as a concrete demonstration of their problems with frame theory. Contrary to the ideals of advocates of globalization, who see the apparently unregulated medium of television and the Internet as a way of breaking down power hierarchies, China remains regulated in its expression, if not in its expansion of commerce (Curtain 2005: 156-157) Michael…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Curtin, Michael. (2005). "Murdoch's dilemma, or 'What's the price of TV in China?'" Media, Culture & Society. 27 (2) 155-175.

Oliver, Pamela E. & Frank Johnson. (2000). "What a Good Idea!" Mobilization: An International Journal. 4(1) 37-54.

Winfield, Betty Houchin & Zengjun Peng. (2005). "Market or Party Controls: Chinese

Media in Transition." Gazette: The International Journal for Communication Studies. London: Sage. 67(3): 255-270.
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Counter-Terrorism and Social Media Freedom vs Security

Words: 5692 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49775496

Counter-Terrorism and Social Media: Freedom vs. Security

The United States prides itself to being the most democratic nation of the world, with the highest respect for the human being, for its values, norms, and dreams. At the same time, before 9/11, it was also considered to be one of the safest nations of the world. The attacks on the World Trade Center towers, in particular pointed out that there are gaps in security and that even the United States represent a vulnerable target. Since then, the security measures have been seriously increased, in certain areas of expertise; security rules have been created if they did not exist. All these measures fueled a constant debate on whether the security that has been increased affects or not the liberties and freedoms of the American population.

On May 1st 2011, Osama bin Laden has been announced dead by the U.S. President, Barack Obama

. Apparently, all the security measures have been useful as they prevented any new attack on the American soil. Even more, the strive to fight terrorism and its complex structure is being proven at the moment. However, there are still questions on the limit the state can interfere in the…… [Read More]


CNN Wire Staff. (2011) "Bin Laden killing caps decade-long manhunt." CNN Asia. 

Cook, Martin L. (2001) Ethical Issues in Counterterrorism Warfare. Department of Command, Leadership, and Management. U.S. Army War College. May 3, 2011

Cornell University Law School. (N.d.) Michigan Dept. Of State Police v. Sitz. 1990.

Cornell University Law School. (N.d.) Terry v. Ohio. 1967. May 3, 2011
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Terrorism and the Media

Words: 2501 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82543103

Media and Terrorism

Contemporary terrorism relies heavily on the media. The modern media has much to offer terrorist organization. Media coverage is used not only to convey the terrorist's objectives and political messages, but also to intimidate larger populations.

The media provides a relatively inexpensive and efficient method of relaying their goals. Further, it offers a forum to attract supporters, and a means of raising funds in an era of independent fund raising (Introduction).

The Munich Olympics in 1972 marked the true beginning of the exploitation of the modern media by terrorists. In those Olympics, terrorists first exploited the media to gain access to a global audience (Introduction).

However, the potential utility of the media on terrorist activities was well-known long before the events of the 1972 Munich Olympics (Fundamentals of Terrorism).

The first well-documented understanding of the role of the media in terrorism likely has its roots in the works of Karl Heinzen and Johann Most in the 1880s.

Heinzen and Most were German radicals who truly understood the potential impact of the media on terrorist activities. Most developed the concept of the letter bomb, and the air strike. Both philosophers argued that new technologies (including the media) would…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Fine, Janet. Arabian Knight Woos West. In: Unit 7, Terrorism and the Media.

Fundamentals of Terrorism. 14 November 2002.

Introduction. Unit 7, Terrorism and the Media, p. 103.

Morrow, Lance. The Gleam of a Pearl. In: Unit 7, Terrorism and the Media.
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Why Censorship Is Viewed as a Positive

Words: 2379 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68200033

Internet Censorship in China, South Africa and the West

Internet censorship in China, South Africa and other countries is something that prohibits real discussion from taking place regarding issues that affect the public. For instance, in China, certain key word searches are automatically filtered out so that users cannot find the information they are seeking. While Internet censorship may be good from one perspective (in terms of stemming the flow of child pornography, curbing false information, or putting a nation's interests first), it can be viewed as bad from another perspective (in terms of cutting down on the opportunity to inform sides of a dialogue, promoting free exchange of ideas, or discussing why one form of pornography is allowed but not another). This paper will show why Internet censorship can be interpreted in both positive and negative ways depending on the perspective that one adopts (whether one is pro-Statist or anti-Statist). In short, pros and cons depend wholly upon one's worldview and outlook.

The first positive reason for censorship, as Lorentzen (2014) notes, is that "a partial censorship strategy" is an effective way for governments to control the levels of discontent in their respective countries (p. 405). Lorentzen (2014) observes…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bitso, Constance. "Internet Censorship In South Africa: A Brief Expose Of Negative and Positive Trends." South African Journal of Libraries and Information Science 80.1 (2014): 41-51. Academia Search Complete.

Carr, Madeline. "Internet Freedom, Human Rights and Power." Australian Journal of International Affairs 67.5 (2013): 621-637. Academia Search Complete.

Casavant, L., Robertson, J. "The Evolution of Pornography Law in Canada."

Parliament of Canada, 2015.
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Proposition Statement Even if the Media Might

Words: 1271 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3406344

Proposition Statement: Even if the media might be racist or sexist in its content, there should not be censorship of the media because of the first amendment.

Freedom of speech means freedom to disagree

Attention getting statement:


Everyone knows that shouting fire in a crowded theater is not only morally wrong, it's also against the law. It's the classic argument against full freedom of speech. According to Chief Justice Holmes, as discussed in the history of the Supreme Court, The Brethren, the justice said that freedom of speech cannot be absolute, because for instance you can't shout fire in a crowded theater and call that free speech. But although most people might agree with him about that, still that doesn't mean that you can make that analogy with every restriction of free speech.


The problem:

Why restrict freedom of speech at all? The problem today, some might say, is that increasingly, we are seeing exploitative media that contains violence, vulgar images and language against women and members of minority groups.

The cause:

The cause of this is complex. Many people wish to simply blame modern, popular culture. But the sources of this problem trace back as far as…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Orenstein, Peggy. Schoolgirls. New York: Bantam Book, 1994.

Strossen, Nadine. "MacKinnon-Pornoraphy is Oppression." The Ethical Spectacle. 1995. Website Accessed June 18, 2002. 

Woodward, Bob, and Armstrong, Scott. The Brethren. New York: Avon Books, 1979.
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Social Media and the Red Shirt Revolution

Words: 4791 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84158194

Social Media and the Red Shirt Revolution

Most scholars are in conflict with regard to the subject of revolution in the age of social media. Until now, revolution has been considered a top-down process. In Thai situation, things might have been different. The Red Shirt Revolution in Thailand was one of the first of the "Twitter" revolutions, that is one that was fueled by social media and Web 2.0 technology. Since then, other revolutions have come as well. The lone citizen is now no longer on their own. The dissident in Chiang Mai now can commiserate with their brother or sister in Tahrir Square and plan revolution on a country to country or even on a global basis. Even as this writer types up a dissertation proposal, demonstrators coordinate strategy on a global basis to protest corporate greed. It is with this in mind that this study looks back at the Red Shirt Revolution, its Web 2.0 technology and how this nexus of politics and technology will continue to affect Thai communications in the near future. The paper concludes that the homeland conflict spilled over into social and business contacts and political engagements and that the effects will be very…… [Read More]


Bailey, M and Labovitz C (2011). Censorship and Co-option of the Internet Infrastructure. Ann Arbor,

MI: University of Michigan. p1-14.

Bajpai, K and Jaiswal, A (2011). A Framework for Analyzing Collective Action Events on Twitter.

Lisbon, Portugal: Proceedings of the 8th International ISCRAM Conference. p1-10.
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Hong Kong Media After 1997

Words: 3958 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85843145

Lost Identity of Hong Kong After 1997 emphasizes on the cultural shift of Hong Kong after China's take over in 1997. This paper mainly focuses on Hong Kong's lost freedom of press and expression and how the Chinese leaders turned away from their words after the hand over of 1997. This paper also highlights the consequence of many journalists who tried to defy the Chinese rule and went against their policy of freedom of speech. This paper finally concludes by stating the after effects of the Chinese rule in Hong Kong and their lost cultural identity.

The Lost Identity of Hong Kong After 1997

Jawaharlal Nehru, the first Indian Primer Minister once said, "There is a great deal of confusion in my mind and I shall state quite frankly what it is. All kinds of basic questions crop up from what is going on in the world, an obvious thing that people should try to understand one another and to learn from one another. Yet when I look through the pages of history or study current events, I sometimes find that people who know one another, quarrel most. Countries, which are next door to one another in Europe or in…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Allen C. Hong Kong Identity After The End Of History. 19 Mar. 2002. Available on the address Accessed on 29 Apr.

Basil F. 1997 Transition and The Place Of Hong Kong in the Asian Debate on Democracy and Human Rights. 23 Jul. 1996. Available on the address Accessed on 29 Apr. 2004.

Dan K. Press Freedom In Hong Kong. The Quill. 1 Apr. 2000.

Frances F. Translating Freedom For Post-1997 Hong Kong. Washington University Law Quarterly, Vol. 76, No. 1. 1998.
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Communication in the Media Specifically

Words: 2616 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16924345

The "Halloween" films that continue to be so popular are prime examples, but just about any horror film made within the past three decades follows basically the same formula, they have just gotten increasingly sexual and violent, as society has continued to embrace the genre. There are literally hundreds of other graphic examples, such as "Saw," an extremely violent film that has spawned six other films, and the examples of so many films being released in 2009. These films do not celebrate the woman, they demean her, and the fact that they are celebrated by society is troubling and agonizing at the same time.

Some of the films that empower women into the hero roles include "Terminator 2," the "Alien" series, "Misery," and other films glorify or at least acknowledge the female predator or warrior, offering up a different view of women as successful anti-heroes. However, most of these films are not the traditional horror film this paper discusses, they are other types of films, leading to the conclusion that in most horror films, even those where the final female victim outwits the murderer, marginalize and compartmentalize women as weak and ineffectual victims.

The codes of ethics that are relevant…… [Read More]


England, Marcia. "Breached Bodies and Home Invasions: Horrific Representations of the Feminized Body and Home." Gender, Place & Culture: A Journal of Feminist Geography; Apr2006, Vol. 13 Issue 4, p353-363.

Graser, Marc. "Production Houses Pump Out the Horror." Variety. 2008. 10 March 2009.

Iaccino, James F. Psychological Reflections on Cinematic Terror: Jungian Archetypes in Horror Films. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 1994.

Lally, Kevin. "For the Love of the Movies." Film Journal International. 1999. 10 March 2009.
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Mayhem the Ancient Romans Had

Words: 2362 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7113851

On the other hand, parents are not the only ones who should feel responsible for the caliber of popular entertainment. At some point, the media industry must look inward and decide what kind of role it can or will take in the society. Because the media will be concerned primarily with the bottom line, we must, however, forgive any industry that chooses consciously to air and market violent media. When that media is aimed directly at children, though, a line has been crossed. The entertainment industry can and should be self-regulated regarding the promotion of violent video games, films, and television shows. Based on the fact that media violence potentially contributes to the public health issues that Bok addresses in Mayhem: increased fearfulness in the society; increased appetite for more media violence; desensitization to violence; and increased levels of aggression, the media industry and parents alike need to shoulder some of the burden of cultural change.

One of the ways the media industry can regulate itself is through ratings systems. These ratings systems are already in place, as Bok points out. Ratings systems permit the media industry to market their wares to adults who can of their own accord watch…… [Read More]

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Critic of Sociology of Mass Communication

Words: 1974 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82926207

Sociology of Mass Communication

In the study of sociology, social institutions play a vital role in implementing and dictating the norms and rules within the society. These social institutions may be political (political organizations), economic (business corporations, companies, or entities), or related to the civic society (family and socially-oriented cause groups). However, the advancement in technology and the sudden influx of the people's demand for information and entertainment created the most powerful, prevalent, and influential institution in the society, which is the mass media institution.

The mass media as an institution has become an essential element in the society, for the mass media helped shape the culture of American society, especially those concerning the values, traditions, and norms of the society. The mass media also helped proliferate the need of the people to access and know everything and every issue that is of public interest and concern to the society. Because of its influential ability to provide people with information and knowledge that are current and up-to-date, the mass media as a communication institution gradually transformed to be an economic, cultural and politically-influenced institution as well. Economically, mass media served as an institution wherein the American culture, particularly pop culture,…… [Read More]


Bagdikian, B. (1992). The Media Monopoly. Boston: Beacon Press.

McKibben, B. (1993). The Age of Missing Information. New York: Plume.

Parenti, M. (1992). Make-Believe Media: The Politics of Entertainment. New York: St. Martin's Press.
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Perceptions and Expectations Analyzing the Concert Experience

Words: 1780 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97526592

Perceptions and Expectations:

Analyzing The Concert Experience In A Live

versus televised format

Perceptions and Expectations: Analyzing the Concert Experience in a Live vs. Televised Format

In experiencing a real-life situation in the flesh rather than in viewing its projection through a medium such as television, one's experience differs significantly. The expectations one brings to a live performance vs. The expectations one brings to the viewing of that same performance on television are radically different, as experiencing the performance in the flesh brings with it an entirely different experience that one expects to achieve upon deciding to attend. This type of expectation can be seen in viewing the example of attending a rock concert vs. watching the same concert on television. In looking at the two situations in comparison to one another, it can be seen that several factors come into play to distinguish the two from one another most significantly. These factors include: tolerance for boredom or inactivity, expectations of perfection and high levels of performance, possible misconceptions of physical and social events, and possible limited contact with and a superficial view of one's own environment.

Tolerance for Boredom or Inactivity

Boredom is defined as "a unique psychophysiological state…… [Read More]


Balzer, W. (2004) Boredom: Practical Consequences and a Theory. Encyclopedia of Applied Psychology. 49(1): 289-294.

Barzilai-Nahon, K. (2009) Gatekeeping: A Critical Review. Annual Review of Information Science and Technology. 43(1): 433-478.

Eilders, C. (2002) Conflict and Consonance in Media Opinion. European Journal of Communication. 17(1): 25-63.

Goffman, E. (1974). Frame Analysis: An Essay on the Organization of Experience. New York, NY: Harper and Row. Available at: / publications/frameanalysis/.
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Violence in Video Games Guiding Question Should

Words: 1052 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15949233

Violence in Video Games

Guiding Question: Should the government have to be involved in legislation regarding video game content?

Proof 1: Explain how First Amendment ensures freedom of speech, including video game content.

"It is not the government's job to forbid content in media. It is the responsibility of the parents to decide what their children should play.

Body Paragraph 1: Music censorship case and ratings system for video games

Body Paragraph 2: Research evidence

Body Paragraph 3: Sociological implications and blaming

The First Amendment to the United States Constitution insists that citizens of the U.S. have the right to free speech. This Amendment has been utilized by artists from a wide variety of genres and talents to preserve their right to express themselves and prevent any form of censorship. Most calls for legislation regarding censorship have actually come from the parents of America's youth. Rather than take responsibility for determining whether or not a film or video game is suitable for their child, the adults call upon the government to create laws to limit content. It is not the government's role to forbid content, but the cause of the parent to decide what games their child should or should…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Anderson, Craig (2003). "Violent Video Games: Myths, Facts, and Unanswered Questions."

Psychological Science Agenda.

Benedetti, Winda. (2008). "Playing the Blame Game." MSNBC. Retrieved from

Chalk, Andy. (2007). "Inappropriate Content: a Brief History of Videogame Ratings and the ESRB." The Escapist.
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Cultural Issues in Crimes Against Humanity

Words: 4595 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34863415

Culture that Encourages Human Rights

Americans were shocked when they learned about the abuse of prisoners at Abu Ghraib. Or were they? Certainly, the media reported shock and outrage on the part of the public to the unpleasant revelations. But the outrage, if it really existed, has certainly not been a lasting outrage. The White House response to photos of young military personnel sexually assaulting and humiliating prisoners was to imply that only a few poorly supervised bad apple MPs would do such things. President George W. Bush said: "These acts do not represent the values America stands for." However, many Americans do not abhor the treatment of those prisoners at all. In fact, they think there should be more of it. "They do it to us," is commonly heard in restaurants where ordinary people discuss current events. Republican Congressman James Inhofe of Oklahoma dismissed the whole thing by saying, "These prisoners -- they're murderers, they're terrorists ... Many of them probably have American blood on their hands." Inhofe did not apologize for his comments either, which implies he believes he speaks for a large segment of the voting population in his state that applauds such behavior.

An article in…… [Read More]


Ackerman, B. (2004). States of emergency. American Prospect, summer, 15, (9), 40.

Alloway, N. And Gilbert, P. (1998). Video game culture: Playing with masculinity, violence and pleasure. In Howard, S. (Ed.) Wired Up, London: UCL Press.

Barry, J., Hirsh, M., and Isikoff, M. with Hosenball, M. Gutman, R., Gegax, T.T., Scelfo, J., Liu, M., Nordland, R. And B. Dehghanpisheh (2004). The roots of torture. Newsweek, 24 May, 143, (21), 26-34.

Cohen, D. (2003). The American national conversation about (everything but) shame. Social Research, winter, 70, (4), 1075-1108.
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Jensen Communications Studies Professor and

Words: 1342 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78951435

After World War Two, Carson realized the extent to which the government was permitting the use of toxic chemicals and wrote a book to expose the practice. That book was called Silent Spring, and it "challenged the practices of agricultural scientists and the government, and called for a change in the way humankind viewed the natural world."[footnoteRef:8] Jensen includes an excerpt from Silent Spring to show that Carson was up against one of the most lucrative industries in the world, and that although her work is unfinished, Carson made a huge impact on raising awareness and eventually her work got DDT banned. [8: "The Life and Legacy of Rachel Carson," Accessed May 3, 2013,]

Malcolm X's autobiography was arguably not a project undertaken as a form of muckraker journalism. The author started writing when he was in prison, and he comes to learn the power of the written word in overcoming political and social oppression. Malcolm X was overshadowed by Dr. Martin Luther King in the civil rights movement because the latter's message was more digestible and accessible to white Americans. Malcolm X advocated for black empowerment that was independent of the dominant culture. His work transformed African-American identity…… [Read More]


Carson, Rachel. "Silent Spring." Excerpt in Stories that Changed America, edited by Carl Jensen, 117-123.

Daily Censored. "Carl Jensen." Accessed May 3, 2013,

The Daily Show. "The Daily Show With Jon Stewart," Accessed May 3, 2013,

Jensen, Carl. Stories that Changed America. New York: Seven Stories, 2002.
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Internet or The Network of

Words: 2448 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55928678

As it may be inferred from the examples above, the U.S.A. is the leader when talking about online campaigns. Other countries' experiences may look poor in comparison with the American giant even if we invoke the cases of famous European democracies like Germany.

First of all, this country has a parliamentary system which explains why the parties and not the candidates are those who maintain sites. Therefore, Americans enjoy a more personal virtual relationship while Germans are only entitled to a rather collectivist approach. Despite having access to contact information, biographies, details about platforms, the party is the one which counts to a higher degree. But this seems to be the only major difference between the two countries' web sites as their main goal is providing information, an aim that has received the highest rank from Germans, on a four-point scale.

Still, unlike American candidates who are beginning to understand the importance of 'living' sites, Germans completely neglect interactivity. In the 2002 elections, member feedback ranked 1 and voter feedback ranked 0 on a scale from 0 to 4. This means that the idea of building a mutually trustful relationship almost didn't exist. Tom Carlson and Goran Djupsund suggested the…… [Read More]


1. Bandler, J., Bulkeley, M., 2004. Dean Campaign Made Payments To Two Bloggers, The Wall Street Journal, [Online], Available at,[2006, December 17].

2. Brownlow, M., 2006. What is email marketing?, Email Marketing Reports, [Online], Available at ,[2006, December 17]

3. Caldwell, F., 2001. E-Voter Institute Study Shows the Emergence of E-Politics, [Online], Available at,[2006, December 17].

4. DeYoung, B., 1988. What's Relationship Marketing?, Journal of Extension, [Online], Available at,[2006, December 17].
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Lessons Learned From Katrina

Words: 1006 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61782584

Hurricane Andrew and Katrina, hurricanes are never a good thing and are always a logistical nightmare. However, those two hurricanes stand out among many others as the death and destruction they rendered was off the charts. Looters and the "strangers" mentioned in the assignment parameters tend to be common as the degenerates of society always take advantage of such calamities. However, some strangers are simply just looking for loved ones. However, people coming into the area other than trained and well-equipped emergency personnel are the last thing a hurricane zone needs. This and other questions will be addressed in this report. While any hurricane response strategy is going to be controlled chaos, there are some best practices that need to be employed.


One plan that needs to be implemented right off the top is a cordoning off of the worst areas, especially those that are impassable, so as to prevent looting and additional people from being hurt or needing to be saved. People should only be leaving the area while it is being searched and verified for bodies and such. People that are engaging in any criminal activity should be arrested and taken in for charges. They should be…… [Read More]


Dao, J. (2005, September 1). New Orleans Is Awaiting Deliverance. The New York

Times. Retrieved July 28, 2014, from


Fussell, E. (2010, January 1). Race, socioeconomic status, and return migration to New
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Metrics Implementation and Enforcement Security Governance

Words: 2896 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53677677

Metrics, Implementation, and Enforcement (Security Governance)

How can you determine whether there has been a malware outbreak?

The threat situation today has become more dangerous than in the past. Security and safety threats have been increasing in an alarming rate; there are more than 70,000 brand new bits of malware recognized daily. Well-funded cybercriminals have been currently making advanced malware that has been made to bypass present security options by launching prior to the operating-system and then evading antivirus defence (Mitre, 2012). Consequently, danger vulnerability has hit unprecedented degrees that need a brand new method of security and safety. With built-in security and safety options from McAfee as well as Intel, one might gain an additional layer of safety that is effective aside from the operating-system to avoid attacks instantly whilst successfully managing security over to a system of endpoints. These revolutionary options gather world-class processor chip technologies from Intel and major security application from McAfee for the industry's initial precautionary security and safety method.

With security and safety risks increasing -- and risk dissemination utilizing the type of hidden techniques -- the situation has evolved. Actually, it is a lot more than most businesses are able to keep track…… [Read More]


McAfee Labs (Q1 2012).

Intel IT Centre. (2012). Planning Guide: Preventing Stealthy Threats with Next-Generation Endpoint Security -- A Proactive Approach from Intel and McAfee. Intel IT and McAfee.

Mitre. (2012). Standardizing Cyber Threat Intelligence Information with the Structured Threat Information eXpression (STIX). Mitre Corporation.

Jones, D.R. (2011). Managing Cyber Threats Risk Management & Insurance Solutions. Roach Smith and Howard Burton.
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Social Psychology Analyzing a Major Issue

Words: 1871 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78425440

Media Violence

What impact does media violence have on society? How are children affected and how are adolescents affected by violence portrayed in movies, television, video games and in other forms? This paper reviews and critiques peer-reviewed articles that address the subject of media violence from several perspectives -- and takes positions on the arguments and research presented in those scholarly articles.

There is ample empirical research available to back up the assertion that violent video games, movies and television programs have a negative impact on young people. It is the thesis of this paper that ultimately the responsibility for guidance vis-a-vis violent media is not on schools or law enforcement but in fact is on the shoulders of parents.

The Influence of Media Violence on Youth

An article in the Psychological Science in the Public Interest (Anderson, et al., 2003) flatly asserts that there is "…unequivocal evidence that media violence increases the likelihood of aggressive and violent behavior," and that aggressive behavior will manifest itself in both "long-term" and "immediate contexts" (Anderson, 81). Whether it is violent video games, film or television violence, when youths are exposed in a short-term context there can be verbally "…aggressive thoughts, aggressive behavior,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Anderson, Craig A., Berkowitz, Leonard, Donnerstein, Edward, Husemann, Rowell L.,

Johnson, James D., Linz, Daniel, Malamuth, Neil M., and Wartella, Ellen. (2003). The

Influence of Media Violence on Youth. Psychological Science in the Public Interest,

4(3), 81-106.
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Domestic Violence

Words: 439 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59815419

Media Coverage of Trials

Providing in-depth coverage of trials, including pretrial hearings and all events related to a case has become a prime topic for the television media. In the last five years, the television channel "Court TV" has acquired over twenty million viewers (Lassiter, 1996). In addition, a body of research exists demonstrating that pretrial media coverage affects the outcomes of some trials (Bruschke & Loges, 1999). A variety of experts including lawyers, psychologists, and communication experts have all suggested that pretrial publicity, when negative, may influence juries negatively against defendants (Dixon & Linz, 2002) in spite of the fact that under our legal system, a person is considered innocent unless and until proven guilty in a court of law.

But at the same time, one of the most cherish rights given to us in the Constitution is freedom of the press -- the right of the media to communicate to the public freely and without censorship regarding what we should and should not hear.

The American Bar Association put forth "Model Rules" in 1983) regarding what information might be so prejudicial to a defendant that it should not be made public including any prior record of the defendant,…… [Read More]


Bruschke, Jon, and Loges, Willam E. 1999. "Relationship Between Pretrial Publicity and Trial Outcomes." Journal of Communication, Vol. 49.

Dixon, Travis L., and Linz, Daniel. 2002. "Television News, Prejudicial Pretrial Publicity and the Depiction of Race." Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, Vol. 46.

Lassiter, Christo. 1996. "TV or Not TV - That Is the Question." Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, Vol. 86.

Staff writers. 2000. "Litigation Publicity: Courtroom Drama or Headline News?" Communications and the Law, Vol. 22.
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FOX News in Today's World

Words: 1754 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41051300

As with all other issues in media, it is up to the viewer of the information to decide which network to believe, and which network to trust as a source of unbiased, factual information. Since Fox News is undoubtedly the choice of a majority of viewers in the United States, it is obvious that those viewers have already made their choice.… [Read More]


Ackerman, S. (2001). The most biased name in news. Extra, 5, 25-29.

Cameron, C. Fox News special report: Israeli spying on the U.S. Retrieved Dec. 10, 2004. Web site:

Carter, B. (2004, April 23). Pentagon ban on pictures of dead troops is broken. The New York Times, p A4.

Fox News. (2004). Fox News home page. Retrieved Dec. 10, 2004 from Fox News. Web site: .
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United States Still the World's

Words: 3011 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27607486

Models of Media and Politics

A review of media / political models sheds some light on why the United States' cultural themes have been such a dominant dynamic in Europe, among other global venues. In describing the three models of media and politics, Daniel C. Hallin and Paolo Mancini report that the media in Southern Europe (the "Mediterranean" or "Polarized Pluralist Model") is "an institution of the political and literary worlds" more than it is market-driven (Hallin, et al., 2004 90). The North and Central European model is called the "Democratic Corporatist Model" -- and is certainly more market-driven and far less politically driven; and the third model is the "North Atlantic" or "Liberal model" of media and politics (Hallin 87).

The North Atlantic or Democratic Corporatist model, according to Mark a. Baker II encompasses Germany, Austria, Switzerland, the "Low Countries" and Scandinavia, and can be broken down into three characteristics. These three -- Baker calls the "Three Coexistences" -- help define Hallin's original conceptual model. In the first "coexistence" there is a "high degree of parallelism with a strong mass circulation press" (Baker, 2010 2).

The media in these nations frequently express "partisan and social divisions," Baker writes. The…… [Read More]


Arango, Tim, 2008, 'World Falls for American Media, Even as it Sours on America. The New York Times, Retrieved Nov. 24, 2010, from .

Artz, Lee, and Kamalipour, Yahya, 2007, the Media Globe: Trends in International Mass Media. Rowman & Littlefield: Landham, MD.

Baker, Mark a., 2010, 'Hallin & Mancini, the North / Central European or Democratic Corporatist Model by: Mark a. Baker II', Global Media. Retrieved Nov. 24, 2010, from

Hallin, Daniel C., and Mancini, Paolo, 2004, Comparing Media Systems: Three Models of Media and Politics. Cambridge University Press: New York.
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Status of a Newspaper The

Words: 2627 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15608122

This is also reflected in the view that there is a lot of difference between a high school senior and a college freshman. Regarding the world of student journalism, the U.S. Court of Appeals has also agreed with this view. This is reflected in the campus newspaper theft which was not taking place till the beginning of the 1990s. This is now a regular source of trouble for college student media. (Trends in College Media)

At the same time, this has not reflected in the quality of college newspaper, and some of them are of excellent quality. Let us look at some college newspapers for this purpose. One of them, namely the Boston College Chronicle has worked on the recently concluded papal conclave and also tried to inform the audience about what the world can hope from the new Pope. Certainly this information when they appear in a college magazine reflects the interest that the younger generation has in matters relating to religion and also tends to be informative. (Boston College Chronicle)

However, all magazines are not so informative and some of them seem to reflect only sectarian interests. Another college magazine reflected that graduate preceptors, instructors, teaching assistants and…… [Read More]


Censorship of College Student Newspapers. Administrative Censorship of the College Press. Retrieved at Accessed on 28 April, 2005

CSU, Northridge Newspaper Silenced. 11 May, 1989. Retrieved at Accessed on 28 April, 2005

Davisson, John. GSEU Strikers Return to the Classroom. 25 April, 2005. Retrieved from 32k Accessed on 28 April, 2005

Glaser, Dale; Collins, King. Review of Eagle and the Controversy of 1996-1997. Retrieved from Accessed on 28 April, 2005
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Voluntary or Involuntary Controls on

Words: 310 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92541530

Only testing can prove whether censorship can be a successful deterrent to terrorist activity. In the U.S., it seems unlikely the media will willingly withhold information from the public, due to the democratic nature of the society in which we live. However, if researchers were able to prove curbing media coverage would serve as a significant deterrent to terrorism; it is likely the public would agree to enforce censorship geared toward reducing media coverage of such events.

Even if the public does agree however, that curbing attention would influence terrorist activity, there is some question as to whether the media would cooperate, short of strict government controls, as most media agents are interested in reporting the news, regardless of its effects (Anderson, 1993).


Anderson, T. (1993). Terrorism and censorship: The media in chains.…… [Read More]


Anderson, T. (1993). Terrorism and censorship: The media in chains.

Journal of International Affairs, 47(1):127-36.

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Information Technology IT and Society

Words: 2434 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14559883

Blogs and social networking have altered our daily usage of the Internet and the World Wide Web. Of that, we can be certain. But how exactly has this change evolved, and what specific effects is it having on Internet and Web usage patterns around the world? This paper addresses the history of blogs and social media, and shows their state of development now. This brief introduction will segue into a discussion of the various personal and professional applications for both blogging and social media. Additionally, sections on political applications and implications will round out the discussion on how social media and blogging have changed the ways people communicate and receive information. Finally, it would be remiss to ignore the confluence of hardware, software, coding, applications, and protocols that have led to revolutions in the ways people use their digital devices. Tablets and smartphones are the physical manifestations of the changes that have taken place in Internet usage patterns.

Blogs and social media represent a shift toward human-centered computing, collaborative computing, and social computing (DiMicco, Millen, Geyer, Dugan, Brownholtz & Muller, 2008). At the same time there are a plethora of potential problems with the shift towards a people-centered social computing…… [Read More]


Barnes, S.B. (2006). A privacy paradox: Social networking in the United States. First Monday 11(9).

Boyd, D. (n.d.). Friends, Friendsters, and MySpace Top 8: Writing Community Into Being on Social Network Sites. CiteSeer. Retrieved online: 

Bryant, T. (2006). Social software in academia. Educase Quarterly. 2. 2006.

DiMicco, J., Millen, D.R., Geyer, W., Dugan, C., Brownholtz, B. & Muller, M. (2008). Motivations for social networking at work. In Proceedings of the 2008 ACM conference on Computer supported cooperative work. Pp. 711-720.
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Communication Islamic Countries Freedom in All Its

Words: 1149 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26131748

Communication Islamic Countries

Freedom in all its forms is a highly contested topic across all areas of politics, not only in countries where freedom has been traditionally repressed, but even in the most democratic of states, such as the United States and the UK. When freedom extends to the press, the contestability of the topic gains an extra dimension. Some critics, for example, advocate freedom of the press only to such an extent as its ability to promote a peaceful existence and harmony among citizens and their government. Others, however, would see the press gaining complete freedom, regardless of its consequences for personal and collective peace. In Muslim countries such as Indonesia and the United Arab Emirates, freedom extended to the press and the media is yet further muddied by the importance of religious and state rule in these countries. In both environments, Islam remains the main ruling force in many individuals' lives and has thus been used by rulers to maintain not only control, but also power. In this drive, freedom that extends to the press is often overruled by traditionalist norms of a sense of respect required towards the state and Islam. Recently, there have been calls for…… [Read More]


Article 19. (2005, Dec.). Freedom of Expression aand the Media in Indonesia. Alliance of Independent Journalists. Retrieved from:

BBC News Middle East. (2012, June 15). United Arab Emirates Profile: Media. Retrieved from: 

BBC News Middle East. (2012, June 15). United Arab Emirates: Overview. Retrieved from:

El-Baltaji, D. (2009, Fall). Emirates Press Law. Arab Media & Society, Iss. 9. Retrieved from:
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Youtube's Impact Named the 'Invention

Words: 1830 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31610625

In addition to the implications earlier described, YouTube clips have succeeded in coining certain expressions, characters, behaviors that were copied by the audience. For example, the Hong Kong Bus uncle case in which a middle-aged man - Chan Yuet Tung reacted furiously to a young passenger's request to lower his voice while traveling by bus, had a tremendous effect. Hong Kong teenagers borrowed Chan's expressions, radio programs and commercials drew analogies between their content and his behavior, video games were purchased because of the similarities existing between their characters and the protagonists of the bus quarrel (

To conclude with, one could say that YouTube has both negative and positive effects. On one hand, it reveals undiscovered talents of ordinary people, offers freedom of speech and, implicitly, an alternative to unidirectional messages, and, on the other hand, it breeds violence because of the numerous users who are inclined to stand out by posting 'off-the-wall' videos. Yet, the possibility of freely expressing opinions and contradicting an imposed perspective is essential. Probably, if YouTube had existed during the World War II, Hitler couldn't have manipulated the media for making Germans back up the Nazi party's policy.… [Read More]


Gelles, D., Fekeiki, O. (2006). Anti-U.S. video attacks spread on the Web. On the Internet at April 18, 2007.

Theories on mass media (2004). On the Internet at April 18, 2007.

Information on YouTube (2007). On the Internet at .Retrieved April 18, 2007.

Information on Geriatric1927 (2007). On the Internet at April 18, 2007.
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Terrorist Organizations

Words: 6350 Length: 19 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80361872

Terrorist Organizations and the Media

Subsequent to the terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center on September 11, 2001, the world did change. Prior to the attacks, the term 'terrorism' was not as frequently used by the media world over, the way we are used to it now. We have to bear in mind that it is the media that brings the world together, it is the Internet at best that allows us easy access to other areas of the globe, far from us -- and their peoples. Next, the television plays a chief role in spreading news, business reports, and propaganda.

Following the attacks on September 11 in New York City, the world got to learn of Al-Qaida, (the sole terrorist group) responsible with many other terrorist organizations to spread mischief across the globe. Osama Bin Laden was turned into a celebrity overnight because his videotapes detailing his agenda to fight the United States, were discovered. Videotapes kept coming and going, each time stirring the people of the world. Laden was not found, but there was a war in Afghanistan to fight the terrorism raised (so to say) by Laden's group and others. Recently there has been a war…… [Read More]


Abu Nidal Organization (ANO) a.k.a. Fatah Revolutionary Council, Arab Revolutionary Council, Arab Revolutionary Brigades, Black September, and Revolutionary Organization of Socialist Muslims. (2003. April 30). FAS. Available at[7 September 2003].

Abu Nidal, Terrorist Organizations. (2000). FORSNET. Available at[7 September 2003].

Ahmed, E. (2003. April). Defining Extremism. The Voice.

Al-Qa'ida (The Base), Qa'idat al-Jihad, Islamic Army for the Liberation of the Holy Places, World Islamic Front for Jihad Against Jews and Christians, Usama bin Laden Network. (2003. April 30). FAS. Available at[7 September 2003].
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Negative Group Roles and How I Dealt

Words: 858 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26863369

negative group roles and how I dealt with the negative group member

My very first encounter with negative group roles was when I was seventeen years old and while working part-time at a local electronics store. At the electronics store, we were divided into various groups that were headed by different group leaders. Our salary was based on a basic pay as well as commission. This means that our earnings depended much on our push for more sales. The sales force of every individual was highly dependent on the amount of group cohesion and strategy which we put in place in attracting more clients to our stand as well as to our groups. In regard to the sales and promotion functions, we were allowed to engage potential clients via email, phone calls and direct conversations. This means that we had to work together in ensuring that our sales and marketing strategy was the best. One of our group members by the name of Jack was counterproductive and exuded negative group roles. He would always complain that the group was not being rewarded well for its efforts and he always urged us to boycott our duties. He was also not happy…… [Read More]


Janis, I.L. (1982). Groupthink: Psychological studies of policy decisions and fiascoes (2nd ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin.

Janis, I.L. (1989). Crucial decisions: Leadership in policymaking and crisis management. New "York: Free Press

Smith, T (2011). A Euphemism for Marginalization.The New York Times