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The maneuver of public opinion in America holds the absolute influence in the present world. Their strength is not isolated and uncongenial; it touches each household in America and executes its spirit approximately all through the day. It is the strength that influences and shapes the psyche of nearly all sections of the population, youthful or elderly, wealthy or deprived, naive or urbane. The mass media shapes our picture of the universe and subsequently guides us regarding the idea of that picture. Basically, the matters in which we have knowledge or believe we possess knowledge regarding happening beyond the realm of our locality or sphere of friends reaches us through the medium of our newspaper delivered daily, our newsmagazine published weekly, through our radio, or our television. (Who ules America? The Alien Grip on Our News and Entertainment Media Must Be Broken)
The judgment influencing methods of the…
"Censorship in the United States" (September 16, 2004) Retrieved from http://www.nationmaster.com/encyclopedia/Censorship-in-the-United-States Accessed on 15 October, 2004
Clark. Andrew. "Trouble in Paradise: A Study of Media Censorship in the South Pacific." Retrieved from www.beaweb.org/bea2000/papers/clark.pdf Accessed on 15 October, 2004
'FAQs: Causes & consequences of corruption" Retrieved from http://www.u4.no/document/faqs1.cfm Accessed on 15 October, 2004
Garmong, Robert. (September 23, 2004) "It's the FCC that should be banned" Retrieved from http://www.mondopolitico.com/discus/messages/26/1861.html?1095940865 Accessed on 15 October, 2004
Assembly of the United Nations proclaimed the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, providing that the inherent dignity and equal, inalienable rights "of all members of the human family is the foundation of freedom, justice, and peace in the world."
From postwar realities, new urgency begot a restructured definition of international politics, people, and peace. With guarantees of freedom from persecution, civil liberties, and the democratic ideals on which the new modern was founded, the Declaration's authors promised the right to expression to citizens of the signing countries, among them Australia. Yet at the same time, while superficially obeying the promise for expressive freedom, the Australian government exercises an internal control over print and media through the Office of Film and Literature, putting into stark question the concept of free expression.
When the original 18 Member States of the United Nations Commission on Human rights established the agenda that would soon…
Vietnam films have rewritten the winners and the losers of that saga and action-adventure films reinforce cultural norms of violence and power (175). Despite the increased real presence of women in positions of power, often media representations of women and other formerly disenfranchised groups remain stereotyped or relegated to marginal or token roles, although this is changing. Still, certain outlets like women's magazines often function as advertisements that perpetuate corporate images that make women feel worse, rather than better about themselves (188). Furthermore, a hegemonic ideology is implied by supposedly mainstream news organizations. Consider the construct of 'economic news.' This implies that the 'economy' is in a neat little box, and that social issues of race and political disenfranchisement, limits on wealth and access to education and power, have no role in who possess wealth and who lacks wealth in society. Economics as separate from other issues is essentially an…
A in millions)
Current in millions)
Provided by Federal ureau of Investigation as of September 18, 2006. www.whitehouse.gov/goodbye/3ae6b1ac94aa97e6650780f280890a7c81100e47.html"
CHART: National Correctional Populations
National Correctional Populations
The number of adults in correctional population has been increasing.
A in millions)
Current million in millions)
Provided by ureau of Justice Statistics as of November 30, 2006. (Social Statistics riefing Room, 2006)
Violence in the Media
Huston and colleagues have estimated that the average 18-year-old will have viewed 200,000 acts of violence on television (Huston, a.C., Donnerstein, E., Fairchild, H. et al. ig World, Small Screen: The Role of Television in American Society. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 1992.)
41% percent of American households have three or more televisions (Nielsen Media Research, 2000).
56% of children ages 8-16 have a television in their rooms (Annenberg Public Policy Center, 2000. Media in the Home 2000)
Percentage of television-time children ages 2-7 spend…
Alter, Jonathan. "Moving Beyond the Blame Game. (Panel Discussion)," Newsweek, May 17, 1999.
Beyer, John. "PERSPECTIVE: How movie and TV violence hits children; Is there too much violence on television and is it time to curb it? John Beyer, director of the organization mediawatch-uk argues that media viol," Birmingham Post, March 21, 2007.
Chatfield, Joanne E.. "Influence of Media Violence on Children." American Family Physician, February 15, 2002.
Children's Hospital Boston. "Teen-Rated Video Games Loaded With Violence;
Media With the Military in Battle
There must be a cost-benefit analysis performed before formally agreeing to attach reporters to military units during active engagements. There are pros and cons for the side of the press and on the side of the military. It has become practice or tradition since the Vietnam War for journalists to be permitted to accompany and document the activities of various military units. Therefore, there is a fairly substantial precedent set for this form of cooperation. When considering this situation, imagining the outcome can assist in adequately preparing both sides for the accompaniment.
The military units that would have journalists should be provided as much notice as possible. This would give the commanding officers a chance to prepare assignments that would both satisfy the journalists and provide a respectable amount of operational secrecy. The journalists should receive some kind of basic military training and…
Constitutional Rights Foundation. (2012). Press Freedom vs. Military Censorship. Web, Available from: http://www.crf-usa.org/america-responds-to-terrorism/press-freedom-versus-military-censorship.html . 2012 November 09.
Ricchiardi, S. (2006). Dangerous Assignment. American Journalism Review, Web, Available from: http://www.ajr.org/article.asp?id=4003 . 2012 November 10.
Providing a strong cultural and personal role model may be more important than attempting to socially engineer the messages teens and all citizens receive. The lesser susceptibility of certain ethnic groups to media pressures to live up to an ideal of thinness or physical perfection highlights the complex interplay between cultural, social, and psychological factors that produce self-esteem and what might be called body image. The interplay of these factors is more important in creating a 'body image' than what constitutes an individual's media exposure.
This is an important topic of research because it highlights the fact that censorship of media has limited value in engineering positive social results. hile it would be tempting and easy to suggest that developing minds and bodies should be shielded from toxic media influence as though it were the plague, this type of isolation would have a limited effect. It would not screen out…
Girls get anorexia 'because their brains are wired differently' (17 Dec 2007). The Daily Mail. Retrieved 26 Oct 2008 at ttp:/ / www.dailymail.co.uk/health/article-502705/Girls-anorexia-brains-wired-differently.html
Holmstrom, Amanda J. (2004). The effects of the media on body image: A meta-analysis.
Entrepreneur. Retrieved 26 Oct 2008 at http://www.entrepreneur.com/tradejournals/article/118953907_5.html
Media's effect on girls: Body image and gender identity. (2008). National Institute on Media and the Family. Retrieved 26 Oct 2008 at http://www.mediafamily.org/facts/facts_mediaeffect.shtml
Media Institutions and Regulations:
A Discussion on the Twitter Phenomenon
Words change meaning all the time. Take, for example, awful. Today, it means something terrible, but it used to mean filled with awe (aweful). In this case, a different spelling has led to a different interpretation. Yet sometimes, the same word may mean the same exact thing, only in a completely different context. This refers to the example of Twitter. Traditionally, twitter as a verb meant to utter a succession of small, tremulous sounds, as a bird or to talk lightly and rapidly, especially of trivial matters. In this day and age, however, a mention of twitter will conjure up images of the phenomenon that the technological age has brought about. Yes, twitter can still mean trivial talk, even in this technological context, but most likely, it will refer to the information network that connects friends to coworkers and even…
"Beyond the dippy lingo, the idea that something intelligent, something worthy of mindshare, might occur in the space of 140 characters -- Twitter's parameters were set by what would fit in a text message on a phone -- seems unlikely. But it was clear […] the primary news platform was Twitter, with real-time annotation of the panels on stage and critical updates about what was happening elsewhere at a very hectic convention." [9: Carr, David. "Why Twitter Will Endure." New York Times, 2010. http://www.nytimes.com /2010/01/03/weekinreview/03carr.html ]
A further perusal of this particular article reflects further opinions, though similar ones, including the fact that the history of the internet suggests "cool" website that go in and out of style, and Twitter is one of those rare ones that are more likely to stay in style than go in and out.
Traditional media outlets are changing all over the world. From Facebook, to Twitter, to Flick, to Linkedin and many others, the new generation is putting its stamp on the vast landscape of information, its retrieval and dissemination. This is important to note, because this change comes with positives and negatives, some of which can harm humanity. However, it is also important to note the progress and the continuation of it, and promote such media outlets for the benefit of advancement.
Media and Terrorism
The role of the media and its impact in reporting terrorist cases has attracted significant concern in the recent past given the increase in terrorist activities across the globe. The increased concern has contributed to controversy and debates on whether the media helps in advancing the agenda of terrorists. Actually, some scholars argue that too often the media assists in advancing terrorists' agenda while others disagree. However, the determination of whether the media promotes terrorists' agenda requires an evaluation of the intentions of terrorists and the goals of the media during coverage of terrorist attacks.
While terrorists carry out their activities for various reasons including ideological, religious and nationalist objectives, some terrorist groups and organizations utilize the media as a means of obtaining recognition or publicity for the causes and goals of their groups. In contrast, media's role in coverage of terror attacks is to providing information…
Anderson, T. (1993). Terrorism and Censorship: The Media in Chains. Journal of International
Affairs, 47(1), 127.
Mahan, S. & Griset, P. (2008). Media Coverage of Terrorism. In Terrorism in perspective.
Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Yes, the Oedipus complex aspect of Shakespeare it gives us and which in turn invites us to think about the issue of subjectivity, the myth and its relation to psychoanalytic theory. (Selfe, 1999, p292-322)
Hemlet and Postcolonial theory
Postcolonial theory was born as a result of the publication of the famous work of Edward Said, Orientalism (1978). This theory claim that some authors (Paul Gilroy, Achille Mbembe, Francoise Verges, etc.) and that seem so elegant in its formulation, in my opinion raises three fundamental problems: At a time when we are witnessing the emergence of new expressions of colonialism (colonialism, cultural, political and economic globalization, neo-colonialism nestled in the relationship between the hegemonic colonial past and their old colonies, colonialism in disguise that structure the relationship between international institutions and developing countries, institutions from the rest behest of the former colonial powers according to their interests), speak of post-colonial era…
Aragay, Mireia, and Gemma Lopez. 2005. "Inflecting Pride and Prejudice: Dialogism, Intertextuality, and Adaptation." Books in Motion: Adaptation, Intertextuality, Authorship. Ed. Mireia Aragay. Amsterdam and New York: Rodopi, p201-19.
Aragay, Mireia, ed. 2005. Books in Motion: Adaptation, Intertextuality, Authorship. Amsterdam and New York: Rodopi, p88-96.
Baetens, Jan. 2007. "From Screen to Text: Novelization, the Hidden Continent." The Cambridge Companion to Literature on Screen. Ed. Deborah Cartmell and Imelda Whelehan. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, p226-38.
Balides, Constance. 2000. "Jurassic Post-Fordism: Tall Tales of Economics in the Theme Park." Screen 4 I .2: p139-60.
The British government has learned that Saddam Hussein recently sought significant quantities of uranium from Africa, (George W. Bush, State of the Union Address, Jan. 28, 2003) the claims were quickly picked up and repeated by the media. So were claims that Iraq had nuclear weapons. "We believe [Hussein] has, in fact, reconstituted nuclear weapons." (Dick Cheney, NBC's Meet the Press, March 16, 2003) Yet, after the search for chemical and nuclear weapons was eventually called off without any actual discover of such weapons, the media made startling little of the fact that Donald umsfeld said "I don't believe anyone that I know in the administration ever said that Iraq had nuclear weapons." (Senate appropriations subcommittee on defense hearing, May 14, 2003)
In fact, shortly thereafter "USA Today and the Los Angeles Times, echoed this fudging -- last year 'weapons,' this year 'programs' -- declaring that 'the jury's still out'…
Ridge, George. "Embedded: the media at war in Iraq." Military Review. January-February 2004. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0PBZ/is_1_84/ai_n6112518
Roberts, Paul Craig. "The Brownshirting of America." AntiWar.Com. 16 October 2004. http://www.antiwar.com/roberts/?articleid=3798
Scheer, Christopher; Scher, Robert; Chaudhry, Lakshmi. "Bush's Lies About Iraq." The Nation. 11 March 2004. http://www.thenation.com/doc.mhtml%3Fi=20040329&s=scheer
Parents who are predisposed to limit children's exposure to violence will do so as a matter of course. Parents who don't feel that way, will not. Therefore, if parents can't be relied upon to police their children, then society must- because what social order wants to have violence-overloaded children heaving their criminal behavior upon it?
In the mid-1950's a Senate sub-committee began to investigate the "sources of the moral rot at the core of an otherwise flourishing postwar America," (Knox, 4). This committee looked at the comic book industry, movies, and particularly at television. While these efforts did little to nothing to curb interest in subjects considered to be anti-American, or "immoral," it does show the depth of time and effort that has been spent on this issue - at every level. However, over the course of time, television has become more liberal rather than less. So, in response, the…
American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. (2007). Children and TV Violence. Online. Internet. Avail:
http://www.aacap.org/cs/root/facts_for_families/children_and_tv_violence.Acc : 12 Oct, 2007.
Duncan, P. (2006). Attractions to Violence and the Limits of Education. The Journal of Aesthetic Education. 40:4; 21-38.
Hornaday, a. (Aug 6, 2006) Parents Fret About Children's Entertainment. The Washington Post. Sunday Arts, N01.
media / favorite form media. You choose . Analysis
In my opinion, the most preferable form of mass media is the fairly conventional compact disc. CDs are an excellent sociological tool in learning about one's environment and the relevant issues that affect society today. Additionally, CD's allow for a highly limited form of intervention between the message that the music artist is attempting to convey and its reception by the listener. Conversely, I believe that one of the least preferable forms of media is the internet. Despite the fact that there are vast amounts of information accessible to users on it, there are a number of ways in which using the internet inherently impinges on the privacy of a particular user. Cookies and other sorts of intelligence metrics track the particular activity of people. Moreover, this capability of the internet, when combined with aspects of data governance, data stewardship, and…
Godwin, Allotey. "Libertarian V. Social Responsibility." Allotey Godwin. http://alloteygodwin.blogspot.com/2009/05/libertarian-v-social-responsibility.html
No Author. "Introduction to Mass Communication." Zeepedia.com. No date. Web. http://www.zeepedia.com/read.php?media_theories_libertarian_theory_social_responsibility_theory_introduction_to_mass_communication&b=78&c=39
No author. "Theories of Communication." www.peoi.org. 2012. Web. http://www.peoi.org/Courses/Coursesar/mass/mass2.html
Naveed, Fakhar. "Normative Theories of Mass Communication." Ask For Mass. 2012. Web. http://mastermasscommunication.blogspot.com/2012/02/normative-theories-of-mass.html
aising Media-Savvy Kids." (November/December 2004)
"Every one' knows the 'common sense' cliche -- television is bad, the mass media is bad, anything learned over the Internet is especially bad and of doubtful truth, and today's children would be better off in a technology free-zone, locked in stimulation-free rooms that are lit by candlelight and filled with nothing but volumes of the collected works of Shakespeare and perhaps conduct books from the past century.
Not so, says the author of "aising Media Savvy-Kids." The media, like so many things, must be approached with a 'use it or lose it' strategy by parents and educators. Use the media to your advantage, parents and educators, or lose children to the media's worst excesses. Disdain the media at your own risk!
ather than viewing the media with hostility and attempting to eradicate its presence from children's environments -- a Quixotic quest, at best…
Rather than viewing the media with hostility and attempting to eradicate its presence from children's environments -- a Quixotic quest, at best -- children must learn how to become good consumers of the media, and to use media strategies in intelligent and proactive ways, such as deploying positive public relations posters for good causes like 'Earth Day.'
In the article, one educator even compares media 'protections' of children as a kind of book burning, or censorship. Rather, she encourages critical and creative approaches to media consumption in her students. For example, she purchased a 1919 conduct book over eBay for young women of the turn of the century. The teacher read from it to the class, and encouraged students to critique this historical artifact.
This book, of course, was a media representation in and of itself. The implication is not simply, that one cannot stand against the changing technological tides of history -- but perhaps the good old days before the Internet and the mass media weren't as good or pure either, of misinformation and stereotypes!
Media Control in Egypt
The media in Egypt is much more controlled than in many other countries, including the United States. That control began with President Gamal Abdel Nasser, moved through Anwar Sadat, and then on to Hosni Mubarak. During that time, the television and newspapers were strictly controlled, and only what the president wanted people to see was placed in them. There is significant evidence that the control of the media in Egypt was done largely to oppress the people, and to make sure they were only hearing and seeing what the government wanted them to hear and see. Social, political, and economic factors are all significant in the control of the Egyptian media, which many believe should be uncontrolled and independent. That would allow it to provide actual, factual information, instead of only what the government agreed that the people were allowed to know.
The Egyptian media…
Amin, Hussein, and I- Chapter One: General Status. "Report on the State of the Media in Egypt." The Arab Center for the Development of the Rule of Law and Integrity Project Title: Strengthening the Rule of Law and Integrity in the Arab World Report on the State of the Media in Egypt Second Draft Author: Dr. Hussein Amin. Arab Rule of Law. (n.d.). Web.
"Egypt." Freedom House. 2012. Web.
Elmasry, Mohamed Hamas. Journalism with Restraint: A Comparative Content Analysis of Independent, Government, and Opposition Newspapers in Pre-Revolution Egypt. 2012. Web.
El Zahed, Hala. "Egyptian Press and the Transition to Democracy." Egyptian Press and the Transition to Democracy: A Study of the Conditions and Challenges Facing National Print Media Post. 2011. Web.
Censorship, the Internet, and Schools
Describe two implications for schools from the CIPA policy rulings, and two reasons for opposition to the policy
The Children's Internet Protection Act (CIPA) was legislated in the year 2000, obliging public schools and libraries to set up specific technology that restricts internet access to graphic depictions that are indecent, child pornography, or detrimental to minors (Finsness, 2008). One of the implications of these policy rules is that it infringes on intellectual freedom. This is in the sense that it goes against the First Amendment, as intellectual freedom is the right of every person to seek as well as receive information from all perspectives devoid of limitation. Secondly, there is the implication of impacting the capability of students to gain access to information they require for school (Finsness, 2008). Being in a fast-paced technological area and with students having to attain such skills for writing…
Batch, K. R. (2014). Fencing Out Knowledge: Impacts of the Children's Internet Protection Act 10 Years Later. American Library Association, Policy Brief No. 5.
Finsness, L. S. (2008). The implications of internet filters in secondary schools (Doctoral dissertation, UNIVERSITY OF MINNESOTA).
Flowers, B. F., & Rakes, G. C. (2000). Analyses of Acceptable Use Policies Regarding the Internet in Selected K -- 12 Schools. Journal of Research on Computing in Education, 32(3), 351-365.
Hu, Q. (2004). To Censor or Not to Censor at the School Library. State University of New York.
Children and Media
Technology surrounds everything that children participate in nowadays. From using computers to watching television, the media influences children in just about every activity that they are a part of. The mainstream and social media have had a great impact on the behavior of children, as they are consistently exposed to numerous forms of the media at all times. As technology advances and children are more and more prone to watching television and participating in activities over the Internet, children will always be affected by how the media is presented to them. It can be difficult to shelter children from the growing media influence, however, the effects of this phenomenon on both the psychological and cognitive development of children need to be analyzed and considered (Christakis & Zimmerman, 2009).
Social life has been completely revolutionized due to the existence of the Internet and the development of social media.…
Anderson, D.R. & Hanson, K.G. (2009). Children, media, and methodology. American Behavioral Science. 52(8), 1204-1219.
Bargh, J.A. & McKenna, K.Y.A. (2003). The internet and social life. Annual Review of Psychology. 55, 573-590.
Chau, C. (2010). YouTube as a participatory culture. New Directions for Youth Development. 2010(128), 65-74.
Christakis, D.A. & Zimmerman, F.J. (2009). Young Children and media: Limitations of current knowledge and future directions for research. American Behavioral Science. 52(8), 1177-1185.
Censorship and Freedom of the Press
In 2009, Frank ainimarama, the self-appointed Prime Minister of Fiji said that freedom of speech causes trouble and is to blame for his country's political turmoil (AC News, 2009). This is only a small portion of controversial remarks and actions made by ainimarama surrounding the announcement made by President Iloilo stating the abrogation of Fiji's constitution, the dismissal of the judiciary, and the deferral of democratic elections until 2014 (Puppet show, 2009). Iloilo's decision, given its relationship to ainimarama's interim regime, which took power in a coup in 2006, being declared illegal by ruling of the Court of Appeals demanding that a neutral leader replace ainimarama immediately with dissolution of the existing government and elections to commence as soon as possible (Puppet show).
ainimarama expressed his grievance towards this decision by the Court and did not hesitate to ignore it as he showed up…
ABC News. (2009). Retrieved from http://abcnews.go.com/
Alley, R. (2010). Fiji Under Bainimarama. Journal of Pacific History, 45(1), 145-153. Retrieved from Academic Search Premier.
Dikotter, Frank. (1996, Winter). Culture, race, and nation: The formulation of national identity in 20th century China. International Affairs, 49(2), 592.
Evans, M. (2011). Exacerbating social cleavages: The media's role in Israel's religious-secular conflict. Middle East Journal, 65(2), 235-251.
social media by business, using the Best Buy case as an example. The benefits of social media in the business context are explained, as are the downsides. There are also recommendations with respect to the use of social media by a law firm, and in this case it is recommended that the law firm should not engage in social media. Compared with a retailer -- especially one with a connection to technology -- there is less upside for a law firm and more downside risk. Understanding the benefits of social media as well as the business context is essential to developing an effective social media plan.
Best Buy has successfully embraced social media, something that fits with its brand image, but also something that has helped to enhance its business. This report will outline the principles of successful social media usage, the value that social media has to business, and…
Dunn, B.J., (2010, Dec). Best Buy's CEO on Learning to Love Social
Media, Harvard Business Review, 88(12), 43-48. Retrieved from EBSCO.
Reed, T. (2008, May 1-7). Blogging: 21st Century Marketing: Small
Businesses sell the 7Cs by using blogging as a marketing tool. The Tennessee Tribune, 19(6), 9. Retrieved from ProQuest.
History Of the Media in America
Media America, a History
Media incorporates mediums such as advertisements, magazines, newspapers, radio, television, and now -- the Internet. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, it was only in the 1920s that people began to actually talk about 'the media,' and a generation later, in the 1950s, of a 'communication revolution,' however, the art of oral and written communication was actually quite important in ancient Greece and ome. It was studied in the Middle Ages, and with greater enthusiasm in the enaissance.
Until Johannes Gutenberg invention of the moveable type in 1450, information was spread primarily orally. That is, it was town criers, ministers from the pulpit, and bartenders who disseminated information or news. "Town criers, for example, broadcast royal edicts, police regulations, and important community events, such as births, marriages of princes, war news, and treaties of peace or alliance."
Less than a…
Breen, T.H. The Marketplace of Revolution: How Consumer Politics Shaped American
Independence. Oxford University Press, 2005.
Briggs, Asa. Social History of the Media: From Gutenberg to the Internet. Polity; 3rd
Power of the Media
Few things in life have much power to influence individuals and society as a whole, either negatively or positively. The media is one such medium. hether it is books, the Internet, magazines, movies, music, newspapers, radio, television, or some other form, the media has tremendous power to impact both individuals and society as a whole, both negatively and positively. In recent years, there has been great controversy over whether the media has the power to promote or curb violence.
This paper analyzes and examines the power of the news and print media to promote or curb violence. Part II gives an overview of the role of the media in general. In Part III, how the media promotes or curbs violence is reviewed. Lastly, this paper concludes with recommendations for balancing the relationship between the media's need for freedom of expression and society's desire for less violence.…
Morgan, Joan. "From Fly-Girls to *****es and Hos."
War coverage-Media obsession
To argue about the role of media in our lives would be only redundant since we already know and acknowledge the influence of media over our perception of the world. How the various news media including newspapers, television, radio and more recently Internet affect our thinking and shape our perception requires some close analysis of the way these agencies gather and present news. There is an interesting process that works behind the seemingly simple task of news presentation. For one the media is almost always biased regardless of how they defend their impartiality. We must remember that journalists are capable of molding our perception because they have a certain hidden agenda and if they were unbiased in their opinion, they would have had little impact on our thinking. In an unbiased news piece, it is up to the viewer or reader to decide whom he would side…
Stuart Allan, News Culture. Open University Press: Buckingham 1999
William V. Kennedy, The Military and the Media: Why the Press Cannot Be Trusted to Cover a War.: Praeger Publishers. Westport, CT. 1993.
The Washington Times. Lynch, West and Common Sense. November 23, 2003. B05.
Christopher Hanson, American Idol: The Press Finds the War's True Meaning. Columbia Journalism Review. Volume: 42. Issue: 2. July-August 2003, 58+.
The introduction of reform for the good of the Chinese people has not been framed by the authorities, nor is it framed in the minds of most of the population, as the ability to disagree with the government. Thus "freedom of the media is more a lessening of Party control than any media liberalization in the estern sense" where the media operates independently of the ideas and interests of the state rulers (infield & Peng, 267). The locus of dissemination of propaganda has shifted to private rather than governmental entities, but the actual messages disseminated by such entities are not free.
Pamela E. Oliver and Frank Johnson have criticized frame theory for being insufficiently attentive to the impact of ideology in influencing frame narratives, thus they might see the framing of capitalism through the Chinese lens of ideology as distinct from an unregulated and uncensored press as a concrete demonstration…
Curtin, Michael. (2005). "Murdoch's dilemma, or 'What's the price of TV in China?'" Media, Culture & Society. 27 (2) 155-175.
Oliver, Pamela E. & Frank Johnson. (2000). "What a Good Idea!" Mobilization: An International Journal. 4(1) 37-54.
Winfield, Betty Houchin & Zengjun Peng. (2005). "Market or Party Controls: Chinese
Media in Transition." Gazette: The International Journal for Communication Studies. London: Sage. 67(3): 255-270.
Counter-Terrorism and Social Media: Freedom vs. Security
The United States prides itself to being the most democratic nation of the world, with the highest respect for the human being, for its values, norms, and dreams. At the same time, before 9/11, it was also considered to be one of the safest nations of the world. The attacks on the World Trade Center towers, in particular pointed out that there are gaps in security and that even the United States represent a vulnerable target. Since then, the security measures have been seriously increased, in certain areas of expertise; security rules have been created if they did not exist. All these measures fueled a constant debate on whether the security that has been increased affects or not the liberties and freedoms of the American population.
On May 1st 2011, Osama bin Laden has been announced dead by the U.S. President, arack Obama…
CNN Wire Staff. (2011) "Bin Laden killing caps decade-long manhunt." CNN Asia. http://edition.cnn.com/2011/WORLD/asiapcf/05/02/bin.laden.dead/index.html?hpt=T2
Cook, Martin L. (2001) Ethical Issues in Counterterrorism Warfare. Department of Command, Leadership, and Management. U.S. Army War College. May 3, 2011 http://ethics.sandiego.edu/Resources/PhilForum/Terrorism/Cook.html
Cornell University Law School. (N.d.) Michigan Dept. Of State Police v. Sitz. 1990. http://www.law.cornell.edu/supct/html/historics/USSC_CR_0496_0444_ZS.html
Cornell University Law School. (N.d.) Terry v. Ohio. 1967. May 3, 2011 http://www.law.cornell.edu/supct/html/historics/USSC_CR_0392_0001_ZS.html
Media and Terrorism
Contemporary terrorism relies heavily on the media. The modern media has much to offer terrorist organization. Media coverage is used not only to convey the terrorist's objectives and political messages, but also to intimidate larger populations.
The media provides a relatively inexpensive and efficient method of relaying their goals. Further, it offers a forum to attract supporters, and a means of raising funds in an era of independent fund raising (Introduction).
The Munich Olympics in 1972 marked the true beginning of the exploitation of the modern media by terrorists. In those Olympics, terrorists first exploited the media to gain access to a global audience (Introduction).
However, the potential utility of the media on terrorist activities was well-known long before the events of the 1972 Munich Olympics (Fundamentals of Terrorism).
The first well-documented understanding of the role of the media in terrorism likely has its roots in the…
Fine, Janet. Arabian Knight Woos West. In: Unit 7, Terrorism and the Media.
Fundamentals of Terrorism. 14 November 2002. http://www.geocities.com/p_enn/a_terrorismengl_02.pdf
Introduction. Unit 7, Terrorism and the Media, p. 103.
Morrow, Lance. The Gleam of a Pearl. In: Unit 7, Terrorism and the Media.
Internet Censorship in China, South Africa and the est
Internet censorship in China, South Africa and other countries is something that prohibits real discussion from taking place regarding issues that affect the public. For instance, in China, certain key word searches are automatically filtered out so that users cannot find the information they are seeking. hile Internet censorship may be good from one perspective (in terms of stemming the flow of child pornography, curbing false information, or putting a nation's interests first), it can be viewed as bad from another perspective (in terms of cutting down on the opportunity to inform sides of a dialogue, promoting free exchange of ideas, or discussing why one form of pornography is allowed but not another). This paper will show why Internet censorship can be interpreted in both positive and negative ways depending on the perspective that one adopts (whether one is pro-Statist or…
Bitso, Constance. "Internet Censorship In South Africa: A Brief Expose Of Negative and Positive Trends." South African Journal of Libraries and Information Science 80.1 (2014): 41-51. Academia Search Complete.
Carr, Madeline. "Internet Freedom, Human Rights and Power." Australian Journal of International Affairs 67.5 (2013): 621-637. Academia Search Complete.
Casavant, L., Robertson, J. "The Evolution of Pornography Law in Canada."
Parliament of Canada, 2015.
Proposition Statement: Even if the media might be racist or sexist in its content, there should not be censorship of the media because of the first amendment.
Freedom of speech means freedom to disagree
Attention getting statement:
Everyone knows that shouting fire in a crowded theater is not only morally wrong, it's also against the law. It's the classic argument against full freedom of speech. According to Chief Justice Holmes, as discussed in the history of the Supreme Court, The Brethren, the justice said that freedom of speech cannot be absolute, because for instance you can't shout fire in a crowded theater and call that free speech. But although most people might agree with him about that, still that doesn't mean that you can make that analogy with every restriction of free speech.
hy restrict freedom of speech at all? The problem today, some might say,…
Orenstein, Peggy. Schoolgirls. New York: Bantam Book, 1994.
Strossen, Nadine. "MacKinnon-Pornoraphy is Oppression." The Ethical Spectacle. 1995. Website Accessed June 18, 2002. http://www.spectacle.org/1195/mack.html
Woodward, Bob, and Armstrong, Scott. The Brethren. New York: Avon Books, 1979.
Social Media and the ed Shirt evolution
Most scholars are in conflict with regard to the subject of revolution in the age of social media. Until now, revolution has been considered a top-down process. In Thai situation, things might have been different. The ed Shirt evolution in Thailand was one of the first of the "Twitter" revolutions, that is one that was fueled by social media and Web 2.0 technology. Since then, other revolutions have come as well. The lone citizen is now no longer on their own. The dissident in Chiang Mai now can commiserate with their brother or sister in Tahrir Square and plan revolution on a country to country or even on a global basis. Even as this writer types up a dissertation proposal, demonstrators coordinate strategy on a global basis to protest corporate greed. It is with this in mind that this study looks back at…
Bailey, M and Labovitz C (2011). Censorship and Co-option of the Internet Infrastructure. Ann Arbor,
MI: University of Michigan. p1-14.
Bajpai, K and Jaiswal, A (2011). A Framework for Analyzing Collective Action Events on Twitter.
Lisbon, Portugal: Proceedings of the 8th International ISCRAM Conference. p1-10.
Ethical Communication and Social Media: Discussion and Implications
“Almost a quarter of the world’s population is now on Facebook. In the USA nearly 80% of all internet users are on this platform. Because social networks feed off interactions among people, they become more powerful as they grow” (Gaitho, 2018). Social media has created a manifestation of a branch of society that human civilization has never had to deal with before. Due to the fact that society is experiencing and using social media as people attempt to scrutinize its impacts, it can be harder to pinpoint all the numerous ways that social media affects the individual and the collective. One phenomenon that has grown out of social media is that people don’t only share information about themselves and their own personal lives, they also share information, articles, and images about various aspects of the shared world. This can be problematic as many people…
The "Halloween" films that continue to be so popular are prime examples, but just about any horror film made within the past three decades follows basically the same formula, they have just gotten increasingly sexual and violent, as society has continued to embrace the genre. There are literally hundreds of other graphic examples, such as "Saw," an extremely violent film that has spawned six other films, and the examples of so many films being released in 2009. These films do not celebrate the woman, they demean her, and the fact that they are celebrated by society is troubling and agonizing at the same time.
Some of the films that empower women into the hero roles include "Terminator 2," the "Alien" series, "Misery," and other films glorify or at least acknowledge the female predator or warrior, offering up a different view of women as successful anti-heroes. However, most of these films…
England, Marcia. "Breached Bodies and Home Invasions: Horrific Representations of the Feminized Body and Home." Gender, Place & Culture: A Journal of Feminist Geography; Apr2006, Vol. 13 Issue 4, p353-363.
Graser, Marc. "Production Houses Pump Out the Horror." Variety. 2008. 10 March 2009. http://www.variety.com/article/VR1117994266.html?categoryid=1019&cs=1&query=horror+films .
Iaccino, James F. Psychological Reflections on Cinematic Terror: Jungian Archetypes in Horror Films. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 1994.
Lally, Kevin. "For the Love of the Movies." Film Journal International. 1999. 10 March 2009. http://www.filmjournal.com/filmjournal/esearch/article_display.jsp?vnu_content_id=1000692252 .
On the other hand, parents are not the only ones who should feel responsible for the caliber of popular entertainment. At some point, the media industry must look inward and decide what kind of role it can or will take in the society. Because the media will be concerned primarily with the bottom line, we must, however, forgive any industry that chooses consciously to air and market violent media. When that media is aimed directly at children, though, a line has been crossed. The entertainment industry can and should be self-regulated regarding the promotion of violent video games, films, and television shows. Based on the fact that media violence potentially contributes to the public health issues that Bok addresses in Mayhem: increased fearfulness in the society; increased appetite for more media violence; desensitization to violence; and increased levels of aggression, the media industry and parents alike need to shoulder some…
Perceptions and Expectations:
Analyzing The Concert Experience In A Live
versus televised format
Perceptions and Expectations: Analyzing the Concert Experience in a Live vs. Televised Format
In experiencing a real-life situation in the flesh rather than in viewing its projection through a medium such as television, one's experience differs significantly. The expectations one brings to a live performance vs. The expectations one brings to the viewing of that same performance on television are radically different, as experiencing the performance in the flesh brings with it an entirely different experience that one expects to achieve upon deciding to attend. This type of expectation can be seen in viewing the example of attending a rock concert vs. watching the same concert on television. In looking at the two situations in comparison to one another, it can be seen that several factors come into play to distinguish the two from one another most…
Balzer, W. (2004) Boredom: Practical Consequences and a Theory. Encyclopedia of Applied Psychology. 49(1): 289-294.
Barzilai-Nahon, K. (2009) Gatekeeping: A Critical Review. Annual Review of Information Science and Technology. 43(1): 433-478.
Eilders, C. (2002) Conflict and Consonance in Media Opinion. European Journal of Communication. 17(1): 25-63.
Goffman, E. (1974). Frame Analysis: An Essay on the Organization of Experience. New York, NY: Harper and Row. Available at: http://www.ccsr.ac.uk/methods / publications/frameanalysis/.
Violence in Video Games
Guiding Question: Should the government have to be involved in legislation regarding video game content?
Proof 1: Explain how First Amendment ensures freedom of speech, including video game content.
"It is not the government's job to forbid content in media. It is the responsibility of the parents to decide what their children should play.
Body Paragraph 1: Music censorship case and ratings system for video games
Body Paragraph 2: Research evidence
Body Paragraph 3: Sociological implications and blaming
The First Amendment to the United States Constitution insists that citizens of the U.S. have the right to free speech. This Amendment has been utilized by artists from a wide variety of genres and talents to preserve their right to express themselves and prevent any form of censorship. Most calls for legislation regarding censorship have actually come from the parents of America's youth. Rather than take responsibility for…
Anderson, Craig (2003). "Violent Video Games: Myths, Facts, and Unanswered Questions."
Psychological Science Agenda.
Benedetti, Winda. (2008). "Playing the Blame Game." MSNBC. Retrieved from http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/23204875/
Chalk, Andy. (2007). "Inappropriate Content: a Brief History of Videogame Ratings and the ESRB." The Escapist.
After World War Two, Carson realized the extent to which the government was permitting the use of toxic chemicals and wrote a book to expose the practice. That book was called Silent Spring, and it "challenged the practices of agricultural scientists and the government, and called for a change in the way humankind viewed the natural world."[footnoteef:8] Jensen includes an excerpt from Silent Spring to show that Carson was up against one of the most lucrative industries in the world, and that although her work is unfinished, Carson made a huge impact on raising awareness and eventually her work got DDT banned. [8: "The Life and Legacy of achel Carson," Accessed May 3, 2013, http://www.rachelcarson.org/Biography.aspx#.UYOWMCshKII]
Malcolm X's autobiography was arguably not a project undertaken as a form of muckraker journalism. The author started writing when he was in prison, and he comes to learn the power of the written word…
Carson, Rachel. "Silent Spring." Excerpt in Stories that Changed America, edited by Carl Jensen, 117-123.
Daily Censored. "Carl Jensen." Accessed May 3, 2013, http://www.dailycensored.com/writers/carl-jensen/
The Daily Show. "The Daily Show With Jon Stewart," Accessed May 3, 2013, http://www.thedailyshow.com/
Jensen, Carl. Stories that Changed America. New York: Seven Stories, 2002.
As it may be inferred from the examples above, the U.S.A. is the leader when talking about online campaigns. Other countries' experiences may look poor in comparison with the American giant even if we invoke the cases of famous European democracies like Germany.
First of all, this country has a parliamentary system which explains why the parties and not the candidates are those who maintain sites. Therefore, Americans enjoy a more personal virtual relationship while Germans are only entitled to a rather collectivist approach. Despite having access to contact information, biographies, details about platforms, the party is the one which counts to a higher degree. ut this seems to be the only major difference between the two countries' web sites as their main goal is providing information, an aim that has received the highest rank from Germans, on a four-point scale.
Still, unlike American candidates who are beginning to understand…
1. Bandler, J., Bulkeley, M., 2004. Dean Campaign Made Payments To Two Bloggers, The Wall Street Journal, [Online], Available at http://users2.wsj.com/lmda/do/checkLogin?mg=wsj-users2&url=http%3A%2F%2Fonline.wsj.com%2Farticle%2FSB110566243803425942.html ,[2006, December 17].
2. Brownlow, M., 2006. What is email marketing?, Email Marketing Reports, [Online], Available at http://www.email-marketing-reports.com/intro.htm,[2006, December 17]
3. Caldwell, F., 2001. E-Voter Institute Study Shows the Emergence of E-Politics, [Online], Available at http://www.gartner.com/resources/103000/103066/103066.pdf ,[2006, December 17].
4. DeYoung, B., 1988. What's Relationship Marketing?, Journal of Extension, [Online], Available at http://www.joe.org/joe/1988fall/a9.html ,[2006, December 17].
Hurricane Andrew and Katrina, hurricanes are never a good thing and are always a logistical nightmare. However, those two hurricanes stand out among many others as the death and destruction they rendered was off the charts. Looters and the "strangers" mentioned in the assignment parameters tend to be common as the degenerates of society always take advantage of such calamities. However, some strangers are simply just looking for loved ones. However, people coming into the area other than trained and well-equipped emergency personnel are the last thing a hurricane zone needs. This and other questions will be addressed in this report. While any hurricane response strategy is going to be controlled chaos, there are some best practices that need to be employed.
One plan that needs to be implemented right off the top is a cordoning off of the worst areas, especially those that are impassable, so as to…
Dao, J. (2005, September 1). New Orleans Is Awaiting Deliverance. The New York
Times. Retrieved July 28, 2014, from http://www.nytimes.com /2005/09/02/
Fussell, E. (2010, January 1). Race, socioeconomic status, and return migration to New
Metrics, Implementation, and Enforcement (Security Governance)
How can you determine whether there has been a malware outbreak?
The threat situation today has become more dangerous than in the past. Security and safety threats have been increasing in an alarming rate; there are more than 70,000 brand new bits of malware recognized daily. Well-funded cybercriminals have been currently making advanced malware that has been made to bypass present security options by launching prior to the operating-system and then evading antivirus defence (Mitre, 2012). Consequently, danger vulnerability has hit unprecedented degrees that need a brand new method of security and safety. With built-in security and safety options from McAfee as well as Intel, one might gain an additional layer of safety that is effective aside from the operating-system to avoid attacks instantly whilst successfully managing security over to a system of endpoints. These revolutionary options gather world-class processor chip technologies from Intel…
McAfee Labs (Q1 2012).
Intel IT Centre. (2012). Planning Guide: Preventing Stealthy Threats with Next-Generation Endpoint Security -- A Proactive Approach from Intel and McAfee. Intel IT and McAfee.
Mitre. (2012). Standardizing Cyber Threat Intelligence Information with the Structured Threat Information eXpression (STIX). Mitre Corporation.
Jones, D.R. (2011). Managing Cyber Threats Risk Management & Insurance Solutions. Roach Smith and Howard Burton.
hat impact does media violence have on society? How are children affected and how are adolescents affected by violence portrayed in movies, television, video games and in other forms? This paper reviews and critiques peer-reviewed articles that address the subject of media violence from several perspectives -- and takes positions on the arguments and research presented in those scholarly articles.
There is ample empirical research available to back up the assertion that violent video games, movies and television programs have a negative impact on young people. It is the thesis of this paper that ultimately the responsibility for guidance vis-a-vis violent media is not on schools or law enforcement but in fact is on the shoulders of parents.
The Influence of Media Violence on Youth
An article in the Psychological Science in the Public Interest (Anderson, et al., 2003) flatly asserts that there is "…unequivocal evidence that media…
Anderson, Craig A., Berkowitz, Leonard, Donnerstein, Edward, Husemann, Rowell L.,
Johnson, James D., Linz, Daniel, Malamuth, Neil M., and Wartella, Ellen. (2003). The
Influence of Media Violence on Youth. Psychological Science in the Public Interest,
Media Coverage of Trials
Providing in-depth coverage of trials, including pretrial hearings and all events related to a case has become a prime topic for the television media. In the last five years, the television channel "Court TV" has acquired over twenty million viewers (Lassiter, 1996). In addition, a body of research exists demonstrating that pretrial media coverage affects the outcomes of some trials (ruschke & Loges, 1999). A variety of experts including lawyers, psychologists, and communication experts have all suggested that pretrial publicity, when negative, may influence juries negatively against defendants (Dixon & Linz, 2002) in spite of the fact that under our legal system, a person is considered innocent unless and until proven guilty in a court of law.
ut at the same time, one of the most cherish rights given to us in the Constitution is freedom of the press -- the right of the media to…
Bruschke, Jon, and Loges, Willam E. 1999. "Relationship Between Pretrial Publicity and Trial Outcomes." Journal of Communication, Vol. 49.
Dixon, Travis L., and Linz, Daniel. 2002. "Television News, Prejudicial Pretrial Publicity and the Depiction of Race." Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, Vol. 46.
Lassiter, Christo. 1996. "TV or Not TV - That Is the Question." Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, Vol. 86.
Staff writers. 2000. "Litigation Publicity: Courtroom Drama or Headline News?" Communications and the Law, Vol. 22.
As with all other issues in media, it is up to the viewer of the information to decide which network to believe, and which network to trust as a source of unbiased, factual information. Since Fox News is undoubtedly the choice of a majority of viewers in the United States, it is obvious that those viewers have already made their choice.
Ackerman, S. (2001). The most biased name in news. Extra, 5, 25-29.
Cameron, C. Fox News special report: Israeli spying on the U.S. etrieved Dec. 10, 2004. Web site: http://free.freespeech.org/americanstateterrorism/9-11/FoxNewsIsraeliSpying.html.
Carter, B. (2004, April 23). Pentagon ban on pictures of dead troops is broken. The New York Times, p A4.
Fox News. (2004). Fox News home page. etrieved Dec. 10, 2004 from Fox News. Web site: http://www.foxnews.com.
Gordon, C. (2002, Jan. 30). Fox News covers more than biased angle. Kansas State collegian, p. D4.
Martin, E. (2004, April…
Ackerman, S. (2001). The most biased name in news. Extra, 5, 25-29.
Cameron, C. Fox News special report: Israeli spying on the U.S. Retrieved Dec. 10, 2004. Web site: http://free.freespeech.org/americanstateterrorism/9-11/FoxNewsIsraeliSpying.html.
Carter, B. (2004, April 23). Pentagon ban on pictures of dead troops is broken. The New York Times, p A4.
Fox News. (2004). Fox News home page. Retrieved Dec. 10, 2004 from Fox News. Web site: http://www.foxnews.com .
Models of Media and Politics
A review of media / political models sheds some light on why the United States' cultural themes have been such a dominant dynamic in Europe, among other global venues. In describing the three models of media and politics, Daniel C. Hallin and Paolo Mancini report that the media in Southern Europe (the "Mediterranean" or "Polarized Pluralist Model") is "an institution of the political and literary worlds" more than it is market-driven (Hallin, et al., 2004 90). The North and Central European model is called the "Democratic Corporatist Model" -- and is certainly more market-driven and far less politically driven; and the third model is the "North Atlantic" or "Liberal model" of media and politics (Hallin 87).
The North Atlantic or Democratic Corporatist model, according to Mark a. aker II encompasses Germany, Austria, Switzerland, the "Low Countries" and Scandinavia, and can be broken down into three…
Arango, Tim, 2008, 'World Falls for American Media, Even as it Sours on America. The New York Times, Retrieved Nov. 24, 2010, from http://www.nytimes.com .
Artz, Lee, and Kamalipour, Yahya, 2007, the Media Globe: Trends in International Mass Media. Rowman & Littlefield: Landham, MD.
Baker, Mark a., 2010, 'Hallin & Mancini, the North / Central European or Democratic Corporatist Model by: Mark a. Baker II', Global Media. Retrieved Nov. 24, 2010, from http://globalmediastudies.blogspot.com .
Hallin, Daniel C., and Mancini, Paolo, 2004, Comparing Media Systems: Three Models of Media and Politics. Cambridge University Press: New York.
This was because, for some stories, they were forced to use less professional correspondents to cover stories that were on a more national scale.
13. Among this list, newspapers and magazines are the most credible because they strive for objectivity and accuracy, at the same time as they possess the most amount of content. Television news programs are second only because they lack the same level of depth. The other sources should be highly questioned before using as a legitimate source. The internet possesses the best information among all of the rest, but must be evaluated on a site-by-site basis.
14. I have found two sources that indicate that controversial television ads negatively influence the behavior of children. However, there are also a handful of other resources arguing that the influence of ads upon individuals is relatively minute.
15. hetoric tends to vastly influence people's opinions and attitudes. However, statements…
Anderson, Craig L. et al. (2003). "The Influence of Media Violence on Youth." Psychological Science in the Public Influence, Vol. 4, No. 3, Dec. Page 81.
Ayeni, Dr. Olugbenga Christopher. (2004). "ABC, CNN, CBS, FOX, and NBC on the Frontlines." Global Media Journal.
Bushman, Brad J. And Craig A. Anderson. (2001). "Media Violence and the American Public." American Psychologist, June/July.
Damer, T. Edward. (2001). Attacking Faulty Reasoning. Belmont: Wadsworth.
This is also reflected in the view that there is a lot of difference between a high school senior and a college freshman. egarding the world of student journalism, the U.S. Court of Appeals has also agreed with this view. This is reflected in the campus newspaper theft which was not taking place till the beginning of the 1990s. This is now a regular source of trouble for college student media. (Trends in College Media)
At the same time, this has not reflected in the quality of college newspaper, and some of them are of excellent quality. Let us look at some college newspapers for this purpose. One of them, namely the Boston College Chronicle has worked on the recently concluded papal conclave and also tried to inform the audience about what the world can hope from the new Pope. Certainly this information when they appear in a college magazine…
Censorship of College Student Newspapers. Administrative Censorship of the College Press. Retrieved at http://www.collegefreedom.org/report5.htm . Accessed on 28 April, 2005
CSU, Northridge Newspaper Silenced. 11 May, 1989. Retrieved at http://www.totse.com/en/conspiracy/institutional_analysis/papcensr.html . Accessed on 28 April, 2005
Davisson, John. GSEU Strikers Return to the Classroom. 25 April, 2005. Retrieved from www.columbiaspectator.com/- 32k Accessed on 28 April, 2005
Glaser, Dale; Collins, King. Review of Eagle and the Controversy of 1996-1997. Retrieved from www.greenmac.com/eagle/Updates/Up2.html. Accessed on 28 April, 2005
Only testing can prove whether censorship can be a successful deterrent to terrorist activity. In the U.S., it seems unlikely the media will willingly withhold information from the public, due to the democratic nature of the society in which we live. However, if researchers were able to prove curbing media coverage would serve as a significant deterrent to terrorism; it is likely the public would agree to enforce censorship geared toward reducing media coverage of such events.
Even if the public does agree however, that curbing attention would influence terrorist activity, there is some question as to whether the media would cooperate, short of strict government controls, as most media agents are interested in reporting the news, regardless of its effects (Anderson, 1993).
Anderson, T. (1993). Terrorism and censorship: The media in chains.…
Anderson, T. (1993). Terrorism and censorship: The media in chains.
Journal of International Affairs, 47(1):127-36.
Facebook is still banned in China, which took initiatives in 2009 to quell any sort of protest or governmental opposition sparked by social media sites like Facebook. Facebook is not the only Western site to be banned in China. Moreover, it has essentially a lookalike Chinese competitor known as Renren, which is a social media site that operates just like Facebook but complies with the Chinese government’s regulations with regard to the filtering of content posted on the site (Darwell, 2012). China’s government is very concerned about regulating content published on the Internet since this is such an impactful platform for communicating and spreading information in the Digital Age. For a government that wants total control of every aspect of the country’s life, allowing Facebook to have the freedom to come in and allow users to post whatever content they want without regulating or filtering it would be like allowing…
Blogs and social networking have altered our daily usage of the Internet and the World Wide Web. Of that, we can be certain. But how exactly has this change evolved, and what specific effects is it having on Internet and Web usage patterns around the world? This paper addresses the history of blogs and social media, and shows their state of development now. This brief introduction will segue into a discussion of the various personal and professional applications for both blogging and social media. Additionally, sections on political applications and implications will round out the discussion on how social media and blogging have changed the ways people communicate and receive information. Finally, it would be remiss to ignore the confluence of hardware, software, coding, applications, and protocols that have led to revolutions in the ways people use their digital devices. Tablets and smartphones are the physical manifestations of the changes…
Barnes, S.B. (2006). A privacy paradox: Social networking in the United States. First Monday 11(9).
Boyd, D. (n.d.). Friends, Friendsters, and MySpace Top 8: Writing Community Into Being on Social Network Sites. CiteSeer. Retrieved online: http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/summary?doi=10.1.1.79.5665
Bryant, T. (2006). Social software in academia. Educase Quarterly. 2. 2006.
DiMicco, J., Millen, D.R., Geyer, W., Dugan, C., Brownholtz, B. & Muller, M. (2008). Motivations for social networking at work. In Proceedings of the 2008 ACM conference on Computer supported cooperative work. Pp. 711-720.
Communication Islamic Countries
Freedom in all its forms is a highly contested topic across all areas of politics, not only in countries where freedom has been traditionally repressed, but even in the most democratic of states, such as the United States and the UK. When freedom extends to the press, the contestability of the topic gains an extra dimension. Some critics, for example, advocate freedom of the press only to such an extent as its ability to promote a peaceful existence and harmony among citizens and their government. Others, however, would see the press gaining complete freedom, regardless of its consequences for personal and collective peace. In Muslim countries such as Indonesia and the United Arab Emirates, freedom extended to the press and the media is yet further muddied by the importance of religious and state rule in these countries. In both environments, Islam remains the main ruling force in…
Article 19. (2005, Dec.). Freedom of Expression aand the Media in Indonesia. Alliance of Independent Journalists. Retrieved from: http://www.article19.org/data/files/pdfs/publications/indonesia-baseline-study.pdf
BBC News Middle East. (2012, June 15). United Arab Emirates Profile: Media. Retrieved from: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-middle-east-14704229
BBC News Middle East. (2012, June 15). United Arab Emirates: Overview. Retrieved from: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-middle-east-14703998
El-Baltaji, D. (2009, Fall). Emirates Press Law. Arab Media & Society, Iss. 9. Retrieved from: http://www.arabmediasociety.com/?article=727
Social Facilitation, Social Inhibition, And Social Loafing
The objective of this study is to provide a description of the characters in the media program demonstrating social loafing, social inhibition, and social facilitation. One of the characters will be selected by using the current literature and two ways their behavior might be mitigated will be explained. This work will additionally describe a situation in which negative consequences were observed resulting from groupthink or group polarization and use an article from the current literature to explain how on alternative to groupthink or group polarization could have been used in that situation.
Social Loafing, Social Inhibition, and Social Facilitation
Social loafing is described as "the tendency to reduce individual effort when working in groups compared to the individual effort expended when working alone." (Piezon and Donaldson, n.d., p.1) Social facilitation is described as the increase "of individuals' performance in the presence of others"…
Klehe, UC, Anderson, N., and Hoefnagels, EA (2007) Social Facilitation and Inhibition During Maximum vs. Typical Performance Situations. Human Performance, 20(3), 223-239. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc. Retrieved from: https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=5&cad=rja&ved=0CFYQFjAE&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.researchgate.net%2Fpublication%2F228489268_Social_facilitation_and_inhibition_during_maximum_versus_typical_performance_situations%2Ffile%2Fe0b495236dce132488.pdf&ei=Ji9LUtW7DOfi4AP7gYHQDg&usg=AFQjCNEILSkosHlyJ1cqNRKN9h02NlV1Dg&sig2=tfNVahZuqSCqEibjgfDmPw&bvm=bv.53371865,d.dmg
Piezon, S. And Donaldson, RL (n.d.) Online Groups and Social Loafing: Understanding Student-Group Interactions. Retrieved from: http://www.westga.edu/~distance/ojdla/winter84/piezon84.htm
Rovio, E. (2009) Can High Group Cohesion Be Harmful? A Case Study of a Junior High Ice-Hockey Team. Sage Publishers.
Social Psychology Week 5: The Virtual Office
negative group roles and how I dealt with the negative group member
My very first encounter with negative group roles was when I was seventeen years old and while working part-time at a local electronics store. At the electronics store, we were divided into various groups that were headed by different group leaders. Our salary was based on a basic pay as well as commission. This means that our earnings depended much on our push for more sales. The sales force of every individual was highly dependent on the amount of group cohesion and strategy which we put in place in attracting more clients to our stand as well as to our groups. In regard to the sales and promotion functions, we were allowed to engage potential clients via email, phone calls and direct conversations. This means that we had to work together in ensuring that our sales and marketing…
Janis, I.L. (1982). Groupthink: Psychological studies of policy decisions and fiascoes (2nd ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
Janis, I.L. (1989). Crucial decisions: Leadership in policymaking and crisis management. New "York: Free Press
Smith, T (2011). A Euphemism for Marginalization.The New York Times
The vey cux of the agument comes to the cental point of censoship -- who must be potected and why must they be potected? Ideas, political, social, o othewise, may be the most dangeous fom of liteatue eve. Fo instance, in 19th centuy autocatic egimes, the ideas of Kal Max, even Voltaie, Locke, and Jeffeson wee seen to be subvesive because they challenged the ode of things, the idea that the monachy should ule by divine ight, and that cetain people had, by manifest destiny, the ight to be moe equal than othes. So, too, do images and vebiage change ove time egading public acceptance. At the tun of the centuy bathing suits coveed almost 90% of the human body, and a day at the beach would've been fa diffeent had some of today's skimpy G-stings o bikinis shown up. Similaly, sexual activity was hinted at fom the ealy days…
references homo-eroticism in a coming of age drama; another might see critiques of the War on Terror subversive, while still another might find literary value in the works of art by someone like Robert Mapplethorpe. Thus, in order to maintain a free and just society in which ideas are strong commodities we must take the notion that an educated populace is an informed populace. Our focus should be on educating children and youth so that, when appropriate, they can make decisions about what is right, wrong -- how to vet source material, and above all, what ideas they might want to accept and which to reject. This documentary should be shown in the classroom for, much like the movie Saving Private Ryan, it brings the real story of history into the lives of people without over glorifying the issue. War and conflict are not pretty, not neat, and people do not die as they do in a John Wayne western. Of course, certain material is age dependent, but it is important to note that in Middle and High school, students appreciate the truth more than half-truths and old adages about history that are simply not factual.
This action of doing one
thing and feeling another is a perfect statement regarding how censorship
can thrive in a community. In Farenheit 451 the citizens allowed the
government the freedom to burn books, they did this by not speaking out at
the initiation of such actions. Faber tells Montag "I said nothing. I'm
one of the innocents who could have spoken up and out when no one would
listen to the 'guilty', but I did not speak and thus became 'guilty'
myself" (Bradbury 82). hen good citizens quail in the face of attempted
censorship, then censorship will thrive. ithout the knowledge blocked by
the censors, the citizenry will flounder under the thumb of oppression.
The characters in the book who meet Montag after his escape from the city
know this is true. Granger, one of the leaders of the group tells Montag,
"All we want to do is keep…
Anderson, Ron. "Movie Censorship and American Culture", Journal of American
Culture, 30.3 (2005): 349 - 350
Bradbury, Ray. Farenheit 451. New York: The Random House Publishing Group,
Learning Project Outline Template
I. YouTube has implemented new restrictions regarding their AdSense program. People must meet certain requirements to even monetize their content. When content is monetized, it must meet certain guidelines. YouTube has begun hiring many new employees to help determine the kind of content suitable for monetization.
II. Organizational Analysis: YouTube has faced increasing scrutiny in their placement of ads in certain videos. By offering employees training courses, they can employ a sound evaluation practice for monetized content on YouTube. Person Analysis: New employees without sufficient training are coming in and placing restrictions on monetized videos leading to uproar from the community due to seemingly unfair or improper censorship. Task Analysis: Proper discernment of what is appropriate content on YouTube should be implemented in training guides to facilitate more effective evaluation practices by YouTube employees.
II. The learning goal is to understand what content is appropriate for…
Feminism & Entertainment
Toeing the line between taking a social stand and coming off as “preachy” is not the easiest thing to do. It is to be expected that the media and entertainment will always be a force in terms of showing where society is going. However, there are some people and entities that push such narratives entirely too strongly. The verbiage in the readings for this assignment explains that the Mary Tyler Moore Show struck the proper balance. Rather than being about the browbeating of men or society, it just showed what was possible and perhaps subject to change in terms of broader society when it comes to women in the workplace. While shows that try to adjust social norms can come off the wrong way, it would seem that the Mary Tyler Moore Show struck the right balance.
It is not reasonable or proper to expect media…
Internet and Democracy
In one sense, computers and the Internet are just a continuation of the communications revolution, starting with the printing press then continuing with the telegraph, telephone, motion pictures, radio and television. Could this be leading to a more fundamental change in history on the same level as the agricultural and industrial revolutions? This is a more problematic proposition. Of course, the idea of a post-industrial economy based on services and high technology dates back to the 1960s, although some visionaries had an inkling of it even in the 19th Century. Skills and education that were valuable in an industrial economy have become obsolete in the new system, although this has happened before in the history of capitalism. Society has changed relatively little from the era before the computer age, with only a few exceptions, such as the use of computers to speed up financial transactions and in…
Agre, P.E. And D. Schuler, (eds.). (1997) Reinventing Technology, Rediscovering Community: Critical Explorations of Computing as a Social Practice. Ablex Publishing Corporation.
Alavi, N. (2005). We Are Iran. Brooklyn, NY: Soft Skull Press, Inc.
Baase, S. (2009). A Gift of Fire: Social, Legal, and Ethical Issues in Computing, 3rd Edition. Prentice Hall.
Barglow, R. (1994). The Crisis of the Self in the Age of Information: Computers, Dolphins and Dreams. Routledge.
Leni Riefenstahl. The writer explores the topic of Riefenstahl and her unethical art. The writer examines the catastrophic consequences and her lack of integrity that lead to horror for millions. There were nine sources used to complete this paper.
Leni Riefenstahl: Her Unethical Art and The Catastrophic Consequences
The reign of Adolf Hitler is one that history will never forget. Under his terrorist reign of terror millions of people died. Those who did not die suffered from the loss of loved ones, loss of privacy and loss of financial stability. It was a time in which the world was introduced to the dangerous side of charismatic politics. While there were many who were fooled in the beginning by Hitler's manipulation tactics they soon learned his true motivations and spent the rest of their lives working to unseat the inhumane dictator. There is one person however, who admired him from the…
JANE SUMNER / Staff Critic, The Riefenstahl riddle: At age 100, famed Germanfilmmaker Leni Riefenstahl still stirs an enigmatic cocktail of emotions., The Dallas Morning News, 08-18-2002, pp 1C.
John Anderson, Leni Riefenstahl, Film's Queen of Denial., Newsday, 03-16-1994, pp 65.
Author not available, THE WONDERFUL HORRIBLE LIFE OF LENI RIEFENSTAHL; DIE MACHT DER BILDER., Magill's Survey of Cinema, 06-15-1995.
artists be given free rein in the producing and displaying of works that are offensive, objectionable, or disparaging of certain people's beliefs and values? What responsibilities do artists have to their society? What responsibilities does the society have to its artists?
The job of artists is to hold up a mirror to society and comment on both the beauty and ugliness that exists in the real world. It is easy to showcase things that are beautiful. The museums of the world are full of pretty pictures which depict landscapes and lovely people in fancy dresses. However, there are also works of art in museums or galleries which are controversial, unsettling, and perhaps even downright ugly. Some works of art show things that most people do not want to see, such as material which is offensive, or objectionable, or even disparaging of the beliefs and values of others. Such works are…
As a result, the invited audience was essentially being asked to play the role of the person who is shocked by such a discovery -- and insofar as they knew they were being invited by Mendieta, and probably had basic knowledge of the crime that occurred, they were also being invited to imagine that the victim of such a crime might well have been Mendieta or any other female student on campus. This is interesting insofar as it relates to an observation made by Kwon about Mendieta's early work from this period: Kwon notes that "Mendieta's use of her/the body almost always approached erasure or negation: her 'body' consistently disappeared. This is striking given that most feminist artists during the 1970s vied for visibility and self-affirming expression through figurative, literal, sometimes 'in-your-face' presence. It is curious that Mendieta traced her absence instead."[footnoteRef:5] In "Rape Scene" this is paradoxically true: the…
Bowers, Nancy. "Spring Break Killer: Murder of Sarah Ann Ottens, 1973." IowaUnsolvedMurders.com, March 2010. Web. Retrieved 24 April 2014 at: http://www.iowaunsolvedmurders.com/beyond-1965-selected-unsolved-iowa-murders/spring-break-killer-murder-of-sarah-ann-ottens-1973/
Butler, Cornelia and Mark, Lisa Gabrielle. WACK!: Art and the Feminist Revolution. Los Angeles: Museum of Contemporary Art and MIT Press, 2007. Print.
Chau, Monica, Feldman, Hannah J.L., Kabat, Jennifer, and Kruse, Hannah. The Subject of Rape: June 23-August 29, 1993. New York: Whitney Museum of American Art, 1993. Print.
Deutsche, Rosalyn. "Breaking Ground: Barbara Kruger's Spatial Practice." In Kruger, Barbara. Thinking of You. Cambridge: MIT Press, 2000. 77-84. Print.
magic bullet theory" -- sometimes called the hypodermic needle theory -- holds that when recipients of broadcasted information are separated from one another they are extremely susceptible to the messages that they are receiving; theses messages can drastically influence their opinions as well as their perceptions of reality. "Agenda setting scholars corroborate the fact that our dependence on the media for news and information has shaped and reinforced our perceptions of the world around us. The mass media continue to set the news agenda for dominant events, issues and policies that subsequently become popular in our social discourse."
It is a theory regarding the nature by which information influences its receivers and is generally only accurate under a specific set of circumstances. Overall, the magic bullet theory cannot be utilized as a comprehensive model for the mass media because it ignores a number of characteristics inherent to human nature. The…
1. Alozie, Emmanuel C. (2003). Global Media Journal, volume 2, issue 5.
2. Ayeni, Dr. Olugbenga Christopher. "ABC, CNN, CBS, FOX, and NBC on the Frontlines." Global Media Journal.
3. Gehman, Gary L. (1999). "About Magic Bullet Communications." Magic Bullet Communications, Oct. 10.
4. Holtzman, Linda. (2000). Media Messages. New York: M.E. Sharp.
Direct IMPACT that Catholic Voices had on the media contributing to the perceived success of the Pope's visit in 2010 amidst the volatile negative climate surrounding the Catholic Church in that year
Even if people are interested in knowing about various religions and getting inspired from them, a lot many get put off from the topic when religious intolerance begets riots and uproars in a city, an instance that was observed in America when the issue of burning the Korans arose. Also, the issue of the New York Islamic centre sparked a number of controversies (Ingebretsen, 2005). One way that the Catholic Church and Pope have been able to avoid such criticism in the past is by befriending the media. One of the most recent examples of this is the formation of the group -- Catholic Voices -- the primary purpose and objective of this group was to "amplify the…
Catholic Voices Official Website (2010). Accessed on March 12, 2011 from http://www.catholicvoices.org.uk/home
Angela Ann Zukowski and Pierre Be ' langer (ed.) Radio Presence. A Collection of International Stories & Experiences (Brussels, 2000). See articles such as: Radio vs. dictators, Unda Newsletter, x (5) (Brussels, June 1966), 1, about the role of Radio Soleil in Haiti against Jean Claude Duvalier. The same can be found in the Philippines (against Marcos) and in Peru (against Fujimori).
Bolivia. 50 an " os de Radio Pi ' o XII o el Indio-Radio, SIGNIS Media, (2), 24 -- 25 (Brussels, 2007). Costa Rica. Treinta an " os de radio cultural por los campesinos, SIGNIS Media, (2) (Brussels, 2007), 24.
Convents, G. And Beeck, T.V. 2009. FORUM DOCUMENTING CATHOLIC MEDIA ACTIVITIES ALL OVER THE WORLD: THE SIGNIS, OCIC AND UNDA ARCHIVES. Historical Journal of Film, Radio and Television Vol. 29, No. 1, March, pp. 113 -- 121
Everyone is under suspicion, according to the eye of the camera. Everyone is treated as if they are a likely criminal. This has a negative psychological affect on the general population who are not criminals.
For those who are not criminals, they feel as if their privacy is being invaded for no reason. They are reduced to being under suspicion and scrutinized even though they are upstanding citizens. They feel as if they are being treated as a criminal and that their freedoms are being slowly eaten away one by one. More and more the general population expresses concerns about the trend toward and Orwellian world. The telescreens in Orwell's world broadcast propaganda and continually exaggerated positive production numbers and lied about the failing state of the economy. The telescreens made the economy sound like a growth economy, when it was slowly slipping away, sound familiar?
In Orwell's novel, inston…
Froomkin, D. Obama Hasn't Entirely Abandoned the Bush Playbook. February 18, 2009. the
Washington Post. < http://voices.washingtonpost.com/white-house-watch/bush-rollback/obama-hasnt-entirely-abandoned.html >. Accessed December 6, 2010.
London Evening Standard. George Orwell, Big Brother is watching your house. March 31, 2007.
< http://www.thisislondon.co.uk/news/article-23391081-george-orwell-big-brother-is-watching-your-house.do > . Accessed December 5, 2010.
Baker (2006) reports that Google has worked hard to balance its entrance into the restrictive media market that is China with its own values. Baker defends this balance by reporting that "the company's contention that it believes it furthers its mission more by being present in China than it does by not is at least a rational response to a set of unpalatable choices." (Baker, 1) Other sources have not been as forgiving, arguing instead that Google's censorship of its search returns according to the demands of the Chinese government is active participation in the repression of information freedom. This denotes that even where a company presents itself as desiring to behave in a responsible and socially conscious way, a certain scale of success can make this an increasingly difficult achievement.
Microsoft has received similar criticism for its attempts at entering into the Chinese software market. However, the bulk of…
Amaria, K. (2007). Giving and Reaping… Microsoft's CSR Offensive. Digicom 4 Social Change.
Baker, M. (2006). Google's Growing Pains. Mallenbaker.net.
China CSR. (201). Google Faces Corporate Social Responsibility Problem in China. ChinaCSR.com.
Cockaday, J. (2004). CSR, Google and Philanthropy. Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR).