Medical Care Influenced by Civil War and Crimean Italian Unification Wars that Immediately Preceded the U.S. Civil War
The objective of this study is to examine how medical care influenced the Civil War and Crimean Italian Unification Wars that Immediately Preceded the U.S. Civil War. The work of Lieutenant Colonel Robert L. Pearce (2002) reports that the Napoleonic wars at the start of the19th century "introduced some important developments in the military medicine. Most significant was the work of the military surgeon Dominique Jean Larrey, who with courage, skill and determination, evolved a system to immediate treatment in the field." (Pearce, 2002, p.89)
Reports on Medicine During the Crimean War
Pearce states that Larrey wrote in his 'Memories de Dhirurgie Militaire et Campagnes as follows:
"…at Aboukir there were 1900 wounded, and many amputations were performed in the field of battle amid a shower of bullets." (2002, p.88)
Pearce reports…… [Read More]
Medical billing and coding can be described as the process of presenting and following up on claims to health insurance companies for the purpose of obtaining payment for services provided by the healthcare provider. egardless of whether an insurance company is government-owned or privately owned company, the process for medical billing and coding is similar for many companies. For an individual to become a specialist in medical billing and coding, he/she is usually encouraged to become certified through taking an exam. While such individuals are not compelled by the law to do so, certification schools have been established as avenues for theoretical foundation for students entering this field.
What is Medical Billing and Coding?
Generally, the medical billing and coding process is an interaction between the insurance company that caters for the health expenses and the health care provider. Medical coding involves the allocation of either a numeric or alphanumeric…… [Read More]
Medical Office Management Software
Throughout the process of comparing medical office management software that serves medical professionals by streamlining the administrative, billing, transaction and service management processes of their businesses, the key features and core functions of physician vs. acute care hospitals were analyzed. The results of the analysis are provided in this report. Dominating both are rapid advances in support for tablet PCs, smartphones and all other forms of mobility devices, as these devise are showing significant potential to increase the accuracy and time savings of complex tasks in each type of business (Bellini, Bruno, Cenni, et.al., 2012).
Analysis of Medical Office Management Software
There are significant differences in how software companies design applications for physicians' practices vs. those used in acute care hospitals. The most significant differences exist in the core functional areas of the applications, in addition to the specific workflows supported across multi-departmental workflows. Medical office…… [Read More]
Medical Specialist eferral Process
The world is infested with numerous diseases that are caused due to several factors revolving around the change in the quality of lifestyle of humans. This change has led to people often visiting their doctors for recovering and restoring their healthy state of body and mind. In this regard, referral process plays a pivotal role, as it helps the doctors to keep a check and balance of the dietary and health patterns of individuals. This ensures that the patient receives correct and appropriate measures that keep them fit.
If the condition of the patient is such that it cannot be treated by the primary health care provider, then the patient is referred to a specialist that is proficient in treating that particular disease or illness. Therefore, the medical specialist referral process is usually based on a four-step course: common process, referral process, potential safety hazards and…… [Read More]
Faulty Health Care System
[N a m e]
Medical or health professionals are considered to be the most respected and most valued persons. These professionals are source of hope for people suffering from different diseases. This puts additional responsibility on the doctors and health professionals and they are required to be more careful and cautious while performing their operations and duties.
Despite of all special care and caution on part of the health professionals, there are increasing number of medical errors. Medical errors are defined as the mistakes or faults done by the health or medical professionals resulting in harmful and dangerous implications for the patients. These include errors in the process of diagnosis known as diagnostic errors, mistakes in the management of drugs and prescribing medicines known as medication errors, faults or mistakes in the while performing procedures of the surgery, while using any other therapy, while…… [Read More]
In general, the meaning of the term abandonment means the forsaking of one's duty. Thus when a practitioner client relation gets established there is a 'duty of care' which includes the protection of the client, maintain records of the clients, and to always provide the client with due care with maximum application of the physicians skills. If one or all these have been breached, there is deficiency of service. However if the relationship is broken because of non-functioning from the part of the physician then there is abandonment. (Davis, 2008)
Medical abandonment is a concept that is broadly covered under the malpractice laws. Medical malpractice is found to have been taken cognizance of in the British and American laws for a century now. The Second World War and aftermath saw the expansions of the concept and the possibility of physician liability. It also was broadened by the reinterpretation…… [Read More]
Medical Management of Adolescent Athletic Knee Fractures
is a 13-year-old middle school student who was admitted to Antelope Valley hospital complaining of severe pain in the right knee while playing football in his Physical Education class at school. As the patient turned to run for a pass, he twisted his right knee and fell to the ground. C.W. reports that he immediately felt a snapping and popping sensation at his right knee and experienced severe pain. The patient's knee began to swell and deform following his fall, and he was unable to bear weight. The coach for the Physical Education class called 911, and C.W. was transported by ambulance to Antelope Valley Hospital. X-rays taken in the Emergency oom revealed that the patient had sustained a right proximal tibia fracture. A basic metabolic panel, blood cell profile, PTIN, and PTT were all completed on the patient. C.W.'s labs were all…… [Read More]
If a person is incapacitated, the family should be allowed to make whatever decision they feel will cause the least harm. All such decisions should be underlined with full consultation with legal and medical professionals.
I believe the best solution is therefore to firstly adhere to the four principles mentioned above. These principles should be underlined by legislation, and include ethically challenging issues such as euthanasia. To prevent indiscretionary approaches to the issue, professionals, family members, and friends of the persons involved should be included in the decision making process. I believe this will curb the problem of practices such as unconsented assisted suicide because one doctor feels that it is the best solution.
BBC News. 'Legalise euthanasia' says expert. 8 June 2006. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/health/5056326.stm
Boseley, arah. Call for No-Consent Euthanasia. The Guardian, 8 June 2006. http://www.guardian.co.uk/frontpage/story/0,1792711,00.html
Le Baron, Garn Jr. The Ethics of Euthanasia. 1993-2008. http://www.quantonics.com/The_Ethics_of_Euthanasia_By_Garn_LeBaron.html
Markkula Center for…… [Read More]
Thus, confirming my original hypothesis that life is nothing but pain and suffering. And now, I suffer even more. So, thanks a lot. He walks away down the hall.
Woman Doctor: (Left standing in the hall looking perplexed and scratching her head. Shrugs and says sarcastically.) Who knows? Just another typical day at this hospital! (Shakes head, rolls eyes, yet smiles as she walks away in the opposite direction.)
Untitled image of two doctors conversing]. Retrieved 20 May, 2010, from: news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/health/1764713.stm
Mimi, Homelessness and Ralph McTell British Music article]. 2010. Retrieved 20 May, 2010, from: http://britishmusic.crabbysbeach.com/blogs/2010/03/15/streets-of-london-ralph-mctell/
Healthline Networks, Inc. (Image creator). (1995). Retrieved June 1, 2010, from: http://www.healthline.com/sw/khs-what-is-dilated-cardiomyopathy
Marquette Electronics (Image creator). (1996). Retrieved June 1, 2010, from: http://library.med.utah.edu/kw/ecg/mml/ecg_arrhythmia.html
Yanowitz, Frank, G. (Image creator). (1997). Retrieved June 1, 2010, from: http://library.med.utah.edu/kw/ecg/mml/ecg_12lead031.html
Farlex, Inc. (Image creator). (2010). Retrieved June…… [Read More]
Medical Ethics Interview
Healthcare providers include nurses, doctors, social workers and a number of other professions that seem to exist on the periphery of the helping field. One of those on the outside, that many do not consider when looking at the healthcare profession, are professional counselors. Since the term "counselor" has been diluted by everyone from friends to lawyers, it is unclear what one is talking about when employing such a generic term for an occupation, but professional counselors are vital members of the healthcare field. These individuals work in hospitals, nonprofits and private offices, working with couples, individuals and groups.
Among the many different specialties extant within the professional counselor fold is that of mental health counselor. Since the population of individuals who have a diagnosed mental illness has risen in recent years, the need for mental health counselors has risen with them. Alongside…… [Read More]
Medical Uses of Electromagnetic Radiation
Electromagnetic radiation or EM radiation is "combination of oscillating electric and magnetic fields perpendicular to each other, moving through space as a wave, effectively transporting energy and momentum" (Electromagnetic pp).
EM radiation is quantized as particles called photons, and the physics of electromagnetic radiation is electrodynamics, a sub-field of electromagnetism (Electromagnetic pp). Generally, EM radiation is classified by wavelength into electrical energy, radio, microwave, infrared, the visible region, ultraviolet, X-rays and gamma rays (Electromagnetic pp).
Radiology is the branch of medicine that specializes in the use of X-rays, gamma rays, radioactive isotopes, and other forms of radiation used in the diagnosis and treatment of disease (Radiology pp). X-ray machines and fluoroscopes are an essential tool in diagnosing bone fractures, tumors, and other abnormalities of the internal organs (Radiology pp). The computerized axial tomography, or CAT, scan uses computer technology to focus X-rays on precise sections…… [Read More]
It is feared that religious differences in decisions regarding when to withhold treatment are being ignored by the courts.
The social and legal issues are highlighted in cases that involve pre-term infants. In the elderly, the cultural consensus is that these persons have lived their life and are close to death anyway. However, in the case of a pre-term infant, the issue is raised of what measures should be taken to preserve life, particular when there is a lack of resources (Seri and Evans 2008). In the case of premature infants, significant cases exist to aid in the establishment of criteria to predict survival rates. If the survival probability is too low, resources are typically saved for those infants that have a greater chance for survival. For instance, it is the general rule that babies under 23-week and that weigh less than 500 grams are unlikely to survive. However, babies…… [Read More]
Perhaps the single biggest blessing that any individual can thank his or her stars for is a sense of physiological and psychological well being that allows for the optimal utilization of one's lifetime. In the same vein, all humankind can perhaps also thank and bless the significant advances made by the medical sciences, which has resulted in the ability to cure many an illness and overall increase the average life span of humanity. Indeed, modern day humanity has only to look at its own history to truly understand the import of medical knowledge and aid. And it is precisely for this reason that it becomes hard to comprehend the fact that there still exists many lacunae in health care that is tantamount to the worst kind of social injustice. Take for instance, the shocking statistic that more deaths can be attributed to medical errors than car accidents or…… [Read More]
The fourth step is to make a decision based on this best information available and the chosen technique.
The capital budgeting process is fairly straightforward in its structure, but making the determinations is potentially very difficult. There is often significant consideration of what constitutes an incremental cash flow, for example, and the firm must approach this issue with caution. Another tricky part of the process is determining an approach discount rate. The firm must consider its risk, market risk, the risk-free rate and the project's risk. Determining a cost of capital for privately-held firm often means finding a similar publicly-held firm in order to determine what the equity cost of capital might be. The cost of debt is easier to determine -- the bank can tell the firm that.
6. Project risk is incorporated into capital budgeting analysis in the discount rate. The discount rate reflects the rate of return…… [Read More]
The reason why, is due to the fact that you are addressing the needs of different demographics of the population. At the same time, you have numerous options in working with patients and a procedure for helping to collect all outstanding balances. (Lohr, 2010)
When you put these different elements together, they are showing how this strategy can be utilized to reduce the underlying costs and increase profitability. This is accomplished by: outsourcing those procedures that decrease productivity and costs (billing / collections). While, being able to offer patients flexible payment plans and certain times where they can receive discounted services. Once this occurs, it means that costs will remain under control and the profit margins of the clinic will increase. This is because of the flexibility that this policy is providing. As it is allowing health care professionals' to adapt to the underlying challenges facing many private practices. (Lohr,…… [Read More]
Texas law also adds the stipulation that a hospital may not destroy medical records that relate to any matter that is involved in litigation if the hospital knows the litigation has not been resolved (Practice brief - retention of health information).
Federal laws for record retention often are different from state laws. For instance, hospitals that participate in Medicare must keep medical records on each inpatient and outpatient, records of radiologic service, nuclear medicine including records for the receipt and disposition of radipaharmaceutics for five years. (42 CFR 482.24,.26, and.53) (Calloway). Further, psychiatric hospitals that participate in Medicare must maintain special records including development of assessment/diagnostic data, treatment plan, record progress, discharge planning, and discharge summary for 5 years (Calloway). Thus, Medicare record retention requirements are two years less than those in California and three years less than those in Texas in these instances, facilities would need to follow the…… [Read More]
The cases oif children are different from adults because they are still gowing through a growth phase so any surgical treatment may require extra care. Specialists make sure that the future growth of bones and joints does not get hindered reulting in problems and complications at a later stage in life.
Trauma and Congenital Deformities: Emergency rooms and trauma centers are the places where injured come and these are the places where orthopedics serve. Prompt treatments by these surgeons have helped many around the world from disabilities by losing their body parts. Due to developments in the field people are now not only consult orthopedic surgeons for complexities created because of diseases or trauma but also for congenital deformities.
Generally four years of medical school and one year of internship, residency or fellowship gives a person the title of MD but specialization requires extra training. After attaining the license…… [Read More]
Analyzing holistic programs that deploy a cross-sectional approach are even more difficult to ascertain, in terms of isolating the causal factors that cause an improved response to treatment.
ith another biological illness such depression, for example, "some types of depression run in families, suggesting that a biological vulnerability can be inherited...major depression also seems to occur generation after generation. However, it can also occur in people who have no family history of depression." ("Depression," 2000, NIH) (This is also true of substance abuse -- there is a genetic predisposition, but not all abusers share such a genetic legacy.) Responses to anti-depressants also vary depending on the patient. "Sometimes the doctor will try a variety of antidepressants before finding the most effective medication or combination of medications," and combine medication with psychotherapy. ("Depression," 2000, NIH) Also, while a combined approach seems to present the best clinical outcome, certain depressed populations such…… [Read More]
Conclusions - by the very nature of culture and humanity, humans tend to be group animals -- they thrive in groups, coalesce into groups, indeed, the very process of moving from hunter-gatherer to cities was part of a group behavior. Group norms are internal rulings that are followed by individuals so that the synergistic effect of the group will be more efficient. These values usually focus on the way members of that group look and behavior towards themselves, and the hierarchical structure they tend to set up to "police" their efforts. Norms help groups solve problems, define and address new situations, make better decisions, and even process their daily work. Groups, in this case members of the medical community, join these groups in order to reflect specific notions and values associated with the overall group. Normative behavior in the medical field is covered by a willingness to help, to "do…… [Read More]
Medical Home Model and Health Disparity
Nursing esearch Proposal
The Impact of the Medical Home Model on Health Disparities
The Impact of the Medical Home Model on Healthcare Disparity
Medical homes are primary care practices where a physician or NP establishes a long-term care relationship with patients and provide patient/family-centered, coordinated, and culturally-sensitive care (AANP, n.d.; Strickland, Jones, Ghandour, Kogan, & Newacheck, 2011). The benefits include improved healthcare access, quality, and safety. A number of states have enacted statutes supporting the medical home model after research findings revealed health disparities for racial and ethnic minorities were reduced (NCSL, 2013).
As a nurse practitioner I am interested in how effective a medical home model would be in reducing healthcare disparities, especially for racial and ethnic minority children residing in underserved communities. Nurse practitioners have traditionally practiced in underserved communities and will continue to do so; therefore, any strategy that could improve…… [Read More]
Medical Coding Ethics
Ethical Concerns in Health Care Delivery: Focus on Medical Coding and Billing Practices
The objective of this study is to examine ethical concerns medical coding and billing in the physician office. Medical coding and billing has become very complex in light of health care reform. Recently, Christopher Gregory ayne, reported to be "dubbed the Rock Doc" was arrested on a dozen charges of Medicare fraud" when he was accused of fraudulently billing for "physical therapy procedures, such as massages and electrical stimulation, that were not necessary or in some instances had been provided at his prior medical practice in Miami." (eaver, 2013, p.1) It appears that where this doctor failed is billing for physical therapy when his staff was not properly accredited for providing these treatments.
Health Care Coding and Billing Changes
It was reported by Gunderman (2013) that October 1, 2014 is the deadline on implementing…… [Read More]
Medical ID Theft and Securing EPHI
Medical Identity Theft
Medical information can be stolen by 1) the bad guys getting sick and using a victim's information to obtain services, 2) friends or relatives use another friend's or relative's information to obtain treatment, 3) when professionals, such as physicians, fabricate services that did not exist, 4) organized crime, and 5) innocent or not so innocent opportunists (Lafferty, 2007). ad guys that get sick can take a victim's insurance information to obtain services for treatment. Professionals can fabricate false claims to cover medical errors. Opportunists have access to patient data and the ability to steal, use, or sell that information.
Effective security requires clear direction from upper management (Whitman). Assigning security responsibilities and access controls with audit controls to organizational elements and individuals helps to place accountability on individuals. They must formulate or elaborate security policies and procedures based on the organizational…… [Read More]
Medical Use of Marijuana
Increasing use of medical marijuana
Having looked at the various areas that medical marijuana has been brought into use and the various forms in which marijuana is administered, it is also important to take note of the various challenges that come with it. There have been various researches that have been conducted that covers the medical as well as the ethical side of the medicinal marijuana, and there have been a dilemma in the balance of the two sides on whether to institutionalize the drug or to stop it, and even on whether the medicinal use can be made to work without the proneness to abuse as is the case at the moment.
Medicinal marijuana has neither medical nor ethical standing within the contemporary society where drug abuse is one of the biggest worries of governments across the world and the alternative medicines that medical research…… [Read More]
How do these companies provide care?
Aetna provides care by being a health insurance company that offers a range of services in the field of medical, pharmaceutical, dental, behavioral group, long-term care, and plans for those who are disabled. Humana is also a health insurance company that offers its services in numerous states. United Health Group operates two businesses, known as United Healthcare and Optum, and similar to the two aforementioned companies, it offers health insurance to individuals, which includes seniors.
What types of plans do they have?
Aetna offers various types of plans under its various insurance, which as mentioned before, include medical, dental, vision, medicare, disability, pharmacy, life, student, behavioral health, health expense funds, and wellness products and discounts. Under medical insurance, a person can get a quote via state, which may include individual HMO health benefits plan or QPOS individual advantage health benefits and health…… [Read More]
Medical Records Case tudy
ection I (Introduction) -- Liam O'Neill and William Klepack, the authors of Case tudy # 3, Integrating Electronic Medical Records and Disease Management at Dryden Family Medicine, begin their published findings by introducing readers to the concept of electronic medical records (EMR). The authors immediately narrow their focus to the adoption and implementation of EMR by Dryden Family Medicine, a rural family practice located in upstate New York, and explain that "for smaller group practices, electronic medical records (EMR) adoption is a huge undertaking that poses significant risks" (O'Neill and Kleback, 2010). The Introduction section then covers the multitude of obstacles encountered by small group practices attempting to convert to EMR, including the limited information technology experience possessed by most staff members, and the constant concern of budgetary constraints. Finally, the authors seek to clarify the emphasis of their study by stating that their focus remains…… [Read More]
Medical Advances in Cancer Treatment Research
This paper discusses the medical advances in cancer treatment research. The writer explores several treatment options and compares them to treatment options of the past. There were two sources used to complete this paper.
There was a time when a diagnosis of cancer meant a death sentence. The word still strikes a chord of fear among the millions each year who are told they have it, but in recent years there have been many advances in medical science that allow many who would have died from the disease to live long and full lives. There are more cancer survivors now than ever before and treatment options continue to be made available.
In the past there were only two options for the treatment of cancer. One could have surgery and one could be given a course of radiation treatments. The surgery was for the purpose…… [Read More]
Medical Associates is a large for-profit group practice. Its dividends are expected to grow at a constant rate of 7% per year into the foreseeable future. The firm's last dividend (D0) was $2, and its current stock price is $23. The firm's beta coefficient is 1.6; the rate of return on 20-year T-bonds currently is 9%; the expected rate of return is 13%. The firm's target capital structure calls for 50% debt financing, the interest rate required on the business's new debt is 10%, and its tax rate is 40%.
You are to write a report that answers the following:
Calculate Medical Associates' cost of equity estimate using the DCF method.
Next years expected dividend = $2 * 1.07 = 2.14
Current Stock Price = $
E (Rc) = 2.14/23 + .07 = .1630 = 16.3%
Calculate the cost of equity estimate using CAPM.
R (Rc) = .09 + (1.6…… [Read More]
In this case, that power dynamic was only exacerbated by the fact that the entire MSICU nursing team had never received training in management of the type of clinical issues presented and by the fact that they were excluded from any consultation in connection with a post-operative management plan.
Therefore, it is recommended that the institution immediately implement a policy of "see something, say something" according to which all members of healthcare teams are encouraged to speak up irrespective of power differentials. Furthermore, that protocol must include a statement of policy insulating any member of a healthcare team who does voice a legitimate concern in good faith from any retaliation or other negative response that could conceivably deter such diligence. Finally, the record of this case also indicates the immediate need for protocols requiring all members of the healthcare team to identify themselves to other members of the team, especially…… [Read More]
How can eliminating abbreviations reduce errors?
In the medical profession, time is everything. To make documentation as expeditious as possible, a series of abbreviations have been accepted in records. This has been considered an acceptable practice as much as calling a registered nurse an "RN." The problems occur when people are unclear about the abbreviations mean or if a set of letters can have more than one meaning. For example, there is the abbreviation "CA" which means cancer and then "Ca" which is calcium. Another example is "a" which can mean both "artery" and "before" (Medical 2011-page 1). It is very easy to misread abbreviations when medical staff is in a hurry. Imagine the problem if a "q.w." which is take weekly was confused for a "q.v." which is take as one wishes. If the terms were written out rather than abbreviated, these potentially dangerous situations could be…… [Read More]
Medical l Nursing
The United States has the largest number of professional nurses in the world totalled 3 millions approximately. Despite the available large number of professional nurses, there is still imbalance between the supply and demand for nurses in the United States. Demand for the professional nurses has outnumbered the supply. Typically, critical nursing shortage has become a serious issue in the United States, and the production capacity is lagging based on the estimated future needs. The concept of nursing shortage refers to the situation where the demand for nurses outnumbers the supply. The worsening nursing shortage in the United States has created the demand for more nurses to fill the gap. Many private and public sectors healthcare leaders have advocated for the serious solution to boost the supply of nurses. One of the solutions advocated is that the U.S. should facilitate the migration of foreign graduate…… [Read More]
Medical Case Study
Florence (F) is a 43-year-old woman who is two days post-operative, following an appendectomy. She has a history of arthritis, and currently takes 10mg of prednisone daily. She is allergic to penicillin. She weighs 46 kg (101.5 lbs.) and is 168cm tall (5'6"). This puts her slightly underweight for her age and height, at least 18-25 pounds (Height and Weight Chart, 2010). While doing a route in dressing change, nurse notice a yellow discharge emanating from the wound.
Identify and discuss the importance of obtaining information during a nursing admission in relation to post- operative assessment. In modern healthcare, a nurse must first and foremost try to understand and utilize a systematic and synergistic model of data collection and assessment. Human beings are complex creatures, and the more data one has, the easier it will be to ensure that a proper diagnosis is made. A systematic assessment…… [Read More]
In spite of research gaps, medical robotics is a growing trend in the United States.
Advances in Medical Robotics (Diana, 2011)
Hybrid Assistive Limb 5 (HAL5) is an artificially powered ecoskeleton that helps double the amount of weight someone can carry unaided.
DaVinci Si HD Surgical System performs minimally invasive surgery through superior visualization and greater precision, with incisions of one to two centimeters causing less pain and speedier recovery. It reduces the hospital stay to one half and costs one third less.
Sofie incorporates force feedback allowing a surgeon to feel the pressure they apply making sutures and pushing tissue aside. Sofie is expected to develop in five years.
Cyberknife Robotic Radiosurgery System is a non-invasive alternative to surgery for treatment of cancerous and non-cancerous tumors.
Nursebot is designed to specifically help elderly deal with daily activities allowing them to live at home.
RIA is designed to…… [Read More]
These examples highlight that technology is always a tool, a way of enhancing human judgment -- we must not mistake it as a replacement for good nursing practice.
After all, the use of a computer is no substitute for a medical education. Anyone who works in a hospital can see this -- the increased accessibility of information through the Internet also means that patients often come in, convinced that they are suffering from a serious illness, allergy, or condition, based more upon a diagnosis Googled on WebMD, rather than upon the fact that they saw a doctor! If a computer alone was required to diagnose, everyone would have a degree!
Don't get me wrong -- I use technology every day in my life, and thank my lucky stars, and my patient's lucky stars, that it is so ubiquitous. When health care providers wish to communicate, the use of cell phones…… [Read More]
Initial Patient Analysis
Discomfort in lower back.
Patient is a 78-year-old woman presented as disheveled, with bug bites throughout her body, and exuding a foul odor. Cognitively, she orients only to her name with a BMI of 30 and a minimal understanding of the English language. She is able to nod "yes" or "no" to questions, but calls the nurse "Mother." She is unsteady on her feet, and has a fine "pill-rolling "tremor in her left hand. He legs are quite cool to the touch, hairless, and toe capillary refill is greater than 2 seconds.
Past Medical History
Unknown, but patient appears to be in distress both physically and psychologically.
Poor, disheveled, may not be receiving adequate care or living in an environment with enough food or warmth. BMI of 30 is technically obese, which also may indicate the patient is not…… [Read More]
Nurses are required to make many immediate decisions in their assigned duties. Unfortunately, in recent years, patient care has often been compromised as a nursing shortage crisis has escalated to epic proportions. Increased patient loads have resulted in often hasty nursing decisions as responsibilities and hours worked have increased. Although precious time must be spread thin to accommodate higher numbers of patients, nurses must exercise their morals through consistency in ethical behaviors. According to Peggy Chinn (1), "Many ethical issues, such as end-of-life decision making, have increased in complexity. Other issues, such as advocacy and choice, have changed in certain respects but are more clearly centrally situated within nursing's ethical domain."
As a result, nurses are held accountable for a variety of decisions in nursing practice and in many instances, a patient's life depends on such decisions to survive. Gastmans (496) states that "Generally, the goal of nursing…… [Read More]
According to the work of Fulford (1994) in an Oxford Practice Skills Project eport "Three elements of practice (ethics, law and communication skills) are approached in an integrated teaching programme which aims to address everyday clinical practice. The role of a central value of patient-centered health care in guiding the teaching is described. Although the final aim of the teaching is to improve the actual practice, we have found three 'sub-aims' helpful in the development of the programme. These sub-aims are: increasing students' awareness of ethical issues; enhancing their analytical thinking skills, and teaching specific knowledge. (Hope, 1994)
In the work of Miles, et al. (1989) entitled "Medical Ethics Education: Coming of Age it is stated that "medical ethics education is instruction that endeavors to teach the examination of the role of values in the doctor's relationship with patients, colleagues and society. It is one form of a broad curricular…… [Read More]
The facts that you have provided indicate extremely troubling circumstances that could seriously jeopardize the welfare of your organization. It is well-settled law that entities contracting for the services of subsidiaries are legally responsible for legal and ethical improprieties committed by those subsidiaries irrespective of whether or not the contracting organization had any specific involvement in or knowledge of those actions. Accordingly, we would strongly advise that you take immediate action to rectify the situations described in the manner outlined in our recommendations below.
To avoid the potentially serious criminal, civil, and financial consequences arising under MWHC's respondeat superior responsibility to prevent fraud and abuse in connection with its association with subsidiaries, it is hereby recommended that MWHC immediately:
1. Instruct the subsidiary to cease and desist from offering its contracted home health agency employees compensation of any kind in connection with client durable medical equipment (DME) orders from…… [Read More]
My predilection for working under stress prepares me psychologically for the unique and demanding profession. The college professor who advised that my disposition and talents lend themselves to a career in osteopathy told me that osteopaths need to be creative as well as analytical: to assess situations and make decisions that synthesize years of prior knowledge and experience. I believe I possess the qualities that would prepare me for a successful and rewarding career as an osteopathic physician.
As I seek entry into your esteemed medical school program with a focus in osteopathy, I can assure you of my capacity to meet challenges with poise and calm. My business experience has prepared me for the demands of medical school: owning a business while attending school full-time has not deterred nor tired me physically. I look forward to participating in your program; I assure you that I will represent your school…… [Read More]
As mentioned earlier, the desired outcome of nursing care is comfort and there are many articles in which the researchers have talked about the needs of the patients and the things that alter the comfort of the patients. Kolcaba suggested that the cancer patients who are terminally ill can benefit from comfort care as it pays attention to the perspective and needs of the patients. Through such kind of care, the patient is not only provided with pain relief, but the depression of the patient is also addressed adequately. As she said that patients who are not in pain but are depressed seek comfort in the transcendental sense as well as in the psycho-spiritual sense (Kolcaba, 1992 p 4). In some of her works, she has explained the use of the instruments and their application by the nurses. Kolcaba reckons that the instruments presented by her to evaluate the comfort…… [Read More]
It is the dimension of knowing that connects with human experiences that are common but expressed and experienced uniquely in each instance. It is ultimately the processes of envisioning and rehearsing nurture artistic expression (Chinn, Kramer, & Chinn, 2008).
Empiric knowledge in nursing consists of knowledge development along with highlighting the role of conceptualizing and structuring ideas into knowledge expressions such as theories and formal descriptions. Theories and formal descriptions become shared as empiric knowledge in a discipline and serve to enable scientific competence in practice (Chinn, Kramer, & Chinn, 2008).
It is thought that if knowledge within any one pattern is not critically examined and integrated within the whole of knowing, that uncritical acceptance, narrow interpretation, distortions, and partial utilization of knowledge will occur. When the patterns are used in isolation from one another, the potential for synthesis of the whole is also lost. The formal expressions of knowledge…… [Read More]
Bieber & Worley (2006) note that when students pay closer attention to their surroundings, and when teachers engage students in a more collaborative manner, students are more likely to set daily schedules that conform with their abilities and adapt to any limitations they may experience while juggling multiple responsibilities.
Anderson (1996) suggests that many Universities need to work with student's to accommodate their unique needs, as long as students are willing to engage in collaborative relationships with their peers (Austin, 2002) and families. One way to teach graduate students how to balance their education, career and any psychological or emotional blocks they may have to success is by teaching students to adopt self-efficient tools, such as creating daily task lists that limit the amount of time they spend on activities to ensure they fulfill all of their obligations (Bandura, 1982). Universities also have an obligation to effectively screen students (Brink,…… [Read More]
The master patient index (MPI) value was mainly liked by the personnel in the medical record section.
The Golden 90s
Equipped with MPI and record-keeping growth, software designers sustained to generate and progress with a new emphasis on individual hospital sections. Auxiliary department purposes, for example radiology and laboratory showed to be fairly adaptive to software that is fresh and innovative, and computer healthcare applications start to show on the market. Patient test outcomes that instigated in the laboratory and radiology department now too were obtainable via computers nonetheless again with limit as the outcomes were separate and were not linked to one another, or to any other software for instance that being done with the patient registration. A lot of these applications had basically been marked as "source" governments, and they were not courteous to assembly athwart the healthcare aptitude. This is the state that mechanization in healthcare found…… [Read More]
medical examiners of years past to the current technological advancements of medical examiners today. The earliest medical examiners were called coroners, and they still exist in some areas of the United States, although they have largely been replaced by medical examiners. Medical examiners are licensed physicians trained in pathology and death investigation.
In the past, coroners had much more power than they do today. They were more involved in criminal justice, and could even arrest prisoners and set their bail. They were not paid a salary, but paid for each inquest they conducted. They were also open to bribes and embezzlement, since they did not receive a salary. Families would offer bribes to cover up suicides, and politicians would offer bribes to cover up embarrassing accidents or other deaths that might impact their political careers. One New York City coroner said, "A few of the coroners, and let me emphasize…… [Read More]
Medical marijuana has increasingly been in the news as a growing number of states throughout the U.S. have passed measures or at least put on the ballot an initiative to legalize either medicinal or recreational marijuana usage. The history of marijuana in the U.S. is one that goes back as far as the country itself: hemp (a type of marijuana plant) was used for rope, paper and a number of other purposes because of its strong fibrous tissue.1 It was not until the Prohibition Era of the 1920s that marijuana began to be prohibited by law in the U.S.—and within a decade, it was regulated among most states under the Uniform State Narcotic Act.2 Thus, from its very first days as a crop grown by the Virginia Company for exporting to England by decree of James I—and in fact from the days of the first President of the U.S.…… [Read More]
medical home concept and describe the principles (operational characteristics mentioned above) of the PC-MH as defined by these organizations. How does this concept differ from the gatekeeper concept of Managed Care Organizations?
According to the 'gatekeeper' philosophy of health management organizations (HMOs), physicians are intentionally given incentives to reduce access to care. This is based upon the assumption that patients will want to obtain as much care as they can receive and physicians will want to bestow that care to please patients and incur more revenue. HMOs encourage physicians to do the opposite and often financially reward physicians for cost reductions and limiting access of patients to specialists or heroic treatments. In the HMO model, physicians try to restrict access to specialists when they do not deem it necessary.
In contrast, the medical home concept is viewed as a partnership between "individual patients, and their personal physicians, and when appropriate,…… [Read More]
Each individual/entity in this scenario has an agenda. Sandra: is a child under both State and Federal Law; her immediate concern is hiding her sexual abuse by her stepfather; however, hospital administration must be concerned with her best interests on three counts: first, because she is a patient; secondly, because she is a child; third, because she is an allegedly abused child. Mrs. Anderson: is both the patient's parent and a mid-level hospital administrator; her immediate concerns are obtaining and editing medical records to keep her family together on religious grounds; however, the patient's best interest, both as a patient and a child, conflict with Mrs. Anderson's concerns. The hospital: is bound by both Federal and State law; its immediate concerns are serving the bests interests of its patient, who is also a child, while honoring Mrs. Anderson's rights as a parent/representative of the minor patient. In this…… [Read More]
medical and ethical dilemmas, even if the activities were deemed technically legal or not questioned at the time. The fact that the studies sought to gain information from human subjects under unfair and undesirable circumstances means their results cannot be condoned and the findings cannot be accepted or used as viable study data. Each study directly crosses the line into scientific unacceptability in different ways; and while their underlying approaches raise interesting historical and philosophical questions -- that did not need to be tested to be debated -- there is no way to weed out the biases that contaminate the data.
This being said, it is generally safe to say that all of the studies were improper (unethical and/or illegal) at the time that they were being undertaken. This can be seen in the fact that in every instance the medical professionals involved were either directly or indirectly punished for…… [Read More]
Internal rate of return is 72%.
Conversely, Proposal 2 operates at a $150,000 deficit for its first year of operation. Totals costs for the CT scan equipment are $1.1 million ($500,000 variable costs from $500 per patient and $600,000 fixed cost for insurance and equipment leases) while revenue for year one is only $950,000 (from per visit payments of $950 per patient). One thousand patients are expected in year one of operation. The initial cost of investment for Proposal 2 was $50,000 putting the total budget deficit for Proposal 2,-year 1 at $200,000. Total costs for year two are $1,350,000 while gross revenue reaches $1,425,000. This presents a positive cash flow of $75,000 however because of the loss of $200,000 in year one, net profits for year two are negative at $125,000 ($200,000 [year one net profit] - $75,000 [year two cash flow]).
Like Proposal 1, Proposal 2 becomes profitable…… [Read More]
Electronic Medical Records
Electronic Medical Record (EMR) keeping can definitely add efficiency into the modern healthcare system. However, this efficiency might be associated with some hidden costs. One example of such a cost will be due to the loss of privacy that is allowed by shared records. Not only will doctors be able to see your entire medical history, but other agencies that you might not want to share information with will have access as well. Therefore, there are both advantages and disadvantages associated with the move to a digital system.
"Imagine a world where everything important about a patient is known to the physician the first time that patient presents," says Andrew Rubin, vice president for NYU Medical Center Clinical Affairs and Affiliates in New York City (Mann, N.d.).
Doctors have full access to a patient's medical health history has the potential to reduce errors and improve patient…… [Read More]
Lobotomy is a popular medical procedure introduced in curing mentally ill individuals, which requires the removal of the prefrontal lobes of the cortex of the brain, the part of the brain wherein aggressive and violent behavior is triggered. However, in the movie, lobotomy is shown to have disastrous results: McMurphy's violent behavior is indeed abated, but as illustrated in the movie, the lobotomy had turned him into a 'vegetable' neither responding to his ward mates' call for attention nor displaying his usual rowdy, obnoxious, McMurphy self.
This instance in the movie is considered as patterned after the medical model of abnormal psychology, wherein "mental disorders are described as medical diseases with a biological origin" (450). ecause this is the prevalent thinking in medical science during the time the movie (and novel) was made, Nurse Ratched decided, in order to "treat" McMurphy, to let him undergo lobotomy. Subsistence to the medical…… [Read More]
How Medical Evacuation Evolved from Post Civil War to Present
1st Historical Interest Timeline: 1877 to 1910
Medical advances during this period were more in organization and technique and not in medical breakthroughs. Jonathan Letterman is credited with creating a highly organized system of ambulances and trained stretcher bearers that were designed to evacuate the wounded quickly. This was a great improvement from the previous methods. It was also during this period that sanitary conditions for medical care were improved upon. Previously surgeons did not wash their hand before attending to a patient and their equipment was not sanitized. This resulted in the number of deaths occurring from medical care increasing and the mortality rate was two soldiers died out of disease and infections as compared to one who died from injury or gunshot wound in the battlefield. Organized trauma care was also suggested and practiced in the late 19th…… [Read More]
Barnsteiner JH. Medication reconciliation: transfer of medication information across settings -- keeping it free from error. Am J Nurs. 2005;05(3 Suppl):3-6.
This article evaluates the need for proper medication reconciliation across various nursing settings. This article is important as emphasis is placed on error free reconciliation which is very important for proper client service and treatment.
Bullough, Vern L. and Bonnie Bullough. The Emergence of Modern Nursing (2nd ed. 972)
This reference emphasized modern nursing and many of the practices and advances of nursing over the years. This is important as it provides a historical perspective of medical reconciliation. A historical perspective is needed to better understand improvements that will need to be made in the future.
D'Antonio, Patricia. American Nursing: A History of Knowledge, Authority, and the Meaning of Work (200), 272pp
This reference provides further evidence into the history of medical reconciliation and recommendations on improvements that should…… [Read More]
This information was obtained from the facilities giving dialysis and it was for the first two months only. The study excluded darbepoetin doses as it had only been administered to a few patients. Inpatient EPO doses were not easily determinable as they are not billed differently to Medicare. The use of outpatient EPO only may be underestimating the total use of the medication. The cohort dealt with the biasness by determining the amount of time a patient stayed in hospital. The calculations on the average dose of EPO for every patient per day was by adding the total dose for a whole month then separating it by the number of days of outpatient then multiplying by 30 to get the total of a calendar month. According to the medical reports the study used the right amount of doses. The study was not randomized as it was aimed towards the African-American…… [Read More]
Describe briefly your topic of interest (15 possible points):
According to the United States Department of Health and Human Services (2013), medical reconciliation is "the process of comparing a patient's medication orders to all of the medications that the patient has been taking. This reconciliation is done to avoid medication errors such as omissions, duplications, dosing errors, or drug interactions." The process of medical reconciliation falls within the rubric of electronic medical records, which enable medical reconciliation. Medical reconciliation saves lives, improves the efficiency of hospital administration and of the healthcare team, and is simply necessary for providing quality of care.
#1 Database (or collection) (30 possible points):
Title of source:
"Electronic Health ecord (HE)"
Location of source (UL): http://www.ihs.gov/ehr/index.cfm?module=medication_reconciliation
Owner or publisher:
Indian Health Service
The Indian Health Service (2013) offers an overview of what medical reconciliation is, and how it applies to both individual and community health.…… [Read More]
Large health care systems with multiple facilities can track as many as 1,000 events each month" (Berntsen, 2004, p. 44). That is an amazing number of cases that came extremely close to becoming medical errors, and they were only stopped by caregiver response or sometimes by chance. Near misses are an extremely important part of the healthcare facility's treatment program, because they can indicate just how accident and error-prone a facility is, and they can even indicate which departments and individuals may be the most error-prone.
How does a staff effectively reduce medical errors in their facility? Authors Turner and Kurtz believe debriefing of the team is key to reducing errors. They write, "Effective debriefing is the key to long-term sustainable improvements in patient safety and care. It is only through debriefing that an organization, team, or individual will improve consistently over time" (Turner, and Kurtz, 2008). Debriefing, the authors…… [Read More]
Health are -- Medical Retention Laws
Medical records retention requirements, whether Federal or State, are apparently aimed at maintaining records for a significant length of time after a patient's discharge. HIPAA does not impose a specific requirement for retention of a patient's medical records and leaves that task to State legislatures. alifornia meets and far exceeds Federal requirements in multiple requirements from multiple laws. Meanwhile, Nevada takes a far simpler tack while still adhering to Federal requirements.
HIPAA does not impose a length of time for which patients' medical records must be retained (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2009); rather, that requirement is left to the states. However 45 .F.R. §164.530(j) does require that an entity governed by HIPAA must retain its "privacy policies/procedures, privacy practices notices, disposition of complaints, and other actions, activities, and designations that the Privacy Rule requires to be documented" (U.S. Department of…… [Read More]
Ethical Dilemma: case study of clinical trial on a child
The field of medicine and research has been surrounded by issue of experiments in order to have the conclusive result of the effectiveness of a drug or otherwise. These results can only be obtained if the drugs are at times used on human beings with the real medical problem that the experiment seeks to find solution to. The problem of ethical dilemma often comes in at such stages on whether to go ahead to experiment on the effectiveness of the new drug or not.
Ethical dilemma refers to the situation that is deemed complex since it involves some element of mental conflict between moral imperatives that is one goes ahead and obeys one, it will mean the transgression of another (Braunack-Meyer A.J., 2001). The individual does not have a clear cut direction on which option to go for, despite there…… [Read More]
against experimentation on animals, and some are more compelling than others. Some people suggest that the practice is immoral because choosing to experiment upon animals is directly analogous to racial or sexual discrimination; or more closely related to discrimination on the basis of mental capacity. Others contend that it is wrong because, by their estimations, no clear advances in medical research have been made through animal experimentation, and alternative modes of research are emerging. Doubtlessly, animal experimentation is a delicate moral issue, but asserting that animals should enjoy the same rights as humans within a society is a weak claim. Arguments have been formed differentiating animals from humans depending upon both their moral status and biological status. Yet, the most obvious line of reasoning is associated with the fact that granting animals the same rights as humans within society leads to many logical contradictions.
One question that needs to be…… [Read More]
The differences between a medical diagnosis of Autism and an educational diagnosis of Autism often have implications for the individualized educational prospects of an autistic student in public schools. Often even when a child has a medical diagnosis of autism parents still go through the diagnostic process of the school to determine what, if any, educational adjustments can or should be made. Diagnosis is made more difficult by the fact Autistic symptoms vary widely in individuals and often tend to manifest themselves in many different combinations (Lenne, 2001, P. 71). Autistic impairment includes social, communicative, and behavioral development challenges. An autistic child may have trouble with nonverbal language, poor eye contact, and difficult making and retaining friends (Lenne, 2001, P. 71). n terms of communication, there may be delays in speaking difficulty using or imitating language and incorrect use of words (Lenne, 2001, P. 71). Repeated body movements and…… [Read More]
Commercialization of a Medical Product
It is important to note, from the onset, that patents present the most effective approach to 'locking' the desired market after realizing the fruits of research. This is particularly the case given that the commercialization of medical research in itself brings about a high level of risk to the key stakeholders involved in the entire research process, particularly investors. In the case under consideration, we assume that investors will have a two-year period of market exclusivity, after which the medical research team will lose its patent protection. This effectively means that other companies will be free to manufacture and sell the drug. The relevance of formulating the right strategies to guarantee the profitability of the company after the two-year period cannot, therefore, be overstated.
The removal of patent holder's monopoly not only promotes, but also encourages competition (Joly and Knoppers, 2014). There are several approaches…… [Read More]