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How Medical Evacuation Evolved from Post Civil War to Present
1st Historical Interest Timeline: 1877 to 1910
Medical advances during this period were more in organization and technique and not in medical breakthroughs. Jonathan Letterman is credited with creating a highly organized system of ambulances and trained stretcher bearers that were designed to evacuate the wounded quickly. This was a great improvement from the previous methods. It was also during this period that sanitary conditions for medical care were improved upon. Previously surgeons did not wash their hand before attending to a patient and their equipment was not sanitized. This resulted in the number of deaths occurring from medical care increasing and the mortality rate was two soldiers died out of disease and infections as compared to one who died from injury or gunshot wound in the battlefield. Organized trauma care was also suggested and practiced in the late 19th…
Medical technology has become critical in the modern healthcare environment given the increase in patient populations and the increased demand for quality, affordable care. Advancements in technology continue to transform nearly every aspect of society including the healthcare field. Innovative technology is considered critical toward improving the delivery and quality of healthcare services. Technology has a long history in the field of healthcare as it is traditionally used in developing medical equipment and enhancing clinical processes. Medical technology is applied in different areas of healthcare including in medical evacuation. Medical evacuation is an important part of healthcare as it is required when a medical issue cannot be effectively and adequately addressed in the current location. This paper examines the history of medical evacuation in relation to technology development and implementation in this area.
Overview of the Concept of Medical Evacuation
Medical evacuation is a process that has traditionally been utilized…
Air Ambulance and Commercial Medical Escort Services. “The History of Air Ambulances.” AirCARE1, AirCARE1, 14 Dec. 2018, https://www.airambulanceone.com/history-of-air-ambulances/ .
Bedi, Shireen. “The Evolution of Aeromedical Evacuation Capabilities Help Deployed Medicine Take Flight.” Air Force Medical Service, United States Air Force , 15 Mar. 2018, https://airforcemedicine.af.mil/News/Display/Article/1466825/the-evolution-of-aeromedical-evacuation-capabilities-help-deployed-medicine-tak/.
Gibbs, Shawn G. “Review of Literature for Air Medical Evacuation High-Level Containment Transport.” Air Medical Journal, vol. 38, no. 5, 2019, pp. 359–365., doi:10.1016/j.amj.2019.06.006.
Lam , David M. “Medical Evacuation, History and Development - The Future in the Multinational Environment.” Defense Technical Information Center Online, US Department of Defense, 4 Sept. 2000, https://apps.dtic.mil/dtic/tr/fulltext/u2/p010948.pdf .
Olson, Chris, et al. “Forward Aeromedical Evacuation: A Brief History, Lessons Learned from the Global War on Terror, and the Way Forward for US Policy.” Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery, vol. 75, no. 2, Aug. 2013, pp. S130–S136.
REKSOPRODIO, M., et al. “AEROMEDICAL EVACUATION.” Military Medicine Worldwide, Medical Corps International Forum, 4 Mar. 2019, https://military-medicine.com/article/3665-aeromedical-evacuation.html .
Shah, Manish N. “The Formation of the Emergency Medical Services System.” American Journal of Public Health, vol. 96, no. 3, Mar. 2006, pp. 414–423., doi:10.2105/AJPH.2004.048793.
Vanderburg, Kathleen. “Aeromedical Evacuation: A Historical Perspective.” Aeromedical Evacuation, 2003, pp. 6–12., doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/0-387-22699-0_2 .
In summary there is a complete lack of methodology to get beyond what appears to be a major opportunity in the Hanoi market for healthcare when in fact there was a very good reason that part of the market was open; no one had taken the time to define services in the high-end of medical services, and the pricing dynamics of the market would later prove to be difficult to sustain such a high-end hospital on. If the founders had done research before the actual launch of the VIH they would have known this.
If you had been acting as a pre-project marketing consultant to Mr. Lee what might you have done by way of data collection to ascertain the nature of the market? (Remember, this is a developing-world country, and oftentimes consumers have little conceptualization of the product you envision.) would have taken a very systematic approach to building…
The research, methods will seek to establish a common basement of the U.S. President Foreign Policy Decision Making Process. Equitable regard will be accorded to the state of affairs that exist between the U.S.A. And Iran
Questionnaires are samples of structured questions that will seek directive responses from the respondents in the field of study. In order to arrive at making decisions, there are several considerations that the president of the U.S.A. needs to know from the public and the secretary of state. Such questions will be included in the questionnaires. The questionnaires will be supplied to various respondents. These respondents are thought to have consistent information as regards the U.S. President Foreign Policy Decision Making Process matters in the world. Questionnaires are relevant when it comes to exhausting on the exiting trends of management in the country.
Interviews refer to face-to-face approaches of seeking to elicit information…
Alterman, Eric. 1998. Who speaks for America?: why democracy matters in foreign policy.
Ithaca [u.a.]: Cornell Univ. Press.
Beisner, Robert L. 2003. American foreign relations since 1600 a guide to the literature.
Santa Barbara, Calif: ABC-CLIO. http://ebooks.abc-clio.com/?isbn=9781576075302 .
Integration in the CI/HUMINT Community
An Analysis of the Benefits of Integration in the CI/HUMINT Community and Strategies for Effective Implementation
The success of any counterinsurgency operation depends largely on the effectiveness and appropriateness of intelligence gathered. Human subjects are a crucial source of intelligence for counterinsurgency operations. Several years back, the U.S. Armed Forces opened up opportunities for women to occupy specific positions in counterintelligence/human intelligence (CI/HUMINT) discipline. However, women still remain underrepresented in the same, and researchers remain largely divided on whether their participation in the same ought to be increased. esearchers have raised concern that the decision to integrate women into HUMINT units could cost the country dearly in the long-term as it is likely to ruin unit cohesion and impede on overall effectiveness. Proponents of the whole idea of integration have, however, argued that the inclusion of women in HUMINT units will actually enhance…
Alderman, M. I. (1993). Women in Direct Combat: What is the Price for Equality? School for Advanced Military Studies Monograph, Fort Leavenworth, Kansas.
Al-Ali, N. & Pratt, N. (2009). What Kind of Liberation: Women and the Occupation of Iraq. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
Bartone, P.T. Johnsen, B.H. Eid, J. Brun, W. & Laberg, J.C. (2002). Factors Influencing Small-Unit Cohesion in Norwegian Navy Officer Cadets. Military Psychology, 14(1), 1-22.
Beal, D.J. Cohen, R.R. Burke, M.J. & McLendon, C.L. (2003). Cohesion and Performance in Groups: A Meta-Analytic Clarification of Construct Relations. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88 (6), 989-1004.
Excerpts and links to written works:
Finally, brief excerpts from a representative sampling of the author's written works is provided below, with the complete work being available through the links provided.
1. Peoples' Control: "The Brooklyn Daily Eagle July 29, 1900, article 'Points-of-View' discuses elements that can be better understood from the perspective of "Panopticism." People living contemporary to the article were apparently devoted to restructuring society and shaping it as they considered being best for themselves and for the community as a whole. . . ."
In the essay, "Peoples' Control," I write in part that, "I have tried my best to [curb] this anxiety, to feel more comfortable in my position of surveillance." This project was written using resource materials found on a site that is powered by turnitin.com called writecheck.turnitin.com. After completing this project, I ran it through this web site in the hopes of avoiding any…
"America's Best To Become California's Finest." (2011). California Highway Patrol. [Online].
Available: http://www.chp.ca.gov/recruiting/military.html .
"Become a California Highway Patrol Officer." (2011). California Highway Patrol. [Online].
Available: http://www.chp.ca.gov/recruiting/officer.html .
When most people think of the helicopter, they will often talk about commercial and military aircraft. As there is an emphasis on how the latest technology is changing the industry. A good example of this occurred, in May 2011 when the U.S. Navy Seals used a special rotor that could not be heard in surrounding area or seen on radar. This is illustrating the advancements in the helicopter technology over the last few years. To fully understand what is happening requires carefully examining its development. Once this takes place, is when the recent innovations will highlight a trend that has been occurring since the aircraft was first placed into active use during the Second World War. (Emspak, 2011) (Patillo, 2001, pp. 142 -- 148)
Early History of the Helicopter
The early history of the helicopter dates back to around 400 BC. This is when the Chinese theorized that some…
A History of Helicopter Flight. (2010). University of Maryland. Retrieved from:
Pioneers. (2012). Helis. Retrieved from: http://www.helis.com/pioneers/1900.php
Soviet and Russian Helicopter. (2012). U.S. Centennial of Flight Commission. Retrieved from:
FDS Marketing Plan
The purpose of this marketing plan is to describe the conditions, issues and solutions to the future operational prowess of oyal Flying Doctor Services. The plan will highlight the need to continue fund raising operations to supply the resources that are need to continue the services of the FDS. This plan focuses on the Look Up in the Sky Program, an educational promotional system, that has been implemented in a different area of Australia. This plan attempts to expand this program in the Queensland area and eventually garner the organization more power to raise funds in future years.
The unique services that oyal Flying Doctor Services provides also demonstrates the need for a unique and powerful marketing plan that can help elaborate and spread knowledge about the business itself. In an effort to create such awareness FDS created an education program entitled Look Up in the Sky…
Balancing Australia (2014). Royal Flying Doctor Service Queensland Section. Viewed 20 Sep 2014. Retrieved from http://www.balancingaustralia.com.au/royal-flying-doctor-service-qld/
Chapman, S. (2010). Royal Flying Doctor Service, Innovation of a National Icon. Australian Innovation, Dec 2010. Retrieved from http://www.ausinnovation.org/articles/royal-flying-doctor-service-innovation-of-a-national-icon.html
Latimer, C. (2014). Royal Flying Doctors Launch New Safety Program. Ferret, 22 Aug 2014. Retrieved from http://www.ferret.com.au/articles/news/royal-flying-doctors-launch-new-mine-safety-program-n2516944
Royal Flying Doctor Service web page (nd). Viewed 20 Sep 2014. Retrieved from http://www.flyingdoctor.org.au/
America's wars have historically been a reflection of America's very own cultural tendencies; they're usually enormous in scale, they traditionally consist of a colorful variety of fronts and they are most often regarded as a man's game. So it doesn't strike one as peculiar, perhaps, that the perpetually striking images of Vietnam are of camouflaged nineteen-year-old men enduring the graces and horrors hosted by Southeast Asia during the skirmish that lasted over a decade. It may seem more peculiar, however, when one considers that more than 15,000 women relocated from their American homes to the perilous, jungle canopied land. Vietnam's legacy of physical handicapping, psychological desecration and cultural rifting echoes in an innumerable collection of films, books, publications, organizations and documentation detailing the heroics, trials and disgraces of a generation of men. But the women that this nation sent off to serve in a countless number of indispensable capacities have…
2. Evans, Barbara. Caduceus in Saigon: A Medical Mission to South Viet-Nam. London: Hutchinson, 1968.
3. Youngstrom-Diebolt, Jean. Keynote Address. Women's Memorial. Austin, TX. 1993.
4. Wilson, Captain Barbara A. Vietnam Southeast Asia. Military Women in Vietnam, 1996.
Military Application of Tranexamic Acid in Trauma Emergency esuscitation
This is an article that reviews military use of tranexamic acid in cases of resuscitation in the instance of a trauma emergency.
Scular disturbance with concomitant bleeding is one of the main death causes in military and civilian trauma. Experience from Afghanistan and Iraq wars has caused developments in resuscitation of hemorrhage victims, with the use of optimum blood component ratio identification (Morrison, et.al, 2012). The new approaches involved balanced and early delivery of packed BCs (red blood cells), FFP (fresh frozen plasma), cryoprecipitate and platelets to restore clotting factor 6 and circulating volume. Notwithstanding these developments, the usefulness of a treatment to reduce hemorrhagic shock related mortality is yet to be established.
As a result of wars in Iraq and Afghanistan, there has been a need to find advances towards revitalization for hemorrhagic shock. Optimal blood ratio components…
Morrison, J., Dubose, J., Rasmussen, T., & Midwinter, M. (2012). Military Application of Tranexamic Acid in Trauma Emergency Resuscitation (MATTERs) Study. Achieves of Surgery, 147(2). Retrieved, from http://188.8.131.52:8088/2161431/Article_2.pdf
(2) Analyzing all accident data without regard to the type of airframe provides for an easy sampling and less potential bias toward fixed wing vs. rotary wing aircraft.
(3) Not including ground accidents into the research will allow the research to focus only on aviation accidents.
(4) Limiting the research to a four-year period; 2003 to 2006 will provide an adequate sampling of the data and not constrain the research results.
The first assumption is that accident data to be used will be an adequate sample of class a through class C accidents within the USAREUR area of operations.
The second assumption is that ARMS inspection dates derived from official USAREUR Publications and historical data files will reflect actual dates of ARMS inspections.
The third assumption is that current ARMS inspections continue to incorporate comprehensive checklist used to evaluate resource management and assist…
Tanks & Triad
The United tates Armed Forces utilize various transportation assets in support of global operations. Write a paper on the C-130 Hercules, answering the following questions; What is the combined and maximum load capacity of litter and ambulatory patients? What is the range of the vehicle? How many attendants are needed? How fast can the vehicle travel? Name advantages / disadvantages of using this particular asset?
The Hercules C-130 is a turbo-prop, high-wing aircraft that remains in continuous production today even though the original design specification was issued by the Air Force over 50 years ago. In addition to carrying 45,000 pounds of cargo, the C-130 has the capability of airlifting 92 ground troops, 64 fully equipped paratroopers, or 74 injured people on litters, or five standard freight pallets.
The C-130 functions admirably as a personnel carrier, fully accommodating 92 combat troops or, on the side-facing seats, accommodating…
FAS Military Analysis Network. (2000). http://www.fas.org/man/dod-101/sys/ac/c-130.htm
2.The performance Triad supports the Ready and Resilient Campaign with the goal of increasing unit health and unit performance and decreasing injuries. The Performance Triad represents Physical Activity, Nutrition, and Sleep- three key components that can influence the cognitive and physical performance of Soldiers. Write a professional paper addressing the questions; While each component is independently important which is the most important subject to you when it comes
According to IATA, freight within Asia Pacific, between Asia Pacific and North America and between Asia Pacific and Europe will account for 57% of the 36 million tonnes of international air freight tonnes in 2011, up from 55% in 2006. The majority of this growth will be from the outbound leg from Asia Pacific ("2008 Annual Report - Air Freight: Carriers Alter Course")."
Overall the article characterizes airfreight as an aspect of the industry that will continue to grow in spite of the fuel cost and economic slow down that seems to have negatively impacted the airline industry. The growth of economies such as China and India seems to contribute to the increased profitability of the air freight segment of the industry. It seems that the growth in air freight will continue well into the future.
Week 7-Article Critique
Issues associated with traffic flow, have been at the forefront of…
Morrison Mary E. July 14, 2008. "Most airlines shun marketing as way to fly through storm" Retrieved July 24 at http://www.btobonline.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20080714/FREE/950009745/1109/FREE
What is General Aviation. http://www.aopa.org/info/what_ga.pdf
Winston C. And Morrison S.A. (2008) "The State of Airline Competition and Prospective Mergers" Retrieved July 24 at http://www.brookings.edu/testimony/2008/0424_airlines_winston.aspx
Forecast of Utility and Breadth of Use:
Although one might imagine that the Beachcraft might me more suited to widespread use (and in the commuter market it definitely is), the actual fact is the Gulfstream seems to be more versatile for many applications including governmental, scientific, and corporate uses. Indeed, its amazing range and speed (it actually beat a Boeing 747 jumbo jet in January 1988 in an eastbound around-the-world trip -- clocking in at under 37 hours (8.5 hours faster than the Boeing) (Roger Guillemette, 2004).
The simple fact is, the Gulfstream IV is currently utilized by more than 158 government and military customers in addition to the more often associated business/corporate/individual customers. In fact, according to a leading pilot publication, "Gulfstream aircraft are in service with 34 nations in a variety of roles including photo reconnaissance, maritime surveillance, medical evacuation, weather research and astronaut training (Pilotfriend, 2004)." In…
Deaken, John. (2004). Gulfstream IV. Pelican's Perch Newsletter. No. 69-29 May, 2003.
FAA. (2004). "Federal Aviation Regulations Database." Retrieved from Web site on November 9, 2004, from, http://www.airweb.faa.gov/Regulatory_and_Guidance_Library/rgFAR.nsf/MainFrame-OpenFrameSet
Flug. Flug Review (staff) (2001). Gulfstream Aerospace GIV-SP. Retrieved from Web site on November 9, 2004, from, http://www.flug-revue.rotor.com/FRTypen/FRGIVSP.htm
Mesa. Mesa Air Group. (2002). "The Beech 1900D Airliner." Retrieved from Web site on November 9, 2004, from, http://www.mesa-air.com/fleet/beech1900.asp
CH-47D helicopters. It focuses on five subsections during the development process until the implementation stage. The paper further looks at how the helicopter was developed, how it was developed and its future. Besides, the paper looks at the significance of the helicopter and major issues experienced during the development and how they were overcome.
The Development Process
The department of defense announced in 1956 plans for the replacement of the CH-37 helicopters with an improved edition CH-47D helicopters. This decision was reached after several army aviation corps voted in favor of the creation of helicopters powered by piston engines. In addition, the army corps recommended that the new helicopters be large enough to airlift large military equipment (Spenser, 1998).
Following the army's decision to use bigger and more powerful helicopters, Vertol was contracted to start the design and building of a new tandem-rotor helicopter known as the V-107 in the…
Anderton, D., & Miller, J. (1989). Boeing Helicopters CH-47 Chinook. Arlington: Aerofax Inc.
Apostolo, G. (1984). The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Helicopters. New York: Bonanza Books.
Combet, G. (2010). New Chinook CH-47 Helicopters. Sydney: Australian Department of Defence.
Crawford, S. (2003). Twenty-First Century Millitary Helicopters: Today's Fighting Gunships. Zenith Imprint.
BATTLE of LA DRANG'S INFLUENCE on HELICOPTERS in COMBAT
In November 1965, approximately 450 men of the 1st Battalion, 7th Cavalry, under the command of Lt. Col. Hal Moore, were dropped by helicopter into a small area in the Ia Drang Valley. Approximately 2,000 North Vietnamese soldiers immediately surrounded them, unexpectedly.
Three days later, less than two and a half miles away, a sister battalion was chopped to pieces. Combined, these two actions at the landing zones X-Ray and Albany constituted one of the most horrific, amazing and significant battles of the Vietnam War.
The battle of la Drang shows how helicopters started to have a major influence on combat operations and the evolution of warfare. The battle also showed how organizations, such as the air cavalry, with its enhanced ability to locate and battle the enemy, and the airmobile division, which was advanced in mobility, became useful means of…
J.D. Coleman, Pleiku: The Dawn of Helicopter Warfare in Vietnam. St. Martin's, 1988.
Moore, Harold. We Were Soldiers Once...and Young: Ia Drang -- the Battle That Changed the War in Vietnam. HarperCollins, 1993.
David L. Hartline, Vietnam: What a Soldier Gives. Brazelton-Wallis, 1984.
Application Process Improvement Models Organizations Systems
A clinical practice improvement initiative
The strategy of treating patients with dementia must be dependent on a thorough neurological, psychiatric, and general therapeutic assessment of the nature and causes of the cognitive setbacks and related non-cognitive symptoms, in the setting of a strong collaboration with the patient and family. It is crucial to distinguish and treat general medical conditions, notably delirium, that may be answerable for or contribute to dementia symptoms (Ferrara, 2010).
Currently, the organization is embracing the Progressing evaluation strategy. This approach focuses on incorporating occasional monitoring of the advancement and development of cognitive and non-cognitive psychiatric and how they respond to intervention. With the end goal to provide prompt medication, improve patient safety, and provide convenient advice to the patient and family, it is ordinarily fundamental to see patients in routine follow-up at regular intervals. Frequent patient visits such as once…
Baur, C. (2011). Calling the nation to act: Implementing the national action plan to improve health literacy. Nursing Outlook, 59(2), 63-69.
Ferrara, L.R. (2010). Integrating evidence-based practice with educational theory in clinical practice for nurse practitioners: Bridging the theory practice gap. Research & Theory for Nursing Practice, 24(4), 213-216.
Grant, B., Colello, S., Riehle, M., & Dende, D. (2010). An evaluation of the nursing practice environment and successful change management using the new generation Magnet Model. Journal of Nursing Management, 18(3), 326-331. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2834.2010.01076.x
Lavoie-Tremblay, M., Bonin, J.-P., Lesage, A., Farand, L., Lavigne, G.L., & Trudel, J. (2011). Implementation of diagnosis-related mental health problems: Impact on health care providers. Health Care Manager, 30(1), 30(1): 4-14 (50 ref). doi:10.1097/HCM.0b013e3182078a95
City of Miami Gardens is vulnerable to natural hazards, particularly flooding because of the location of the area and extreme weather events like heavy rain. One of the major reasons for these extreme weather events that increase the likelihood of heavy rain and subsequent flooding is global climate change. Global climate change contributes to unprecedented weather incidents through which the earth cools and warms over geologic time. While the city has created canal systems and neighborhood drainage system to help in drainage of water during periods of heavy rainfall, the problem of flooding continues to persist. When flooding occurs, it leads to considerable business disruptions, power outages, and other negative impacts on the community.
A hazard scenario in this area would involve a series of storms that are characterized with heavy rains for several weeks. The city's weather department has issued warnings that the heavy rains will continue for several…
"Flood Awareness." (n.d.). Miami Gardens. Retrieved from City of Miami Gardens, Florida
"Flood Emergency Response Plan." (2004). FM Global. Retrieved June 23, 2014, from http://www.fmglobal.com/shamrock/p0589.pdf
"Floor Risk Assessment." (2014, May). Floodplain Mitigation Plan. Retrieved from Town of Cutler Bay, Florida website: http://www.cutlerbay-fl.gov/announcement/1403186000_DRAFT%20Floodplain%20Mitigation%20Plan_Cutler%20Bay%20Risk%20Assessment%20Section.pdf
capabilities of key medical personnel operating in an austere environment in terms of their performance measures on key indicators, the skill sets that they must possess and the method in which equipment and supplies will be transferred to the location where medical personnel are to provide care. N KPP requirements are also set out as well as parameters for measuring the desired goals and needs of this operation. The systems needs are also set out in this study along with requirements of integration and joint communications. The implementation of scheduled delivery of increments is set out as well. Included in this report are illustrations in the form of charts and tables to assist with the understanding of the concept, strategy and implementation of this program.
N KPP revision history reported by the Joint Chief of Staff Instructor includes renaming the instruction which was previously named 'Interoperability and Supportability…
Tactical Doctrine: USAF Medical Support For Special Operations Forces (2005) Air Force Tactics, Techniques and Procedures 3024.6. Retrieved from: http://static.e-publishing.af.mil/production/1/af_sg/publication/afttp3-42.6/afttp3-42.6.pdf
Initial Capabilities Document 7 For 8 (U) United States Marine Corps Expeditionary Energy, Water, 9 and Waste (nd) CDTM Document Number: 1111080576 v. 2. Retrieved from: http://www.hqmc.marines.mil/Portals/160/Docs/USMC%20E2W2%20ICD.pdf
JCIDS Process: Capabilities Based Assessment (CBA) (2015) AcqNotes. Retrieved from:
In managing a multinational company in the food products industry, it is essential to implement a solid knowledge management system to ensure that as much relevant information as possible is handled in the most effective manner. Issues that must be addressed to ensure the safety of the product and that optimum delivery to consumers is possible include: sanitation, where workers may eat and drink, conflict resolution, how in-house teams will conduct business, how online teams will facilitate the organization, security, and emergency evacuation procedures. This paper will discuss the key benefits of creating a best practice policy on each of these described issues and will speculate on the major ramifications if such policies are not created. This paper will also predict the significant ways in which the best practices policy created here will contribute towards the long-term sustainability of the company. Finally this paper will determine whether or not the…
Emergency Operations Plan Outline
disruption of basic infrastructure (utilities, roadways, communication)
degradation of sanitary facilities iii. direct injuries/fatalities and property damage
Critical esource Dependencies
medical care needs could reach critical mass
clean water and hygiene needs must be managed
Characteristics and Policies of the EOP Authority That May Affect esponse
intercommunication and cooperation of disparate departments is essential
chain of command changes during emergency could prove problematic
Concept Of Operation
disaster notification should go straight to the top member of the hierarchy
proper chains of command and task hierarchies must be maintained
Overall Plan Priorities
protection of life, health, and property
effective coordination of relief efforts and resources iii. maintenance of basic physical and organizational infrastructure
Town / CITY Handling Of Emergencies
i. establish refuge/information centers for the population
ii. establish emergency communication procedures and hierarchies
Emergency Action Levels
i. plan for cessation of public transportation during/following event
ii. reorganization/prioritization plan for transportation redeployment
Such equipment should be adequate to ensure personnel are protected from chemical exposure to the eyes, skin, and respiratory tract. PPE may be upgraded or downgraded by the site industrial hygienist, HSM, or qualified Site Safety Officer based upon site conditions and air monitoring results (Levin, et al., 2002)
Work practice and administrative controls
Administrative controls or work practice controls are changes in work procedures such as written safety policies, rules, supervision, schedules, and training with the aim of reducing the interval, frequency, and sternness of exposure to hazardous chemicals or situations. Workers who handle hazardous chemicals in the workplace should be familiar with the administrative controls required fewer than 29 CF 1910.1200, and the OSHA Hazard Communication Standard. This controls are perhaps most important, because they impact your people directly. On the one hand, they are the simplest, since all it takes is education. On the other hand, education…
Annual report on 9/11 health (September, 2009). Retrieved on March 20, 2010 from http://www.nyc.gov/html/fdny/pdf/2009_wtc_medical_working_group_annual_report.pdf
Burright, D. et al., (1999). Evaluation guidelines for air sampling methods utilizing chromatographic analysis. OSHA Salt Lake Technical Center, U.S. Department of Labor: Salt Lake City, UT.
Harris, J.S., (ed.) (1997). Occupational medicine practice guidelines: Evaluation and management of common health problems and functional recovery in workers. The American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Beverly, Mass.: OEM Press.
Levin, S. et al.,. (2002). Health effects of World Trade Center site workers. America Journal of Industrial Medicine 42:545 -- 547.
At a minimum, the emergency plan should outline the respective risks capable of being anticipated along with appropriate procedures for implementing necessary response procedures and resource allocation. The emergency plan must include procedures for ensuring continual communication among responders as well as alternate means of communication; procedures for contacting entities outside the immediate area affected by the emergency; and multiple means of providing essential response to every foreseeable type of emergency and every foreseeable type of malfunction or breakdown of primary processes along with secondary plans for each.
Effective emergency response requires training and practice implementing procedures and resources and that practice is also essential for communicating awareness of the plan among first responders. Non-first responders should also be informed of all elements of the plan that pertain to them specifically.
4. What role, if any, should emergency managers play in ensuring emergency medical care for a mass-casualty incident? In…
The ole of Private Companies
Emergency preparedness refers to the process of preparing resources, both human, financial and equipments for action during times of emergency. It involves planning for disasters and equipping individuals with the capacity to use the available resources in reacting towards the occurrence of disasters. Nations need to put structures in place to prepare for disasters in the form of terrorist attacks and natural disasters among other dangers[footnoteef:2]. Entities prepare for such dangers institutions emergency structures for communication, implementing warning devices, establishment of potential shelter, rehearsing for evacuation, and establishing backup sustenance services among other things. Disaster preparedness, whether at the regional or local level, is the responsibility of a wide range of players and not just governments, as the society would ordinarily view it. All individual and parties, in whatever, society is vulnerable to potential disaster and so all entities are…
Alpert, Michael, E. Preparing for Catastrophic Events, Pennsylvania: Diane Publishers, 2009
Bascetta, Cynthia A. Emergency Preparedness: State Efforts to Plan for Medical Surge
Could Benefit from Shared Buidance for Allocating Scarce Medical Resources, Washington, D.C.: United States Government Accountability Office, 2010
Bradley, Arthur T. Disaster Preparedness Handbook: A Guide for Families. New York: Skyhorse Pub, 2011.
Mold emediation in Wilkes-Barre, PA
Mold emediation in the Aftermath of Flooding in Wilkes-Barre, PA
Mold emediation in the Aftermath of Flooding in Wilkes-Barre, PA
Pennsylvania was hit hard in September, first by Hurricane Irene and then by the remnants of Tropical Storm Lee (Huber, 2011). Close to 100,000 residents living in areas that were inundated in 1972 due to Hurricane Agnes were ordered to evacuate on Thursday, September 8, 2011 (The Times Leader, 2011) and were not allowed to return until Saturday afternoon or later (Olson, 2011). Fortunately, the levees built in the aftermath of Hurricane Agnes did their job and a comparatively low number of 5,400 homes were exposed to floodwaters (Huber, 2011). However, those residents whose homes were flooded will be faced not only with physical damage to their property, but also the threat of significant exposure to mold-generated bioaerosols if their homes were exposed…
Brandt, Mary, Brown, Clive, Burkhart, Joe, Burton, Nancy, Cox-Ganser, Jean, Damon, Scott et al. (2006). Mold prevention strategies and possible health effects in the aftermath of hurricanes and major floods. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 55, 1-27. Retrieved 23 Feb. 2012 from http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/rr5508a1.htm
Cabral, Joao P.S. (2010). Can we use indoor fungi as bioindicators of indoor air quality? Historical perspectives and open questions. Science of the Total Environment, 408, 4285-4295.
Committee on Damp Indoor Spaces and Health (CDISH). (2004). Damp Indoor Spaces and Health. Board on Health Promotion and Disease Prevention, Institute of Medicine of the National Academies. NAP.edu. Retrieved 23 Feb. 2012 from http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?isbn=0309091934
Cummings, Kristin J., Cox-Ganser, Jean, Riggs, Margaret A., Edwards, Nicole, and Kreiss, Kathleen. (2007). Respirator donning in post-hurricane New Orleans. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13, 700-707.
Guidance for the safe entry, safe clean up procedures, appropriate PPE for all recovery workers, and a hazard assessment for the most critical items or operations that can cause acute or chronic health effects or disease.
Recovery work in disaster areas such as those hit by Hurricane Katrina can pose a lot of problems. The workers here have to be aware of various possible dangers that range from live wires o tripping over the debris to stray animals biting them. Carefully evaluating the possible dangers can help us control and prevent them
Guidance for the safe entry
My first step would be to evaluate the work site in order to identify whether any of the following hazards are present: electrocution, material that we may fall over or planks or fallen glass, for instance, that are dislodged; I would check the noise rate; whether there are cut / laceration hazards (such…
U.S. Department of Labor Occupational Safety & Health Administration (OSHA) General Recommendations for Working in All Impacted Areas
According to Stefanie Olson (2001), the Act provides government with increased electronic surveillance, search and data gathering power. Under the guise of tracking down "potential" terrorists, the expansion of Internet eavesdropping technology provides the government with full viewing rights into any private life they choose. In this way, immigrants who enter the country and conduct their business in a perfectly legal manner are now targeted for such surveys (White, 2008).
Local and National Changes in Law Enforcement - the basic mission of law enforcement and foreign/defense policy in the United States has dramatically changed since the events of 9/11 and the subsequent "War on Terrorism." Since 9/11, policies across the United States and abroad have changed from being reactive to being intensely proactive. There, are, however, several challenges faced by law enforcement and the legal issues of defense and foreign policy regarding this new approach to terrorism (Simonson, 2006).
"After 9-11, Security Job Openings Abound," cited in:
Bergen, P. (December 5, 2008). "WMD Terrorism Fears are Overblown." CNN
Politics.Com. Cited in:
In August 2016, the state of Louisiana experienced catastrophic flooding, specifically at Baton Rouge and Lafayette areas. The flooding, rated as the most terrible natural disaster since the 2012 Hurricane Sandy, resulted in 10 deaths and destruction of property worth billions of dollars, leaving thousands of residents homeless. The situation presented a major crisis for organizations mandated with disaster response, particularly the Federal Emergency Management Authority (FEMA). Many agencies and people have criticized FEMA for not attending to the disaster with adequate urgency, as well as for its failure to warn the residents adequately prior to the storm. Such criticism often puts the reputation of disaster response organizations at stake. FEMA may be subject to greater public pressure, leading to internal reorganization and even dismissal of some officials.
Public Health and Safety
In February 2016, Johnson & Johnson, a multinational firm involved in manufacturing medical devices as well…
isk Analysis and the Security Survey
The following risk analysis and security survey report will be centered on the hospital as an organization. Vulnerabilities can be classified as crime opportunities, opportunities for breaking rules and regulations, opportunities for profiting and also for loss. By definition, vulnerability can be a gap or a weakness inside a security program that might be exploited by opponents to acquire unlawful access. Vulnerabilities include procedural, human, structural, electronic as well as other elements that offer opportunities to damage assets (Vellani and Owles, 2007).
A vulnerability assessment can be classified as a systematic method utilized to evaluate an organization's security position, assess the efficiency of current security infrastructure, as well as, recognize security limitations. The basic approach of a Vulnerability Assessment (VA) first measures what precise assets require protection. Subsequently, VA recognizes the protection measures previously being used to protect those assets, as well as what…
Brandon Region Hospital. (2012). Evacuation plan.
Brandon Region Hospital. (2012). Risk management plan.
Chung, S., & Shannon, M. (2005). Hospital planning for acts of terrorism and other public health emergencies involving children. Archives of disease in childhood, 90(12), 1300-1307.
Code Green Networks. (2009). Protecting Healthcare Organizations from Patient Data Loss. Retrieved from: www.codegreennetworks.com/resources/downloads/wp_patient_dlp.pdf
Disaster Preparedness and Emergency esponse for Natural Disasters or Terrorists Attacks in Florida
Emergency management has been described regarding the phases by using words such as prepare. Mitigate, respond and recover. For this paper, we are going to examine the underlying concepts, variation, limitations, and implications of emergency management phases. Moreover, we are going to look at the various preparedness and response strategies applied by the State of Florida when dealing with natural disasters and terrorist attacks among others. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to show the preparedness and response put in place for these crises for both researchers and practitioners. The paper will also try to give definitions and descriptions of two components, preparedness and response, of emergency management, the temporal versus functional distinctions. Moreover, it is important to understand the interrelationships and responsibilities for each of the phases (mitigation, preparedness, response, and recovery) and the diversity…
Adamski, T., Kline, B. & Tyrell, T. (2006). FEMA Reorganization and the Response to Hurricane Disaster Relief: FEMA Reorganization. Perspectives on Public Affairs, 3, 1-36.
Durmaz, H. (2007). Understanding and Responding to Terrorism. Washington, USA: IOS Press.
Edwards, F. L. & Steinhausler, F. (2007). NATO and Terrorism: On scene: New challenges for the first responders and civil protection. New York: Springer Science & Business Media.
Elders Affairs. (June 2013). Disaster Preparedness: Guide for Elders. Elder Update -- Special Edition, 24(3), 1-24.
Business Name: MWV located in Covington VA
Number of Employees 190
Emergency management plan entails a system of managing resources, information analysis and decision making in the event of a tornado hitting the facility (Hubbard, 2009). The emergency management plan acts a guide to the responsible personal, the staff and residents within the facility on the steps to take upon the occurrence of a tornado. The emergency plan gives a description of the role that the pre-appointed Emergency Management Group (EMG) is expected to carry out in the event of a tornado. The Emergency Management group will serve as the overall authority over the activities in the facility relating to the occurrence of a tornado.
The emergency management policy is to ensure the safety of every individual within the facility and bring the facility to normal operations after an accident.
The head of the Emergency Management group is…
Hubbard, C. o. (2009). Emergency Response, Windshield Survey; Hubbard, . City of Hubbard Oregon.
Safety, C. f C.P. (2002). American Institute of Chemical Engineers. Guidelines for Technical Planning for On-Site Emergencies. . New York: CCPS-AICHE.
An emergency and disaster preparedness plan and program is an important aspect for an organization due to its significance in promoting workplace safety. The preparedness program helps in enhancing safety in the workplace through inclusion of initiatives for lessening injuries and loss of lives, minimizing insurance claims, lessening property damage, and improving employee morale. While emergencies still happen despite of measures to prevent them, an organization's preparedness plan is critical in preventing the frequency of their occurrences, minimizing injury and property damage, and establishing ways for mitigating their impacts. This is largely because the plan consists of basic procedures to handle emergencies in the workplace. In most cases, organizations use preparedness plans and programs to protect workers from fire incidents and other emergencies.
Threats and Vulnerabilities in the Workplace:
Since an organization's workplace involves several employees, threats and vulnerabilities are likely to occur both from within and outside the…
Ball, J.L. (2001). Employee Fire and Life Safety: Developing a Preparedness Plan and Conducting Emergency Evacuation Drills. Retrieved May 25, 2012, from http://www.nfpa.org/assets/files/pdf/evacuation.pdf
"Fire Preparedness & Response: What the OHS Laws Require." (n.d.). Labor Tek Safety
Training Inc. Retrieved May 25, 2012, from http://www.labortek.com/images/articles/24.pdf
"Fire Prevention Plan." (2009, April 21). JSRCC Fire Prevention Plan. Retrieved from J.
Stimuli are the bases for cues, but a stimulus is not a cue by itself" (Weiner & Nagel, 1988, p. 239). Just as pilots need simulation devices to provide them with realistic cue which signal that they need to adjust the aircraft, the crew within the cabin of the commercial plane also need cues that they can respond to in training with actions that they are supposed to execute.
Cues need to be part of the crew member training programs. "Crewmember initial training must include instruction on general subjects as well as subjects pertaining to the airplane type to be operated. The subjects for whom crewmembers are to receive instruction must be applicable to their assigned duties. Initial training is based on equipment and crewmembers not qualified in an aircraft group should complete initial training on the aircraft in that group. Crewmember initial training programs should include drills and actual…
Baron, R. (n.d.). The Cockpit, the Cabin, and Social Psychology. Retrieved from gofir.com: http://www.gofir.com/general/crm/index.htm
Burki-Cohen, J., Sparko, a., & Bellman, M. (2011, August). Flight Simulator Motion Literature Pertinent to Airline-Pilot Recurrent Training and Evaluation. Retrieved from Volpe.dot.gov: http://www.volpe.dot.gov/coi/hfrsa/docs/aiaafinal811.pdf
Estegassy, R. (n.d.). Improving Cabin Crew Training for Emergency Evacuations. Retrieved from fire.tc.faa.gov: http://www.fire.tc.faa.gov/1998Conference/presentations/RobertEstegassy.pdf
Liu, a. (2010, October 14). The Role of Cabin Crew in Aircraft Safety Procedures. Retrieved from Aviation Knowledge: http://aviationknowledge.wikidot.com/aviation:the-responsibility-of-cabin-crew-in-aircraft-safety
Describes potential WMD threat from Andean eligious Fighters
Two-Step Operations Plan
Prevent the attack
Threat is nebulous
Threat is well organized
esponse to the attack
esponse follows the adage that no battle plan survives the first shot
esponse is predictable based on known lethality of agent
Threat is real and represents a legitimate threat to national security
Threat demands immediate and stepped-up response
Pursue step one more aggressively
Coordinate step two with local first responders in the interim
Office of Counterterrorism
M EMO A NDUM
Counter Terrorist Unit
Supervisor, Weapons of Mass Destruction
Identified Weapons of Mass Destruction Threat
Based on credible reports from local nationals, in-country and airborne surveillance, there is reason to believe that approximately one dozen fringe members of the Andean egional Freedom Fighters (AFF) have acquired a large quantity of sarin, which is classified as a weapon of mass…
Davis, L.E., Latourrette, T., Mosher, D.E., Davis, L.M. & Howell, D.R. (2003). Individual preparedness and response to chemical, radiological, nuclear, and biological terrorist attacks. Santa Monica, CA: Rand.
Hood, E. (2001, November). The Tokyo attacks in retrospect: Sarin leads to memory loss.
Environmental Health Perspectives, 109(11), 542.
McCarthy, D. (2001, Fall). Waging war. Forum for Applied Research and Public Policy, 16(3),
Despite there being a "Federal Response Plan" in place, the bureaucratic machinery took a long time to activate. The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), which was supposed to implement the Federal Response Plan, was hardly in a state to respond adequately to the situation. The Agency was still geared to respond primarily to a massive nuclear attack and saw its main responsibility as distributing federal loans and grants to help rebuild an area after a disaster. It would not issue direct aid to a state until it was given a specific request by the governor, and the state was unable to issue specific requests for aid because it had no one was available to assess the damage (Franklin). Federal help was so slow in arriving that a frustrated director of Dade County's Emergency Office made the famous remark, "... here the hell is the cavalry on this one?" (Quoted by…
Franklin, Daniel. "The FEMA phoenix - reform of the Federal Emergency Management Agency." Washington Monthly, July-August, 1995. September 21, 2008. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1316/is_/ai_17263136
Lerbinger, Otto. The Crisis Manager: Facing Risk and Responsibility. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1997.
Preliminary Report -- Hurricane Andrew." National Hurricane Center. Updated December 10, 1993. September 21, 2008. http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/1992andrew.html#FOOT1
Schneider, Saundra K. Flirting with Disaster: Public Management in Crisis Situations. Armonk, NY M.E. Sharpe, 1995
The Aurora theater shooting incident is the largest shooting incident in the history of the U.S. in terms of the number of casualties. Perpetrated by one James Eagan Holmes, the 20th July 2017 incident left 12 people dead and 58 people critically injured. Overall, response to the incident was commendable, with the police and fire personnel arriving within five minutes after the shooting. The Aurora Police Department, the Aurora Fire Department, hospital-based emergency departments, and Emergency Management Services (EMS) worked together to manage the crisis. The agencies collaborated in evacuating victims, apprehending the suspect, searching the theater building, providing emergency medical care, transporting victims to hospitals, and assisting families of victims. Nonetheless, similar to other previous incidents, inter-agency coordination and communication difficulties were experienced. These difficulties provide crucial lessons for leadership within the field of emergency management.
Background/Summary of the Incident
The 20th of July 2017 was a sad day…
CISM Program Surry Nuclear Power Plant
What is CISM?
Why is a CISM program necessary for the agency?
Agency description, community, and social context
Prevention and Interventions
Chronic health and innovative approaches
Proposed Budget .17
Critical incident stress management plays an important role in assuring the psychological resilience necessary for those who are exposed to a traumatic incident. This proposal outlines a program to add mental Health Services to the existing emergency management plan for the Surry Power Plant. The current plan does not address mental health issues, and this is an important need that will need to be considered in the future. The current plan will modify the existing plan through the addition of mental health services for the community.
Proposal: CISM Program
What is CISM?
A critical incident is any event that produces stress or trauma to personnel that are directly or…
Blesdoe, B. (2002), June). CISM: Possible Liability for EMS Services? Prehospital Perspective.
2002; 1(6): September (reprint of Best Practices piece) Retrieved from http://www.bryanbledsoe.com/data/pdf/mags/CISM%20(BP).pdf
Bledsoe, B.E. & Barnes, D. (2003) "Beyond the debriefing debate: What should we be doing?"
Emergency Medical Services Magazine; 32(12), 60-68.
Management System: ole of EMS
EMS Duties during Emergency Operations
The Emergency Operations Plan for most municipalities in the United States defines how emergency services will respond to a disaster. A good example is the one outlined by the City of St. Pete Beach in Pinellas County, Florida (St. Pete Beach City Commission, 2011). Based on their analysis, the main hazards for their municipality are flooding due to heavy rainfall, hazardous materials storage and transportation, transportation accidents, tornados, hurricanes, and coastal erosion (p. 27). The frequency of these incidents range from dozens per year to a major hurricane once every 50 years. In St. Pete Beach, if an incident can be effectively handled by their own resources the response is organized using the National Incident Management System (NIMS) (p. 33). The incident commander will control the response, including first responders, even if more than one jurisdiction is involved. Support is…
St. Pete Beach City Commission. (2011). Special Commission Workshop Meeting. Retrieved from http://stpetebeach.granicus.com/DocumentViewer.php?file=stpetebeach_1b0ba9fdb12bd7e90fc339c9b7ef6e3d.pdf&view=1 .
Constipation, Hypertension, Seizure
This is the infrequent or difficult bowel evacuation (Mayo Clinic Staff, 2012). While there are no strict standard for bowel elimination, it is generally believed that fewer than thrice a week constitutes constipation. Stools are usually hard and dry. Other common symptoms associated constipation include excessive straining during bowel evacuation, a sense of rectal blockage, a sense of incomplete evacuation and the need to perform manual measures to evacuate the bowels. Constipation may be the consequence of insufficient fluid intake or dehydration, inadequate fiber in the diet, foregoing elimination, irritable bowel syndrome, lack of physical activity, illness, abuse of laxatives and certain medical conditions. Those more likely to develop constipation are older adults, those who are sedentary, confined in bed, dehydrated, on low-fiber diet, on certain medications and undergoing chemotherapy. It is more common in women and children. Causes for alarm include fewer…
Makoff, D. (2012). High blood pressure. MedicineNet: MedicineNet.com. Retrieved on March 7, 2012 from http://www.medicinenet.com/high_blood_pressure/page
Mayo Clinic Staff (2012). Constipation. Mayo Clinic: Mayo Foundation for Medical
Education and Research. Retrieved on March 7, 2012 from http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/constipation.DS0063/METHOD=print&DSECTION=all
PubMed Health (2011). Seizures. ADAM Medical Encyclopedia: ADAM, Inc. Retrieved
Hurricane esponse Issues
The purpose of this essay is to highlight and describe the various details that are inherent within a disaster. This essay will focus on a recent hurricane event that demands the attention of the Emergency Operations Center (EOC) and includes the necessary actions by the Incident Commander (IC). The current status of the problem is post hurricane and extra medical supplies are needed. Along with this problem lies the issue of drinking water, food and temporary shelter. There is also continuous rain falling as floods are threatening the well being of both the residents of this area and the rescue effort itself.
Prioritizing during emergency responses is a very necessary thing to do in order to survive these troubling situations. Leadership is necessary in these cases to provide guidance and a sense of faith and hope in times of peril and danger. In hurricane response situations,…
Bucci, I., Inserra, D., Lesser, J., Mayer, M.A., Slattery, B., Spencer, J., & Tubb, K. (2013). After Hurricane Sandy: Time To Learn And Implement The Lessons In Preparedness, Response, And Resilience. The Heritage Foundation Emergency Preparedness Working Group, (144).
Wolshon, B., Urbina, E., Wilmot, C., & Levitan, M. (2005). Review of policies and practices for hurricane evacuation. I: Transportation planning, preparedness, and response. Natural hazards review, 6(3), 129-142.
Emergency Preparedness Planning: Denver, Colorado
Emergency Preparedness: Denver
The City of Denver is located in the state of Colorado, on the western edge of the Great Plains and the eastern boundary of the ocky Mountains (City-Data.com, 2009). The city is 5,332 feet above sea level and covers 153 square miles. The climate is sunny, semiarid, and the mountains to the west protect it from most severe weather events.
The Denver-Aurora Metropolitan area is much larger, encompassing 8,387 square miles (U.S. Census Bureau, 2010). The population has rapidly increased between 2000 and 2008 (30.7%) and the most recent estimate suggests 2.5 million people make the Denver Metropolitan area their home. By comparison, the City of Denver had close to 600,000 residents in 2010 (U.S. Census Bureau, 2012). In terms of residents with special needs, close to 10% of the metropolitan population was over the age of 65 in 2008, 252,000 had…
City-Data.com. (2009). Denver: Geography and Climate. City-Data.com. Retrieved 22 Mar. 2013 from http://www.city-data.com/us-cities/The-West/Denver-Geography-and-Climate.html .
OEMHS (Office of Emergency Management and Homeland Security, City and County of Denver). (2010). Mayor's Office of Emergency Management and Homeland Security 2010 Recap Report: City and County of Denver. Office of Emergency Management and Homeland Security, City and County of Denver. Retrieved 22 Mar. 2013 from http://www.denvergov.org/Portals/428/documents/OEMHS_2010RecapReport.pdf .
FEMA (U.S. Federal Emergency Management Administration). (2010). Developing and Maintaining Emergency Operations Plans: Comprehensive Preparedness Guide (CPG) 101, Version 2.0. U.S. Federal Emergency Management Administration. Retrieved 22 Mar. 2013 from http://www.fema.gov /library/viewRecord.do?=&id=5697' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Emergency management is also a vital part to the planning for a disaster. Training will have to be conducted at periodic intervals to maintain the preparedness of the emergency response team and to evaluate the condition and the operational difficulties if any that may arise due to the equipment being used. The procedures will have to be critiqued and constantly evaluated to determine if a better, safer or more efficient method can be used in the procedure. A clean up task force will also have to be set up to help clean and restore the area to as near as possible, its pre-disaster state. Sufficient funds will have to be allocated to keep the emergency response team properly outfitted. An emergency fund may also be required to be set up to take care of the clean up activities that may be required. This fund would have to be very liquid…
Sykes, L., Richards, P., Kim W-Y., Armitage, J., Jacob, K., & Lerner-Lam, Art. (2001) Seismograms recorded by LCSN Station PAL (Palisades, NY) New York, Columbia University. Retrieved February 18, 2008 at http://www.ldeo.columbia.edu/LCSN/Eq/20010911_wtc.html
TRADE. (2008). The Training Resources and Data Exchange Washington, D.C., FEMA. Retrieved February 18, 2008, at http://www.usfa.dhs.gov/nfa/trade/index.shtm
LLIS. (2008) Lessons Learned Information Shared Washington, D.C., Department of Homeland Security, Retrieved February 18, 2008, from https://www.llis.dhs.gov/index.do
RKB. (2008) Responder Knowledge Base. Washington, D.C., Department of Homeland Security, Retrieved February 18, 2008, from https://www.rkb.us
The cardio-pulmonary resuscitation, Self-Aid uddy Care and the Fire Extinguisher training are mandatory to all fuel systems personnel. Initial and annual recertification is conducted during squadron block training. Each personnel must possess a current CPR card.
All personnel are trained to use and care for all protective equipment in the work center.
And they are trained to recognize potential hazardous symptoms while working in confined spaces and to immediately evaluate the confined space as directed by the attendant.
efore the start of fuel systems maintenance, the shift supervisor insures that the applicable aircraft checklist is accomplished, the required fuel systems equipment are inspected and maintained in serviceable condition, emergency communications established by radio or emergency phones, and the Fire Department of Job Control Department notified of fuel systems maintenance.
efore entering the fuel systems repair area, all non-fuel systems personnel shall check in and get briefed by the…
Baird, R.L. (1996). Fire protection and health program. Air Force Occupational and Environmental Safety. 58 pages. Retrieved January 31, 2007 at http://www.epublishing.af.mil/pubfiles/af/91/afi91-301/afi91-301.pdf
Breed, P. (1998). Respiratory protection program. Air Force Occupational Safety and Health 48-138. Aerospace Medicine. 37 pages. Retrieved January 31, 2007 at http://184.108.40.206/pubs/info_asp?shorttitle=30SWI48-103
Millar, J. Donald. (1986). Preventing occupational fatalities in confined spaces.
NIOSH Publications 80-110. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. 9 pages. Retrieved January 31, 2007 at http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/86110v2.html
Air Force Military Training 4
Aviation Tactical Force- to- Force Exercise
Military operations entails an interaction of multiple forces, hence sequencing their interaction during training is essential in promoting inter-service cooperation (Col Gopaul, 2017). Efficiency in training is determined by how well the training mirrors the battlefield. The sequencing of the battlefield is configured engaging in multi-service training exercises referred to as force- to- force exercise.
Force- to- force exercise training is a form of training that entails training with simulation equipment to realism to training as the training. Tactical force-to-force exercises essentially entail simulation and configuration of battlefield complexities to support basic training of pilots, mission commanders, and operators. The operation entails the interaction of technologies and forces with different operation experience (Kishore, 2017). The simulated exercises ensure warfighting competencies and swift execution and successful spectrum of operations as well as interforce relationship building (Col Gopaul, 2017). Force- to-…
Terrorism elated Disaster Preparation Exercises
Terrorism-elated Disaster Preparation Exercises
In the recent years, terrorism has changed with the global sophistication, to complex and unmanageable standards. A country may consider itself a haven for its people, only to be surprised by a terrible terrorism attack. From these terror trends observed in different countries, governments must equip themselves with the necessary disaster management skills and equipment. Various disaster preparation activities can be undertaken to fight terrorism attacks. These disaster preparation exercises are meant to avoid or reduce terrorism casualties.
The foremost exercise should involve civic education on terrorism attacks. The public should be aware of what to do on receiving information on a planned terrorist activity, when in the midst of a terrorist attack or when in the aftermath of a terrorist activity (Bloomberg, Scoppetta, & Cassano, 2007). For instance, the public should be aware of the need to avoid an area…
Bloomberg, M.R., Scoppetta, N., & Cassano, S.J. (2007). Terrorism and Disaster Preparedness Strategy. Fire Department City of New York, 21-39.
Vasterman, P., Yzermans, C.J., & Dirkzwager, A.J. (2004). The Role of the Media and Media Hypes in the Aftermath of Disasters. Oxford Journals, 3-7.
Function #1: Mitigation
At this stage, gradual and long-term steps are taken to ensure that disasters do not occur, or that, when they do, they cause minimal damage. Actions at this stage include the identification of hazards, the research of the causes which generate the disaster, the creation of means in which to modify the causes of the disasters, the development of means which reduce the community's vulnerability to the disaster, the efforts to better consolidate old buildings, the construction of disaster-resistant buildings, the education of the population or the provision of insurance.
At this stage, the responsibilities of the central government include:
The identification of hazards and the research of their causes
The research as to how the causes of the disaster can be modified
The offering of research and development grants to local projects
The promulgation of buildings safety standards
elative to the competencies of the local governments…
Arnstein, S.R., 1969, A Ladder of Citizen Participation, AIP Journal
Boyce, W., 2002, A Seat at the Table: Persons with Disabilities and Policy Making, McGill-Queen's Press -- MQUP, ISBN 077352181X
Branigan, T., 2009, More than 500 dead in Typhoon Morakot, The Guardian, Edition of August, 14
Canton, L.G., 2007, Emergency Management: Concepts and Strategies for Effective Programs, Wiley-Interscience, ISBN 047173487X
Hazard Potential Grid
Fre- quen- cy
Speed of Onset
Scope and Inten- sity
Act of war
Lowest risk within ten years =1; highest risk = 5
Earthquake: St. Louis is about 200 miles from the New Madrid Fault, but because of the geology of the region, shock waves travel a very long distance with considerable force. A major New Madrid Fault earthquake could destroy many vulnerable buildings, do major damage to others, buckle highways and collapse overpasses and possibly bridges. Although the fault has not triggered a major earthquake in modern times, in 1809 and 1810 it triggered two earthquakes about six weeks apart that were both probably around 8.0 on the Richter scale. The region avoided major damage and loss of life only because…
S. history such as Hurricane Andrew and the Northridge earthquake. Post-9/11 infrastructure protection investments have focused on increasing the security of infrastructure, not in increasing its resilience." (p. 258)
Certainly, these breakdowns are an indication that many of the interagency strategies brought to bear in the discussion on public administration had not been executed effectively, especially those intended to coalesce under the roof of the Department of Homeland Security. A quick review of the disaster management failures of Katrina are appropriate here. Accordingly, for five days after the landfall and passage of Hurricane Katrina, hordes of people stranded in New Orleans continued to wait for some indication that the federal government would soon be provided relief. Stranded and contained in horrific conditions in the city's football arena, the Superdome, which had been converted to a makeshift evacuation shelter with woefully insufficient supplies and accommodations for the tens of thousands who…
Agnos, a. (1998). Single Family Loan Production and Servicing. U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development. (USDHUD).
Associated Press (AP). (2005). FEMA knew Katrina response was 'broken,' MSNBC.
Brown, a.D. (2004). Authoritative Sensemaking in a Public Inquiry Report, Organization Studies, 25(1), 95-112.
Brown N., Vega S., Dupree a., Hartong R. (2010). DHS' Progress in Federal Incident Management Planning, Department of Homeland Security Office of Inspector General
The failure to be able to deal with the fallout of Hurricane Katrina in New Orleans caused many overstressed hospital workers to respond in what would later be regarded as a horrific manner. Investigators "were stunned when health care workers charged that a well-regarded doctor and two respected nurses had hastened the deaths of some patients by injecting them with lethal doses of drugs" allegedly in an act of mercy due to the inability of rescue workers to evacuate the patients in an effective fashion" (Fink 2009:1). The New Orleans doctor implicated in the patients' deaths argued that "informed consent is impossible during disasters and that doctors need to be able to evacuate the sickest or most severely injured patients last -- along with those who have Do Not esuscitate orders -- an approach that she and her colleagues used as conditions worsened after Katrina," given she believed that many…
Evaluation of hospital disaster drills: A module-based approach. (2011). Agency for Healthcare
Research and Quality. (AHRQ) Retrieved February 26, 2011 at http://www.ahrq.gov/research/hospdrills/introduction.htm
Fink, Sherri. (2009, August 3). Strained by Katrina. The New York Times.
Retrieved February 26, 2011 at http://www.nytimes.com/2009/08/30/magazine/30doctors.html
Formulating a disaster and risk management is necessary for this jurisdiction. This is based on the knowledge that risk management is a demanding initiative that requires an appropriate and responsive. Satellite units are professionally trained to meet global demands. The Lynchburg, Virginia security system has met federal requirements of quality, and as a result, the system has proved suitable to respond to various hazards experienced in this jurisdiction. This report will attempt to present the Homeland Security apparatus of this jurisdiction. The report will assess the current situation of possible hazards and actual preparedness whilst presenting the elements of disaster management at Lynchburg. This section is a critical analysis of how disaster is managed within this jurisdiction compared to the critical disaster management measures in the United Kingdom.
Homeland Security stakeholders
The Lynchburg Homeland Security system is comprised of stakeholders like administrators, first responders, and the local law…
Agostino, D.M., & Jenkins, W.O. (2011). Catastrophic planning: states participating in FEMA's pilot program made progress, but better guidance could enhance future pilot programs. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Govt. Accountability Office.
Brownstein, C. (2007). Report of the DHS national small vessel security summit managing the risk. Arlington, VA: Homeland Security Institute.
Davis, B.J. (2011, November 1). Interagency Logistics Education and Training: Building Homeland Defense and Civil Support Liaisons: Disasters within the United States
Edkins, J. (2011). Missing: Persons and Politics. Cornell University Press.
orkplace Emergency Planning
hat preparations should be made by companies to be ready to respond when there is an emergency? hat kinds of emergencies should employees and management be prepared for? hat actions should be taken when an emergency occurs in the workplace? These issues will be discussed in this paper, with references from the American Red Cross and the U.S. Department of Labor's Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA).
Emergencies and Preparation - OSHA
The truth of the matter is that no one really expects an emergency or a disaster, but as OSHA points out on page 1, a disaster can happen almost anywhere. And even though a disaster cannot be predicted, because it threatens workers and the public and customers it is vitally important that companies be prepared.
hat are some of the emergencies that might occur in a workplace? Depending on the geographic location of the workplace,…
American Red Cross. (2008). Preparing Your Business for the Unthinkable. Retrieved July 9, 2015, from http://www.redcross.org .
OSHA (2001). How to Plan for Workplace Emergencies and Evacuations. Retrieved July 9, 2015, from http://www.osha.gov .
9/11 Terrorism and EMS
On 11th September, 2001, a total of nineteen al-Qaeda terrorists took control of four sky-borne airplanes, using them to carry out suicide attacks aimed at American targets. Two planes were guided directly towards the New York World Trade Center's twin towers, one struck the U.S. defense department's headquarters (the Pentagon), and one crashed into a Pennsylvanian field. Known worldwide as the 9/11 terror attacks, this day's events led to large-scale destruction and death, sparking numerous important projects on the federal government's part, aimed at battling terrorism; these efforts defined George Bush's presidential term. More than 3,000 individuals lost their lives to the Pentagon and Twin Towers attacks. Of these, over 400 were firefighters and law enforcement officials.
The invaders were identified as Arab (chiefly Saudi Arabian) Islamic terrorists said to be funded by Saudi Arabian runaway bin Laden's terror group, al-Qaeda. The attacks were apparently retribution…
Dwyer, J., & Flynn, K. (2005). "Prologue." 102 Minutes. Times Books.
Eisner, H. (2002, April). "Terrorist Attack At New York World Trade Center." Retrieved from Firehouse Magazine: http://www.firehouse.com/terrorist/911/magazine/harvey.html
Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc. (2016, October 14). Al-Qaeda Islamic Militant Organization. Retrieved from Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc.: https://www.britannica.com/topic/al-Qaeda
History.com. (2010). 9/11 Attacks. Retrieved from History.com: http://www.history.com/topics/9-11-attacks
Crisis management refers to the process of comprehensive risk assessment and strategic planning. A Community Emergency Response Team (CERT) provides proactive strategies for mitigating risk and managing crises through effective mobilization of human, financial, and technological resources, coordination of different support agencies and allies, and the implementation of recovery and response missions. There is no one central crisis management protocol, for each organization or community will have its own specific risks and resources (“Crisis Management and Emergency Response Plans,” n.d.). The CERT team works within the parameters of its community contingencies.
Emergency management refers to specific plans for responding to specific emergencies. While not all emergencies can be fully planned for, and unexpected situations will arise, CERT teams are trained and equipped to provide emergency management services for preventing fatalities, minimizing injuries, reducing loss and damage to property, reducing the environmental hazards resulting from an emergency, and…
) This insurance is paid at a fixed 2% of the loan value or can be financed in the mortgage at 2.5% of the mortgage.
Other look-alike programs ask that the loan be paid back during the life of the borrower, and this is entirely unlike the traditional HECM program, designed to allow the elderly an additional source of income during their lifetime.
The pluses of reverse mortgage is that the individuals may remain in their home, living much like they have in the past but be able to support themselves better and maintain the home more easily. Many individuals in retirement that outlive their savings and/or pensions tend to feel trapped to sell the only asset they have, a low or no mortgage home as a result of limited resources for medical care and increased cost of living. The Reverse mortgage program if done right can greatly help such…
Carr, M. Anthony. "Reverse Mortgages Can Trap the Unwary." The Washington Times 10 Sept. 1999: 13.
Cocheo, Steve. "Reverse Mortgages Shift Up a Gear." ABA Banking Journal 88.10 (1996): 77.
HUD Website "About Reverse Mortgages" (2006). http://www.hud.gov/offices/hsg/sfh/hecm/hecmabou.cfm
Avoid dangerous spots near a window, hanging objects, mirrors, or merchandise fixtures
If you take cover under a piece of furniture, be sure to hold onto it. If the furniture moves be prepared to move and navigate along with it
Hold the position until the aftershock abates and it's safe to proceed further.
A pandemic or other people disaster has struck, and people resources (employees) have been impacted.
Being located in South Florida, heavy rains will undoubtedly occur. These rains coupled with the high prevalence of winds increases the likelihood of a flood. This problem is further compounded as the hurricane season is south Florida is predicated with high winds and rain. Floods can be troublesome for XYZ personnel as merchandise is damaged, the threat of electrical damage is increased, and the water damage to the facility can be substantial (United States Department of Commerce, 2006). In…
1) Amanda Ripley. "Floods, Tornadoes, Hurricanes, Wildfires, Earthquakes... Why We Don't Prepare. "Time. August 28, 2006.
2) Burgos, Jr., Nestor P. (11/07/2010). "Iloilo power firms asked to explain brownouts." Philippine Daily Inquireir. http://newsinfo.inquirer.net/inquirerheadlines/regions/view/20101107-301974/Iloilo-power-firms-asked-to-explain-brownouts. Retrieved 22 July 2012.
3) Dobson et al. Blackout Mitigation Assessment in Power Transmission Systems. System Sciences 2003. July 20, 2011
4) Petroski, Henry (2006). Levees and Other Raised Ground. 94. American Scientist. pp. 7 -- 18..
Heinrich Himmler, the Nazi leader of the SS. Specifically, it will discuss his direct involvement with the concentration camps and the extermination of the Jewish people. Heinrich Himmler (1900-1945) was an unsuccessful chicken farmer and fertilizer salesman who became a leader in the Nazi party in the mid-1920s. As head of the SS as well as the Gestapo, he was a cold, efficient, ruthless administrator. He was the organizer of the mass murder of Jews, the man in charge of the concentration and death camps.
HIMMLE THE EXTEMINATO
Heinrich Himmler was born in 1900, and studied agriculture. He fought in the very end of World War I, and never seemed to make much of himself until he met Hitler. "Himmler was a passionate farmer. He had studied agriculture for several years, had a degree in agriculture, and was later the chairman of the board of the Organization of Agricultural Graduates"…
Devine, Carol, and Carol Rae Hansen. Human Rights: The Essential Reference. Phoenix, AZ: Oryx Press, 1999.
Editors. "Who was Heinrich Himmler?" Holocaust History Project. 31 Dec. 1998. 17 Nov. 2002. http://www.holocaust-history.org/short-essays/heinrich-himmler.shtml
Friedlander, Henry. The Origins of Nazi Genocide: From Euthanasia to the Final Solution. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1995.
Eisenhower, John. "Juxtaposed with History, Inquiry into why the Nazis Did What They Did." The Washington Times. 9 June 2002.
Emergency, Planning and Operations Methodology
The Department of Homeland Security is fully aware of the importance of local and state first responders. Currently managed under the Department of Justice, the Department of Health and Human Services, and the Federal Emergency Management Agency and other various offices, local firefighters, state and local law enforcement, and local emergency medical personnel would be subject to the Department of Homeland Security's authority (http://www.whitehouse.gov/deptofhomeland/sect4.html).Moreover, the Department is prepared to "develop and manage a national training and evaluation system to design curriculums, set standards, evaluate, and reward performance in local, state, and federal training efforts" (http://www.whitehouse.gov/deptofhomeland/sect4.html).Through FEMA, emergency supplies, food and shelter would be allocated to supplement the work of local agencies that are already providing such needs at the community level (http://www.fema.gov).Moreover, FEMA would coordinate "private industry, the insurance sector, mortgage lenders, the real estate industry, homebuilding associations, citizens, and others" in high-risk areas (http://www.whitehouse.gov/deptofhomeland/sect4.html).…
American Red Cross." http://www.redcross.org /services/disaster/0,1082,0_319_,00.html accessed 11-17-2003).
The Department of Homeland Security." http://www.whitehouse.gov/deptofhomeland/sect4.html .
A accessed 11-17-2003).
Emergency Food and Shelter." Federal Emergency Management Agency. http://www.fema.gov .(accessed 11-17-2003).
Law Enforcement Partnerships: Terrorism
The tragic events of 9/11, which left thousands of people dead and hundreds more seriously injured, brought to light the high degree of disorganization in the nation's counterterrorism plan, and the ill-preparedness of our security forces in responding to large-scale disasters. All the same, the attack brought a new dimension to the sphere of American policing. Federal agencies are increasingly appreciating the immense role of local police in terrorism prevention and response. Experience has shown that terrorism does not always have to be a large-scale attack as that witnessed on 9/11; sometimes what appears to be a bomb threat, a local homicide situation, or a gas explosion may actually be instigated by domestic terrorists, and as it turns out, the first responders in such low-magnitude incidents are most assuredly rescue and fire personnel and local police. Whereas the role of the former in both terrorist and…
Newman, G.R. & Clarge, R.V. (2008). Policing Terrorism: An Executive Guide. U.S. Department of Justice (DOJ). Retrieved 15 January 2015 from http://www.cops.usdoj.gov/Publications/e080828168-PolicingTerrorism.txt
San Francisco Bay Area RECP. (2008). RECP Law Enforcement and Coroner / Medical Examiner Subsidiary Plan. San Francisco Bay Area RECP. Retrieved 15 January 2015 from http://www.calema.ca.gov/RegionalOperations/Documents/Coastal%20Region/Plans/RECP/04_RECP_Law_Enforcement_Subsidiary_Plan.pdf.
US Army Combined Arms Center (2010). Terrorist Incidents. U.S. Army Combined Arms Center (CAC). Retrieved 15 January 2015 from http://usacac.army.mil/cac2/call/docs/11-07/app_f.asp
GEOINT Role in Responding to Hurricane Katrina
The American federal government's response operation in the aftermath of the 2005 disaster, Hurricane Katrina, establishes a crucial military necessity of improving the nation's evaluation, decision-making, and response processes. Operational art, design and other similar concepts apparently offer a means for framing the operational issue. However, both the aforementioned elements are unable to effectively improve commanders' capacity of grasping the condition. Processes like those mentioned above prove inadequate when it comes to solving key questions and conveniently translating into missions for troops to execute. The process of situation evaluation commences with the examination of a map by military staff members and commands. This is where GEOINT (Geospatial Intelligence) comes in. GEOINT refers to an emergent subfield in the intelligence domain responsible for offering comprehensive information analyses, an operational environment evaluation, and a way to examine potential issues which might surface. GEOINT represents the…
David J. Macguire, Michael Batty, and Michael F. Goodchild. GIS, Spatial Analysis and Modelling. Redlands, CA: ESRI Press, 2005.
Department of Defense. Joint Publication 2-03 Geospatial Intelligence Support to Joint Operations. Washington, D.C.: United States Government Printing Office, March 2007
Department of the Army. Field Manual 6-0: Mission Command. Washington, D.C.: Department of the Army, 2003.
ESRI. "Homeland Security: GIS for Preparing and Protecting a Nation." www.esri.com/industries/federal/homelandsecurity. March 20, 2007. http://www.esri.com/industries/public_safety/homeland_security/homeland_security.html (accessed April 10, 2017).
Personal Digital Assistants in Healthcare
Current Applications and Future Trends in the Use of Personal Digital Assistants in Healthcare
Today, healthcare practitioners enjoy a wide range of digital equipment that can help them provide more efficient healthcare services, including laptop computers, cellular telephones and personal digital assistants, or PDAs. These devices have been used in various ways by clinicians to improve their ability to deliver more timely and accurate diagnoses and treatments, and it is clear that the use of these devices will continue to increase in the future. The purpose of this study is to provide a current snapshot of how personal digital assistants are being used in various healthcare settings, including military and government tertiary facilities and the use of PDAs on the battlefield in times of war, but with a specific focus on how PDAs are being used in nongovernmental healthcare facilities today. To this end, a…
Blow, F.C., Barry, K.L., Walton, M.A. et al. (2006). The efficacy of two brief intervention strategies among injured, at-risk drinkers in the emergency department: Impact of tailored messaging and brief advice. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 67(4), 568.
Cieslak, D.M., & Van Winkle, M. (2004). Carry your office in the palm of your hand; a pocket-size device is your computer when you're on the road. Journal of Accountancy, 198(2), 52.
Corbett, M.L. (1996, January). Choosing the perfect PDA: Personal digital assistants help busy professionals. Black Enterprise, 26(6), 34.
Greisler, D.S., & Jackson, J.R. (2000). The changing nature of physician power: Understanding physician power and its future. Journal of Power and Ethics, 1(4), 260.