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Medication Essays (Examples)

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Procedure for Dispensing Meds
Words: 1247 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 83803268
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Medication Administration Tech

Policy and Procedure Change Bar Code eader System for Medication Administration

Though the Utah State Hospital has an integrated electronic prescription system there is no evidence that the institution utilizes bar code reading technology either on the unit or in the pharmacy itself. This is evidenced by the lack of such information in the institutions policies and procedures manual, and specifically in their policies and procedures associated with controlled drugs, which is an area where inventory controls, accountability and patient safety are particularly important. Such a system would serve the patient population well, helping to ensure that fewer errors were made and more observation of possible conflicts between medications as well as other issues could be more closely monitored. This work will describe in detail from the literature both the types of systems available, their use and the research effects associated with them to aide in the…

Resources

"ASHP statement on bar-code verification during inventory, preparation, and dispensing of medications: developed through the ASHP Section of Pharmacy Informatics and Technology and approved by the ASHP Board of Directors on April 15, 2010, and by the ASHP House of Delegates on June 6, 2010." (2011) American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy 68(5), 442. Gale Power Search. Web. 24 Oct. 2011.

Agrawal, A. (2009). Medication errors: prevention using information technology systems. British Journal Of Clinical Pharmacology, 67(6), 681-686. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2125.2009.03427.x

Fowler, S.B., Sohler, P., & Zarillo, D.F. (2009). Bar-Code Technology for Medication Administration: Medication Errors and Nurse Satisfaction. MEDSURG Nursing, 18(2), 103-109.

Prusch, A.E., Suess, T.M., Paoletti, R.D., Olin, S.T., & Watts, S.D. (2011). Integrating technology to improve medication administration. American Journal Of Health-System Pharmacy, 68(9), 835-842. doi:10.2146/ajhp100211

Errors in the ICU
Words: 1240 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Capstone Project Paper #: 20109837
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Medication Errors

One of the major challenges impact healthcare providers is medical errors. These issues are challenging, as they will have an adverse impact on quality and safety. In the case of the ICU, these challenges are becoming more pronounced. This is because of the different conditions and large number of patients they are working with. A good example of this can be seen with insights from Orgeas (2010) who said, "Although intensive care units (ICUs) were created for patients with life-threatening illnesses, the ICU environment generates a high risk of iatrogenic events. Identifying medical errors (MEs) that serve as indicators for iatrogenic risk is crucial for purposes of reporting and prevention. We describe the selection of indicator MEs, the incidence of such MEs, and their relationship with mortality. We selected indicator MEs using Delphi techniques. An observational prospective multicenter cohort study of these MEs was conducted from March 27…

References

Data and Statistics. (2014). CDC. Retrieved from:  http://www.cdc.gov/hai/surveillance/ 

Marcucci, L. (2012). Avoiding Common ICU Errors. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

Marino, P. (2012). ICU Book. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

McClean, S. (2011). Intelligent Patient Management. New York, NY: Springer.

Glaxowellcome Introducing a Second Migraine
Words: 544 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 49089004
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True that the existence of both which is intended for a similar use, operation or treatment might cause confusion and a question on which is a better product. In this case the replacement of Imigran with the new medication Naramig was the best choice among the other 4 options. With this decision it only proves to its customers, hospitals and patients that the new drug is an improved medication for migraines. As it was noted in this article:

The results showed that the replacement strategy met Glaxo U.K. expectations.

Naramig proved to be effective for migraine headaches in the majority of patients.

4. How should GlaxoWellcome position Amerge in the United States?

Considering several factors which are primarily different from UK, the U.S. market is broader in terms of population and territory. Difference in health care system is also a factor to be considered. In my opinion, the alternative positioning…

Bibliography

Net doctor Co.UK

Article on Imigran

 http://www.netdoctor.co.uk/medicines/100001324.html 

Tiscali Lifestyle Naramig

Voluntary Collaborative and Active Involvement of the
Words: 2082 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43265959
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voluntary, collaborative and active involvement of the patient in a course of behaviour that is mutually accepted in order to gain therapeutic result (Michael, H. et al., 2009). According to this definition it can be clearly observed that the patient has a clear choice to follow the goal and that the patient and well as the providers agree to make a medical regimen and treatment goals (Delamater, 2006).

There are two basic factors involved in the medical adherence, these are:

Whether the patients takes the medicine that has been prescribed to him/her.

Whether the patient keeps on taking the prescribed medicine or not.

Therefore, the adherence behaviour is divided into 2 main concepts which are: adherence and persistence. Although the concept of adherence and persistence is similar however, adherence means the intensity with which the drug was taken during the duration of the therapy while, persistence means the overall duration…

Urquhart J. The electronic medication event monitor: lessons for pharmacotherapy. Clin Pharmacokinet. 1997; 32: 345 -- 356.

Vrijens B, Vincze G, Kristanto P, Urquhart J, Burnier M. Adherence to prescribed antihypertensive drug treatments: longitudinal study of electronically compiled dosing histories. BMJ. 2008; 336: 1114 -- 1117.

World Health Organization. 2003. Adherence to Long-Term Therapy: Evidence for Action. Available at:  http://www.who.int/chp/knowledge/publications/adherence_introduction.pdf .

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and
Words: 3764 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 56744836
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The right medication stimulates these under-operating chemicals to make added neurotransmitters, thereby enhancing the child's potential to concentrate, have a check on the impulses, and lessen hyperactivity. Medication required to attain this usually needs a number of doses in the course of the day, since a single dose of medication remains effective for a short interval up to 4 hours. but, slow or timed-release types of medication for instance, Concerta would let a child having ADHD to go on to take the advantage of medication in an extended stretch of period. (Identifying and Treating Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A esource for School and Home)

Psycho-stimulant medications like MPH are considered to trigger auto-regulatory or control procedures, thus improving the basic restraint shortfall in children having ADHD. Documented experiments on stimulants have exhibited experimental favor for this hypothesis. For instance, the influences of MPH on reaction restraint employing the fundamental stop-signal…

References

Arcus, Doreen. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Gale Encyclopedia of Psychology. 2002. pp: 14-23

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. December 2001. Retrieved at http://www.reutershealth.com/wellconnected/doc30.html. Accessed on 8 December, 2004

Barabasz, Arreed; Barabasz, Marianne. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity, Disorder: Neurological Basis and Treatment Alternatives. Journal of Neurotherapy. Volume: 1; No: 1; p: 1. Retrieved at ( http://www.snr-jnt.org/JournalNT/JNT  (1-1)1.html. Accessed on 8 December, 2004

Bedard, Anne-Claude; Ickowicz, Abel; Logan, Gordon D; Hogg-Johnson, Sheilah; Schachar, Russell; Tannock, Rosemary. Selective Inhibition in Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Off and on Stimulant Medication. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology. June, 2003. Volume: 12; No: 1; pp: 90-93

Intravenous Nursing Implementation of an
Words: 2934 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 54111199
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The second purpose was to explore the association of demographic variables and nurses' perceptions of pump implementation to ratings of the management team and job satisfaction. Data was collected via a survey given to 1056 nurses at a tertiary Magnet hospital. The first section of the questionnaire pertained to demographic characteristics, while the second section consisted of thirty questions on a 5-point Likert scale based on both STS Theory and the Life Patterns Model conceptual framework.

The researchers conclude that generalizations cannot be made based on just one study. They did state however that the findings of this study give credence to the importance of technological changes in clinical nursing practice. ecommendations were made for future studies in that there is a need to analyze the degree to which technology affects the environment, patient acuity as well as overall nursing satisfaction. Carrying out this study in more that one hospital…

References

Advantages and Disadvantages of the Survey Method. (2011). Retrieved from  http://writing.colostate.edu/guides/research/survey/com2d1.cfm 

Bowcutt, Marilyn, Rosenkoetter, Marlene M., Chernecky, Cynthia C., Wall, Jane, Wynn, Donald

and Serrano, Christina. (2008). Journal of Nursing Management, 16(2), p.188-197.

Migraine Pt Migraine Headaches Typically Cause an
Words: 1458 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 56557791
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Migraine Pt

Migraine headaches typically cause an intense, throbbing, headache in a specific area of the head (most often one side of the head) and are commonly accompanied by nausea and sensitivity to either light or sound. For many people these headaches are so debilitating that it can take hours or days before the person can return to their normal level of functioning. The etiology of migraine headaches is not well understood; however, genetic factors are thought to play a significant role (Burton, Landy, Downs, & unken, 2009). Is it estimated that in the United States more than 30 million people have at least one migraine headache per year. Migraine headaches occur more commonly in females, who are diagnosed with approximately 75% of all migraine headaches (Bigal & Lipton, 2009). Generally a treatment program for migraine headache begins with a diagnosis, an assessment of the effects of the headaches on…

References

Bigal, M.E., & Lipton, R.B. (2009). The epidemiology, burden, and comorbidities of migraine.

Neurologic Clinics, 27(2), 321-334.

Burton, W.N., Landy, S.H., Downs, K.E., & Runken, M.C. (2009). The impact of migraine and the effect of migraine treatment on workplace productivity in the United States and suggestions for future research. Mayo Clinic Proceedings, 84(5), 436-445.

Martin, P.R. (2010). Behavioral management of migraine headache triggers: learning to cope with triggers. Current Pain and Headache Reports, 14(3), 221-227.

Project for Making a Change in Nursing Practice Using Evidence-Based Practice
Words: 855 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Capstone Project Paper #: 59418212
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Pre-Medications

Current practices in the Blood Marrow Transplant Unit (BMTU) are to administer Tylenol and/or Benadryl as pre-medications prior to the administration of blood products before a transplant takes place. This paper will study whether such pre-medicating actions are detrimental to the patient due to the masking effects of the medicines and the occurrence(s) of mostly mild reactions to the blood transfusions that are normal occurrences before BMTU surgery. The paper will seek to discern whether the practice of pre-medicating patients is a viable practice or one that needs to be changed or terminated.

The purpose of the study is to determine whether a change can be made to improve the care of patients undergoing bone marrow transplants. The improvement could take a number of different forms; two of those forms include; first a fewer number of reactions to the blood transfusions that take place before and during the transplant,…

References

Bringman, H.; Giesecke, K.; Thorne, A.; Bringman, S.; (2009) Relaxing music as pre-medication before surgery: a randomized controlled trial, Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, Vol. 53, Issue 6, pp. 759 -- 764

Horng, H.C.; Wong, C.S.; Hsiao, K.N.; Huh, B.K.; Kuo, C.P.; Cherng, C.H.; Wu, C.T.; (2007) Pre-medication with intravenous clonidine suppresses fentanyl-induced cough, Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, Vol. 51, Issue 7, pp. 862 -- 865

Kennedy, L.D.; Case, L.D.; Hurd, D.D.; Cruz, J.M.; Pomper, G.J.; (2008) Transfusion: A prospective, randomized, double-blind controlled trial of acetaminophen and diphenhydramine pretransfusion medication vs. placebo for the prevention of transfusion reactions, Tranfusion, Vol. 48, pp. 2285-2291

Nursing Case Study the First Concern Is
Words: 835 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 49341260
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Nursing Case Study

The first concern is that Mrs. Baker is taking a new drug that has side effects such as she is experiencing. Although the other high blood pressure medication has similar side effects (Drugs.com, 2012), she has been taking it for a long period of time and should not be experiencing as much difficulty. It seems germane to ask her how long she has been taking the hydrochlorothiazide though. One of the first thoughts is how well do the two medications work together, which is something her doctor understands, and if she can have an increase in side effects because of the increase in medication. The second question the symptoms, especially the fact that she seemed "confused and beside herself" on the phone, is to determine if there are other symptoms of stroke. Her breathing difficulties could be a symptom of the medication, and so could the confusion,…

References

Drugs.Com. (2012). The side effect of Lisinopril. Retrieved from  http://www.drugs.com/sfx/lisinopril-side-effects.html

Pharm Case Pharmaceutical Recall Case
Words: 932 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 71467694
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In addition, the recall constitutes an expectation of substantial change before products actually reached consumers, placing it in compliance with 402A. obins & obins lived up to its legal and its ethical responsibilities.

Question 4

The Blanchard and Peale method of determining ethicality consists of three checks, which can be applied to both the decision to avoid the $0.35 per-package charge to automate recalls and to the "fake" recall process of the company (Lankard, 1991). First, the models asks if the action is legal, both in terms of governmental laws and company policy; the answer for both dilemmas in this case is "yes." The second test is whether the action is balanced and fair, promoting "win-win" solutions; here, the answer in both cases is more ambiguous. The additional costs of medications from the UPC rule would have been passed on to consumers, which is a "lose" to some extent even…

References

Adminsitrative Procedure Act. (n.d.). Accessed 18 April 2012.  http://www.archives.gov/federal-register/laws/administrative-procedure/553.html 

402A. (n.d.). Accessed 18 a /  http://biotech.law.lsu.edu/cases/products/402a-b.htm 

Lankard, B. (1991). Resolving Ethical Dilemmas in the Workplace. Accessed 18 April 2012.  http://www.ericdigests.org/pre-9220/focus.htm 

Radcliffe, M. & Brinson, D. (1999). Contracts Law. Accessed 18 April 2012.  http://library.findlaw.com/1999/Jan/1/241463.html

Robins and Robins
Words: 1013 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 2042389
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Robins & Robins

THE RIGHT THING TO DO

Robbins & Robbins

Possible Defenses by Casings, Inc.

It was the primary responsibility of Robbins & Robbins to have foreknown the risk of explosives getting into its medication before it entered into any formal agreement with Casings, Inc. Although both companies share the ethical responsibility, Robbins & Robbins should have had the greater interest in avoiding the risk. Second, the accounting firm, which worded the clause, was selected by Robbins & Robbins and was necessarily partial towards the company. And the clause was written in small 9-point font and on page 285, signifying the minimal significance given by the framer of the contract and agreed to by Robbins & Robbins. And lastly, Robbins & Robbins had known about the contamination two months before making the recall.

lanchard and Peale Analysis

Their first of three ethics checks to determine whether a decision is…

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Evers, S. (2009). Business ethics and social responsibility. Chapter 4. Reindance

Productions LLC: University of Carolina Wilmington. Retrieved on February 25,

2014 from  http://www.csb.uncw.edu/people/eversp/classes/BLA361/Powerpoint/361-4a.Ethics.pdf 

Lankard, B. (1991). Resolving ethical dilemmas in the workdplace: a new focus on adult career. ERIC Digests: ERIC Clearinghouse and Vocational Education. Retrieved on February 25, 2014 from  http://www.ericdigests.org/pre_9220/focus.htm

Is Pitocin Induction a Factor in Postpartum Hemorrhage
Words: 1697 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 22038954
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Pitocin Induction and Postpartum Hemorrhage

THE SEARCH CONTINUES

Is Pitocin Induction a Factor in Postpartum Hemorrhage?

The induction of oxytocin injection has been a bane of contention in the medical community not only because it has been listed as a high-alert medication, which incurs serious risks to the patient, the fetus and the institution. It is also used frequently to manage postpartum hemorrhage. This quantitative correlational study analyzes and presents the findings of five updated and authoritative sources on the subject and answers the questions surrounding the induction of oxytocin in postpartum hemorrhage and its appropriateness, efficacy and safety.

Postpartum hemorrhage occurs when there is blood loss greater than 500 ml during spontaneous vaginal delivery or 1,000 ml during a cesarean section delivery (Yiadom, 2010). Fortunately, in most cases, healthy females can tolerate much blood loss of more than 500 ml without incurring adverse conditions. The two types are early…

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Balci, O. et al. (2011). Comparison of induction of labor with vaginal misoprostol plus

Oxytocin vs. oxytocin alone in term primigravidae. Vol. 2 # 9, Journal of Maternal

and Neonatal Medicine: Informa Healthcare Publishing Technology. Retrieved on January 12, 2014 from http://www.ingenta.connect.com/content/apl/mfn/2011/00000024/00000009/art00002

Clayworth, S. (2000). The nurse's role during Oxytocin administration. Vol. 25 # 2, The

We Can but Should
Words: 932 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 44744325
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Health Information & QR Codes

asic medical information and medical history is critical in case of medical emergencies. If first responders do not have that information patients can be put at risk for medication reactions, medical complications, and treatment processes can take longer as healthcare providers are left to explore the patient's condition in the dark. When the medical information is non-attainable, patients can also be put at risk for death in cases of coronary and heart health issues. QR codes are scanned by smartphone or mobile phones containing camera software that link to a website URL to retrieve basic medical information that is used to get the patient help.

ERMedStat (Harrington, 2012) is a company that uses QR codes and smartphones to provide first responders with basic medical history. The information contains blood type, emergency contacts, allergic reactions, medical complications, and a list of medications. The company does not…

Bibliography

Harrington, C. (2012, Mar 7). Maryville company uses QR codes to share medical histories in emergencies. Retrieved from knoxvillebiz.com:  http://www.knoxnews.com/news/2012/mar/07/marville-company-uses-qr-codes-to-share-medical/ 

How it Works. (n.d.). Retrieved from Lifesquare: https://www.lifesquare.com/how

Staff, T.N. (2012, Sep 26). New QR Codes Tell Paramedics Your Medical Info. Retrieved from Tech News Daily: http://www.technewsdaily.com/6264-new-qr-codes-tell-paramedics-your-medical-info.html

Long-Term Settings and Services
Words: 873 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 29834317
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Long-Term Settings

The health of the person usually starts declining with every passing day after 65 years of age and as Mrs. Smith is 82 years old, she is also suffering from some problems. She is in mid stage of dementia because of which she suffers from recent memory impairment, hypertension and mental confusion. Due to dementia, she has already been in problems several times. Like, once she left the pan over the stove and also fallen number of times due to syncope. Moreover, she forgets to take her medicines on time. So, she needs an attended that takes care of her medication, diet and exercises and must not be left alone or unattended at home.

In an old age, a person is in need of company more than any medication. Healthy routine and happiness is the best treatment for various diseases. However, Mrs. Smith lives alone at home during…

Bibliography

AHRQ. (n.d.). Choosing Long-term Care. Retrieved from Agency of Healthcare Research and Quality:  http://archive.ahrq.gov/consumer/qnt/qntltc.htm 

Brodaty, H. (1988). 'Minimal brain damage in the Adult II: Early dementia'. Patient Management, August, 127-150.

Better Health Channel. (2011). Dementia -- Support Services are available. Retrieved from Better Health Channel:  http://www.betterhealth.vic.gov.au/bhcv2/bhcarticles.nsf/pages/Dementia_support_services_are_available-open 

Shea, D.E. & Reilly, M.S. (1999). An Action Plan for Dementia. Dublin 2: National Council on Ageing and Older People.

Fibromyalgia the Objective of This Study Is
Words: 1328 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 91428457
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Fibromyalgia

The objective of this study is to examine the condition of Fibromyalgia. Toward this end, this study will conduct a review of current literature in this area of inquiry.

Fibromyalgia is a syndrome reported as common and one in which the individual has pain throughout their body as well as joint, muscle, tendon and soft tissue tenderness on a long-term basis.

Causes of Fibromyalgia

While the cause of Fibromyalgia is uncertain it has been linked to such as fatigue, problems sleeping, headaches, anxiety, and depression. Factors that are believed to be potential triggers of fibromyalgia include: (1) physical or emotional trauma; (2) abnormal responses to pain in areas of the brain; (3) disturbances in sleep; and (4) infection although no specific virus has been identified as being responsible for causing Fibromyalgia.

Occurrence of Fibromyalgia

Fibromyalgia is known to occur most in women ages 20 to 50 years of age.…

Bibliography

Demirbad, B. And Erci, B. (2012) The Effects of Sleep and Touch Therapy on Symptoms of Fibromyalgia and Depression. Iran J. Public Health. 2012;41(11):44-53. Retrieved from:  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed 

Fibromyalgia - Fibromyositis; Fibrositis (2012) Summary of Cochrane Review. PubMed Health. Retrieved from:

Knowing More About Alcoholic Liver Disease
Words: 1658 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32626090
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Alcoholic Liver Disease

CAUSES AND IMPACT

Causes, Incidence, Risk Factors, Impact

Alcohol use has been linked with liver disease mortality and increased social and economic costs (NCI, 2014; ruha et al., 2009). Most recent statistics say that disorders in alcohol consumption afflict millions of people worldwide. The incidence has been increasing along with increasing alcohol consumption. Alcohol liver disease takes the form of acute alcoholic hepatitis and chronic liver disease, such as steatosis, steatohepatitis, fibrosis and cirrhosis. Seriousness and prognosis depend on the amount consumed, the pattern of drinking and the length of time of consumption, the presence of liver inflammation, diet and nutritional and genetic disposition. While steatosis is virtually benign, morbidity and mortality are both high in liver cirrhosis. Survival rate for advanced cirrhosis is 1 to 2 years and 50% mortality risk for those with severe acute alcoholic hepatitis have as much as 50% mortality (NCI, 2014).…

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Bruha, R., et al. (2009). Alcoholic liver disease. Vol. 110 # 3m Prague Medical Report:

PubMed Central. Retrieved on April 6, 2014 from  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed /19655694

EASL (2012). EASL clinical practical guidelines: management of alcoholic liver disease. Vol. 51 # 1, Journal of Hepatology: European Association for the Study of the liver. Retrieved on April 6, 2014 from  http://www.easl.eu/assets/application/files/5e1b5512fb2cabb_file.pdf 

Frazier, T.H. (2011). Treatment of alcoholic liver disease. Vol. 4 # 1, Therapeutic

Chang Proposal - Milestone 4 Type Text
Words: 3361 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33303137
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Chang Proposal - Milestone #4

[Type text] [Type text] [Type text]

N 451- Capstone Project Milestone #4: Design for Change Proposal

Christopher D'Ambrose

N 451 Capstone Course

Quality of patient care is a paramount concern of healthcare professionals. When nurses experience interruptions while they are working, the quality of care patients receive can be negatively impacted. Interruptions have been shown to disrupt working memory, disrupt on-duty focus, induce frustration and stress, contribute to accidents, and lead to patient care errors (Bennet, et al., 2010). Interruptions that occur when nurses administer medication to patients are a particular concern. The incidence of interruptions is higher than might be surmised; according to Day (2010), 19.8% of all procedures did not have any disruptions or clinical errors. Biron, et al. (2009) reviewed 14 observational studies of nurses providing patient care, in which they found that 6.7 interruptions occurred each hour during mediation administration. This…

References

Bennett, J. (2006). Effects of interruptions to nurses during medication administration.

Nursing Management (Harrow), 16(9), 22-3.

PMID: 20222227 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Biron, A., Lavoie-Tremblay, N., and Loiselle, C.G. (2009). Characteristics of work interruptions during medication administration. Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 41(4), 330-336. doi: 10.1111/j.1547-5069.20009.01300.x

Authors Y H Lin and S M
Words: 2768 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Article Critique Paper #: 16276987
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B. This study used cross-sectional design and may tend to under-select individuals who have been exposed. This is known as "late-look bias." The possibility of nurses recalling MAEs over their careers may result in reporting of, or remembering information that is not accurate.

C. The instrument developed by authors used expert validity, but more research is needed to determine the construction validity and use the appropriate interventions to decrease MAEs (Lin & Ma).

9.

esearch questions

ather than a hypothesis, the Lin and Ma (2009) study was guided by the following research questions:

A. What is the self-reported incidence of MAEs throughout a nurse's career in Taiwan?

B. What is the willingness of nurses to report MAEs?

C. What factors are related to nurses' willingness to report MAEs?

The first research question, though, differs from the authors' stated purpose which was to "explore the prevalence of MAEs and the willingness…

References

Gebhart, F. (2008, May 12). N.C. hospital loses CMS certification over drug and other errors.

Drug Topics, 152(6), 12.

Lin, Y-H & Ma, S-n. (2009). Willingness of nurses to report medication administration errors in southern Taiwan: A cross-sectional survey.

Wakefield, B.J., Uden-Holman, T. & Wakefield, D.S. (2005). Development and validation of the medication administration error reporting survey. In Advances in patient safety: From research to implementation. Henriksen, K., Battles, J.B., Marks E.S., et al. (eds).

Psychotropic Medicines Are Often Prescribed
Words: 1100 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 81336160
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VIII. Preliminary Literature Review

The work of Martin, Scahill, Klin and Volkmar (1999) entitled: "Higher-Functioning Pervasive Developmental Disorders: Rates and Patterns of Psychotropic Drugs Use" reports a study in which the frequency, characteristics and associated target symptoms of psychotropic drug use among individuals with developmental disorders and specifically those with "higher functioning pervasive developmental disorders. (HFPDDs) in a total of 109 children, adolescents and adults results show that 55% of these were taking psychotropic drugs and 29.3% were taking two or more of these medications simultaneously. Conclusions of the study report as follows: "Psychotropic medication use appears to be common among subjects with HFPDDs, yet not generally based on the results of empirical research. Clinical heterogeneity among treated subjects suggests that psychiatric comorbidity may be overlooked in this population." (Martin, Scahill, Klin and Volkmar, 1999) the work of Reynolds and Dombeck (2006) relates that individuals with autism spectrum disorders are…

Bibliography

Martin, Andres; Scahill, Lawrence, Klin, Ami, and Volkmar (1999) Higher-Functioning Pervasive Developmental Disorders: Rates and Patterns of Psychotropic Drug Use. Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Vol. 38 Issue 7. Online available at:  http://www.journals.elsevierhealth.com/periodicals/jaac/article/PIIS0890856709665436/abstract 

Reynolds, Tammi; Dombeck, Mark (2006) Autism: Medication. MentalHelp.net. Online available at: http://www.mentalhelp.net/poc/view_doc.php?type=doc&id=8792&cn=20

De Bildt, Annelies, et al. (2006) Pervasive Developmental Disorder, Behavior Problems, and Psychotropic Drug Use in Children and Adolescents With Mental Retardation. Pediatrics Journal Vol. 118 No. 6 December 2006. Online available at:  http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/content/abstract/118/6/e1860 

Mikkelsen, Edwin J. (nd) the Rational Use of Psychotropic Medication for Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities. NADD. Online available at:  http://www.thenadd.org/pages/products/bookdetails/dt07-038b.shtml

Processing Effects of Cognitive and Emotional Psychotherapy on Bipolar Disorder
Words: 6099 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 3470826
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BP Disorder

Bipolar disorder, originally called manic depressive disorder, is a severe mood disorder that vacillates between extreme "ups" (mania, hypomania) and "downs" (depression). The effects of having bipolar disorder can be observed across the patients social and occupational functioning. Often the patient is left isolated from work, friends, and family. Medications have become the first-line treatments for bipolar disorder; however, psychotherapy can offer additional benefits in the ongoing treatment of patients with bipolar disorder. This paper discusses the symptoms and treatment of bipolar disorder focusing on cognitive behavioral therapy and emotion focused therapy.

Bipolar Disorder

Description and differentiation

According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders -- Fourth Edition -- Text evision (DSM-IV-T) one's mood is an all-encompassing and sustained feeling tone experienced internally by the person and influences the person's behavior and perception of the world. Affect is the external or outward expression of this inner…

References

Alloy, L.B., Abramson, L.Y., Walshaw, P.D., Keyser, J., & Gerstein, R.K. (2006). A cognitive vulnerability-stress perspective on bipolar spectrum disorders in a normative adolescence brain, cognitive, and emotional development context. Developmental Psychopathology, 18(4), 1057-1103.

American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV-Text Revision. Washington, DC: Author.

Beck, J.S. (1995). Cognitive therapy: Basics and beyond. New York: Guilford Press.

Butler, A.C., Chapman, J.E., Forman, E.M., & Beck, A.T. (2006). The empirical status of cognitive-behavioral therapy: A review of meta-analyses. Clinical Psychology Review, 26, 17-31

Nursing Case Studies Thomas and
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Cae plan

Nusing poblem 1: May's pain must be contained so she does not injue heself.

Because childen cannot always expess thei sensations of pain, thei pain may go unnoticed until it becomes sevee and fightening.

Nusing poblem 2: Vomiting and the possibility of choking.

Anxiety and pain can cause childen to vomit, making teatment of pain and administeing pope nutition difficult.

Nusing poblem 3: May is attempting to emove he oxygen mask.

A lack of knowledge on the pat of the child as to why cetain teatments ae administeed can esult in noncompliance.

Nusing poblem 4: The need fo social suppot when May's mothe is not pesent.

The unfamiliaity of the hospital envionment is exacebated by May's lack of paental cae.

Expected outcomes

Diagnosis 1: Pain management

Outcome: The FLACC: a behavioual scale fo scoing postopeative pain in young childen that can be helpful in detemining how to teat…

references

Almond, C. (1998). Children are not little adults. Australian Nursing Journal, 6(3), 27 -- 30.

Bruce, E., & Franck, L. (2000). Self-administered nitrous oxide (Entonox () for the management of procedural pain. Paediatric Nursing, 12(7), 15 -- 19.

Manworren R. & Hynan L.S (2003) Clinical validation of FLACC: preverbal patient pain scale. Paediatric Nursing 29(2):140-146.

McInerney, M. (2000). Paediatric pain. Pulse Information Sheet of Royal College of Nursing,

Nurses Relate the Contributing Factors
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448). However, due to the recent introduction of the CPOE system (Computerized Physician Order Entry), the authors surmise that this system will help to eliminate up to 80% of all medication errors (Tang, Sheu, Yu, Wei and Chen, 2007, p. 448).

Third, the authors make it abundantly clear that nurses themselves must accept the bulk of the responsibility when it comes to transcribing, dispensing and administering medications to patients. Of course, if the prescription itself, almost always filled out by a physician, is inaccurate, then the responsibility falls upon the prescribing physician, a situation which then leads to nurses dispensing and administering the wrong medication. In addition, the authors provide an analysis related to nurses failing to report their medication mistakes to the proper hospital/clinic authorities, due perhaps to "shame, guilt and the fear of punishment" from their superiors when informed of medication errors on the part of nurses (Tang,…

REFERENCES

Tang, Fu-in, Sheu, Shuh-Jen, Yu, Shu, Wei, Ien-Lan, and Ching-Huey Chen. (2007).

Nurses relate the contributing factors involved in medication errors. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 16, 447-457.

1 As She Suffers From
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Woods up with an exercise group close to her house, or a support group
who could help her with adjusting to her new diagnosis and give her
support. The social worker and the nursing staff would also be able to
educate Mrs. Woods' family on the condition and what needs to be done to
maximize her bone health.
5. Should Mrs. Woods have a history of renal calculi; care will be
taken for the administration of calcium supplements. Any supplement she
would take would need co-administration of Vitamin D for proper absorption.
Hormone replacement therapy is no longer considered to be a stable of
treatment due to concerns about heart disease. Additionally, there was no
significant evidence of fracture reduction of the HES study, so the risk
of thrombosis and breast cancer probably outweighs the need for HT.
Selective estrogen receptor modifiers are other alternatives which preserve
bone density but…

Reference
1. Libanati CR, Baylink DJ. (1997) Prevention and treatment of
glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis. A pathogenetic
perspective. Chest. 102:1426-35.
. 2. Sambrook P, Birmingham J, Kelly P, et al. Prevention of
corticosteroid osteoporosis: A comparison of calcium,
calcitriol and calcitonin. N Engl J Med. 1993;328:1747-1752
2. Heaney RP. (1998) Pathophysiology of osteoporosis. Endocrin
Metabol Clin North Am.;27:255-65.

Healthcare Addressing the Issue of
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Stated to be barriers in the current environment and responsible for the reporting that is inadequate in relation to medical errors are:

Lack of a common understanding about errors among health care professionals

Physicians generally think of errors as individual that resulted from patient morbidity or mortality.

Physicians report errors in medical records that have in turn been ignored by researchers.

Interestingly errors in medication occur in almost 1 of every 5 doses provided to patients in hospitals. It was stated by Kaushal, et al., (2001) that "the rate of medication errors per 100 admission was 55 in pediatric inpatients. Using their figure, we estimated that the sensitivity of using a keyword search on explicit error reports to detect medication errors in inpatients is about 0.7%. They also reported the 37.4% of medication errors were caused by wrong dose or frequency, which is not far away from our result of…

Bibliography

Discussion Paper on Adverse Event and Error Reporting In Healthcare: Institute for Safe Medication Practices Jan 24, 2000

Patient Safety/Medical Errors Online at the Premiere Inc. page located at:  http://www.premierinc.com/all/safety/resources/patient_safety/downloads/patient_safety_policy_position_2001.doc 

Medstat / Shortell, S. Assessing the Impact of Continuous Quality Improvement on Clinical Practice: What It Will Take to Accelerate Progress.

Health Policy Monitor (2001) A Publication of the Council of State Governments Vol. 6, No. 1 Winter/Spring 2001 PO18-0101

Executing the Mentally Ill The
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Specifically, Singleton's case was denied review by the U.S. Supreme Court in 2003, and he was executed in Arkansas on January 6, 2004. As noted in the lower court's dissent: "Treating the prisoner may provide short-term relief but ultimately result in his execution, whereas leaving him untreated will condemn him to a world such as Singleton's, filled with disturbing delusions and hallucinations." Simply put: The Court found it in the state of Arkansas' best interest for Singleton to be forcibly treated and executed rather than left untreated but alive."

The U.S. Supreme Court has been consistently clear since the decision in Gregg v. Georgia that the Constitution does not prohibit execution as long as procedural safeguards are established, but the Court's jurisprudence concerning the mentally ill as opposed to the mentally retarded has been less clear. In 2002, the Court ruled that it is unconstitutional to execute the mentally retarded…

Works Cited

RIGHTS-U.S.: DEATH PENALTY for MENTALLY ILL CALLED a RIGHTS ABUSE

Inter-Press Service English News Wire; 11/7/2003; Katherine Stapp

Inter-Press Service English News Wire

Killer's case stirs debate about death penalty for the mentally ill.

Smart Health Card Role in Rational of Medicines Use
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Smart Card Health Role in Rational Use of Medicines

The objective of this study is to examine the role of smart cared in health and their role in the rational use of medicines. Smart cards are very small and very secure and serve to protect patient privacy. Smart cards contain digital logs with location, date, time, and the individual's stamp to record every transaction. Smart cards also may contain digital prescriptions therefore mistakes made with prescriptions that are handwritten are eliminated and specifically as to the "quantity or quality of medications." (HealthOne, 2011)

How the Smart Card Works

The smart card uses technology that stores a patient's personal health information on a microprocessor chip embedded in the card that is the size of a credit card but that has a "small metal contact plate on the front which is how the reader accesses the medical information stored on the chip"…

Bibliography

Benjamin, DM (2003) Reducing Medication Errors and Increasing Patient Safety: Case Studies in Clinical Pharmacology. J Clin Pharmacol 2003 Jul;43(7):768-83.

Hsu, MH (2011) Online detection of potential duplicate medications and changes of physician behavior for outpatients visiting multiple hospitals using national health insurance smart cards in Taiwan. Int J. Med Inform. 2011 Mar;80(3):181-9. Epub 2010 Dec 22.

Hsu, MH, Li, YC, and Liu, CT (2006) ADRs and Smart Health Cards. CMAJ Aug 15, 2006 Vol. 175 No. 4. Retrieved from:  http://www.cmaj.ca/content/175/4/385.1.full 

Runciman, WB et al. (2003) Adverse Drug Events and Medication Errors in Australia. Int J. Qual Health Care 2003, Dec;15 Suppl 1:i49-59.

Direct-Consumer Drug Advertising

Direct-to-Consumer Drug Advertising

Direct-to-consumer drug advertising of pharmaceutical drugs is a hot-button issue. Is it ethical, or does it lead to self-diagnosis and take advantage of people who have hope for a cure? Currently, New Zealand and the United States are the only two countries that allow this kind of direct-to-consumer advertising to take place, which calls into question why other countries do not allow the same, if the practice is ethical. From a deontological point-of-view, using Kant's categorical imperative, this paper will address whether the direct-to-consumer advertising of pharmaceutical drugs is ethical or unethical. According to the deontological approach, one's duty is to do what is morally right and avoid what is morally wrong, regardless of what the consequences of those actions may be (Beauchamp, 1991; Waller, 2005). Because that is the case, there are moral questions raised that have to be considered with something as…

References

Beauchamp, T.L. (1991). Philosophical Ethics: An Introduction to Moral Philosophy, 2nd Ed. New York: McGraw Hill.

Kamm, F.M. (1996). Morality, Mortality Vol. II: Rights, Duties, and Status. New York: Oxford University Press.

Kamm, F.M. (2007). Intricate Ethics: Rights, Responsibilities, and Permissible Harm. New York: Oxford University Press.

Kant, I. (1964). Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals. New York: Harper and Row Publishers, Inc.

Polypharmacy Health Politics Polypharmacy Is
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The majority of nurse practitioners commit themselves daily to help provide compassionate and comprehensive healthcare that focuses on disease prevention and health promotion within a cost effective format. Our elders deserve the respect of appropriate and successful treatment and preventative measures to help reduce the risk of complications associated with polypharmacy. As such, the goal of policy aimed at reducing this practice tries to formulate a more active plan for keeping track of patient records and keeping costs of medications down in order to prevent patients from skipping doses (Lorenz, 2012). In order to provide effective policies and practices to reduce risks associated with polypharmacy, many organizations have turned to using computer-based recording as a way to help keep track of medications prescribed across specialist and doctors (Bushardt et al., 2008). Additionally, federal health care programs, like Medicare and Medicaid are working continuously to help improve policies and help make…

References

Bushardt, Reamer, Massey, Emily B., Simpson, Temple W., Airial, Jane C., & Simpson, K.T. (2008). Polypharmacy: Misleading, but manageable. Clinical Interventions in Aging, 3(2), 383-389. Web.  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2546482/ 

Lorenz, Joan M. (2012). Polypharmacy and the elderly. Advance for Nurses. Web.  http://nursing.advanceweb.com/Continuing-Education/CE-Articles/polypharmacy-in-the-elderly.aspx

Interstitial Cystitis in Addition to the Therapeutic
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Interstitial Cystitis

In addition to the therapeutic armamentarium, CAM reported to have a great role to treat interstitial cystitis (IC). It is multimodal and individualized and includes various treatment methods including: Neuromodulation, dietary modification, acupuncture, surgical methods, medications etc. The objective of this literature review is to discuss the possible causes of the IC, diagnosis, prevalence, the symptoms, and CAM treatment options.

Interstitial cystitis (IC) also called as painful bladder syndrome is an inflammatory disease of the bladder wall with typical ulceration of the urothelium. The interstitial cystitis (IC) is generally regarded as an elusive disease picture with inadequate therapeutic options. Critical to improving the prospects for therapy is the early diagnosis of the disease, which may involve only a careful history taking and clinical examination. CAM suggests multimodal treatment strategies in the early stage of disease (Abrams, Cardozo, & Fall, 2002).

Due to definition similarity, IC is often referred…

References

Ahrams, P., Cardozo, L., & Fall, M. (2002). The standardization of terminology of lower urinary tract function: Report from the Standardization Sub-Committee of the International Continence Society [Electronic version]. Neurourology & • Urodynamics, 21(2), 167-178.

Astroza Eulufi, C, Velasco, P.A., Watson, A., & Guzman, K.S. (2008). Enterocistoplastia por cystitis intersticial: Resultados diferidos [Enterocystoplasty for interstitial cystits: Deferred results] (Electronic version]. Actas Urologicas Espanolas, .32(10), 1019-1023.

Elizawahri, A., Bissada, N.K., Herchorn, S., Aboul-Enein. H., Ghoneim, M., Bissada, M.A.Glazer. A.A. (2004). Urinary conduit formation using urinary diversion of intestinal augmentations: II. Does it have a role in patients with interstitial cystitis? The Journal of Urology, 171, 1559- 1562.

Fall, M., Oberpenning, F.. & Pecker, R. (2008). Treatment of bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis 2008: Can we make evidence-based decisions? European Urology, 54, 65-78.

Market Driven Management
Words: 25695 Length: 75 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 32150042
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Pharmaceutical industries have to operate in an environment that is highly competitive and subject to a wide variety of internal and external constraints. In recent times, there has been an increasing trend to reduce the cost of operation while competing with other companies that manufacture products that treat similar afflictions and ailments. The complexities in drug research and development and regulations have created an industry that is subject to intense pressure to perform. The amount of capital investment investments required to get a drug from conception, through clinical trials and into the market is enormous. The already high-strung pharmaceutical industry is increasingly investing greater amounts of resources in search of the next "blockbuster" drug that can help them gain market position and profits. Laws, regulations and patents are important to the industry while spending billions of dollars in ensuring the copyright of their products.

It is the intention of this…

Bibliography

Ansoff, H.I. (1957). Strategies for diversification. Harvard Business Review, 35(5), 113-124.

Ansoff, H.I. (1965). Corporate Strategy. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.

Ashour, M.F., Obeidat, O., Barakat, H., & Tamimi, A. (2004). UAE Begins Examination of Patent Applications. Tamino.com. Retrieved January 18, 2004, from the World Wide Web:  http://www.tamimi.com/lawupdate/2001-01/intprop.htm 

Bain, J.S. (1954). Economies of scale, concentration, and the condition of entry in twenty manufacturing industries. American Economic Review, 44, 15-36.