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Did the crafts and guilds actually build a foundation for formal business and social organizations? This also is very likely.
And indeed, isn't it germane to explore what the growth, development and ultimate sophistication of medieval crafts and guilds may have led to?
In the interest of the big picture, this paper looks now at that pivotal point through an interesting, lengthy article written ten years before osser's piece, Alfred Kieser (Administrative Science Quarterly, 1989) takes the history of guilds and places it in a big-picture setting, far more theoretical and philosophical that osser would do - albeit osser's attention to detail provides a wonderfully rich picture of England - and how the English lived and worked during the medieval period. Kieser asserts that "medieval guilds were not yet formal organizations but formed important predecessor institutions in the evolutionary process that led to the emergence of organizations." Why is this…… [Read More]
There is a clear sense that medicine in many ways changed dramatically after the many plagues began to ravage the European world. Physicians were often called to gain further understanding of what caused the plague and how to avoid it or even treat it when it was possible. (French 129) Medieval medicine was truly not a dark practice of seedy solutions to unknown and superstitious problems. It was the transition between the unknown and the demand for knowing and understanding, which marked the later periods of medical practice.
Durant, ill. The Age of Faith: A History of Medieval Civilization -Christian, Islamic, and Judaic - from Constantine to Dante: A.D. 325-1300. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1950. Questia. 10 Mar. 2008 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=97338055.
French, Roger. Medicine before Science: The Business of Medicine from the Middle Ages to the Enlightenment. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 2003.…… [Read More]
In England, the characteristics of what came to be known as English Gothic architecture and design is best illustrated by the Cathedral of Salisbury, built between 1220 and 1260 a.D. In order for this building to appeal to the citizens, the architects decided to construct it in a park, surrounded by verdant lawns and great stately trees. Unlike cathedrals and churches in France, this building does not reach high into the sky and makes little use of what are called flying buttresses or "inclined supports set in a series of arches which help to maintain the stability of the outer walls" (Saalman, 176). Certainly, the Lady Chapel, dedicated to the Virgin Mary is composed of unattached shafts of Purbeck marble which "seem to tether the billowing Gothic vaults high overhead rather than support them" (Saalman, 177). Not to far from this enormous chapel, one can find a single, huge window…… [Read More]
Thus, stylistically, they may have owed a great deal to the Persian-style painting traditions in the lands from which the relics came. However, only vestiges remain today, making it difficult to ascertain this for a certainty (Derbes, 1995).
S. Maria in Cosmedin's connection with the tradition of Marian veneration and with the entire substrate of Eastern/Islamic influence is easier to trace. The church began as a fourth-century loggia, was enclosed in the sixth century (probably) and expanded into a church by Hadrian I (772-95), a time when the Islamic influence, so close to the Mediterranean and the East, could certainly have been extant. In fact, in its vicinity, in the eighth century, Orthodox refugees fleeing the Iconoclastic Controversy settled. (During the Iconoclastic Controversy, Greek orthodoxy rebelled against the use of religion icons; Islam did not allow the depiction of the Godhead in art (Schuetz-Miller, 2000), so that, arguably, there was…… [Read More]
The representations to be found in literature are echoed in the history of medieval times, akin to art imitating life in the most literal sense. Before the emergence of the major dissenters who gained much ground in medieval times, the papacy fought against anticlerical dissent from many other sources as well. Much of this centered on allegations of corruption within the Catholic clergy and the perceived decadence of certain leaders. In part to reinvigorate the church, new monastic orders like the Benedictines and Franciscans were created. However, the papacy itself was more severely threatened by divisions over popes' elections. Secular rulers wanted greater influence over popes, and in the fourteenth century, there appeared a series of popes and "anti-popes," elected in disputed elections by rival factions of bishops. The church replied to secular rulers' efforts to sway papal elections by electing only Italians for next 450 years (Spielvogel).
Ultimately, the…… [Read More]
D. France and England dominated the wine trade in the 13th and 14th centuries.
IV. Map of London, circa 1300
A. London was developed for about 4000 feet along the coast of the Thames and extending inland about 2000 feet from the banks of the river.
B. By far, the most prevalent theme of the landscape is the dominance of the Catholic Church as there are nearly three dozen churches and many more buildings dedicated to theology such as seminaries and convents etc.
C. The main commercial thoroughfare was atling Street, which contained many businesses and shops.
V. Theatre and Music Hall
A. Dramatic productions and Operas were either seen at the London stage, or one of the two 'patent' theatres of Drury Lane and Covent Garden.
B. Theatre was the mainstay form of entertainment for the typical Londener.
C. All productions included music in the entertainment, to avoid licensing…… [Read More]
This he accomplished in part by donating lands and money for the foundations of abbeys such as Echternach.
In the following decade Charles led the Frankish army against the eastern duchies.
He dealt with the ongoing conflict with the Frisians and Saxons to his northeast with some success, but full conquest of the Saxons and their incorporation into the Frankish empire would wait for his grandson Charlemagne.
Most importantly, instead of concentrating on conquest to his east, he prepared for the storm gathering in the west.
Well aware of the danger posed by the Muslims after the Battle of Toulouse, in 721, he used the intervening years to consolidate his power, and gather and train a veteran army that would stand ready to defend Christianity itself at Tours. It was in the Battle of Tours that Charles received the nickname "The Hammer" for the merciless way he hammered his enemies.…… [Read More]
I have travelled around the world and looked for the top five examples of Medieval Art. I believe the following are these:
Angouleme Cathedral in France embodies the Romanesque aesthetic of the Medieval period. There are many castles that show the Romanesque style, but there are far more churches, the church being a very important aspect of life in medieval times. The columns and pillars of the Roman style are mirrored both in the interior and exterior of the Cathedral. This includes a row of arches beneath which pews for prayer are set up. The front of the building shows some of the intricate detail work characteristic of the period, including arched windows, scrollwork, and turreted roofs atop towers.
This panel from the medieval period that was created some time between 1420 and 1460 AD depicts one of the signs of the Last…… [Read More]
Medieval Life was perilous for those who lived during this period. There were a number of issues that made life particularly difficult. Low literacy rates meant that people had little access to information. Because travel was difficult and dangerous, they also had little access to information that would help them improve their lives. In addition, their lives were almost completely under the control of the oman Catholic Church, which was the wealthiest institution and therefore the most powerful. Anyone who was not a member of the Catholic Church could be accused of heresy and subject to punishment. These punishments were so severe they could even lead to death. According to one scholar, "since the church was not permitted to shed blood, the sentenced heretic was surrendered to the secular authorities for execution, usually by burning at the stake" (Blotzer 1997). Living during threats like this in the period of the…… [Read More]
Therefore, Islamic monarchies did not make claims of actual divinity.
Despite their differences, Christian and Islamic theocracies shared the same concept of expansion. Central to both religions was the concept that world religious domination was a religious and political duty. In fact, while crusading is now associated solely with Christianity, the fact is that early crusading began with Islamic crusades in the early middle Ages. The Islamic crusades and the later Christian crusades were both religious and political efforts to spread religion. Both were based on the notion that areas that did not share the religion in question were somehow unjust or unholy. Furthermore, while these crusades targeted other religions, they also resulted in increased wealth and political power for the rulers of the theocracies. According to scholars like Arlandson, Pope Urban II's call to crusade against the Muslims was purely a reaction to earlier Muslim aggression against Christians. (Arlandson).…… [Read More]
Many captains noted that the sick were not considered worth wasting time over, as it was rare that the voyage did not have fatalities. Additionally, upon finishing the sea portion of the pilgrimage, travelers were left to deal with the harsh terrain of the Middle East and foreign people to which these pilgrims were unaccustomed. Being now under the authority of Muslim leaders, pilgrims were forced to place their journeys into the hands of others, often facing additional time delays, hardships and mistreatments. Even upon reaching the pilgrims' ultimate goal of the Holy Sepulchre, the place where Jesus was crucified and buried, these pilgrims were often forced to undergo more scrutiny and delay as they waited to receive appropriate documentation and authority to let them pass into this area. Miscommunication and language barriers often brought about additional delays, making even the trip's ultimate goal a difficulty.
The nature of such…… [Read More]
Medieval to Georgian Culture, James Deetz
In this paper, we explore the transition in American colonial architecture from the medieval to Georgian cultural phases, and the associated rise of capitalism in Western society. We will look at several aspects of this transitional period, as manifested in home building, ceramic artifacts, and gravestones. The perspectives and influence of key players including James Deetz and Mark Leone will also be analyzed and compared.
Stull (2000) describes the concept of a medieval American home, using the distinctive example of houses from early colonial times in the state of Massachusetts. James Deetz used the term "medieval" to describe such structures, based upon art history traditions of the time. Stull argues that colonial building styles were in fact part of a much longer period of social change that preceded the British colonization of America's New England region. Stull considered that Deetz's usage of the medieval…… [Read More]
Medieval Europe and the Evolution of the Church State
How Constantine's Deception lead to a Holy Roman Empire
And the virtual collapse of the Christian church
The Decline of the Roman empire and the rise of tribal powers
Constantine and his "conversion" o
The Edict of Milan grants legal rights to Christians
The Council of Nicea The first church council conducted under the governmental oversight of the Roman empire.
Diocletian reorganized the empire in attempts to rebuild a workable chain of command, and political structure which would defuse growing political power struggles. Persecuation of the Christians is reignited.
Thousands of Germans cross the Rhine into the Roman Empire
Romulus Augustus, the last Roman emperor in the West is deposed and the Roman empire is officially ended.
500-1000: Early Middle Ages [ or Dark Ages]
565-750: Christianization of ritain begins
565: Saint Columba begins his missionary work among the…… [Read More]
Medieval Period - Westminster Abbey
The history of the Westminster Abbey in London stretches back to the Early Middle-ages. The edifice was constructed circa the turn of the 7th century (Mason, 1996). Although the accounts vary, the monk, Sulcard's description of Westminster Abbey's is given some weight by historians. According to Sulcard's history, the original structure's erection was commissioned by King Aethelbert of Kent (Mason, 1996).
Due to the fact that timber was the building material used for most structures during the Early Medieval period, it is likely that any edifice built prior to the 11th century was made out of wood (Stalley, 1999). Furthermore, the early Christian churches were often built upon preexisting pagan temples or oman basilicas. These buildings were designed to be used according to different practices than what we have come to associate with the Christian use of churches. Pagan sacrifices were conducted outside of temples.…… [Read More]
1). But this begs the question -- how does one define a good life, given that the empire was dependant upon the subjugation of other peoples, slavery, a decadent, undemocratic and corrupt Imperial system, and the "entrenched social hierarchies that were also part of the Roman world" (Heather 2006, p.1). Viewed as such, the Dark Ages may be seen as a "necessary evil" (Heather 2006, p.1). Rome had to fall to destroy large-scale slavery and make possible, eventually, a world which valued all human beings more equally. To establish control, over the new order, however, required a "slow and difficult" process and thus the early medieval world was in a state of constant turmoil in a way that did not support patronage of the arts and culture (Jansen 2006).
Eventually, there were substantial innovations that would affect the rest of human history towards the end of this age. The Renaissance…… [Read More]
Medieval Christian World-View of St. Thomas Aquinas
M]an is directed to God, as to an end that surpasses the grasp of his reason... Whereas man's whole salvation, which is in God, depends upon the knowledge of this truth. Therefore, in order that the salvation of men might be brought about more fitly and more surely, it was necessary that they should be taught divine truths by divine revelation.
Pt. I, Q. 1, Art. 1]
For St. Thomas Aquinas, the purpose and meaning of human life in all its aspects are ultimately to be found in God and salvation: "Sacred doctrine" is thus the greatest and most important element of philosophy; for Aquinas the highest and truest philosophy is thus Christian philosophy. Sacred doctrine is not just one branch of human science among others, but the most important knowledge available to human beings, for "the purpose of this science, in so…… [Read More]
Medieval, Modernist and Post-Modernist
Cite some variations in the Loathly Lady fabula across the three tales in your Reader. Focus on the conditions by which the lady is either beautiful or ugly, and the actions of the knight/king/"hero"
The Loathly Lady motif was a common device in medieval literature, typified by the presence of a wise but unsightly old hag who is transformed into a beautiful maiden by the contextualizing narrative's resolution. Our Reader refers to The ife of Bath's Tale, The Tale of Florent and The edding of Sir Gawain and Dame Ragnelle as works in which this motif is particularly essential but in which slight variations can be observed. Indeed, these variations generally relate to the emphasis on the immediate issues of femininity or on the symbolic matters relating to sovereignty and nobility.
To this end, in The ife of Bath's Tale, the old hag that the knight…… [Read More]
But still, the medieval English literature gave strong clues as to how much influence religion had at that time. Hill's essay concerns "The Ballad of St. Stephen and Hero," a poem that "clearly displays the tendency of medieval popular religion to reshape 'historical' narrative to conform to the conventions and expectations of traditional or 'folk' narrative. St. Stephen, in historical context, was reportedly the first Christian martyr. After the death of Christ, Stephen was preaching in the streets and was apparently such an irritation to angry Jews who heard him extol the virtues of Christ, they stoned him to death. The poem, which Hill analyses, actually takes serious liberties with the real Biblical story; Hill points out that the poem claims Stephen's martyrdom resulted from the power of a star at Christ's birth, flatly contradicting Scripture. That having been said, this poem is just another example of the "folk' sensibility…… [Read More]
A wife of bad character,
ho takes delight in always quarrelling,
Brings her husband premature old age;
So a man who seeks his own happiness,
Should not even mention the name
Of such a wicked woman. omen are very peculiar,
They never say what they have on their minds
or on the tips of their tongues
And what they do is always contrary to what they say.
Those who are drawn to women. By their enchanting appearances,
Are destroyed, like moths in a flame." (Panchantantra, the Story of the Donkey and the asherman).
Throughout the Panchantra, there are similar references to women and their treachery. There are few references to women that portray them in a positive light.
There are vast similarities among the women portrayed in Boccacio and those portrayed in the Panchantantra. There are also clues that this is a decidedly male perspective. Boccacio gives us clues…… [Read More]
In the other part of Europe for instance the visual representation of saints is different from its eastern comparison. From this point-of-view, it can be said that religion can be viewed more as a general framework of principles and that there are regional individual representations which make it original according to the region. More precisely, the role of the saints in western iconography is more important and has a better detailed description than in the Eastern parts. This comes to point out that even though there are certain common elements in the religious practice, these are doubled by specific elements and characteristics.
A similar example is the issue of saint worshiping. There are different means through which saints are venerated or through which the popular belief had built an image culturally attached to the territory under discussion. In this sense, there are common stories about different saints such as Martin,…… [Read More]
" The pen of the philosopher, like the Cross, is maimed yet a necessary implement. He is in despair, for "loomy songs make no feigned tears bedew my face. Then could no fear so overcome to leave me companionless upon my way." (Book 1, p.1) But Boethuis is not alone, because like in "The Dream of the Rood," his pen, his muse, and the nature of human Fortune itself are all speakers in his cell.
Likewise, the relationship between the philosopher, his muse in the form of his pen and the relationship of Christ and the cross is both loving and adversarial. The relationship between Boethius and his writing with a pen and his eventual fate are also paradoxical in the sense that Christ needs the Rood or Cross to fulfill His earthy mission to save humanity, and Boethuis' needs his pen. These implements cause pain yet are vital in…… [Read More]
Medieval Cultural Exchange
Contrasting Medieval eligious Expression:
An analysis across Christian and Islamic Civilization
In Chapters 7, 8 and 9 of John McKay's A History of World Societies, the similarities and differences of medieval Christian and Islamic civilization across Europe, the Middle East and Africa are detailed as the rise and fall of political and religious actors are presented. One fascinating subject that stands out from such a tremendous amount of material and which returns the student of history to the human scale is how the two civilizations influenced each other in developing new perspectives on religious expression through art, ranging from architecture to calligraphy to even everyday objects such as religious clothing. An understanding of how these two civilizations influenced one another contributes to a more complete understanding of the broader issues of politics, religion and geopolitical competition that defined this historical epoch.
One of the most prominent areas…… [Read More]
20,21). Romanesque structures tend to be dark and cave-like on the inside. Arches became pointed, rather than rounded as in Roman structures. Gothic architecture represents an advancement in engineering techniques, as builders found that they could do with thinner materials and that roofs could span greater distances. The roofs in Gothic architecture was supported by this new form of arch, rather than by the massive walls, as was done in Romanesque architecture ("Gothic Architecture," pp. 20,21)
Gothic structures sported and increased number of towers, flying buttresses, and decorative designs ("Gothic Architecture," pp. 20,21). Gothic architectures indow openings were adorned with either stained glass or the distinctive Gothic Rose indows. Adornments included human figures, animals, scenes of ordinary life, wars, important events, gargoyles and other mythological creatures. Gothic structures were highly ornate when compared to Romanesque Structures.
Visiting different structures on a trip through Europe can be an exciting adventure.…… [Read More]
The gatehouse at Harlech contained spacious chambers or halls, with fireplaces and latrines. There is little doubt that the guardhouse was home to the constable of the castle. Master James of St. George, the Harlech's builder, was himself appointed constable of his creation (Williams 2007, p. 7). The gatehouse was also occupied, in this period, by Sir John de Bonvillars, Deputy Justiciar of North Wales. The larger rooms on each level were fitted with tall windows. The most favored rooms faced the courtyard, the chimneys of their fireplaces making an additional architectural arrangement on the roof of the gatehouse (Williams 2007, p. 21). The view from Harlech is particularly impressive. The sea and the mountains of Snowdonia provide a majestic backdrop to the royal castle. It has even been suggested at oscommon that the castle's original location beside a lake and in the middle of an expansive field may have…… [Read More]
medieval period papal bull's regulations covered Jewish behavior, lifestyle, and [clothing] living areas. hat mentality? Catholic Church response gentile population time period?
Medieval period papal bulls and other regulations covered Jewish behavior, lifestyle, clothing and living areas
The medieval papal bulls issued regarding the Jews during the Middle Ages did occasionally protect Jewish rights, such as the bull in 1205 by Innocent III which issued the statement that Jews should not be forced to convert, a radical notion at the time. However, Jews were still prohibited from dining with Christians and owning Christian slaves, underlining their unequal status ("Bulls, Papal," Encyclopaedia Judaica, 2008). Other papal bulls seemed to feed the fires of anti-Semitism such as the 1218 bull of Honorarius III which forced Jews to wear clothing that marked them as separate from Christians and demanded that Jews pay a tithe (ten percent of their income) to the local church…… [Read More]
Retrieved 2 Jan 2004 at http://www.vanderbilt.edu/~cyrus/ORB/orbmusic.htm#early
ajor artists, sculptors, and architects
Unlike the famed ichelangelo and Da Vinci, much of the plastic arts of this period are by anonymous hands and crafts persons.
While mosaics and wall paintings remained the preferred means of embellishing buildings in the Byzantine East, the Latin West deployed carved stone by and large.
The lines of churches and cathedrals are angular, deploying a theme of reaching to heaven, while the more grotesque sculptures on the friezes make use of more rounded shapes
Some of the most inventive art of the iddle Ages appears in the expansive portals of churches, on the rectangular sides of piers, and on the cramped contours of column capitals.
The bright Byzantium mosaics are a sharp contrast to the more staid stone of the Latin West.
VI. Expressive content, Style and…… [Read More]
Northern and Southern California
Gender and the Middle Ages
Legend, Faith, and Historical Reality
'woman,' as was understood by a resident of Europe during the Middle Ages, was either the mother of Jesus or the physical embodiment of Eve's sin. In the rhetorical discourse of courtly love, women functioned either as representations of desire or objects of adoration for men to save. They could inspire heroic deeds in the hearts of knights yet in the Christian discourse of the lives of the saints and miracles, women functioned as representations of what was worldly, fleshy and desirable in a negative fashion. Thus, to eschew the feminine in the religious discourse of the period was evidence of saintliness, as seen through the eyes of saintly hagiographers.
omen thus occupied an ideologically precarious position within the context of Medieval Europe. They were symbolically central. They were not socially marginal as a group, as…… [Read More]
The second statute which serves to maintain the economic and political domination of women is the rule stating that women may not "dare or presume to take for spinning more than one ball of wool at one time," because this prevents any attempt on the part of female workers to stockpile or otherwise accumulate enough wool to sell or use it outside the established, guild-monitored economy ("Statutes of a wool guild," 1384, 106). Although this statute may have decreased the overall efficiency of the wool-spinning process by requiring women to go get a new ball of wool every time they finish, it also served to protect the guild from rebellion or discontent, because allowing women greater control over the process "might give rise to a strong organization of skilled craftsmen who would be much more difficult to control than" individual women, spinning one ball of wool at a time out…… [Read More]
knight was "a mounted warrior in the service of his liege-lord." Knights were professional soldiers. They were higher in rank in the cavalry. They wore coat of arms that bore the names of their heritage. They carried the colors of their Lords. (Hopkins, 1990) Their job was protecting the lands that belonged to their Lords and by extension the domain of the king. The rise of knights was associated with a martial meritocracy and an eventual aristo-meritocracy. Those knights who won battles for their masters rose through the hierarchical ranks. They were accorded greater power, lands and servants. The raison d' tre for knights was martial supremacy. Fighting was an often occurrence, because the common person could not defend themselves against an invading foe. In time of danger the people fled to the castle. When not engaged in combat, knights would participate in tournaments to win favors, power, and money.…… [Read More]
Madonna and Child by the Master of St. Cecilia
Madonna and Child (1290-1295) by the Master of St. Cecilia is a tempera and gold leaf on panel depiction of the Mother of God and the Christ Child. Its iconic imagery perfectly represents and reflects the ideals of the medieval world, of Christian Europe as it existed under the guidance of the Roman Catholic Church. The Church during this time served as the social, political and religious example for all the nations and peoples of Europe. This icon by the Master of St. Cecilia depicts the ideal that the Church wished to convey to its followers, whether princes or peasants -- namely, that all mankind should honor and humble himself before the majesty of the Mother of God, whose fiat to the Archangel ensured that the Son of God would be born to redeem mankind and pay the price for his…… [Read More]
In the introduction to the Greenwood series the Great Cultural Eras of the Western World, A.D. 500 to 1300, is described as the Middle Ages.
"Borders and peoples were never quiescent during these tumultuous times." Schulman (2002). Germanic tribes had invaded and settled in the former oman Empire, and the synthesis of three cultures -- the classical, Christian, and Germanic -- had begun. In the sixth century, Clovis had completed the Frankish conquest of Gaul; the Vandals controlled North Africa; the Visigoths, forced to retreat from southern Gaul by the Franks, continued to dominate Spain; and the Angles and Saxons had settled in Britain. At the same time, the emperors of the Eastern Empire, Constantinople, thrived. " ... The oman papacy began to play an independent role in European society." Schulman, (2002) says "Pepin needed papal support to become king. Schulman, (2002, p. viii) It is later commented…… [Read More]
Medieval Political Thought
How did Augustine of Hippo's and Thomas Aquinas' views of the role of human free will in the process of salvation shape their different views of political theory?
For Augustine, there could be two cities -- the City of Man, which would essentially be a society without grace or goodness -- and the City of God, which would be a society that conformed to the will of God, participated with grace, and worked to perfect itself in accordance with the Commandments of God. One would be an imperfect society (the former) and the other would be a perfect society. Essentially, the City of Man is a system in which all endeavors are geared towards earthly happiness whereas in the City of God, endeavors are geared towards a spiritual happiness with God, enjoyed fully in the next life if one is good and dies in the state of…… [Read More]
Medieval Life: Cecilia Penifader
The extent gender and class played in Cecilia's life experiences
Looking at the life of other peasants, Cecilia was from a wealthy family. They had a large house constructed from twigs, moss and mud covering approximately 150 sq. Cecilia came from a one-roomed family house, with a fireplace at the center for cooking and warmth. Cecilia spent much of her life as a child in the garden surrounding their house, where she played and helped with caring for her younger sibling (Agnes), cooking, and gardening. Cecilia's home was surrounded with a diverse and large community. Cecilia came from a village whereby people lived close to one another and sometimes shared a wall. Most trade and businesses took place in the villages while critical economic activities occurred in the countryside. The economy of this village looks upon arable fields and pastures, arable fields comprise of…… [Read More]
The Cid is a fair and just man, which is part of the knightly image, and he lives a good and just life. He is pious, and he commands respect, as the growth of his forces during his exile indicates. The image of the knight is also extremely brave, especially in battle, and both books hold up this image. The Cid and his men are extremely brave on the battlefield, and they support each other, as well. In one battle, one of his knights loses his horse. Simpson writes, "His lance is broken, but he grasps his sword and smites mightily, now on foot" (Simpson 33). This is one of the enduring images of the knight, that he is brave among all other things, and that he is extremely brave in battle.
Another image of the knight in both books is that they share a camaraderie and sense of working…… [Read More]
Medieval Western Society, Byzantine Society and Islamic Society
It is the habit of history to study several cultures as if they have developed independently of one another, and entirely different. The results of national and regional pride are evident in the manner in which history is retold, as each civilization builds the future of its own region and develops its own regional differences and standards, each is often studied as if it has developed in a vacuum. Within the primary sources of the foundational societies that encompass the history of today's world there are many differences to be found; yet there is also a clear indication that Early Medieval Western Society, Byzantine Society and Islamic Society all developed within the context of the Ancient Roman Civilization, with all the resulting effects. Additionally, they all developed feudal and manorial institutions in response to internal and external pressures of encroachment. In short…… [Read More]
Town/Village Development in the UK in the Medieval Ages
Leicester Development in the Medieval Ages
Leicester provides an excellent example of fort-settlement-town-city development through the Medieval Ages. Controlled at different stages by the Romans, Anglo Saxons, Danish and, of course, Great Britain, Leicester shows the combined contributions, primarily of the Romans, Anglo Saxons and British in its development. Realizing the importance of these contributions, the University of Leicester has undertaken various archaeological projects to continually learn about the city's Medieval development and the Leicester City Council has undertaken a considerable preservation project, particularly of the marketplace area. Both the University and the City Council intend to uncover and preserve Leicester's rich history.
Backdrop: British to Roman to Anglo Saxon to Danish to British
Leicester is a city located at 52°38"06"N 1°08"06" in modern-day East Midlands, Great Britain (Google, Inc., 2006). However, it did not become an organized settlement until it…… [Read More]
This gave her husband the right to sell any of her property and she was not in a position to object in any way. Religious women with their vows of obedience and poverty really had no reason to get involved in legal matters and were untouched in any way by the legal structure.
idows were the only women who held in legal position in the society. "She (a widow) regained her legal personality, was entitled to a certain share of her husband's holdings and, for the first time in her life, could make independent decisions." Legally, this was the best position for women. It was not without problems especially for wealthy women. These women were frequently intimidated into a second marriage or into relinquishing parts of their holdings. They had no legal recourse against this kind of intimidation in the same way that married women could not object to domestic…… [Read More]
Masturbation in Medieval Times
The history of human masturbation extends back into prehistory. Evidence of this can be seen on Prehistoric petroglyphs and rock paintings in areas throughout the world. "A clay figurine of the 4th millennium efore Current Era [i.e., .C.], from a temple site called Hagar Qim on the island of Malta, depicts a woman masturbating. However, in the ancient world depictions of male masturbation are far more common."(McFarland .) For example, from the inventors of the first written Western language, the Sumerians, we find references " ... To the Mesopotamian god Enki masturbating, his ejaculation filling the Tigris River with flowing water." (McFarland .) Until the middle ages sexual activity was generally seen as natural and a normal part of healthy human development.
The attitudes towards sex and masturbation during medieval times were determined by the Catholic Church, particularly under Pope Gregory IX in the 13th Century.…… [Read More]
"Actually, there is nothing particularly ancient about either the peoples of Europe or their supposed right to political autonomy. The claims to sovereignty that Europe is seeing in Eastern and Central Europe today are a creation of the nineteenth century, an age that combined the romantic political philosophies of ousseau and Hegel with 'scientific' history and Indo-European philology to produce ethnic nationalism. This pseudoscience has destroyed Europe twice and may do so yet again. Europe's peoples have always been far more fluid, complex, and dynamic than the imaginings of modern nationalists" (Geary 13).
One problem with the idea of ethnic 'self-determination' that Geary's book highlights is that it is virtually impossible to draw the line where it ends. "Surely, if Lithuanians or Croats have their own language, their own music, and their own dress, then they have a right to their own parliament and their own army" (Geary 9). But…… [Read More]
"Theorists of capitalism" such as erner Sombart state unequivocally that the "beginning and end" of capitalist activities is "a sum of money," which must be calculated and trace the renewed interest in higher mathematics to mercantile capitalism and the need for an easily convertible medium of exchange (Sachs 2000).
However, exposure to the Arab world through the Crusades was also a factor in a renewed interest in mathematics independent of capitalism -- interest in rationalism as a concept also spawned theorizing later useful to economists. Fibonacci (1175-1250 AD) "wrote Liber Abaci, a free rendition of Greek and Arabic works in Latin which taught the Hindu methods of calculation with integers and fractions, square roots and cube roots, this book made available the masses the number systems heretofore sequestered in monasteries throughout Europe" (Dickinson 1996).
Sachs, Stephen E. "New math: The 'countinghouse theory' and the medieval revival of arithmetic."…… [Read More]
Grave Goods of the Avars in Medieval Carpathian asin
The objective of this study is to examine the burial styles and grave goods of the Avars. This includes such as buried livestock and artifacts. As well the variability in the relationship between different several sites from this similar time period, and some specific burial sites of interest will be examined as well as the various traditions relating to positioning of bodies and preparation of the dead along with any possible meanings. Examined as well will be construction of the tombs and any other grave goods of interest. From this data this study will attempt to determine the traditions, individual wealth and the position of that culture and to determine what the traditions were of this culture as well as how they developed and changed over time. The difference in tribes or clans and other influences from that time period will…… [Read More]
"In modern terms, we would argue about whether universals are objectively real or only social constructs."
The idea that experiential faith is more valid than a rational, deductive proof of God's existence has come to more prominence in modern thought, given that science has largely subsumed the disciplines of mathematics and the use of mathematical 'proofs' about the divine favored by theologians in the middle ages like Aquinas. But within the social sciences, the debate about what is objectively knowable rages on. Postmodernists, for examples, suggest that there are no universal categories of knowledge or gender, what constitutes 'great literature' is subjective, and the idea that estern literature has 'classics' is usually defended in a tautological manner: Shakespeare is great, we should read great literature, therefore we should read Shakespeare. Postmodernists also point to the subjective nature of the category of gender in a cross-cultural fashion.
In politics as well,…… [Read More]
He was a second round draft pick, but he just couldn't seem to connect with the Falcons. However, he never gave up on his dream to be a number one quarterback in the league. His fan web site notes, "You know the lyrics to the song 'I get knocked down, but I get up again - you're never gonna keep me down!'? Brett might not either, but he sure lives by those words" (Editors). In 1992, the Green Bay Packers traded a number one draft pick to take Favre, a move that many thought was totally crazy. However, in his first game, he went in for the injured first-string quarterback, and ended up leading the team to a nail-biting victory over the Cincinnati Bengals, 24-23. In that same year, he became the youngest quarterback ever to play in the Pro-Bowl (23). He took over the head quarterback position after the…… [Read More]
Power of the Medieval Church
There is little doubt that the Church was one of the most powerful institutions in Medieval Europe. Many factors contributed to its remarkable success. Among these was the importance of religion in the everyday lives of people of all classes and backgrounds. It is not by accident that the Middle Ages is sometimes known as "The Age of Faith." In a world that had not yet discovered scientific explanations for the travails that beset humankind, religion offered answers and also hope. The monasteries that dotted the map of Europe provided safe havens in the violent storm that was the essence of Medieval life for so many. Within their sheltering walls, there existed a different, more peaceful, more promising modus vivendi. Here, man was free from the constant wars, and the sudden destructions that too often befell the men and women of that period. On another…… [Read More]
Fellowship, for example, seems cruel in his dismissal of Everyman, and he gives immoral advice: "But and thou wilt murder, or any man kill, / in that I will help thee with a good will!" Everyman's cousin says: "I will deceive you in your most need."
However, there is a contradiction in this total denial of the world, because Everyman's actions in the world will save him, namely his Good Deeds. Although other worldly ties and attributes will not help him, his obedience to God's commandments will follow him after death. Of course, one might ask, for whom does he do 'Good Deeds,' very likely his family, friends, and other peoples? But the play is designed not to engage in philosophical speculation, but to graphically and simply represent received religious truths. Even Knowledge, or the positive value of intelligence, is dismissed in the play. Knowledge, just like Beauty and Worldly…… [Read More]
By the late thirteenth century he had his own seal. The various officials concerned with the holy infirmary, the infirmary for sick brothers and almsgiving were under his authority. From 1340, the hospitaller was a brother from the tongue of France."(Nicholson, 77) Thus, the knights were mainly warriors who nevertheless had numerous other attributions, such as being actively engaged in charity actions and other social services. Percival's quest for the Holy Grail exemplifies the sublime missions assigned to the most virtuous of knights.
Thus, knighthood can be identified as an important cell in the Middle Ages, with a complex ideology of its own but also with a determinate role in society.
Harper-Bill, Christopher ed. And Ruth Harvey ed. Medieval Knighthood IV: Papers from the Fifth Strawberry Hill Conference 1990. oodbridge: Boydell, 1992
Kaeuper, Richard . Chivalry and Violence in Medieval Europe. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999.
Nicholson,…… [Read More]
The Crusader utilised stone in order to create their castle structures. During this time Castles began to adopt features of a polygonal shape with turrets in their corners, as contrasted with the classic designs of previous times which included minimal towers and were normally square in shape. Other features of the newer design endemic in most castles included the usage of detached towers which permitted for the castle to remain independent if its towers were conquered by a potential enemy.
Romanesque and Gothic architecture slowly developed in the medieval era, reaching their highest expression in the great cathedrals of the High and Late Middle Ages, which were revived again during the Victorian Era of the 19th Century. This was the basic design for all the great churches, castles, places, town halls, public buildings and monasteries during the Middle Ages, which give the period its distinctive architectural feel and look. A…… [Read More]
According to Gutek (1995), the church in the medieval period exercised a virtual dominance of formal education through direct or indirect means. During this period, formal education was supervised by clerics though it was not a pre-requisite for practicing religious life or leadership. Since the church has a virtual monopoly over formal education, there were different kinds of educational institutions associated with chivalry, the guilds and the church during the medieval period. Even though access to education was limited during this period, these educational institutions, which were mostly church-related, conducted basic or elementary education. The institutions provided basic/elementary educational functions despite the fact there was relatively vague differentiation between elementary and secondary schools.
The educational institutions associated with the chivalry, the guilds, and the church in the early medieval era were parish, chantry, monastic, and cathedral schools (Gutek, 1995). Parish schools were presided over by a priest and…… [Read More]
movie )) • What specific references medieval culture history film feature address 've explored class ? • Discuss film embodies clash cultures Crusaders Saracens, Christian Moslem worlds.
Ridley Scott's 2005 motion picture "Kingdom of Heaven" holds a great deal of references to Crusaders and to events having happened during the Crusades. Medieval culture involved religion being revived as one of the principal elements holding society together and the ible as a document that could be interpreted with the purpose to motivate people's acts of violence in the name of God. Scott's film provides an intricate account displaying actual feelings expressed during the Crusades and events that took place as Christians went to Jerusalem with the purpose of freeing it from groups that were apparently unworthy of inhabiting it on account of their failure to act in agreement with Christian laws.
Cultural clashes take place throughout the film and as the…… [Read More]
In Hasidism, even the non-educated and unlettered could become conscious of God on a higher level. This knowledge in applied to the interpretation of the Bible in the context of the Kaballah and leads to daat, the ultimate knowledge of God and the elevation of the soul. The Hasidic approach differed from traditional mysticism and Jewish asceticism in that it emphasized joy and optimism. This came about through the intercession of the rebbe who mediates between his followers and the divine as an intercessor.
In the case of Al-Farabi, although he represented philosophical logic, he was under major influence by Sufi mysticism which transcended purely physical knowledge. Sufism is simply an umbrella term for the ascetic and the mystical movements within Islam. Further, Sufism is supposed to have incorporated separate elements of Christian gnosticism, monasticism and Indian mysticism. Two central Sufi concepts are the complete and total reliance upon God.…… [Read More]
Today my father and I did go to a funeral of an old woman. But it was not a sad day, for she was old and the death was expected. Together we passed over the ford, the in-between place where the dead and living meet, a place that is neither wet nor dry, and we held a flask from the water of a ford in our hands. Oh, although it is only the dead that live in between, I at fifteen, neither girl nor women feel that I stand upon such a ford myself, unsure of where I am about to go, to either heaven or hell -- should I become a nun, a wife, or flee this life entirely and go to live amongst the fairy people. I intend to have fun, regardless, while I still can!
A must confess I cast my dream-fate not to be amongst that…… [Read More]
The Golden Bull of 1356 fixed the number and identity of the electors. And while the Empire finally received an orderly method of choosing its sovereigns, the power of these sovereigns had largely passed from the center to the periphery. The old empire existed in name only.
Italy too is part of the story of the German rulers of the Holy Roman Empire. The part of Italy north of the Papal States was an actual part of the Holy Roman Empire, while Sicily, in the extreme south, was at times under the rule of the Emperors. In particular, Frederick II was famed for the glorious, and learned, court he maintained in Sicily. Italy was very strongly affected by political developments North of the Alps. The same divisions between Church and State that plagued the rest of the Empire were prominent in the Italians city states as well. For Italy, like…… [Read More]
Peter Abelard and William of Ockham on Universals
William of Ockham is a notable adherent of nominalism -- the notion that universals, the supposed referents of general terms, have no real existence. His objection to the notion of realism as applied to the concept of universals can be summed up in his phrase 'no universal is a particular, since every universal is capable of signifying many and of being predicated of many'. The soul alone is a universal by nature; universals as they have otherwise been understood, which is to say general terms such as those of colour, size, material, composition, are for Ockham matters of language and convention, not of reference to actually existing universal properties:
Thus a spoken word, which is numerically one quality, is a universal; it is a sign conventionally appointed for the signification of many things. Thus, since the word is said to be common,…… [Read More]
Medieval Herb Gardens
In ancient medieval times, the omans created landscape gardens, as well as formal gardens. While the tradition of landscape gardens did not survive the fall of ome or the breakdown of the Western Empire, the tradition of formal gardens did survive in medieval monasteries, which were abbeys ruled by abbesses or abbotts.
However, while the omans' formal gardens focused on agriculture, the herb gardens in the monasteries concentrated on practical gardening. Still, the formal structure stayed the same.
Historians have not determined exactly what the early monastic gardens looked like. The earliest information about the appearance of monastic gardens comes from the plan of the monastery of Saint Gall, which was written in Switzerland in the 9th Century.
Saint Gall's plan revealed that these medieval herb gardens consisted of rectangular beds separated by narrow paths. This style of garden was dominant in Western Europe up until the…… [Read More]
Medieval Japan Lesson Plan
The student population for the lesson presentation I observed for what is known as the Ninja Lesson plan was principally high school students. The subject matter discussed in the lessons -- which revolved around ninjas and others who engaged in violence -- was too mature for elementary school students, yet appropriate for even some of the lower grades in high school. The students were from Pan American International High School. They were from a combination of different grades. There were freshman and sophomores, but also some of the lower scoring seniors and juniors at this high school were involved in the lesson as well. As such, it is not inconceivable that some of the more gifted middle school students could have been in this lesson.
The topic of this lesson was Japanese history, particularly as it pertained to ninjas, shoguns, and those sort of warriors. This…… [Read More]
medieval romance has inspired literature for generations. The magic of the Arthurian romance can be traced to Celtic origins, which adds to it appeal when we look at it through the prism of post-medieval literature. The revival of the medieval romance can be viewed as an opposition against modern and intellectual movement that became vogue in modern Europe. These romances often emphasized the human emotions rather than the human intellect and a return to more classical traditions. Poets and writers in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries did not want to feel the oppression from the constraints of their time. Instead, they looked beyond the intellectual to a more mystical and emotional realm. They wanted to achieve another level in their writing -- one that allowed them to stretch their imaginations and their knowledge. The medieval aspects that we find in literature from this era accentuates a different type of thinking…… [Read More]
Concepts in the mind such as 'society' can thus have an impact on the real, sensory world but they do not have an independent, tangible or ideal existence. The one exception to Abelard's nominalism is the category of "human beings, whose forms are their immaterial (and immortal) souls. Strictly speaking, since human souls are capable of existence in separation form the body, they are not forms after all, though they act as substantial forms as long as they are joined to the body" (King 2004). Through this idea, Abelard strove to reconcile Christianity with nominalism and to elevate the human being.
The other great medieval nominalist of note is illiam Ockham. Ockham also subscribed to the Aristotelian ontology of realist empiricism, believing that universal essences "are nothing more than concepts in the mind" and no innate ideas exist apart from the mind (Kaye 2007). "The defense of nominalism undertaken by…… [Read More]
Matthew from the Gospel Book made for Archbishop Ebb of Reims, circa 816 to 835 C.E. This illumination which measures about 10 by 8 inches portrays a rather frail-looking saint with his hair almost standing on end and his garment twisted around on his body and deeply wrinkled, perhaps from sitting much too long at his table while transcribing passages for a new edition of the Holy Bible. There is almost no background or landscape in this illumination but what there is of it appears very unnatural and sketchy. Also, the proportions of the saint's body appears to be somewhat unnatural, not to mention his face which appears to be almost a caricature or a cartoon of a real human face.
Also, the expression on the saint's face makes him look as if he is not enjoying the task at hand, being the writing down via dictation from the tiny…… [Read More]
El Cid and Medieval History
Medieval Spain was a constant battlefield where Christians and Moors fought constantly. The Moors had invaded Spain in the early stages of the 7th century and remained in control of the area well into what are now known as the Middle Ages. The Moors had begun their campaign in Europe intent upon conquering the entire continent but had been stopped at the Pyrenees by Charles the Hammer. Nevertheless, the Moors remained in Spain for over 700 years and their influence on Spanish culture remains evident to this very day. These influences include the Spanish language and its architecture.
In the course of over 700 years many legends and tails arise both fictional and real. When these legends and tails begin, at least when they are based upon living characters, they tend to accurately reflect the conditions and events as they occurred. As time progresses, however,…… [Read More]
At the same time, it considerably increased the number of books that would reach the masses, allowing them to see outside the teachings of the Church or of the religious preachers. Moreover, the printing machine offered the possibility for those opposing the rule of the Catholic Church to spread their beliefs and convictions. Thus, Gutenberg's invention was the main tool for what would later be called the Reformation, the religious movement which is often associated with the Renaissance and which influenced the artistic movement in the same manner as the Renaissance affected the emergence of the reformist churches.
The hallmarks of the previous era were rather obvious and contrasted to the ones the Renaissance promoted. They manifested themselves at all the levels of the society. Thus, during the middle Ages, the Church represented the highest institution of the state which had as its subjects all political and land owners (Berstein…… [Read More]