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Law and omen in Medieval Europe
omen have always been victims of various legislations and the way the law is applied concerning the crimes that they commit in the society. The suffering that women underwent in medieval Europe cannot be emphasized much as seen from this study. In late medieval Europe, religion played a significant role in shaping the way the law was practiced. A very wide jurisdiction was controlled by the ecclesiastical courts exempted the clergy from secular jurisdiction by extending their control over the laymen. The ecclesiastical courts protected the helpless people in the society like women, orphans, and children. It also handled a broad range of semi-secular offenses like forgery, perjury, libel, and falsification of testimony, weights, and measures among other crimes (Merback 8). In most of these cases, the church did not have exclusive jurisdiction, but concurrently exercised a considerable degree of influence by the secular…… [Read More]
omen's Domesticity In Medieval Europe During The Late Middle Ages
Role of omen as Mothers/ives
During the pre-industrial period in Europe, European housewifery included not only the housework chores, but also medical services, distillation, water purification, brewing, veterinary services and producing simple goods (all 19). During the time, although some of the European women contributed to the economic well-being of the society, they were not at anytime identified through their occupational designations. Therefore, although some of the women were working, the society throughout identified them through their marital status (McKeon 177). Nonetheless, all the early women in Europe undertook domestic chores. Although there were two types of women, those from high ranks, and those of lower ranks, both attended to domestic chores, which made them equal.
The ranks were achieved owing to the type of work, or it was dependent on the husband's profession. For the low ranked wives or…… [Read More]
Medieval Europe and Japan
There is an old saying that familiarity breeds contempt. But does unfamiliarity breed similarity? In the Middle Ages, two civilizations at opposite ends of the globe evolved in a strangely similar manner. Western Europe had its feudal age. Japan had its feudal age. The oman Catholic Church exerted a powerful influence from Sweden to Italy, Buddhist temples and monasteries from Hokkaido to Kyushu. In the West, civilization rebuilt itself after the fall of a great empire, while in the Far East a new nation emerged that modeled itself after the ancient civilization of its powerful neighbor. There are indeed many similarities between Medieval Western Europe and Medieval Japan, but there are also many differences. These two civilizations - almost entirely unknown to each other - evolved along similar yet different paths.
Following the Fall of ome, and in the wake of devastating barbarian invasions, the…… [Read More]
Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1993. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001648096
Goldberg, Jeremy. "Girls Growing Up in Later Medieval England." History Today, June 1995, 25+. http://www.questia.com/. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=27843659
Herlihy, David. Women, Family, and Society in Medieval Europe: Historical Essays, 1978-1991. Edited by a. Molho. Providence, RI: erghahn ooks, 1995. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001272076
Purkiss, Diane. "The Case for Women in Medieval Culture." Medium Aevum 68, no. 1 (1999): 106. http://www.questia.com/. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=14413469
Richards, Earl Jeffrey. "Seulette a Part -- the Little WomanOn the Sidelines Takes Up Her Pen:the Letters of Christine De Pizan." In Dear Sister: Medieval Women and the Epistolary Genre, edited by Cherewatuk, Karen and Ulrike Wiethaus, 139-170. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1993. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=24951699
Stuard, Susan Mosher, ed. Women in Medieval Society,. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1993. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001272088
Tavormina, M. Teresa. "Medieval Marriage: Literary Approaches, 1100-1300." Medium Aevum 68, no. 1 (1999): 109. http://www.questia.com/. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002090486
Women and Religion in Medieval England." Medium Aevum 72, no.…… [Read More]
medieval period papal bull's regulations covered Jewish behavior, lifestyle, and [clothing] living areas. hat mentality? Catholic Church response gentile population time period?
Medieval period papal bulls and other regulations covered Jewish behavior, lifestyle, clothing and living areas
The medieval papal bulls issued regarding the Jews during the Middle Ages did occasionally protect Jewish rights, such as the bull in 1205 by Innocent III which issued the statement that Jews should not be forced to convert, a radical notion at the time. However, Jews were still prohibited from dining with Christians and owning Christian slaves, underlining their unequal status ("Bulls, Papal," Encyclopaedia Judaica, 2008). Other papal bulls seemed to feed the fires of anti-Semitism such as the 1218 bull of Honorarius III which forced Jews to wear clothing that marked them as separate from Christians and demanded that Jews pay a tithe (ten percent of their income) to the local church…… [Read More]
Northern and Southern California
Gender and the Middle Ages
Legend, Faith, and Historical Reality
'woman,' as was understood by a resident of Europe during the Middle Ages, was either the mother of Jesus or the physical embodiment of Eve's sin. In the rhetorical discourse of courtly love, women functioned either as representations of desire or objects of adoration for men to save. They could inspire heroic deeds in the hearts of knights yet in the Christian discourse of the lives of the saints and miracles, women functioned as representations of what was worldly, fleshy and desirable in a negative fashion. Thus, to eschew the feminine in the religious discourse of the period was evidence of saintliness, as seen through the eyes of saintly hagiographers.
omen thus occupied an ideologically precarious position within the context of Medieval Europe. They were symbolically central. They were not socially marginal as a group, as…… [Read More]
The second statute which serves to maintain the economic and political domination of women is the rule stating that women may not "dare or presume to take for spinning more than one ball of wool at one time," because this prevents any attempt on the part of female workers to stockpile or otherwise accumulate enough wool to sell or use it outside the established, guild-monitored economy ("Statutes of a wool guild," 1384, 106). Although this statute may have decreased the overall efficiency of the wool-spinning process by requiring women to go get a new ball of wool every time they finish, it also served to protect the guild from rebellion or discontent, because allowing women greater control over the process "might give rise to a strong organization of skilled craftsmen who would be much more difficult to control than" individual women, spinning one ball of wool at a time out…… [Read More]
In the introduction to the Greenwood series the Great Cultural Eras of the Western World, A.D. 500 to 1300, is described as the Middle Ages.
"Borders and peoples were never quiescent during these tumultuous times." Schulman (2002). Germanic tribes had invaded and settled in the former oman Empire, and the synthesis of three cultures -- the classical, Christian, and Germanic -- had begun. In the sixth century, Clovis had completed the Frankish conquest of Gaul; the Vandals controlled North Africa; the Visigoths, forced to retreat from southern Gaul by the Franks, continued to dominate Spain; and the Angles and Saxons had settled in Britain. At the same time, the emperors of the Eastern Empire, Constantinople, thrived. " ... The oman papacy began to play an independent role in European society." Schulman, (2002) says "Pepin needed papal support to become king. Schulman, (2002, p. viii) It is later commented…… [Read More]
Medieval Cultural Exchange
Contrasting Medieval eligious Expression:
An analysis across Christian and Islamic Civilization
In Chapters 7, 8 and 9 of John McKay's A History of World Societies, the similarities and differences of medieval Christian and Islamic civilization across Europe, the Middle East and Africa are detailed as the rise and fall of political and religious actors are presented. One fascinating subject that stands out from such a tremendous amount of material and which returns the student of history to the human scale is how the two civilizations influenced each other in developing new perspectives on religious expression through art, ranging from architecture to calligraphy to even everyday objects such as religious clothing. An understanding of how these two civilizations influenced one another contributes to a more complete understanding of the broader issues of politics, religion and geopolitical competition that defined this historical epoch.
One of the most prominent areas…… [Read More]
20,21). Romanesque structures tend to be dark and cave-like on the inside. Arches became pointed, rather than rounded as in Roman structures. Gothic architecture represents an advancement in engineering techniques, as builders found that they could do with thinner materials and that roofs could span greater distances. The roofs in Gothic architecture was supported by this new form of arch, rather than by the massive walls, as was done in Romanesque architecture ("Gothic Architecture," pp. 20,21)
Gothic structures sported and increased number of towers, flying buttresses, and decorative designs ("Gothic Architecture," pp. 20,21). Gothic architectures indow openings were adorned with either stained glass or the distinctive Gothic Rose indows. Adornments included human figures, animals, scenes of ordinary life, wars, important events, gargoyles and other mythological creatures. Gothic structures were highly ornate when compared to Romanesque Structures.
Visiting different structures on a trip through Europe can be an exciting adventure.…… [Read More]
"Actually, there is nothing particularly ancient about either the peoples of Europe or their supposed right to political autonomy. The claims to sovereignty that Europe is seeing in Eastern and Central Europe today are a creation of the nineteenth century, an age that combined the romantic political philosophies of ousseau and Hegel with 'scientific' history and Indo-European philology to produce ethnic nationalism. This pseudoscience has destroyed Europe twice and may do so yet again. Europe's peoples have always been far more fluid, complex, and dynamic than the imaginings of modern nationalists" (Geary 13).
One problem with the idea of ethnic 'self-determination' that Geary's book highlights is that it is virtually impossible to draw the line where it ends. "Surely, if Lithuanians or Croats have their own language, their own music, and their own dress, then they have a right to their own parliament and their own army" (Geary 9). But…… [Read More]
This gave her husband the right to sell any of her property and she was not in a position to object in any way. Religious women with their vows of obedience and poverty really had no reason to get involved in legal matters and were untouched in any way by the legal structure.
idows were the only women who held in legal position in the society. "She (a widow) regained her legal personality, was entitled to a certain share of her husband's holdings and, for the first time in her life, could make independent decisions." Legally, this was the best position for women. It was not without problems especially for wealthy women. These women were frequently intimidated into a second marriage or into relinquishing parts of their holdings. They had no legal recourse against this kind of intimidation in the same way that married women could not object to domestic…… [Read More]
Masturbation in Medieval Times
The history of human masturbation extends back into prehistory. Evidence of this can be seen on Prehistoric petroglyphs and rock paintings in areas throughout the world. "A clay figurine of the 4th millennium efore Current Era [i.e., .C.], from a temple site called Hagar Qim on the island of Malta, depicts a woman masturbating. However, in the ancient world depictions of male masturbation are far more common."(McFarland .) For example, from the inventors of the first written Western language, the Sumerians, we find references " ... To the Mesopotamian god Enki masturbating, his ejaculation filling the Tigris River with flowing water." (McFarland .) Until the middle ages sexual activity was generally seen as natural and a normal part of healthy human development.
The attitudes towards sex and masturbation during medieval times were determined by the Catholic Church, particularly under Pope Gregory IX in the 13th Century.…… [Read More]
Power of the Medieval Church
There is little doubt that the Church was one of the most powerful institutions in Medieval Europe. Many factors contributed to its remarkable success. Among these was the importance of religion in the everyday lives of people of all classes and backgrounds. It is not by accident that the Middle Ages is sometimes known as "The Age of Faith." In a world that had not yet discovered scientific explanations for the travails that beset humankind, religion offered answers and also hope. The monasteries that dotted the map of Europe provided safe havens in the violent storm that was the essence of Medieval life for so many. Within their sheltering walls, there existed a different, more peaceful, more promising modus vivendi. Here, man was free from the constant wars, and the sudden destructions that too often befell the men and women of that period. On another…… [Read More]
By the late thirteenth century he had his own seal. The various officials concerned with the holy infirmary, the infirmary for sick brothers and almsgiving were under his authority. From 1340, the hospitaller was a brother from the tongue of France."(Nicholson, 77) Thus, the knights were mainly warriors who nevertheless had numerous other attributions, such as being actively engaged in charity actions and other social services. Percival's quest for the Holy Grail exemplifies the sublime missions assigned to the most virtuous of knights.
Thus, knighthood can be identified as an important cell in the Middle Ages, with a complex ideology of its own but also with a determinate role in society.
Harper-Bill, Christopher ed. And Ruth Harvey ed. Medieval Knighthood IV: Papers from the Fifth Strawberry Hill Conference 1990. oodbridge: Boydell, 1992
Kaeuper, Richard . Chivalry and Violence in Medieval Europe. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999.
Nicholson,…… [Read More]
Feudalism and Manorialism in Europe and Japan
Europe and Japan together with other parts of the world experienced a period when politics was decentralized. During this period, loyalty was owed to a lord and combat was part of everyday life. Some of the trends that characterized this period include feudalism and manorialism, which manifested differently despite extending across regions. Feudalism and manorialism were two frameworks in which the Japanese and European medieval culture was developed. While feudalism was an economic structure that influenced how land was managed, feudalism was a social structure that was embedded in an exchange of pieces of land for military service. This paper examines how Europe and Japan dealt differently with feudalism and manorialism. The evaluation is conducted on the premise that while trends may extend across geographical regions, they manifest differently as shown in World History. The Basis for European and Japanese Feudalism As previously…… [Read More]
The Golden Bull of 1356 fixed the number and identity of the electors. And while the Empire finally received an orderly method of choosing its sovereigns, the power of these sovereigns had largely passed from the center to the periphery. The old empire existed in name only.
Italy too is part of the story of the German rulers of the Holy Roman Empire. The part of Italy north of the Papal States was an actual part of the Holy Roman Empire, while Sicily, in the extreme south, was at times under the rule of the Emperors. In particular, Frederick II was famed for the glorious, and learned, court he maintained in Sicily. Italy was very strongly affected by political developments North of the Alps. The same divisions between Church and State that plagued the rest of the Empire were prominent in the Italians city states as well. For Italy, like…… [Read More]
The gatehouse at Harlech contained spacious chambers or halls, with fireplaces and latrines. There is little doubt that the guardhouse was home to the constable of the castle. Master James of St. George, the Harlech's builder, was himself appointed constable of his creation (Williams 2007, p. 7). The gatehouse was also occupied, in this period, by Sir John de Bonvillars, Deputy Justiciar of North Wales. The larger rooms on each level were fitted with tall windows. The most favored rooms faced the courtyard, the chimneys of their fireplaces making an additional architectural arrangement on the roof of the gatehouse (Williams 2007, p. 21). The view from Harlech is particularly impressive. The sea and the mountains of Snowdonia provide a majestic backdrop to the royal castle. It has even been suggested at oscommon that the castle's original location beside a lake and in the middle of an expansive field may have…… [Read More]
knight was "a mounted warrior in the service of his liege-lord." Knights were professional soldiers. They were higher in rank in the cavalry. They wore coat of arms that bore the names of their heritage. They carried the colors of their Lords. (Hopkins, 1990) Their job was protecting the lands that belonged to their Lords and by extension the domain of the king. The rise of knights was associated with a martial meritocracy and an eventual aristo-meritocracy. Those knights who won battles for their masters rose through the hierarchical ranks. They were accorded greater power, lands and servants. The raison d' tre for knights was martial supremacy. Fighting was an often occurrence, because the common person could not defend themselves against an invading foe. In time of danger the people fled to the castle. When not engaged in combat, knights would participate in tournaments to win favors, power, and money.…… [Read More]
Madonna and Child by the Master of St. Cecilia
Madonna and Child (1290-1295) by the Master of St. Cecilia is a tempera and gold leaf on panel depiction of the Mother of God and the Christ Child. Its iconic imagery perfectly represents and reflects the ideals of the medieval world, of Christian Europe as it existed under the guidance of the Roman Catholic Church. The Church during this time served as the social, political and religious example for all the nations and peoples of Europe. This icon by the Master of St. Cecilia depicts the ideal that the Church wished to convey to its followers, whether princes or peasants -- namely, that all mankind should honor and humble himself before the majesty of the Mother of God, whose fiat to the Archangel ensured that the Son of God would be born to redeem mankind and pay the price for his…… [Read More]
Power was juggled in different areas based on victories and loses of the two competing empires.
After the initial wave of crusaders, Europe had regained the area formerly known as the Christian Byzantine Empire, including Jerusalem and other parts of Israel. After fighting off the Islamic nations who held the area, Christianity ruled over Jerusalem until the late eleventh century. This formed a new Christian state within an Islamic context, but only heightened tensions between the two regions. Then in 1187, the Turkish Kingdom ruled by Saladin who ruled over Egypt and Syria, (Lewis, 134). For the next century, several other unsuccessful crusades were launched to once again recapture the Holy Land.
It was not only war which distanced the two regions. It was also a lack of social understanding which occurred through normal and commercial contact between the modern day enemies. Many Islamic traders and the Northern European markets…… [Read More]
Grave Goods of the Avars in Medieval Carpathian asin
The objective of this study is to examine the burial styles and grave goods of the Avars. This includes such as buried livestock and artifacts. As well the variability in the relationship between different several sites from this similar time period, and some specific burial sites of interest will be examined as well as the various traditions relating to positioning of bodies and preparation of the dead along with any possible meanings. Examined as well will be construction of the tombs and any other grave goods of interest. From this data this study will attempt to determine the traditions, individual wealth and the position of that culture and to determine what the traditions were of this culture as well as how they developed and changed over time. The difference in tribes or clans and other influences from that time period will…… [Read More]
"Theorists of capitalism" such as erner Sombart state unequivocally that the "beginning and end" of capitalist activities is "a sum of money," which must be calculated and trace the renewed interest in higher mathematics to mercantile capitalism and the need for an easily convertible medium of exchange (Sachs 2000).
However, exposure to the Arab world through the Crusades was also a factor in a renewed interest in mathematics independent of capitalism -- interest in rationalism as a concept also spawned theorizing later useful to economists. Fibonacci (1175-1250 AD) "wrote Liber Abaci, a free rendition of Greek and Arabic works in Latin which taught the Hindu methods of calculation with integers and fractions, square roots and cube roots, this book made available the masses the number systems heretofore sequestered in monasteries throughout Europe" (Dickinson 1996).
Sachs, Stephen E. "New math: The 'countinghouse theory' and the medieval revival of arithmetic."…… [Read More]
lack Death and Religion in Western Europe
The lack Death is perhaps considered as the most devastating pandemic that has happened to humanity in the previous to the present century. The disease was transmitted from Asia into and through Europe. The disease set feet in Europe by the sea in October of 1347 when trading ships belonging to Genoese set their dock at the Silician Port of Messina when it had covered a long journey through the sea. It was not business as usual because the people who had gathered to receive the ship were met with drilling surprise. The sailors, almost all of them, who were on the ship, were dead. Those who were not yet dead were suffering in ill pain. They have a somewhat strong fever that had overcome them and could not do anything because of the pain. What was notable is that the bodies of…… [Read More]
The Crusader utilised stone in order to create their castle structures. During this time Castles began to adopt features of a polygonal shape with turrets in their corners, as contrasted with the classic designs of previous times which included minimal towers and were normally square in shape. Other features of the newer design endemic in most castles included the usage of detached towers which permitted for the castle to remain independent if its towers were conquered by a potential enemy.
Romanesque and Gothic architecture slowly developed in the medieval era, reaching their highest expression in the great cathedrals of the High and Late Middle Ages, which were revived again during the Victorian Era of the 19th Century. This was the basic design for all the great churches, castles, places, town halls, public buildings and monasteries during the Middle Ages, which give the period its distinctive architectural feel and look. A…… [Read More]
In the eighteenth century, the concept of pleasure gardens flourished in Britain, a trend that could be traced partly to the relatively stable democratic government coupled with the international trade that thrived at that time in London. Vauxhall Gardens was perhaps the most famous pleasure garden according to the lectures. Founded in 1661, it reached the peak of popularity during the early years of the nineteenth century. It became a model for several other pleasure gardens in Europe, like the Tivoli Gardens in Copenhagen. Historians believed it was arguably the first modern amusement park. Some of the most popular entertainments offered in Vauxhall were firework displays, theatre shows, theatrical entertainments as well as dancing floors and drinking booths. Both Vauxhall and Tivoli Gardens were so popular that they became generic names for all pleasure gardens in both Europe and the United States (UoS 2015). According to the course,…… [Read More]
History of Crime and Punishment in Europe 17C-18C
This paper traces the history crime and punishment in Europe. It looks at the influences of that time the social and philosophical movements and how they affected the whole evolution of treatment of crime and the thought behind punishment. The paper details about the neoclassical period its forbearers and how they regarded the issue of crime and punishment and their assumptions regarding the problem.
Crime is as old as civilization itself and where you find groups of people, you will consistently find some shape of criminal activity. You will also find punishment. The criminal has always been seen as undermining the values and, even, the very fabric of the society she or he deceives. Accordingly, those found out or found culpable have often been dealt with unsympathetically. Again, the Jewish Mythology will spring to the Western mind with its mantra of an…… [Read More]
("Golden Age of Jewish Culture" 2005) The Jewish community faced a second and harsher wave of prosecution at the end of the Muslim rule in Spain when, as a result of the Inquisition, sevaral hundred thousand Jews were expelled from Spain and Portugal; most of them fled to the Balkan peninsula under Ottoman Empire.
Money Lending Jews and Isolated Existence
The Jewish communities that settled in various parts of Europe usually kept to themselves (or were forced to do so by others). Most Jews became merchants and money lenders since Usury was declared illegal by the Church for Christians. Although many Jews prospered in this way, their isolated existence and money-lending role made them easy targets as scapegoats for misfortune of others.
Prosecution During Crusades
Although the Christian crusades in the Middle Ages were primarily directed against their arch enemies -- the Muslims, they frequently degenerated into massacres of an…… [Read More]
persecution of early Christians under the oman Empire is a matter of great interest and intrigue to many, even today; as is the matter of distinction and distrust between early Jews and Christians. Furthermore, the ironically similar behavior of orthodox Christians towards heretics rouses the curiosity of many scholars. This paper will discuss the effect of Christianity on omans and their perceptions towards Christians, Christian perceptions and treatment of Jews. The relationship between orthodox Christians and heretics will also be discussed.
ome before Christianity
The empire of ome, at the time of Christ's birth, was one of the two greatest kingdoms and was steadily continuing to flourish and expand, even then. Soon, it covered most of what we now know as Western Europe. The conquered land began from Spain in the west and ended in Syria in the east, while the great countries of England, France and Greece, and the…… [Read More]
institutions wielded as much influence over the people of their age as the medieval Roman Catholic Church. This influence derived primarily from the church's enormous wealth, due to the requirement of its members to tithe ten percent of all monies earned to the church to avoid eternal damnation. The church used this wealth to buy up large tracts of land, an estimated 30% of Europe by the 14th century, thus holding the central power over the agriculturally-based economy of the times. ut the church's wealth went beyond material goods, as the clergy were often the only literate members of a community, and thus held the power that was gained through knowledge as well. The ability of its leaders to read and write was used to the ends of the institution and clergy often acted as important and powerful advisors to the political leaders of the community. Overall, the church impacted…… [Read More]
John Kellys "the great mortality"
The bacillus Yesinia Pestis made two continents pay intolerably high life prices both in human and animal lives. Along a few decades in the first half of the thirteenth century, it engulfed Eurasia and kept the world under its terror, making many think its end was near (The Great Mortality).
The Great Plague has carved in the history of humanity signs that will never fade with the passing of time because of its enormous toll on human lives. John Kelly's book "The great mortality" places the plague in a historic context and tackles the topic of Black Death from the perspective of the twentieth century. The word is not free from the deadly attack of infectious diseases, viruses are still threatening animals and human beings alike. John Kelly points out in the introduction to his book that in spite of the numerous victories reported by…… [Read More]
A Greek man's male friends served this purpose.
Ancient Rome followed the patterns in male-female roles as set by the Greeks for most of their history. Like the Greeks, love was generally not an element of most male/female relationships and prostitution was a major industry. For the Romans, the natural order of things was that men were better suited to labor outside the home while women were considered better equipped for handling matters within the home. Unlike Greek women, however, who were relegated to operating in the background even with the home, Roman women were afforded a much larger role in the home but were still not allowed to participate in affairs that occurred in public. In both Greek society and Roman society it must be remembered that they were societies in which under-population was a concern and not over-population as it is today. As a result, the primary function…… [Read More]
This allowed the Catholic Church to present the idea that Earth was special because it was God's greatest creation. Thus, the sun, stars, and planets worked for the Earth and not the other way around. The Earth stayed completely still at the center of the universe and was surrounded by less important celestial bodies that did not receive as much of God's grace. Since Aristotelian philosophy fit so nicely within Christian doctrine, it was adopted and held as truth for hundreds of years, until late into the Middle Ages.
However, there was a drastic and radical change in the concept of the formation of the Universe at the dawn of the enaissance. As more and more of the Church's truths were challenged during the Scientific evolution of the 14th and 15th centuries in Europe, it was only a matter of time before Aristotelian philosophy was placed under question. The first…… [Read More]
Thomas Aquinas led the move away from the Platonic and Augustinian and toward Aristotelianism and "developed a philosophy of mind by writing that the mind was at birth a tabula rasa ('blank slate') that was given the ability to think and recognize forms or ideas through a divine spark" (Haskins viii). y 1200 there were reasonably accurate Latin translations of the main works of Aristotle, Euclid, Ptolemy, Archimedes, and Galen, that is, of all the intellectually crucial ancient authors except Plato. Also, many of the medieval Arabic and Jewish key texts, such as the main works of Avicenna, Averroes and Maimonides now became available in Latin. During the 13th Century, scholastics expanded the natural philosophy of these texts by commentaries and independent treatises. Notable among these were the works of Robert Grosseteste, Roger acon, John of Sacrobosco, Albertus Magnus, and Duns Scotus. Precursors of the modern scientific method can be…… [Read More]
One of the major problems faced by Charlemagne in his efforts to extend the level of education was the fact that there were very few educated persons available to teach others. Years of neglect had left the educational field with few individuals possessing the background necessary to teach others. hat little scholarship that still existed in Europe was concentrated in and around Rome and Charlemagne initiated an aggressive program to attract the leading Italian scholars to his court. By recruiting these scholars to his court, Charlemagne ensured that the full body of available knowledge would be made available to himself and his subjects. From this pool of scholars, Charlemagne built his program of learning and began slowly to establish his own body of Frankish scholars. From this group, the future European learning environment would be built (Einhard) and the future of the European educational system would be ensured.
The curriculum…… [Read More]
Few pieces of cloth have garnered as much attention as the so-called Shroud of Turin, a piece of linen cloth allegedly containing the image of Jesus Christ. The shroud of Turin measures 4.4 meters in length and about one meter wide (about fourteen feet by three feet). Both the front and the back appear to have an image of a man "who had been scourged, crowned with thorns, crucified with nails, and stabbed by a lance in the side," (Fanti, Botella, Crosilla, Lattarulo, Svensson, Schneider and hanger 1).[footnoteRef:1] Traces of blood, fire, and water have also been identified on the shroud (Fanti, et al.; Heller & Adler). Because of the way the imagery on the shroud corresponds with the Biblical story of Jesus of Nazareth, it has been speculated that the shroud was the burial cloth of Jesus before the body was put into a tomb. [1: Fanti,…… [Read More]
Knights Templar, condoned by the Catholic Church, represents a religious order committed to the seemingly opposing principles and ideas of Christian peace and brotherhood of man while remaining dedicated to war and death. Through efforts to demonstrate this thesis, an effort will be made to document the manner in which the Catholic Church has justified this order in spite of its allegiance to opposing principles.
The Order of the Knights Templar was both a military and religious order, founded in the early 12 century, for the purposes of protecting Christian pilgrims who were traveling to holy places after the Catholic conquest of the Holy Land. The Order of the Temple was a military order, a type of religious order and was condoned by the Catholic Church from its onset due to its protective role. The order received its name after the King of Jerusalem gave the order his palace in…… [Read More]
This historian continues, "A sugar-loaf could weigh anything between one pound and 20 pounds, but whatever it weighed it was worth that weight in silver" (Toussaint-Samat 555). By the sixteenth century, it was discovered that sugar cane grew amazingly well in the New World Christopher Columbus had discovered, especially in the Caribbean areas. Toussaint-Samat notes, "in 1506 one Pedro d'Arrance took sugar cane to Hispaniola, now the Dominican epublic. It grew there so profusely that by 1518 the island had eight sugar plantations" (Toussaint-Samat 556). Sugar grew in popularity as it became more readily available, and it also began to drop in price, so the middle class could afford it. As early as 1600, one early historian notes, "That which was once a remedy now serves us as food'" (Toussaint-Samat 557). Sugar cane became another form of currency, and entire economies were built on it before it dropped in price…… [Read More]
66). St. Justinus' was influenced by St. Caster at Coblenz and churches Michaelstadt and Seligenstadt (Fegusson & Spiers p. 220). The columns and roofs are of cultural interest and the massive Gothic choir and its original seating still exist.
St. Justinus' has undergone changes over the years. In 1298 the relics of St. Justinus' were transferred to the mother church St. Margaret who in turn dedicated the church. In 1419 the Antoniter order made numerous altercations to the church including the building of the gothic chancel. In the early 18th century the church added an organ that is mostly intact today (The American Organist). In the 1930s and the 1980s St. Justinus' underwent restoration; today the church belongs to the parish of St. Josef in the Frankfurt district of Roman Catholic Diocese of Limburg (aedekers Frankfurt).
4. Krak des Chevaliers, Syria (AD 1144 -- 1250) -- 950…… [Read More]
Shapers and Definers
Characteristic of Modernity
It is true that renaissance was not based in sudden rediscovery of classical civilization but it was a continuation of the use of classical models to test the authority underlying conventional taste and wisdom (Garner, 1990). According to Davies, identity does not stop at a national frontier and that Europe has seen radical changes in tribal boundaries until recently of national homelands. If a peasant of the Middle Ages had been asked where he lived he would probably have replied Christendom. Equally he shows how ubiquitous nationalist inspired historical reconstruction has distorted historical reality.
In addition, in the book, a kingdom of England did exist in 1265, on the ruins of the Plantagenet Empire; but it still had stronger connections with the Continent, in Gascony and Aquitaine, than with Wales or Ireland. Its French speaking Anglo-Norman aristocracy did not yet share a common culture…… [Read More]
But later, Aquinas joined the two approaches of philosophy and theology to present a theory of the cosmos. "Reason was no longer conceived as the nemesis of Faith...Aquinas [claimed] that both were paths to a single truth: 'God exists'" (Kreis, 2000). Philosophy and reason in general were no longer seen as hostile to faith.
The Late Middle Ages was characterized by interest in anatomy, as is reflected in the more individuated representations of the human form in art as opposed to the anonymously authored and undefined figures in Gothic churches. Once again, the individual was valued in culture and in life. This was partly the result of economic improvements in agriculture such as crop rotation, the liberation of the peasantry from serfdom and their ties to the land, and the creation of urban centers of trade. "Many members of the nobility across Europe sought greater refinement of life. "Feudal lords…… [Read More]
History Of Christianity
The Conversion of Constantine
In the peer-reviewed Catholic Historical Review, author Charles Odahl explains that there was an "arduous military campaign" to regain control of Rome from "usurper Maxentius" in A.D. 312 (three hundred years after the death of Jesus Christ). The campaign was brutal and so Constantine the Great sought "supernatural assistance" against the enemies of Rome (Odahl, 1995). Of course previous emperors had sought power and influence from "traditional pagan cults" and had persecuted the Christian Church, and it hadn't worked out well in terms of military successes. So Constantine was said to have invoked (through prayer) "the Highest God" of the universe to help his troops; and because he believed he had an answer from the Christian God, he ordered placed on troops arms the "caestia signa of Christ" (the Cross). Because Roman troops won the Battle of the Mulvian Bridge (on October 28,…… [Read More]
Chaucer's The Knight's Tale
The societies which flourished throughout Europe during the medieval period were built upon a foundation of institutionalized honor known as chivalry. Orders of knighthood were established throughout the region which sought to produce exemplary soldiers and leaders of men. Medieval knights earned membership to this warrior class by defending their nation from external threats while always striving to uphold a personal code of conduct. The concept of chivalry emerged to encompass the entirety of a knighthood's commitment to virtue, at once describing his proficiency on the battlefield, his willingness to protect a woman's honor, and the supreme loyalty he pledged to his liege. A chivalrous knight was expected to demonstrate prowess in the art of combat, honesty and truth in his dealings with others, honorable behavior when confronting his enemies, and freedom from the hold of worldly possessions; displaying a courtly manner while seeking…… [Read More]
Chinese calligraphy & Western calligraphy
Weather in the East or in the West, calligraphy, the art of writing, is first and foremost an art form, by definition. This art is dedicated to practical purposes, but as any craft, it has taken its own individuality as an expression of the craftsman's abilities, his imagination, creative power and mastering of the specific techniques.
Calligraphy and literature are highly dependent on each other in sia, particularly in China. Technology has brought typewriters and keyboards on writers' desks in most places in the world, yet Chinese writers as well as painters are still paying a great deal of effort and attention to the art of calligraphy. It is only through the lens of the Chinese culture that one might properly understand the value of calligraphy. Most of the western world would consider calligraphy as an art of the past with no particular resonance in…… [Read More]
Dark Ages or Early Middle Ages is that historical time period of the Western Europe that came after the collapse of the West oman Empire in the fourth and fifth centuries. It ended when the period of the enaissance started in the 15th century. The western civilization adopted a number of its ideas and institutions from the unstable and tumultuous events of the Early Middle Ages. It won't be incorrect to state that the culture in West in fact experienced a revolution in the Middle Age. The most important reason why Middle Age can be considered advancement in the humanities is that its effects influenced the world greatly. The significance of this specific time period "has been increasingly recognized as scholarship based on newly published source material, archaeological findings, and studies of demographics and migration patterns presents more accurate and detailed analyses of events and trends" ("Middle Ages," 2013).
Even…… [Read More]
Upon entering a place that appears to be hell, though it looks oddly like a coldly modern, windowless hotel, each of Sartre's characters expects to be tortured for his or her supposed sins. The wait; however, turns out not to be for the arrival of some "other," but rather the discovery that one's own self, and one's fellow human beings, perform the job perfectly well.
arcin, like Judas, is consumed by the need to possess powers and capabilities beyond that of any other human being. Much as Judas cannot submit to the ultimate Divine Truth, arcin fins it impossible to admit his own frailties. He detests Ines for recognizing his failings, but fails to see that his greatest weakness is his lust need for self-preservation despite the toll it takes on his psyche and his character. arcin would, in his own mind, be a noble man, if there were never…… [Read More]
This is because this thesis has some limitations that should be observed when taking into consideration the importance of the thesis and its assistance. This thesis has concentrated on a subject that has been an extremely large and leading one, that is, the managerial impact on small businesses and the underlying reasons being reluctance shown by small business managers to make use of information technology and Internet. Undoubtedly, this characterizes an extremely difficult assignment for research in spite of the more precise interests that the thesis might have. This wide-ranging and difficult subject has been analyzed from a somewhat limited experimental perception. The choice of the single thesis design obviously draws out numerous limitations in so far as the simplification of the outcome of the thesis is involved. Consequently, the thesis setting can simply be termed as a sort of direct framework of the past and present trends in the…… [Read More]
Still, his union with a woman also of common birth leaves us to reflect that in all likelihood, Spenser himself would enter the court after an upbringing of modestly. This denotes the distinction of Spenser as a critique of reigning structures of authority in his time and place. This also helps to introduce our discussion to the historical context into which he deposited his first important work of poetry.
The choice of language in the poem is a curious one, at least insofar as it can be regarded as somewhat misleading of the work's time of origin. Its composition in 1579 and the poet's declared affection for and indebtedness to the works of Geoffrey Chaucer are facts submerged beneath the linguistic affectations which Spenser felt were necessary to carry the pastoral form. (Bear, 1) Indeed, the prologue which is composed by an otherwise anonymous writer signing as E.K., provides…… [Read More]
The history and influence of the Templars did not end with these confessions and executions. To Philip's "dismay" (92), the story seemed to gain power now that it was a legend. In fact, it is recorded that when de Molay was burning, he spoke and cursed Philip.
The history of the Knights Templar is riddled with obscurity and doubt. hile we know that they did exist, we must wonder what happened to such a powerful and prominent Order. Certainly, the Templar was at one time a well-respected and useful Order in Christendom. The one event that seemed to be liked to the demise if the fall of the Holy City. The result of this fall is two-pronged for it immediately rendered the Order less significant and it also proved their inability to uphold their mission. Public sentiment has always been fickle and it would be silly to think that medieval…… [Read More]
" (Wolf 19) the author Kenneth Wolf in his work, the Poverty of Riches: St. Francis of Assisi Reconsidered, points out the irony that you had to be rich in the first place in order to truly choose to give away your worldly possessions. (20) in that sense, Francis' poverty was a "spiritually therapeutic exercise for men of means;" poor people were incapable of participating in this aspect fully because they could never really understand the "spiritual hardship" of giving up comfort. (Wolf 21)
For the children of wealthy families in thirteenth century Italy, Francis offered a path to meaning and purpose for lives filled with luxury. The conscious decision to give up the trappings of earthly pleasure was a very ostentatious and overt form of piety. In Rule VI of the final Rule of the Franciscan Order, it states:
This is that peak of the highest poverty which has…… [Read More]
The Conversion of Constantine: 'Emperor Constantine the Great' by T. Hardenbrook
Constantine's victory over the then governor of Italy, Maxentius, at Milvian marked the end of an era of fighting and in-fighting among Caesars and Augustuses; and the beginning of a reunified, more religious Roman Empire. Following the victory, an arch with the encryption 'Prompting of the Deity' was erected at the Milvian ridge. To the Christian community, the 'Deity' meant Christ the Son of God; and to the Pagans, it represented the Unconquered Sun. It is widely believed that Constantine converted to Christianity after his victory at Milvian; but then one could ask, 'what then was he before the battle with Maxentius?'
The postponement of his own baptism and the fact that he did not make Christianity the imperial religion immediately after assuming power are not sufficient proof that he was Pagan. The former can be well…… [Read More]
lowland Maya decimation is much more than at any time before, and there are currently several studies that concentrate on the period from roughly A.D. 750 to A.D.1050. Previously, researchers have had a tendency to sum up clarifications of the decimation from individual locales and areas to the marshes in totality. Later methodologies push the extraordinary differences of changes that took place over the swamps amid the Terminal Classic and Early Post classic periods. Along these lines, there is presently a general agreement on the view that Maya culture and civilization in general did not fall, albeit numerous zones did experience significant change
Present scenarios are the result of the long haul elements of human-environment interplay. The fact of the matter is that, we have a long-term viewpoint, keeping in mind the end goal to best comprehend continual changes in ambient environs we observe in present times
. Analysis of…… [Read More]
Ritual Murder Accusation at Blois
Ephraim Ben-Jacob wrote an article titled "The Ritual Accusation at Blois" during the "History of the Relationship" era. The excerpts from the book have been acquired from "A Book of Historical Records," and "The Jew Medieval orld," pages 127 to 130. The writing of the article is precisely during the medieval era. The author started the article with questions like "hat shall we say before God? hat shall we speak? How can we justify ourselves?" He appears to claim and justification that "God must have found out our iniquity" (Rose 62).
In late May of 1171, the Jewish community living in Blois is massacred because they were believed to have carried out a ritual murder on a Christian child. This is the first blood rebel example within the European during this time. This act came soon after Jews living in Norwich had been accused of…… [Read More]
civilizations have often resulted in dramatic changes to both sides. Peaceful encounters bring transfers to new goods, new technologies and new ideas, while encounters built on conflict can change outlooks, governments and ways of life. A violent culture clash occurred with the Crusades, while a more peaceful meeting of the cultures occurred with traders from Europe (especially Venetians) heading eastward to Asia. These two encounters between civilizations would lead to much of what we see in the geopolitical world today. We have conflict in the Middle East between the Arab world and the Western world. We also see global trade as a major driving force in the world. This trade also would eventually lead to the age of exploration and mass colonization.
The rise of Islam and the response of Christian Europe during the Crusades not only characterized its era, being one of the most important events of the time,…… [Read More]
First, six countries (including France and Germany, significantly) signed the Coal and Steel Treaty, which meant that no country could never develop enough military power on their own to mount an invasion of another, this preserving each state and nation in Europe (Europa 2009). The Council of Europe also emerged as an entity in the West (the part of Europe not under Soviet control) that increased political and economic cooperation. Today, all of the major countries in Europe including Great Britain, Italy, France, and Germany (and many others) are members of the European Union, without giving up sovereignty or combining cultures.
Most of the European Union's member states (with the notable exception of Great Britain) now uses a standardized currency, the Euro, and trade and travel between member nations has also been made much easier. In this way, one of the primary functions of the European Union is to create…… [Read More]
In addition, both governments and churches began to grow suspicious of the group, probably because of the "organization's secrecy and liberal religious beliefs" (Watson, 2009). As a result, Portugal and France banned Freemasonry; in fact, it was a capital offense to be a Freemason in Portugal (Watson, 2009). Moreover, "Pope Clement XII forbade Catholics from becoming Freemasons on penalty of excommunication" (Watson, 2009). Feeling pressure in Europe, many Freemasons decided to flee the Old World and travel to the European colonies scattered throughout the world, most notably, America.
Influence on America
Anyone with even a rudimentary knowledge of the Freemasons and American history understands that, whatever resistance the Freemasons met with in Europe was not to be found in America. The Freemasons set up lodges in Boston and Philadelphia, and some of the founding fathers, including Benjamin Franklin and George Washington. More importantly, the Freemasons are reported to have played…… [Read More]
A work of non-fiction does not have to be about a person, however. Non-fiction work can include theories of social studies, presented in interesting and new ways. Non-fiction is tremendously helpful in lesson planning because the prose elucidates issues in subjects like science and social studies.
Question 6: Although she is not remembered as a major figure in the Civil Rights Movement, Marian Anderson's life contributed to some of the reforms that African-American citizens demanded. Discuss how her voice "challenged" a nation.
Marian Anderson was an accomplished African-American singer. Anderson broke the color barrier in the arts, just as Jackie Robinson did in sports. Anderson's success challenged prevailing social norms, as she became a visible figure in America's most elite concert halls. Anderson began indirectly using her voice as a political tool, channeling her success into achieving broader civil rights goals.
Question 7: Describe how the city of Philadelphia, its…… [Read More]
King Canute is one of the most important and greatest figures in history and was commonly known as King Canute I of England, Norway's King Canute, and King Canute II of Denmark. This significance of this king is attributed to his fame for conquering large parts of England and establishing a formidable but short-lived empire after conquering Norway and Denmark. Moreover, King Canute is renowned as one of the greatest leaders of medieval Europe because he was a statesman with huge successes in the military, politics, and religion. Despite of these notable successes, King Canute's legacy was widely lost to history after his death and the death of his successors within 10 years.
During his childhood, Canute accompanied Denmark's King Swein Forkbeard, his father when he attacked England in 1013 (Snell par, 3). After his father died in February 1014 despite being accepted as the King of England the previous…… [Read More]
Nathaniel's Nutmeg: The True and Incredible Adventures of the Spice Trader who Changed the Course of History" by Giles Milton. Specifically, it will discuss the main theme of the book. The world was a different and much more profitable place after spices were discovered in the East, and spices changed Europe especially. Spices encouraged exploration, created vast fortunes, encouraged European colonization on far away shores, and changed global trade forever. The world could not live without spice, and spice created a new world.
Spices were an important part of living in medieval Europe. They were said to have medicinal properties, and they were used in many recipes. However, they were expensive, and Venice owned a monopoly on their trade. The author notes, "spices had become so popular that demand had long since outstripped supply" (Milton 21). The Portuguese initially had a stronghold on the Spice Islands in Indonesia, but before…… [Read More]
Codification and Liability isk: Napoleonic Code vs. Common Law
In today's modern world, insurance has become an everyday concept. We ensure our homes, vehicles, and valuable property. In many states, vehicle insurance is now demanded by law of its drivers. Yet, very few of us step back and actually question where this notion of insurance actually comes from. It is a strange concept, to pay a premium monthly in order to protect oneself from damages later in the event of a catastrophe. In fact, insurance around the world is not considered the same thing. In fact, codification of insurance in various countries is influenced by different legal systems. While in the United States, insurance is influenced by common law practices, other countries in Europe, the Middle East, and South America use codification principles stemming from the Napoleonic Code.
In most Western countries, like the United States, common law is the…… [Read More]