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Melanoma is a malignant tumor of the melanocytes, cells that are derived from the neural crest, and although most melanomas arise in the skin, some may also arise from mucosal surfaces or other sites to which neural crest cells migrate (General pg). More than half of the cases arise in apparently normal areas of the skin and occur predominantly in adults (General pg). In women it occurs more commonly on the extremities and in men on the trunk or head and neck, however, it can arise from any site on the skin surface (General pg).
Melanoma is usually classified into stages and is depending on how deep the cancer cells have invaded the body (Melanoma pg). Stage 1 involves a growth on the skin, such as a mole (Melanoma pg). In Stage 2, the tumor is has penetrated deeper, however it has not spread to other parts of the…
General Information: Melanoma. National Cancer Institute. http://www.cancer.gov/templates/doc_pdq.aspx?version=healthprofessional&cdrid=62917#Section_1 .(accessed 06-27-2003).
Melanoma. http://www.tustison.com/melfaq.html .(accessed 06-27-2003).
Section of Cytopathology. University of Texas Cancer Center. http://www3.mdanderson.org/depts/pathology/cytopathology .(accessed 06-27-2003).
Melanoma. Who is at risk, and how can this deadly cancer be prevented?
Melanoma cancer has been identified and rapidly increasing over the years as the deadliest skin cancer amongst young adults with women being at a higher risk than men. The purpose of this research is to attain knowledge on the risk involving this cancer, look into preventative ways to minimize the exposure to this type of cancer, and how to live a healthy life post-cancer. Melanoma is a skin cancer-affecting people that lack a pigment in their body called melanin. Furthermore, overexposure to ultraviolet sunlight with the use of tanning booth at a young age has been linked with individuals obtaining melanoma. This cancer can be deadly, and depending on the type of insurance it can be costly to the individual. The cost can vary depending on the severity of melanoma, which is why prognosis plays…
Diagnosing and treating melanoma. (2018). Mayo Clinic. Retrieved from https://www. mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/melanoma/diagnosis-treatment/drc-20374888.
Gershenwald, J. E., Halpern, A. C., & Sondak, V. K. (2016). Melanoma prevention-Avoiding indoor tanning and minimizing overexposure to the sun. JAMA: Journal Of The American Medical Association, 316(18), 1913-1914. doi:10.1001/jama.2016.16430
Guy, G. P., Ekwueme, D. U., Tangka, F. K., & Richardson, L. C. (2012). Melanoma Treatment Costs: A Systematic Review of the Literature, 1990–2011. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 43(5), 537–545. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2012.07.031.
Hood, E. (2009, June). Why males are more at risk for melanoma. Environmental Health Perspectives, 112(8), 466-468.
Konkolova, R., Provaznikova, D. H., Jirakova, A., & Hercogova, J. (2014). Can melanoma therapy change attitudes toward prevention and tanning? Dermatologic Therapy, 27(3), 156-158. doi:10.1111/dth.12100.
Khosrotehrani, K., Dasgupta, P., Byrom, L., Youlden, D., Baade, P., & Green, A. (2015). Melanoma survival is superior in females across all tumor stages but is influenced by age. Archives of Dermatological Research, 307(8), 731-740. doi:10.1007/s00403-015-1585-8
Koh, H. K., Sinks, T. H. & Geller, A. C. (1999). Etiology of melanoma. Cancer Treatment and Research, 65(1), 28.
Melanoma statistics. (2018). National Cancer Institute. Retrieved from https://seer.cancer.gov/ statfacts/html/melan.html.
Sunscreen and melanoma: Is our prevention message correct
The idea that sunscreen is an effective weapon against melanoma has become so commonly cited it has become a cliche: not only do primary care providers make the recommendation to wear sunscreen with a SPF over 15 -- even magazines and popular memes underline this advice. However, according to Planta (2011), evidence-based research does not support the idea that sunscreen protects against cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM). In fact, although rates of sunscreen use have increased in recent years, the rates of this particularly deadly form of melanoma have also continued to rise at a rate of 3% per annum (Planta 2011). There is also a correlation between the use of sunblock and the likelihood of developing sunburns, which leads to an elevated risk of developing melanoma. Even children whose parents applied sunblock more regularly, according to one Swedish study of children ages…
Planta, M. (2011). Sunscreen and melanoma: Is our prevention message correct? Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine, 24 (6): 735-739. Retrieved from:
3). While additional research is needed in this area, these findings suggest that the attributes of non-thermal plasma hold significant promise for the regulation of mammalian cell activity and inducement of apoptosis in targeted cells. In this regard, Sensenig et al. conclude that, "Plasma-induced DNA damage in turn may lead to the observed plasma-induced apoptosis. Since plasma is non-thermal, it may be used to selectively treat malignancies" (2010, para. 4).
The foregoing findings were also congruent with previous research by Kligman et al. (2007). According to these researchers, the floating electrode dielectric barrier discharge plasma (FE-DBD) plasma treatment has been found to invoke apoptosis in melanoma cancer cell lines, and it accomplishes this without causing necrosis while still possessing the ability to initiate apoptosis in the targeted cells (Kligman et al., 2007). The "floating" designation in this application is derived from the manner in which the plasma is generated. Simply…
Clark, W.R. (2002). A means to an end: The biological basis of aging and death. New York:
Cleveland, C.J. & Morris, C. (2006). Dictionary of energy. Amsterdam: Elsevier.
Di Quinzio, M.L., Dewar, R.A., Burge, F.I. & Veugelers, P.J. (2005). Family physician visits and early recognition of melanoma. Canadian Journal of Public Health, 96(2), 136-139.
Fridman, G., Shereshevsky, a., Jost, M.M., Brooks, a.D., Fridman, a., Gutsol, a., Vasilets, V. & Friedman, G. (2007). Floating electrode dielectric barrier discharge plasma in air promoting apoptotic behavior in melanoma skin cancer cell lines. Plasma Chemistry and Plasma Processing, 27(2), 163-176.
Nutritional Approach to Sun Protection by Niva Shapria
This article titled "Nutritional approach to sun protection: A suggested complement to external strategies' by Niva Shapria, is an extensive review of recent research evidence on the efficacy of a simple, natural, dietary model in protecting against harmful UVR exposure and related skin cancers. Through this article, the author clearly points out that a dietary or internal method of sun protection is a very effective complementary approach to preventing skin cancer due to solar radiation for the more susceptible light skinned population living in very sunny regions.
At the outset the author highlights that there is a growing incidence of melanoma around the globe with a significant number of new cases diagnosed among U.S. women. Projections indicate that the rates of melanoma will literally double over the next 2 decades with the increase in UVR exposure due to global warming as well…
1) Niva Shapria, (2010), 'Nutritional Approach to Sun Protection: a suggested complement to external strategies', Nutrition reviews, Vol 68(2) 75-86
Ga DOA OC Radio Pharmaceutical
Neuroendocrine tumors (NE) are neoplasms characterized by tissue immunoreactivity for neuroendocrine differentiation markers, appearance as a small mass that can be off white to yellow often in submucosa and prevalence throughout the body but typically found in the intestine or lungs (Oberg2011). he tumors can be malignant and are typically detected through hormone markers in a first diagnosis (Arnold 2003). Because of the diffuse nature of this type of tumor, detecting and imaging NEs requires scanning and typically requires a contrast agent to detect the location of tumors in tissue (an 2011). Many NE cells possess an overexpression of somatostatin receptors on their surface (Kwekkeboom 2005, VenEssen 2007). Somatostatin receptors are cell surface proteins that bind to somatostatin, a growth hormone inhibiting hormone that regulates the endocrine system and affects neurotransmission and cell proliferation (Florio 2002). he overexpressed somatostatin receptors can be used to both…
Tan, E.H.; Tan, C. (2011). Imaging of gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors, World Journal of Clinical Oncology 2 (1) 28.
VanEssen, M. Krenning, EP., DeJong, M., Valkema, R., Kwekkeboom, D.J. (2007) Peptide receptor radionucleotide therapy with radiolabelled somatostatin analogues in patients with somatostatin receptor positive tumors, Acta Oncology 46, 723-734
Veliklyan, I. Xu, H. Nair, M. Hall, H. Robust labeling and comparative preclinical characterization of DOTA-TOC and DOTA TATE. Nuclear Medicine Biology 18, 123-128.
Tumor Invasion and Metastasis
This is a paper that concentrates on tumor invasion and metastasis. There are five references used for this paper.
Cancer is one of the deadliest diseases faced by mankind today. It is important to look at tumor invasion and metastasis to understand how cancer can spread and ways in which the progress of cancer can be arrested.
A substantial problem in the treatment of carcinoma patients is tumor invasion and metastasis. Approximately "30% of patients with newly diagnosed solid tumors already have clinically detectable metastases (herkules.oulu.fi/isbn9514254023/html/x446.html)." The production of "extracellular matrix degrading enzymes, such as serine proteinases, metalloproteinases, cysteine proteinases, threonine proteinases, and aspartic proteinases (herkules.oulu.fi/isbn9514254023/html/x446.html)" is linked with tumor invasion.
The transition from "in situ tumor growth to mestastic disease is defined by the ability of tumor cells at the primary site to invade local tissue and to cross tissue barriers…
(Castells, Antoni and Anila K. Rustgi. Tumor Invasion and Metastasis. (accessed 27 October,
2003). < http://www.harcourt-international.com/e-books/pdf/478.pdf >).
Couzin, Jennifer. (14 February, 2003). MEDICINE: Tracing the Steps of Metastasis, Cancer's
Menacing Ballet. Science.
He still occasionally 'bums smokes' and chews nicotine gum to combat cravings (Altman, 2008, p 3). Obama's campaign released records suggesting that he is in excellent health -- only one page long. The only specific data they have revealed is his low cholesterol rating. The question arises -- if Obama is in such good health (and he does work out very frequently) why the reticence about the information (Altman, 2008, p.3).
The Obama campaign has implied that the mere appearance of good health on the part of the candidate should be enough, a statement that they would likely mock if it came from the older McCain. McCain has also cited the longevity of his mother as an example of why people should be unworried about his candidacy but again, this is hardly scientific proof of his fitness (Tasker & Chrissos, 2008, p.1). Of course, one of the reasons that questions…
Altman, Lawrence. "Many holes in disclosure of nominees' health." The New York Times.
20 Oct 2008. 20 Oct 2008. http://www.nytimes.com/2008/10/20/us/politics/20health.html?ref=health
The health and medical history of John F. Kennedy." Doctor Zebra. 6 April 2006.
20 Oct 2008. http://www.doctorzebra.com/prez/g35.htm
Personal Healthcare Technology
Sunrise Hospital and Medical Center and the Sunrise Children's Hospital
The Sunrise Hospital and Medical Center, which includes the Sunrise Children's Hospital, is an approximately 55-year-old facility located in Southern Nevada; it serves the greater Las Vegas area and the surrounding communities. The Sunrise Health and Medical Center is proud of its quality initiatives to ensure patient safety and comfort, including direct approaches to pharmaceutical safety such as safe medication dosing via smart pump technology, and bar coding on medications. As well, the Sunrise Health and Medical Center does not discriminate with respect to HIV / AIDS or in any manner related to employment, program participation, admission and/or treatment.
Sunrise has been rated as the most popular area hospital for 15 years in patient surveys. As well, Sunrise Health and Medical Center has developed community outreach programs for health education in a variety of areas, often based…
Appari, A., & Johnson, M.E. (2010). Information security and privacy in healthcare: Current state of research. International Journal of Internet and Enterprise Management, 6 (4), 279-314. Retrieved from http://www.ists.dartmouth.edu/library/501.pdf
Ayanian, J.Z., & Weissman, J.S. (2002). Teaching hospitals and quality of care: A review of the literature. The Milbank Quaterly, 80(3), 569-593. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2690120/pdf/milq0080-0569.pdf
Baker, J.J., & Baker R.W. (2000). Health care finance: Basic tools for nonfinancial managers. Gaithersburg, MD: Aspen
Byington, R., Keene, R., Masini, D. (2006). The impact of federal and state funding levels on strategic decisions and how those decisions affect patient care. The Internet Journal of Healthcare Administration. (4)2. Retrieved from https://ispub.com/IJHCA/4/2/5827
"An electrical analogue of the entire human circulatory system ." Medical Biological and Engineering and Computin 2.2 (1964): 161-166. SpingerLink. eb. 15 Nov. 2010.
Inlander, Charles B.. The people's medical society health desk reference: information your doctor can't or won't tell you - everything you need to know for the best in health care. New York: Hyperion, 1995. Print.
Jodrey, Louise, and Karl ilbur. "Studies on Shell Formation. IV. The Respiratory Metabolism of the Oyster Mantle." Biological Bulletin 108.3 (1955): 346-358. JSTOR. eb. 15 Nov. 2010.
Ruppert, E.E., and Karen Carle. "Morphology of metazoan circulatory systems." Zoomorphology 103.3 (1983): 193-208. SpringerLink. eb. 15 Nov. 2010.
Southgate, Paul C., and John S. Lucas. The pearl oyster . Amsterdam: Elsevier Science, 2008. Print.
"The onders of the Seas: Mollusks." Oceanic Research Group. N.p., n.d. eb. 15 Nov. 2010. .
eight, Ryan, John Viator, Charles Caldwell, and Allison Lisle. "Photoacoustic detection of metastatic…
Arnaudin, Mary, and Joel Mintzes. "Students' alternative conceptions of the human circulatory system: A cross-age study." Science Education 69.5 (2006): 721-733. Wiley Online Library. Web. 15 Nov. 2010.
De Pater, L, and JW Van Den Burg. "An electrical analogue of the entire human circulatory system ." Medical Biological and Engineering and Computin 2.2 (1964): 161-166. SpingerLink. Web. 15 Nov. 2010.
Inlander, Charles B.. The people's medical society health desk reference: information your doctor can't or won't tell you - everything you need to know for the best in health care. New York: Hyperion, 1995. Print.
Jodrey, Louise, and Karl Wilbur. "Studies on Shell Formation. IV. The Respiratory Metabolism of the Oyster Mantle." Biological Bulletin 108.3 (1955): 346-358. JSTOR. Web. 15 Nov. 2010.
The exchange of the defective gene could be brought about by a process called homologous recombination. One of the first gene therapy experiments, though well intentioned, caused the death of the patient. esearchers at the University of Pennsylvania introduced a normal gene into a boy's body by using the rhino virus as a carrier. The body's immune system attacked this as a pathogen. This led to eventual organ failure and death. Gene therapy projects all over the world were largely abandoned. But more recently, gene therapy is beginning to make a comeback. (ONL, 2009)
Gene therapy has been tested in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. This is not a treatment that targets amyloid beta proteins or the tangles, but protects the brain cells from destruction. The regenerative properties of skin cells (stem cells) have been used to prevent the brain cells from "withering" away. Positron Emission Tomography (PET) scans reveal…
http://www.alzforum.org/drg/drc/detail.asp?id=84Alzforum . (2009). Retrieved April 18, 2009, from BBC. (2003). Alzheimer's vaccine 'promising'. Retrieved April 18, 2009, from Alzheimer's vaccine 'promising'
ChemoCare. (2005). Taxol. Retrieved April 18, 2009, from http://www.chemocare.com/bio/taxol.asp
Elements4health. (2009). PET Scans Reveal Plaques and Tangles In Alzheimer's Retrieved April 18, 2009, from http://www.elements4health.com/pet-scans-reveal-plaques-and-tangles-in-alzheimers.html
Feng, J.A., Crasto, C.J., & Matsumoto, Y. (1998). Deoxyribose phosphate excision by the N-terminal domain of the polymerase beta: the mechanism revisited. Biochemistry, 37(27), 9605-9611.
Perkins - who had retired at the age of 70 but was coming back on the board - had by this time muscled his way into a powerful position within the HP community; he and his powerful board ally, George Keyworth, held special "technology committee" meetings with key HP people the day before each board meeting. Stewart writes that Perkins' little group actually became a "board within a board," and Perkins' power grew. His disenchantment with Fiorina also grew. Fiorina was apparently losing the confidence of the board, and Perkins was the central figure in that movement away from Fiorina. Prior to the retreat, which was alluded to earlier in this paper, there was a board meeting scheduled, and before that meeting, Keyworth and Dunn approached Fiorina and urged her to "express concerns about Hewlett-Packard's performance, stock price, unfavorable press, and need to reorganize," Stewart continues.
Although Fiorina showed resistance…
Bloomberg. "HP chief opposes board vote plan." Retrieved 12 March 2007 from Australian it
Broache, Anne. "HP execs: Spy scandal was ethical wake-up call." CNET News.com. Retrieved 13 March 2007 at http://www.news.com .
Fried, Ina. "HP denies pretexting former employee." CNET News.com (2007) Retrieved 13 March 2007 at
legalization of marijuana and its benefits to the society. Our arguments are focused on its medicinal value, income generated (economic value) to the state as well as the possible losses to tax payer's money as a result of trying to implement its prohibition. Our analysis is done via a thorough review of relevant literature containing expert opinions. We support our proposition that marijuana can be a benefit to society through its legalization. This is due to its medicinal value, revenue stream to the state and the reduced cost attributed to decreased prohibition budgets.
Marijuana which is the most commonly used illicit drug has faced has been heavily debated on issues of legalization and safe use. The debate has been so intense to an extent of which it has turned political (NYT, 2008). A recent study by Angus eid concluded that a majority of Americans are in support of marijuana legalization…
Angus-Reid (2009).Majority of Americans Support Legalizing Marijuana
British Medical Association (1997). Therapeutic Uses of Cannabis. Harwood Academic Pub.
Bensinger, P. (2010, Octobe 15). Legalizing marijuana unacceptable, danger to society. Chicago Tribune .
namely, evaluating the structure of the research upon which scientific conclusion are drawn. More specifically, the function of a research report (article) is to inform readers about the problem being investigated, the methods used to solve the problem, the results of the investigation, and the conclusions being inferred from the results. The printed manuscript is to inform the reader, as expeditiously as possible, what was done, the outcome of the doing, and the investigator's conclusion.
In addition to the above, research reports must be succinct, objective, and crystalline. The ultimate test of an excellent research report is in its ability to be replicated by those who read it. If this criterion cannot be met, then the report is inadequate. The remainder of this review will be an analysis of a particular professional article wherein a group of nurses were interviewed and questioned with respect to their knowledge about promoting sun…
usiness Unit Strategic Plan on Implementation of a PET CT unit at a local hospital
Draft: This paper attempts to examine whether or not it is convenient for a local hospital to achieve an ultimate technology medical device, mainly a PET/CT scanning system. In order to come up with a convenient answer and proper solutions, I will present the vision statement, mission statement, objectives, values, strategies, programs, the goals the hospital expects to achieve with the help of the investment it is about to develop. Afterwards I would develop a SWOT analysis which is going to emphasize the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of the proposed objective. Moreover, the last part of my paper would focus on the marketing strategies that should be developed in order to convince more patients to use the modern device, on the sales projections and technology means which are expected to be used in the…
Fusion image: A New Type of Technologist for a New Type of Technology, at http://www.crcpd.org/PET-CT_Fusion_Imaging/PET-CT%20Consensus%20Paper.doc;
Win-Win Strategy for Mobile PET CT, at http://interactive.snm.org/index.cfm?PageID=4092&RPID=627;
About PET/CT Scanning, at http://www.upmccancercenters.com/radonc/petct.html ;
PET/CT, at www.crcpd.org/;
Corneal Donation within Hospitals and Medical Communities: Issues Surrounding Post Mortem Donations of Tissue
The purpose of this study is to identify barriers to corneal donation within hospitals and medical communities. A large body of research has focused on issues surrounding the post mortem donations of tissue. This research will take a different approach, examining what barriers exist within hospital and medical communities in an attempt to determine how these barriers may be overcome.
The number of potential corneal donors far surpasses the number of people available for traditional organ donations and in some states consent of the medical examiner alone is enough to allow use of corneal donations (family consent not required) (Lewin, 2000).
Traditionally the most significant barrier to organ donation and transplantation has been acquisition of organs and tissues (Murray et. al, 2002). The need for cornea tissue is rising. The average wait time for…
Gortmaker SL, Beasley CL, Brigham LE, Franz HG, Garrison RN, Lucas BA, Patterson RH, Sobol AM, Grenvik NA, Evanisko MJ. Organ donor potential and performance: size and nature of the organ donor shortfall. Crit Care Med 1996; 24(3):432-9.
Halloran, P.F. (2003). "Transmission of Donor Melanoma to Multiple Organ Transplant Recipients." American Journal of Transplantation, Vol. 4 Issue
Hawkins, B.R. (1993). "The HLA System and Transplantation Matching in the 1990s." Journal of the Hong Kong Medical Association, 45 (2): 77-86
Jensen, T.R. (2000). "Organ Procurement: Various Systems and Their Effectiveness." Houston Journal of International Law, Vol. 22, Issue 3.
Deployment Methods for Disease
Individual Writing Assignment 3: 10 Discoveries in the War on Cancer
Scientists have always dissected lymph nodes nearby a cancerous tumor to see if the cancer has begun to spread to other areas of the body. The most obvious nearby lymph node is chosen. Scientists have discovered that in women with breast cancers that are 5 cm in diameter or smaller, nothing is gained by additional lymph node dissections in the axillary region (armpit) of the body. Dissecting the node nearest the tumor provides adequate information by itself. (A).
Malignant brain tumors in adults are fast-growing cancers with median survival rates of 15 months, even with aggressive treatment. Researchers have been searching for genetic "signatures" (characteristic groups of cancer-causing genes) that could help in defining the kind of brain tumor the patient has. They hope to be better able to predict the course of the disease…
Etiology of Pancreatic Cancer
Pancreatic cancer has emerged as the most lethal human cancers. In fact, the World Health Organization (WHO) has termed it an unresolved health problem of the 21st century. The disease presently causes about 30,000 deaths in the U.S. per year (Yarbro et al. 2015). Despite past efforts, conventional interventions like radiation, surgery, chemotherapy and combination of these had minimal success in the course of this aggressive disease. It is imperative to develop an in-depth understanding of the molecular biology of pancreatic cancer to help us effectively diagnose, prevent and treat the disease. Nearly all pancreatic cancer patients experience metastases and die due to the frustrating metabolic effects of their unrestrained growth (Shrikhande et al. 2010). Hence, a crucial requirement for progress is the establishment of effective systemic interventions, can reverse the aggressive biology of the disease.
According to the WHO, pancreatic cancer is the fifth most…
Casil, A. S. (2011). Pancreatic Cancer: Current and Emerging Trends in Detection and Treatment. New York: Rosen Pub.
Gress, T. M. (2010). Molecular Pathogenesis of Pancreatic Cancer. Amsterdam [U.A.: IOS Press.
Hoff, D. D., Evans, D. B., & Hruban, R. H. (2015). Pancreatic Cancer. Sudbury: Mass.
Jeruc, J., Kos, I., & Vodovnik, A. (2012). Pancreatic Cancer: Epidemiology and Risk Factors. International Conference on Diseases of Pancreas, Biliary Tract and Duodenum, 17-19.