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0-14 you may want to consider getting a professional evaluation" (Mohs, n.d.).
In regards to this memory test the first two questions in which you were given three words and then a name and address to remember, the concept of encoding was being used. In order to retrieve these pieces of information from my memory, I first had to encode them. Once they were encoded they were stored first in my sensory memory, and then in my short-term memory. Since things are usually only stored in ones short-term memory for up to 20 to 30 seconds and it took me longer than that to get to the question on the test that asked me to recall these, they obviously passed into my long-term memory as well.
etrieving these pieces of information was rather easy since it had not been very long since I had first been exposed to them. There…
Mohs, Richard C. (n.d.). How to Test Your Memory. Retrieved April 25, 2009, from How Stuff
Works Web site: http://health.howstuffworks.com/human-memory.htm
More generalized assessments include the Wechsler Memory Scale, created by the founder of the IQ test of that name, which offers a generalized assessment of different memory types (sensory, short, and long-term) and is most appropriate for adults.
In general, two basic types of neuropsychological memory tests exist. "In almost all objective tests, quantitative results are compared with some normative standard, including data from groups of non-brain injured persons and groups of persons with various kinds of brain injury. If the norms are based on age and educational achievement, valid comparison can be made between an individual's performance and that of persons in known diagnostic categories as well as persons who do not have a diagnosis of brain injury. Qualitative assessment of neuropsychological tests provides a look at the processes an individual may use in producing the quantitative scores. Analysis of the pattern of performance among a large number of…
Human memory: Atkinson-Shiffrin Model. (2010). IPFW. Retrieved February 9, 2010 at http://users.ipfw.edu/abbott/120/AtkinsonShifrin.html
SCATBI. (2010). Academic Therapy. Retrieved February 9. 2010 at http://www.academictherapy.com
Swiercinsky, Dennis. (2001). Neuropsychological testing. Brain Source. Retrieved February 9,
2010 at http://www.brainsource.com/nptests.htm
267266 correct context of schema, 2.016461 correct no context of schema, 2.12909 correct context to List . And 2.353001 correct no context.
Free recall refers to remembering unrelated items in any order immediately following presentation. Delayed recall occurs between hearing the words and writing them down. Recognition is the identification of items previously learned. Primacy effect occurs after the enhanced recall of items presented at the beginning of the list, while the recency effect is greater for those at the end of the list. On the other hand, the serial position is highest at 90% for the first word recalled and lowest for the 6th, 9th and 10th words recalled. Symbols are viewed along with cues and altered by schema-activating labels.
Findings of the experiment showed that the majority of the subjects tested had correct call of the words list, correct delayed recall, correct recognition, correct recall of the scheme…
Bode, N. (2001). Blocking Out a Painful Past. Psychology Today: Sussex Publishers, Inc. http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1175/is_4_34/ai_76577443
Bower, B. (2003). Restoring Recall: Memories May Form and Reform with Sleep. Science News Online, vol 164 (15) p 228. http://www.sciencenews.org/articles/20031011/fob4.asp
Cromie, W. (2002). Long-Term Memory Not fixed Until Age One. Harvard University Gazette: the President and Fellows of Harvard College. http://www.news.harvard.edu/gazette/2002/11.07/01-memory.html
Walker, M. (2003). Stages of Memory. Nature Journal: Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School. http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_release/2003-10/bidm-som100703.php
The total study sample consisted of 89 Black and 83 hite adults with a mean age of 76.52 years. All had previously scored in the Mini-Mental State Examination scores in a non-impaired range. But although in hites, the current study determined, the memory self-efficacy scores of the entire sample were also low (M = 31.95 +/- 18.20), African-Americans scored even lower on perceived memory self-efficacy and memory performance. Memory self-efficacy predicted memory performance in the hite group (r  =. 41; p < or =. 05). hile the correlation for the Black group between perceived and actual memory performance was statistically not significant (r  =. 16), when the entire sample was combined for the regression analyses, the relation was significant (r  =. 30; p < or =. 05). hile age and education were also factors in memory retention, self-efficacy was well accounted for 13% of the variance. Low…
McDougall, Graham J. (2004) "Memory Self-Efficacy and Memory Performance Among Black and White Elders." Nursing Research. Sept./Oct. 2004. 53(5), 323-331. Retrieved from Medline 26 Jan 2005 at http://intapp.medscape.com/px/medlineapp/getdoc?ord=1&searchid=2&have_local_holdings_file=1&local_journals_only=0&searchstring=McDougall+white+and+black+elders+memory
Not all forms of contextual memory enhancement operate in the same fashion. A literature review by Smith & Vela (2001) found "that environmental context-dependent memory effects are less likely to occur under conditions in which the immediate environment is likely to be suppressed… Likewise, memories of experiences may vary in how much they are affected by environmental surroundings, both when events are originally experienced and when events are remembered" (Smith & Vela, p. 203). When researchers gave high priority to enhancing the effects of the test environment, subject's memories were more likely to be altered.
The stakes in understanding context-dependent memory are high: learning environments may enhance memory in school or inhibit memory, and can be redesigned to improve student's education. Context may also affect recall of eyewitnesses in a trial. egarding the later, studies have suggested that learning under highly emotional condition is not conductive to recall. "Experienced skydivers…
Baker. J.R., J.B. Bezance, E. Zellaby, J.P. Aggleton. (2004). Chewing gum can produce context-
dependent effects upon memory. Appetite, 43(2):207-210.
Crawford, H.J. & Chehalis M. Strapp. (1994, February). Effects of vocal and instrumental music on visuospatial and verbal performance as moderated by studying preference and Personality. Personality and Individual Differences, 16 (2): 237-245
Haney, James & Ken Lukowiaki. (2001). Context learning and the effect of context on memory
Memory and Forgetting: A Comprehensive Analysis
Memory loss is a huge problem in an aging population.
No substantive cure for memory loss.
Forgetfulness does not always accompany aging.
Different types of memory loss:
The memory impairment that comes with aging may be due to confusion as well as memory loss.
Memory loss and forgetfulness may be preventable.
There are a number of different approaches to reducing forgetfulness
Daily behavioral changes
The goal of the paper began as a meta-analysis of efforts aimed to reduce forgetfulness
Too many promising approaches to aiding memory impairment to engage in a traditional meta-analysis
Look at the theoretical overlap of different known approaches that may enhance or impair memory
F. Not engaging in a meta-analysis of a single therapy because single therapies do not have therapeutic efficacy.
G. Examine the hypothetical overlap between various treatment modalities
Bottiroli, S., Rosi, A., Russo, R., Vecchi, T. & Cavallini, E. 2014. 'The cognitive effects of listening to background music on older adults: processing speed improves with upbeat music, while memory seems to benefit from both upbeat and downbeat music.' Front Aging Neurosci, vol.6. pp. 284-. Available from: [November 11, 2014].
Cairney, S.A., Durrant, S.J., Jackson, R., & Lewis, P.A. 2014. 'Sleep spindles provide indirect support to the consolidation of emotional encoding contexts.' Neuropsychologia, vol. 63, pp. 285-92.
Cowan, N. (2008). What are the differences between long-term, short-term, and working memory? Prog Brain Res, 169, pp.323-338. doi: 10.1016/S0079-6123(07)00020-9
Lo, J.C., Dijk, D.J., & Groeger, J.A. 2014. 'Comparing the effects of nocturnal sleep and daytime napping on declarative memory consolidation. PLoS One, vol. 9, no. 9, e108100. Available from: . [4 November 2014].
A psychologist named Ulric Nessier believes that flashbulb memories are formed because they represent an intersection of historical and personal trajectories, and this makes them events that people want to retell and rehearse again and again. t is through these rehearsals and retellings that inaccuracies manage to creep in, and as they are reinforced through repeated retellings they become just as much a part of the memories as the actual events. That is, retelling the flashbulb memory to others is the same as rehearsing the memory, or reliving it to a certain degree, and when there are inaccurate elements in this reliving they eventually become as firmly entrenched in the memory of the true-life event as the factual memories. This explains why so many people remember seeing both planes hit on 9/11 when this was actually impossible.
For this assignment, completed the test found at http://www.intelligencetest.com/, after searching…
For this assignment, I completed the test found at http://www.intelligencetest.com/ , after searching the term "intelligence test" at askjeeves.com. While many of the questions did seem to be fairly accurate ways of gauging intelligence in certain areas, such as pattern recognition or mathematical abilities, many of the questions seemed to depend on knowledge that would have to be acquired prior to taking the test. While this information was fairly basic for the most part, it was easy to see that someone who simply hadn't been exposed to the facts would be gauged as having a lower intelligence than they might actually possess based on this feature of the test. While I feel that I possessed the knowledge that was required in these certain items on the test, this reflects the cultural bias that exists in many intelligence tests, and arguably in all intelligence tests. It also calls into question the definition of intelligence as it is defined in various intelligence tests, including this one.
As far as how it felt to take this test, I actually found it kind of exciting -- especially when I was pretty sure (or positive) that I had the right answer. Many of the items appeared incredibly easy, while others were less so, and the fact that I didn't get a perfect score means that the test obviously had some items that were more difficult than I thought. I was very eager to see my results, and throughout the test I found it difficult to concentrate only on the questions/items as they were presented because I kept wondering what each specific item was supposed to measure and what my answer would say about my intelligence. Ultimately, I don't think any internet-administered test that takes a maximum of fifteen minutes to complete can accurately assess anyone's intelligence, so I do not have a great deal of faith in my score, but the experience was definitely fun and made taking the test worthwhile.
The other group of participants was asked to identify the same words with missing letters, but without having first been primed by viewing the list of words spelled out completely. Each individual's response time in recognizing the incomplete words was then measured, to develop a comparison of response time between the primed and unprimed groups. Both groups of participants in the study were given the same incomplete words to identify, and efforts were taken to ensure that all other aspects of the experiment were kept uniform between the two groups, to ensure that unpredicted and uncontrolled variables would not have an unforeseen effect on the results of the study. In this way, any difference in the response times of the two groups of participants could be relied upon to reflect only the differences created by the priming.
The hypothesis of this experiment is that response times in the recognition of…
Though Kellogg developed a study with significant findings, working memory can effect more than just sentence generation. Because "heavy loads" on working memory do affect sentence generation, it is reasonable to assume that they might also affect simple mathematical processes. Do "heavy loads" placed on working memory affect just sentence generation or writing skills, or do they also affect left-brained skills like simple math calculation? Because of the effect on right-brained skills, the assumed hypothesis for this experiment is that if college students are given a "heavy load" on working memory, they will take longer to complete simple math skills. In fact, one would hypothesize that the "heavy load" on a working memory would impact mathematical skills even more than sentence generation skills because the subjects are being asked to remember a large number and then work with numbers. For this experiment, data using both a "heavy load" consisting of…
Kellogg, Ronald T. "Working Memory Components in Written Sentence Generation."
The American Journal of Psychology. 117.3 (2004): 341-361.
For instance, you may have a memory of a taking a test in your ninth grade English class and answering that Shakespeare wrote Hamlet. Your memory of the test and the class is an episodic memory, while your memory of the fact that Shakespeare wrote Hamlet is a semantic memory.
Episodic and Semantic memory have other features that make them important to the study of long-term memory. Episodic memories are more prone to being forgotten because one looses one's sense of recollection over time, while semantic memories resist this. Additionally, some argue that semantic and episodic memories come from very different types of memory processes, while others suggest they are quite similar. Thus, understanding the difference between episodic and semantic memory and their implications is quite important to the study of long-term memory.
obinson-iegler, G. And obinson-ielgler, B. (2008). Cognitive Psychology: Apllying
the Science of the Mind. Second Edition.…
Robinson-Riegler, G. And Robinson-Rielgler, B. (2008). Cognitive Psychology: Apllying
the Science of the Mind. Second Edition. New Jersey: Pearson Education.
He stated that people are simply good at a variety of skills, although some individuals may have higher levels of specialized intelligences more in the spheres than others. ("Charles Spearman," Major Theories of Intelligence, 2004) in other words, a gifted musician can also be a gifted poet, but these are still different intelligences -- Spearman, in contrast, would suggest the two are interrelated.
Spearman also came up with another term known as the "s" factor. This he said was the factor devoted to "specific skills and information" needed to perform intellectual tasks. Thus, even Spearman allowed that there were multiple factors that went into an individuals' success in life and on intelligence tests. But he felt that overall scores on IQ tests, however specific were highly saturated with "g" an intelligence that pervades all tasks. Thus, the most important information to have about a person's intellectual ability is an estimate…
Charles Spearman." (2004) Major Theories of Intelligence. Retrieved on October 24, 2004 at http://academic.scranton.edu/student/WEBBM2/theories.htm
Gardner, Howard. (1984) Multiple Intelligences.
Learning Center. (2004) "Howard Gardner: Seven Intelligence Model" Retrieved on October 24, 2004 at http://www2.wmin.ac.uk/eic/learningskills/cognition/learning_styles/howard_model.html
Plucker, T. (2004) "Charles Spearman." Human Intelligence. Retrieved on October 24, 2004 at http://www.indiana.edu/~intell/spearman.shtml
He hypothesized that certain parts within the brain could map with certain areas of cognitive functioning, such as social, cognitive, or creative functions. To prove this, Gardner cites cases of brain damage that leads to the loss of some, but not all, cognitive functions. On this basis, one could also say that pearman's test findings, while all located in the brain, relate to different parts of the brain and nervous system rather than a single location, as originally assumed.
Comparisons between the two models include the fact that both theorists believe that intelligence relates to more than one human function. pearman for example used a variety of different tasks to test intelligence, as does the IQ test he uses to base his assumptions on. Gardner agrees with pearman on the fact that intelligence does indeed relate to different tasks, but simply adds more to the already existing ones in order…
Armstrong, Thomas (1998-2002). Multiple Intelligences. http://www.thomasarmstrong.com/multiple_intelligences.htm
Paik, Han S. (1998). One Intelligence or Many? Alternative Approaches to Cognitive Abilities. Washington University. http://www.personalityresearch.org/papers/paik.html
RiCharde, Stephen. (2007). The Learning Thinking Styles Inventory. VMI. http://admin.vmi.edu/ir/ltsi.htm#Overview
Memories of John F. Kennedy
When I got up that day, the most important thing in the world was the test scores we were going to receive. By the end of the day they seemed irrelevant, and in fact I didn't even open my envelope for another four days, even though they would help determine my future."
It was the day John F. Kennedy was assassinated. My aunt was in the auditorium with all the other seniors, with the envelope containing her state test scores for college placement in her hand. This test covered everything taught in high school whether one had taken it or not. Then Principal stopped everything to tell them about Kennedy. My aunt really doesn't remember the rest of the day very well; like many students she just aimlessly wandered the halls -- at a time when you had to have a pass to…
Memory is an important construct of human brain which performs a significant role in each and every activity of life. It is interesting to mention that brain is also a muscle and its energy can be increased by using it. There are many tactics found in literature and everyday practises to sharpen memory skills. However, the most effective technique is to play games which appear interesting to the players and involve memory cells as well. Before planning any exercise to sharpen memory, it is helpful to understand the basic memory process and the types of memory.
This report is about types of memory and their use in the daily life of a human being. The types of memory are elaborated using the example of a game. It is commonly said that memory becomes weak when it is frequently switched from one task to another. In other words, multitasking reduces…
Bernstein, D. (2010). Essentials of Psychology. USA: Wadsworth Publishing.
Dehn, M. (2010). Long-Term Memory Problems in Children and Adolescents. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons.
Easysurf. (n.d). Retrieved from http://www.easysurf.cc/memtstn.htm#top
NCBI. (2009). Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2657600/
When you clicked to move on it then asked you to fill in the boxes with as many words as you could remember, spelled correctly. You then had to pick your age group, your gender and what country you were from. Upon hitting the check my memory button it told you how you compared with similar people to you who also took this test (How good is your memory- Memory Test, n.d.).
Of the twelve words I could recall 7 of them. The explanation of the test results explained that on average our short-term memory can hold an average of 7 chunks of information (names, numbers, etc.) + or - 2. So if someone scores between 5 and 9 of the words on the list, their short-term memory is working at an average capacity (How good is your memory- Memory Test, n.d.).
The more that one repeats something the more…
How good is your memory- Memory Test. (n.d.). Retrieved June 3, 2009, from Psychologist
World Web site: http://psychologistworld.com/memory/test1.php
Human Memory. (n.d.). Retrieved June 3, 2009, from NASA.gob Web site: http://human-
This will help to eliminate the possibility of psychological effects on the results. Group a will receive the caffeinated coffee and Group B. will receive the Decaf. Group a will serve as the test group. Group B. will serve as the control group. The independent variable will be caffeine and the dependent variable will be short-term memory. This study will measure the effect of caffeine on short-term memory.
Both groups would be instructed to refrain from consuming any food containing caffeine for one week before the test. The test would be administered first thing in the morning. Both groups would be instructed to fast after midnight on the night before the test. They would be instructed to consume nothing prior to taking the test. This procedure was designed to eliminate as many confounding variables as possible. For instance, the consumption of protein or sugars might affect the test and…
Anderson, K., Revelle, W., & Lynch, M. (2004). Caffeine, impulsivity, and memory scanning: A comparison of two explanations for the Yerkes-Dodson Effect. Neuroscience Letters.
367 (3), 327-331.
Bichler, a.; Swenson, a.; & Harris, M. (2006). A combination of caffeine and taurine has no effect on short-term memory but induces changes in heart rate and mean arterial blood pressure. Amino Acids. 31-940, 471-476.
Moo-Puc, R., Villanueva-Toledo, J., Arankowsky-Sandoval, G., Cercera, F., and Gongora-
Windy McNernev and obert West (2007), both with the University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, India, explain that returning the DVD while running errands depicts an illustration of effective prospective memory. Substantial documentation signifies that in various instances, the accessibility of one's effective memory ability or attentional resources can be vital for the comprehension of deferred intentions.
ichard L. Marsh, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, Jason L. Hicks, Louisiana State University, Baton ouge, Louisiana and Gabriel I. Cook (2006), University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, examine whether ask interference, having an intention, creates a cost to other ongoing activities. In the journal article, "Task interference from prospective memories covaries with contextual associations of fulfilling them," Marsh, Hicks and Cook report contemporary research indicates that particular intentions held over the shorter term interfere with other tasks. As the collective effect of such costs would prove prohibitively costly in everyday life, Marsh, Hicks…
Breneiser, J.E., & McDaniel, M.A. (2006). Discrepancy Processes in Prospective Memory Retrieval. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 13(5), 837+. Retrieved December 9, 2010, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5035215935
Brewer, G.A., Knight, J.B., Marsh, R.L. & Unsworth, N. (2010). Individual differences in event
based prospective memory: Evidence for multiple processes supporting cue detection.
Memory & Cognition. Psychonomic Society, Inc. Retrieved December 10, 2010 from HighBeam Research: http://www.highbeam.com /doc/1P3-2018212151.html' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
The researchers hypothesized that the participants would be less likely to use the operand retrieval strategy in solving difficult problems than with simple problems. It is easier to use the operand retrieval strategy with simple problems because solving them requires no computation. The opposite holds true for difficult multiplication problems. Use of the operand retrieval strategy is expected to be associated with a greater generation effect.
The second experiment in the study examined whether an increased generation effect was possible due to better memory for the operands involved in the problem, what is known as the operand memory hypothesis. The hypothesis for this experiment, which took into consideration the principles of procedural account, was that the generation effect observed for difficult and simple problems should be similar when the operands are recalled, but should be different when recall of answers is required.
The final experiment in the study, experiment 3,…
McNamara, D., Healy, a. "A procedural explanation of the generation effect for simple and difficult multiplication problems and answers." Journal of Memory and Language 43 (2000): 652-79.
population of seniors grows in number, an understanding of how age affects memory becomes increasingly important. Yet the awareness of age-related memory loss can itself be a problem, causing a type of self-fulfilling prophecy known as stereotype threat. Stereotype threat refers to the sense of threat a person experiences when identifying with a stereotype. In the case of aging, a person who has been continually reminded of age-related memory loss might therefore perform worse on memory recall tests. Stereotype threat can be triggered directly, as when people are told that aging reduces memory performance, or indirectly, such as simply being shown the word "senile."
Stereotype bias can further enhance age-related memory loss by causing a self-fulfilling prophecy. However, there are different types of memory functions. Memory functions can be loosely grouped into two categories: implicit and explicit memory. Explicit memory refers to the active and purposeful recollection of people, places,…
Eich, T.S., Murayama, K., Castel, A.D. & Knowlton, B.J. (2014). The dynamic effects of age related stereotype threat on explicit and implicit memory performance in older adults. Social Cognition 32(6): 559-570.
norm-referenced test is an assessment that produces a score (or scores) that represent an estimate of where the individual stands with respect to a predefined peer group on a particular trait, dimension, or ability (ust & Golombok, 2014). Norm-referenced tests allow for a comparison on whether an individual performed at, above, or below expectation with respect to individuals that are similar to them. For example, traditional IQ tests yield standardized scores with a mean of 100 and a standard deviation of 15 (or 16; Sattler & yan, 2009). The standardized score is a score that should be interpreted and not the raw scores. In terms of simple point estimates (single IQ scores) the researcher/clinician can compare the individual performance to the norm -- reference group with respect to the score's deviation from the mean. Comparing individual scores to norm -- reference scores in this manner allows the researcher/clinician to determine…
Rust, J., & Golombok, S. (2014). Modern psychometrics: The science of psychological assessment. New York: Routledge.
Sattler, J.M., & Ryan, J.J. (2009). Assessment with the WAIS-IV. Le mesa, CA: Jerome M
Urbina, S. (2014). Essentials of psychological testing. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
tests are regularly used nowadays to measure intelligence Alfred Binet and Theodore Simon invented in 1905 what has come to be acknowledged as the first scale. This initial test was aimed at ?identifying children who were mildly or perhaps more seriously retarded? (Mackintosh, 2011, p. 5) by evaluating their performance and delegating specific task sets so as any average child pertaining to a given age group could solve approximately 50% of the test. Thus, based on the number of tasks that a child could solve, the scale ?would classify children's levels of mental functioning. (Urbina, 2011, p. 23). For example, if a six years old was able to solve 50% of the test that had been delegated to this particular age group, his mental age was set at six years old. f he was able to solve above the average expectation, then he would have been attributed a superior mental…
It is acknowledged unanimously that tests would be ?designed so that the mean score is 100 points, and the standard deviation is 15 points. (Shalizi, 2009, para. 2) Older versions of Binet's scale are subject to a standard deviation of 16 (Kaplan & Saccuzzo, 2013, p. 301). Thus, it is considered that individuals falling under the average value display or are subject to intellectual deficit while those above are intellectually superior. The mean score which is subject to intelligence testing is known as the deviation IQ and was introduced in the 1960 revised version of the Stanford-Binet Scale as ?simply a standard score? ((Kaplan & Saccuzzo, 2013, p. 294) ?ascertained by evaluating the standard deviation of mental age for a representative sample at each age level. (Kaplan & Saccuzzo, 2013, p. 294)
III. Verbal vs. Performance Properties of the Modern Binet and Wechsler Scales
We stated earlier that there are various tests which measure intelligence and we have already spoken of Binet's contributions in this respect. However, there is another name which is often related to significant and effective scales of intelligence testing. David Wechsler proposed his first scale in 1939 for adults and ten years later, for children. It has even been argued that Wechsler developed subtests prior to the Binet-Simon scale (Boake, 2002, p. 383). Wechsler's first scale was designed in 1939 for adults and revised for publishing in 1955, being subject to subsequent revisions (Crawford
Memory and Witness Retrieval
Odinot, G., Memon, A., La Rooy, D., & Millen, A. (2013). Are two interviews better than one? Eyewitness memory across repeated cognitive interviews. PloS one, 8(10),
This research article presents the methodological framework, documented results and conclusions of an experimental examination of eyewitness memory accuracy when subjected to variable delays between cognitive interviews. By separating subjects who previously viewed the same video into three groups, each of which being interviewed twice but with varying periods of delay between the initial and follow-up interview, the researchers attempt to test the presence of hypermnesia, reminiscence, accuracy and error as dependent variables, with the delay between interviews representing the independent variable. The experiment serves to confirm many aspects of cognitive interview theory, showing that the repeated interviewing of eyewitness consistently results in new items of information being recalled after the initial testimony.
Learning and Cognitive Psychology Related to Memory
Memory has control over everything that an individual does and is a part of cognitive psychology that deals with all the human behavior and mental processes. It is divided into different categories with each of them performing their particular functions. The paper investigates the different types of memories and their purpose as each one plays its part in keeping the memory part of the brain functioning. The nature, maintenance, retrieval and capacity of memory are also discussed along with the different factors that influence it. The paper also discusses the application of TRS model on the working memory, which leads to the prediction that maintenance activities should postpone concurrent processing.
Memory is what drives our everyday life, makes us relate to or recollect things from the past and in many ways defines our behavior. We take it for granted as the effort…
Baddeley, A.D., Thomson, N., & Buchanan, M. (1975).World length and the structure of short-term memory. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 14, 575-589.
Blankenship, A.B. (1938). Memory span: A review of the literature. Psychological Bulletin, 35, 1-25.
Brener, R. (1940). An experimental investigation of memory span. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 26, 467-482
Bousfield, W.A. (1953). The occurrence of clustering in the recall of randomly arranged associates. Journal of General Psychology, 49, 229 -- 240. doi:10.1080/00221309.1953.9710088
oss et al. (2010) placed electrodes at specific points on participants' skulls that were used to apply small electrical charges at various times during the experiment, while no charge or "dummy charges" (a charge that provided the same sensation as a full charge, but that did not actually provide current to the brain) was given at other times in order to test and control for the real effect of an actual charge to the brain. This methodology is described in brief by Porter (2011), however the technical elements that are carefully detailed in the research publication of the methods used are not presented in this popular media article (oss et al., 2010). All of the information aside from the key findings of the article are left out also, although the basic limitations of the finding are described and there is evident care taken to not inflate the results or over-exaggerate…
Porter, J. (2011). A Genuine Jolt to the Memory. Miller-McCune. Accessed 1 March 2012. http://www.miller-mccune.com/culture/a-genuine-jolt-to-the-memory-28442/
Ross, S., McCoy, D., Woilk, D., Coslett, H. & Olson, I. (2010). Improved proper name recall by electrical stimulation of the anterior temporal lobes. Neuropsychologia 48(12): 3671-4.
..Educational psychologists have made rather extensive investigations of semantic (declarative) and procedural memory with respect to studying and theorizing about classroom learning and teaching....very little theoretical or empirical work has been conducted in educational psychology that has examined the episodic (experiential and autobiographical) memories of teachers and learners in relation to instructional interventions and students' learning from such interventions.
Martin 1993: 169-170)
Another memory theory that has become popular and may have significant educational distinction is the concept of working memory, or rapid access memory that is finite (such as the AM of a computer and therefore cannot be stretched across to much stimulus or brain work to elicit memory of the core concepts.
esearch on test anxiety and working memory suggests that performance deficits caused by test anxiety can be explained by the extent to which individuals are able to use their working memory capacity (Darke, 1988b; Eysenck, 1985).…
Antoine, Marie, Shannon Donald, and Carolyn C. Cox. 2003. "Are Students Throwing Away Nutrition?." Journal of Research in Childhood Education 17:230.
Arnold, Magda B. 1984. Memory and the Brain. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Chance, P.A. 1999. Learning and Behavior. New York: AIPI.
Das, J.P. 1989. "Good and Poor Readers' Word Naming Time, Memory Span, and Story Recall." Journal of Experimental Education 57:101-114.
In the spaces provided beneath the flowchart, list the term that corresponds with the definition in each box.
ABC/123 Version X
Copyright © XXXX by University of Phoenix. All rights reserved.
Hopper, C. How memory works. PowerPoint. etrieved from:
Computing IQ Essay
Consider the following scenario:
Kara is 10 years old. She has been given an intelligence test. Her mental age is 13.
According to Sternberg, what is Kara's IQ? Conduct research and interpret her score.
Kara's IQ is 130. One formulation of an intelligence quotient is that of mental age and a child with a superior mental age to her actual years thus has a higher IQ. "Sternberg's discussions on intelligence are very different from a lot of others because he appears to think that other than a static score, intelligence is somewhat malleable and should…
Lane, C. (20008). Gardner's multiple intelligences. The Distance Learning Technology Resource Guide. Retrieved from: http://www.tecweb.org/styles/gardner.html
McLeod, S. A. (2010). Long-term memory. Simply Psychology. Retrieved from www.simplypsychology.org/long-term-memory.html McLeod, S. A. (2014). Classical Conditioning. Simply Psychology. Retrieved from www.simplypsychology.org/classical-conditioning.html
McLeod, S. A. (2015). Skinner - operant conditioning. Simply Psychology. Retrieved from www.simplypsychology.org/operant-conditioning.html
Paik, H. (2001). One intelligence or many? Alternative approaches to cognitive abilities. Personality Research.
Modality and Fequency on Seial Recall
As noted by Ai & Faith (2012), individuals studying witten texts show supeio ecall of mateial, vesus subjects who have the same texts ead to them aloud. This is tue on tests of fee ecall, matching, compehension, and spatial ecall. Peceptual esouces ae moe channeled when studying a text in witten fom. The esults of the expeiment pefomed by Ai & Faith confimed this, noting that the ecall of the subjects was substantially enhanced when the mateial was pesented to them in witten fom. This is tue not only of adults but also of childen, despite pevious studies which have indicated that childen have a pefeence fo auditoy dominance in mnemonics. In a ecent study by Gelman & Noles (2011): "Peschool-age childen did not exhibit auditoy dominance. Instead, childen and adults flexibly shifted thei pefeences as a function of the degee of contast within…
references for auditory vs. visual modalities but do not exhibit auditory dominance. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 112(2012) 338-350
LeBlanc, Jacinthe & Saint-Aubin, Jean (2005). Word Frequency Effects in Immediate Serial Recall of Pure and Mixed Lists: Tests of the Associative Link Hypothesis. Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, 2005, 59-4, 219-227.
Miller, Leonie M. & Roodenrys (2012). Conditional recall and the frequency effect in the serial recall task: an examination of item-to-item associativity. Psychonomic Society, Inc. (2012) 40: 1246-1256
Long-Term Memory Encoding
The card trick shown on page 265 in Coon and Mitterer (2013) provides a demonstration of how human memory works. An individual is first presented with six face cards from a deck of cards and told to focus on a single card of their choice, so that the person will be able to remember it later. The cards are removed from sight and the individual is presented with five face cards that do not include any of the face cards presented initially. If the individual remained focused on only one card in the first set of cards then he or she would be unaware that all of the cards were changed, resulting in the individual believing the trickster could read minds. This card trick reveals how attention is required for memory encoding. Coon and Mitterer (2013) call the failure of the individual to remember any…
Coon, D. & Mitterer, J.O. (2013). Introduction to Psychology: Gateways to Mind and Behavior with Concept Maps and Reviews (13th ed.). Independence, KY: Cengage Learning.
Folstein, M.F., Folstein, S.E., & McHugh, P.R. (1975). A practical method for grading the cognitive state of patients for the clinician. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 12(3), 189-98.
Malloy, P.F., Cummings, J.L., Coffey, C.E., Duffy, J., Fink, M., Lauterbach, E.C. et al. (1997). Cognitive screening instruments in neuropsychiatry: A report of the Committee on Research of the American Neuropsychiatric Association. Journal of Neuropsychiatry, 9(2), 189-97.
Steis, M.R. & Schrauf, R.W. (2009). A review of translations and adaptations of the Mini-Mental State Examination in languages other than English and Spanish. Research in Gerontological Nursing, 2(3), 214-24.
It is an illusion that anything is ever "forgotten" by the human brain. Once information is actually remembered, it is kept in storage by the brain forever, unless physical brain damage removes the data. In most cases, the actual cause of what is commonly conceived as something not being remembered is actually that the information was not really stored in the brain, or that one is simply unable to retrieve the correct data at a certain time. It is a constant occurrence that information is not stored properly or that one is unable to retrieve data, and the ability to remember vs. forget material is essential to academic success. The majority of what decides how well a student will do in a class is whether or not the student can fully pay attention and then remember information. Therefore it is vital for students and teachers to work together…
Lorimer, H. (2004) How to Learn More and Get Better Grades in College. Principles of Biology. Youngstown University. http://cc.ysu.edu/~helorime/StudyTips.html
Willamette University. (2004, August 19) Memorization techniques. Willamette University. http://www.willamette.edu/cla/ler/memory.htm
A Proposal for Research
Background/Review of Literature
Cognitive effort, defined as the “engaged proportion of limited-capacity central processing,” has been found to impact memory recall but only in specific settings (Tyler, Hertel, McCallum & Ellis, 1979, p. 607). In four separate experiments, Tyler, Hertel, McCallum & Ellis (1979) tested the impact of cognitive effort on recall and found that high effort was indeed linked to better recall than low effort, but not for all types of memory (short term versus long term). Moreover, there are a range of extraneous variables that might mitigate the effect of effort on memory recall. The type of material being memorized, the length of time between the active memorization mode and the recall, and intervening distractors including lying about the material or personality variables may also have an effect on whether the effort spent on memory recall will lead to improved recall (Simon,…
The specific categories include the following:
4) temperature; and 5) feelings.
FINDINGS of the STUDY
The following table labeled Figure 1 in this study states the responses given by participants in both groups in this study and as well provides totals and grand totals for both groups which for the purpose of this study are labeled as follows:
Group 1 - Memory Recall Group (Outside Light)
Group 2 - Memory Recall Group (Darkened or Muted Light)
Responses of Participants in Group 1 and Group 2
FIRST GROUP Color Smell Texture Temperature Feelings TOTALS GRAND TOTAL PARTICIPANT
SECOND GROUP Color Smell Texture Temperature Feelings TOTALS GRAND TOTAL PARTICIPANT
It is clear from the findings in this study which specifically show that Group 1 - Memory Recall Group (Outside Light) Participant responses were notably higher in their descriptive content more often describing more specific…
Takao, Ito, Hiroshi, Yamadera, Ritsuko, Ito, and Shunkichi, Endo (1999) Effects of Bright Light on Cognitive Disturbances in Alzheimer-type Dementia. Journal of Nippon Medical School. Vol. 66, No. 4.
Moore, R.: Visual Pathways and the Central Neural Control of Diurnal Rhythms. The Neurosciences 3rd Study Program, Cambridge, Mass.: MIT, 1974.
Shealy, Norman: Effects of the Lumatron upon Neurochemicals. Lecture given for Dr. Shealy by Dr. Klinghardt at the 6th Int. Rehab. Med. ass. Congress, Madrid, Spain, 1990
Wurtman, Richard u.a.: The Medical and Biological Effects of Light. in: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, Vol. 453, 1985
epressed and recovered memory has been the topic of much debate for the past ten years. Many feel that these psychological issues have been used to create chaos in the legal system and to destroy families. Professional organizations all over the world have commented on the controversy surrounding repressed and recovered memory.
The purpose of this discussion is to examine the issues and controversies that the psychiatric community is currently facing. We will also explore the research involving repressed and recovered memory. Let's begin by defining repressed memory and recovered memory.
Definition of epressed Memory and ecovered Memory
According to the Psychology Dictionary repression is a, "Psychoanalytic Theory, the defense mechanism whereby our thoughts are pulled out of our conscious and into our unconscious." (Psychology Dictionary) Many psychologists have concluded that the act of repressing memory is usually caused by a traumatic event. (Carroll 2002) These psychologists also contend that…
Memories: true or false. (2002, Fall). Issues in Science and Technology, 19, 7+..
Psychology Dictionary (2003). Retrieved May 19, 2003, at http://allpsych.com/dictionary/r.html www.questia.com/PM.qst?action=openPageViewer&docId=5000917406
Alessi, H.D., & Ballard, M.B. (2001). Memory development in children: implications for children as witnesses in situations of possible abuse. Journal of Counseling and Development, 79(4), 398+.
Carroll, (2002). Repressed Memory. Retrieved May 20, 2003, at http://skepdic.com/repressedmemory.html
Memory Demonstration Analysis
One of the most unreliable elements of our cognitive processes is the system known as the short-term memory (STM). This is the second memory system, and tries to recall brand new information that is not stored within a more permanent place in our thinking process. The first demonstration that was utilized was the digit span and was meant to test the short-term memory of the taker. This was a test where there were an incremental number of digits flashed on screen for the test taker to remember. The test started at two digits and ended at eight. It is easy to remember the series of digits when there is only a few of them. However, the more digits involved in the demonstration, the harder it was to remember their order. The fact that it was so hard to recall the digits when more were presented…
MacKay, David J. (2011). The Cognitive Neuroscience of Memory. Inference Group. Web. Retrieved October 22, 2012 from http://www.inference.phy.cam.ac.uk/jmb86/memory.pdf
Ebbinghaus defined memory as "the faculty of the mind to bring back past experiences into consciousness" (Haberlandt 1998). These games were interesting in that the techniques that they offered one to use really did help bring back the past experience of seeing objects. These games show that the brain needs to make logical sense of elements if one is going to store them in their memory for any period of time. It was amazing that in the first test I really paid attention to all of the elements, but the minute the screen was gone, there were only four or so that came straight to my mind. The other ones I really had to think about. I always thought I had a pretty good memory, but it seems that in order to maintain a list of things, there needs to be some kind of way of keeping the things one…
Exploratorium. "Playing games with memory." Exploratorium. Accessed on March 24,
Haberlandt, Karl. Human memory: exploration and application. Allyn & Bacon.
The responses will be tabulated into data sheet that exhibit the participants ease of remembering that facts. The coding will produce levels which showing the proportionate ability to remember.
The data will then be input in a statistical program to give distributions and this will be subjected to a T-test to assess their significance level at 5%. The decision rule will be such that reject the null hypotheses if probability of occurrence of the distribution observed is less than 5%.
Implication of the esults
If the expected that the results show higher probability that the stress among older women it implies that, older women are susceptible forget and thus have a higher likelihood of encountering Alzheimer's condition. On the centrally if we reject the Null hypothesis -- failure to support the hypothesis -- it will imply that age and stress have nothing to do with memory lose and that it…
Kloet E.R., Joels M., & F., H. (2005). Stress and the Brain: from adaptation to disease. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 6(6), 463-475.
Nelson, C.A., & Carver, L.J. (2008). The effects of stress and trauma on brain and memory: A view from developmental cognitive neuroscience. Development and Psychopathology, 10(04), 793-809. doi: doi:null
Sauro, M.D., Jorgensen, R.S., & Pedlow, C.T. (2003). Stress, glucocorticoids, and memory: A meta-analytic review. Stress, 6(4), 235-245.
Selye, H. (1998). A syndrome produced by diverse nocuous agents. The Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 10(2), 230-231.
Stress on Human Memory and Cognitive Capabilities
Types of Stresses on Short-Term Memory
Symptoms of Short-Term Memory
Stress weakens a human's ability to be able to pass proper chemicals through the blood-brain barrier. The blood-brain barrier is an assemblage of blood vessels that defends the brain from toxins that circulate through one's body (Franklin Institute, 2004).
Evidence of stress on the short-term memory includes difficulty to learn new things, dizziness, headaches, and nausea (Franklin Institute, 2004).
Effects of Stress on Short-Term Memory
When stress takes place in the human body, hormones are released that divert blood glucose from the brain's hippocampus (Franklin Institute, 2004).
The lack of energy that is provided by the lost glucose creates the hippocampus to become concerned about the lack of energy. This fright causes an inability to create accurate new memories (Franklin Institute, 2004).
This can be a result o a onetime traumatic event in…
Bower, B. (2005). Early stress in rats bites memory later on. Science News, 186(17), Retrieved
from http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?index=11&did=918673191&SrchMode=1&sid=4&Fmt =3&VInst=PROD&VType=PQD&RQT=309&VName=PQD&TS=1294957038&clientI d=77774
Franklin Institute. (2004). The human brain-stress. Retrieved January 13,2011 from http://www.fi.edu/learn/brain/stress.html
HelpGuide.org. (2010). Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD): Symptoms, treatment, and self- help. Retrieved January 13, 2011 from http://helpguide.org/mental/post_traumatic_stress_disorder_symptoms_treatment.htm
Stressed Memories (APA Citation)
In the article titled "Stressed Memories: How Acute Stress Affects Memory Formation in Humans" researchers studied the hypothesis that acute stress can improve the formation of memory in the human brain. According to the authors, "Information encoded into memory during stressful experiences is generally well remembered." (Henckens, 2009, p.10111) In other words, what people experience during stressful or traumatic events is better remembered than experiences that occur under normal, or non-stressful conditions. The researchers in this article wanted to study the affects of stress on memory formation and determine the physiological processes that occur in the brain.
The study participants consisted of eighteen right-handed male volunteers ranging in age from 19 to 31 years with a median age of 22 years. There were a number of criteria which excluded participants including "history of head injury, treatment with psychotropic medications, narcotics, B-blockers, steroids, or any…
Henchens, Marloes, et al. (2009). "Stressed Memories: How Acute Stress Affects
Memory Formation in Humans." Journal of Neuroscience 29(32), 10111-10119.
Retrieved from http://www.jneurosci.org/content/29/32/10111.full
The results of the experiment were that performance remained consistently good in all subjects until they reached the 8-digit sequence. All four of the subjects successfully remembered the 4-digit, 5-digit, 6-digit, and 7-digit sequences accurately. Three of four subjects remembered the 8-digit sequence and none of the subjects was able to remember the 9-digit or 10-digit numerical sequence.
The results seemed to confirm the experimental hypotheses. Moreover each of the subjects indicated separately that he or she had broken up the numerical sequences to aid memorization. More specifically, each subject responded that he or she had used the familiar form of 7-digit telephone numbers to assist in memorizing all of the sequences.
Even in the case of sequences shorter than 7-digits, the subjects all indicated that they…
For instance, a decline in peripheral vision may impact the ability to pass approaching vehicles safely, and the decreased range of motion in an older person's neck may impair the ability to look behind when backing up. Also, reaction time decreases by almost 40% on average from age 35 to 65 (Jackson, 1999).
It also appears that the aging process may affect cognitive skills. Short-term memory loss, for instance, can decrease driving skills by interfering with an individual's ability to process information effectively when merging onto a highway into traffic or changing lanes. Such issues are magnified when driving under stressful situations. The higher incidence of cognitive impairment, particularly dementia, among older men and women leads to an increased risk of accident involvement (Jackson, 1999).
According to AAP, as a group, persons age 65 and older are relatively safe drivers. Although they represent 14% of all licensed drivers, they are…
Bedard, M., Stones, M., Guyatt, G. & Hirdes, J. (2001). Related fatalities among older drivers and passengers: past and future trends. The Gerontologist. 41 (6), 751-57.
Beers, M.H. & Berkow, R. (eds.) (2000) the Merck Manual of Geriatrics. 3rd ed. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck & Co.
Central Intelligence Agency (1998). World Fact Book Washington, D.C.: Government
The implication of this hypothesis, and research into the subject in general, shows that test outcomes do reflect at least in part cultural factors. There are "cultural differences in valued and therefore trained strategies to solve certain cognitive tasks" as well (Ibid). That these differences have been identified within cognitive science illustrates that cultural bias does not simply reflect differences in cognitive potential among members of certain groups, but rather that it reflects differences in the ways that cognitive potential is operationalized.
Shiraev and Levy (n.d.) argue this case further. They cite research that shows that people adapt the way that they operationalize their intelligence to their local setting. They cite the examples of an Indian chess master, who uses the same psychological mechanisms in playing chess as a farmer would use to secure a deal on a new tractor. The example is apt -- chess-like problem solving strategies are…
Malda, M.; van de Vijver, F. & Temane, Q. (2010). Rugby vs. soccer in South Africa: Content familiarity contributes to cross-cultural differences in cognitive test scores. Intelligence. Vol. 38 (6) 582-595.
Shiraev, E. & Levy, D. (no date). Cross-cultural psychology: Critical thinking and contemporary applications, fourth edition.
video games have on short-term memory. esearchers normally study action games, but quest/puzzle games were also included in this study, to allow for direct comparison of different game types along with a control group. In this research, we looked at three different types of short-term memory, the visual-spatial dimension, verbal and numerical. We examined some correlations between improved memory and video game usage. However, not all of the null hypotheses were confirmed in this study, meaning that there is room for future study. In particular, it has been established that quest/puzzle games are correlated with higher visual-spatial and verbal short-term memory, but it has not been determined if differences between baseline abilities amount the study participants might have influenced this result. This, therefore, would be one avenue for future study that has been opened up. This study contributes to the growing body of knowledge with respect to the influence that…
Amladi, S., Andrist, S., Ducommun, M. & Leabo, L. (no date). Using action video games to train working memory in students with working memory deficits. University of Wisconsin-Madison. Retrieved April 22, 2016 from http://pages.cs.wisc.edu/~sandrist/pdf/MBE_FinalPaper.pdf
Anand, V. (2007). A study of time management: The correlation between video game usage and academic performance markers. Cyber Psychology and Behavior. Vol. 10 (4) 552-559.
Anderson, C. & Bushman, B. (2001). Effect of violent video games on aggressive behavior, aggressive cognition, aggressive affect, psychological arousal and prosocial behavior. Psychological Science. Vol. 12 (5) 353-359.
Applebaum, L, Cain, M., Darling, E. & Mitroff, S. (2013). Action video game playing is associated with improved visual sensitivity, but not alternations in visual sensory memory. Attention, Perception and Psychophysics. Retrieved April 22, 2016 from http://people.duke.edu/~mitroff/papers/13_AppelbaumCainDarlingMitroff_APP.pdf
Music on Emotions and Behavior
Music and education
The effect of music on word recall
Several studies have been dedicated to the study of the effect of music on the memory. Most of the studies have been dedicated to the analysis of the way the human mind processes information. The brain has been indicated to be made up of a very complex system of neurons that is actively involved with the transfer of information from one part to the other. A study of the neural networks .The study of the effects of music on the human memory is still ongoing (Kirkweg 2001). Several factors have been found to affect the memory of a person. The most common ones being music, attention, emotion, stress as well as aging.
The mechanism involved
The human memory has been pointed out to be a mental system that is involved with the reception,…
Ashcraft, Mark H. Learning and Remembering. In J. Mosher, & M. Richardson (Eds.), Cognition (pp.211-257). New Jersey:Pearson Prentice Hall,2006
Carruth, Ellen K., "The Effects of Singing and the Spaced Retrieval Technique on Improving Face-Name Recognition in Nursing Home Residents with Memory Loss, Journal of Music Therapy, 34 (3), 165-186,1997
Coon, Dennis. Essentials of Psychology. New York: Brooks/Cole Publishing,1997
Krumhans, Carol.L. Music: A link between cognition and emotion. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 11(2) 45-50,2002
This tested their temporal memory. Additionally, subjects were asked whether or not the test stimuli and the study stimuli were the same or different in location, which tested their spatial memory organization. Interference and non-interference tasks were combined with the memory tasks. The study showed that while memory for temporal information was impaired by some interference tasks, the spatial organization task was not. The conclusion of the data supported the idea that temporal and spatial memory organization are different, in that each task is made more difficult through the use of different interference. This data suggests that the memory organizational structures are different (Halbig, 1998).
Another study by Smith (2001) showed similar results, using brain imaging information. In this study, subjects were asked to perform a memory tasks while simultaneously verifying equations. While the subjects performed the tasks, positron emission tomography scans were taken. When the two tasks were done…
Westen, D. (2002). Psychology. Boston, M.A.: Boston University.
Wilson, B.A., Clare, L., Young, A.W., Hodges, J.R. (1997). Knowing where and knowing what: a double dissociation. Cortex, 33, 529-541.
Halbig, T., Mecklinger, A. Schriefers, H.J. And Friederici, A.D. (1998). Double dissociation in the processing of temporal and spatial information in working memory of intact human subjects. Neuropsychologia, 36 (4), 305-312.
Smith, E.E., Jonides, G.A., Miller, A. Reuter-lorenz, P., Koeppe, R.A. (2001). The neural basis of task switching in working memory: effects of performance and aging. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 98, 2095-2100.
Exploiting the Interrelation Between Creativity, Intelligence, Memory and Learning to Promote Academic Achievement
One of the more mysterious aspects of the human condition concerns how some people are enormously creative throughout their lives while others appear mired in a pattern that precludes any creative thought. In many cases, high levels of creativity are also characterized by correspondingly high levels of intelligence, memory and learning abilities. While more research in this area is needed, a growing body of evidence, indicates that creativity, intelligence, memory, and learning are interrelated. To determine how with specificity, this paper provides an exploration of the interrelations of these ideas and predicts how they can best be harnessed to enhance student outcomes. Finally, a summary of the research and important findings concerning creativity, intelligence, memory and learning are presented in the conclusion.
Analysis of the interrelation of creativity, intelligence, memory, and learning
At first blush, the interrelation…
Bouchard, T. J. (2014, March 7). Genes, evolution and intelligence. Behavioral Genetics. DOI 10.1007/s10519-014-9646-x.
DeLellis, A. J. (1999, November). Tapping creativity in others. Training & Development, 45(11), 48-53.
Eyster, L. (2010, September). Encouraging creativity in the science lab: A series of activities designed to help students think outside the box. The Science Teacher, 77(6), 32.
Galagan, P. (2009, June). Creativity and work. Training & Development Journal, 43(6), 23-25.
, 1998). Cognitive functioning, particularly memory performance has been found to be impaired in patients with childhood onset of growth hormone deficiency and HGH replacement therapies have been found to offset this memory impairment (Arwert et al., 2005). Studies have identified a link between improved attention and increases in memory performance in children with growth hormone deficiency (Arwert et al., 2005; Arwert et al., 2006). This is due to the connection between memory capacity and attentional resources.
Growth hormone deficiency that begins in childhood is most often treated with growth hormone supplementation in order to increase body size during adolescence (Nieves-Martinez et al., 2009). Yet recent studies have demonstrated that this treatment directly correlates to improved memory in adulthood. In fact studies have suggested that treatment with growth hormone in child onset deficiencies can in fact prevent learning and memory deficits later in life (Nieves-Martinez, 2009). Childhood onset of growth…
Arwert, L.I., Veltman, D.J., Deijen, J.B., Sytze van Dam, P., & Drent, M.L. (2006). Effects of Growth Hormone Substitution Therapy on Cognitive Functioning in Growth Hormone Deficient Patients: A Functional MRI Study. Neuroendocrinology, 83 (1), 12-19. doi: 10.1159/000093337
Arwert, L.I., Deijen, J.B., Muller, M., & Drent, M.L. (2005). Long-term growth hormone treatment preserves GH-induced memory and mood improvements: a 10-year follow-up study in GH-deficient adult men. Hormones and Behavior, 4, 343 -- 349. doi:10.1016/j.yhbeh.2004.11.015
Arwert, L.I., Veltman, D.J., Deijen, J.B., Lammerstsma, A.A., Jonker, C., Drent, M.L. (2005). Memory performance and the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor axis in elderly: A positron emission tomography study. Neuroendocrinology, 81(1), p31-40. doi: 10.1159/000084872
Arwert, L.I., Veltman, D.J., Deijen, J.B., Van Dam, P.S., Delemarre-Van de Waal, H.A., & Drent, M.L. (2005). Growth hormone deficiency and memory functioning in adults visualized by functional magnetic resonance imaging. Neuroendocrinology, 82(1), p32-40. doi: 10.1159/000090123
Although some memories remain veritable and intact from the original experience, many memories are inextricably mixed up with post-analysis and interpretation. Furthermore, the authors examine psychological literature for information on memory processing, noting that false memories and actual reproductive memories activate the same brain regions and are therefore processed similarly. However, research shows that when people recognize the falseness of the memory at the time of encoding, they will process the cues differently. The researchers designed the present study based on these prior researches. Furthermore, the current study hearkens to advertising literature in general, which investigates the impact of ads on consumer behavior. The authors note that the retroactive impact of advertising has been studied far less than the proactive impact of advertising and therefore the present study can fill gaps in the literature and offer impetus for conducting future studies.
2. The psychological concepts discussed center on memory: both…
Traumatic Long-Term Memory and related issues of forgetfulness. The differentiation of current competing theories under review regarding Traumatic Long-Term Memory are explored and critiqued. This research paper also explains the differences between the theories and their positive / negative contributions toward improving human memory.
Long-Term Memory is memory that has been consolidated or stored so that it is available after distraction (Long, 1996). It represents the storehouse of information that has been consolidated and made relatively permanent. Although the limbic system is the essential structure initiating consolidation, the actual memory stores are throughout the nervous system. Their location is a function of the brain structures involved in processing the information (Long, 1996).
Receptors to projection cortex have very little storage capability as they are used to process all information for that modality and thus are subject to interference. The sensory association cortex is more important for, at this level, patterns…
Anderson. (1995). In Pettijohn, T. (1998). Psychology: A Connectext. (4th Ed.). USA:
Dushkin / McGraw-Hill.
Bjork & Bjork. (1992). In Pettijohn, T. (1998). Psychology: A Connectext. (4th Ed.). USA:
Dushkin / McGraw-Hill.
Attention and Memory
One of the most important determinants of how good one can remember something is attention. The reason for this is that learning and the subsequent encoding of information in the brain cannot happen if the learner is not attentive. Additionally, the recall of a piece of information from the brain also cannot happen if one is not attentive. Therefore, attention is one of the most important things for proper functioning as a human being. It is required for intelligence. It has been ascertained that attention is especially useful for the storage of explicit memory (memory about objects, places, and people) – a process that heavily involves the hippocampus.
As I psychologist, I split my time between my workplace and the university. To be the best in my field, I have to continue learning. I therefore engage in learning both at the workplace and at the university.…
Eye Witness Memory and Identification
In the contemporary legal environment, an eyewitness plays a critical role in the legal system. A correct eyewitness identification has helped in advancing an investigation, and can be used to solve a complex case. Despite the importance of eyewitness identification in a legal system, eyewitness misidentification is being identified as the contributing factor to wrongful convictions based on the DNA testing. Typically, the eyewitness misidentification leads to 70% of wrongful convictions based on the DNA evidence in the United States. In cases after cases, it has been proven by the DNA that eyewitnesses are mostly inaccurate. For example, a review of 311 cases reveals that 73% of the convictions have been due to the eyewitness errors leading to wrongful convictions. Evidence have also revealed that eyewitness identifications can sway strong alibis, juries and police. Unfortunately, the memory of some eyewitnesses is either unable to recall…
Arkowitz, H. & Lilienfeld, S.O. (2010). Why Science Tells Us Not to Rely on Eyewitness Accounts. Scientific America Mind.
Green, M. (2013). Eye Witness Memory is Unreliable. Visual Expert.
Hope, L., & Sauer, J.D. (2014). Eyewitness memory and mistaken identifications In book: Investigative Interviewing: The Essentials, Carswell: M. St.-Yves.
Malpass, R.S. & Topp, L.D. (2005) Eye Witness Memory and Identification. The Defender
The focus of academics continues to focus on finding a cause and on developing reliable interventions for children suffering from this condition. It is important to begin intervention as early as possible so that incorrect speech patterns do not become ingrained. In addition, it is important to make certain that other learning complications do not develop as a result of SLI.
The research conducted by ice, Wexler, & Cleave (1995) helped to draw attention to SLI as being different from other language deficiencies. Their work helped to identify and define SLI as its own subset of language delay symptoms. This important step led the way for research that explored causality and intervention. SLI is typically associated with deficiencies in verbal skills. However, research into non-verbal skills was also suggested by these and other study results. This avenue will help to further define and distinguish SLI from other language delays.
Bishop, D., Bright, P. & James, C. et al. (2000). Grammatical SLI: a distinct subtype of developmental language impairment? Applied Psycholinguistics. 21-92): 159-181.
O'Brien, E., Zhang, X., & Nishimura, C. et al. (2003). Association of specific language impairment (SLI) to the region of 7q31. American Journal of Human Genetics. 72 (6): 1536-1543.
Rice, M., Wexler, K., & Cleave, P. (1995). Specific Language Impairment as a Period of Extended Optional Infinitive. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research. 38: 850-863.
Sajanrimi, N., Suhonen, E., & Kontu, E. (2008). Verbal and non-verbal development in SLI children after early intervention. Early Child Development and Care. 02 May 2008. Abstract.
eason for eferral
Medical and Psychiatric History
Short Family and Social History
Short History of School Behavior
Information Assessment Techniques
Mental Status Examination and Behavioral Observations
esults Form Testing
The following results were obtained with respect to the different domain of functioning of Sebastian based on information from multiple sources.
There is a chance that the subject of the report or those who are closely associated with the subject of the report could get psychologically and/or emotionally hurt as the report contains sensitive information about the subject. This report is meant only for people trained enough to read such reports and should not be given to the subject named in the report. In order to ensure that the name of the person who is also the subject of the report…
Goldfinger, K. And Pomerantz, A. (2010). Psychological assessment and report writing. Los Angeles: SAGE.
Groth-Marnat, G. (2003). Handbook of psychological assessment. Hoboken, N.J.: John Wiley & Sons.
No authorship indicated, (2003). Psychological Assessment: Editors. Psychological Assessment, 15(1), pp.1-1.
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Manipulating Variables in an Experimental Study
A variable is a factor that can be changed and generally can be measured. A dependent variable is the factor that is being measured in an experiment and it is the variable that the investigators expect will be changed by the independent variables. The independent variables are those factors that are manipulated or introduced in a study in order to explore how they impact the dependent variable (Weiten, 2013). The independent variable is considered to be independent since the researcher is free to manipulate, introduce, or remove the independent variable over the course of an experiment (Weiten, 2013). Accordingly, the dependent variable is considered to be at least partly dependent on the changes that occur in the independent variable (Weiten, 2013).
Extraneous variables may have an impact on the relationship between the dependent variable and the independent variables. Two types of extraneous variables need…
Schmidt, S.R. (1994). Effects of Humor on Sentence Memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 20(4), 953-967.
Weiten, W. (2013). Psychology: Themes and variations, 9th ed. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
Intelligence testing should not be required for candidates prior to running for public office.
Firstly, the assumption that higher traditional measures of intelligence will result in better governance is highly debatable and flawed. Second, the ability to govern may be better determined by a measurement of emotional intelligence, rather than standard IQ measurements. Third, moral character may be a better measure of the ability to govern than intelligence.
Americans often complain that the nature of our democratic government leads to the election of individuals whose intelligence levels leave a great deal to be desired. Clearly, the actions of a great many public officials give credence to this claim. e have only to think of the, the indiscreet and inappropriate sexual shenanigans of Gary Hart, and the infamous inability of Dan Quayle to spell potato correctly as evidence of this assertion. In response to these criticisms, many Americans have begun to…
Gardner, Howard. Frames of Mind. New York: Basic Book Inc., 1983.
False Identification and Lineup Instructions Biased/Unbiased
There are many instances where people have been wrongly accused only because they were falsely identified or either because there was not enough evidence present that would prove them guilty. George Allen Jr. was convicted in 1983 on the charges of capital murder, rape, sodomy and first degree burglary. It has been noted that the reason for his false conviction was false confession, invalid or improper forensic evidence and government misconduct (Innocenceproject.org, 2013). Another case is of Barry Gibbs who was charged with second degree murder in the year 1988. He was wrongly charged due to eyewitness misidentification and government misconduct. It was noted that Barry Gibbs served 17.5 years of jail time before he was exonerated in the year 2005. (Innocenceproject.org, 2013)
These cases therefore give an idea that eyewitness misidentification is a very important cause of wrongful convictions all over the country…
Brandon, R. & Davies, C. (1973). Wrongful imprisonment. [Hamden, Conn.]: Archon Books.
Buckhout, R. & Others (1974). Determinants of eyewitness performance on a lineup.. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 4 (3), 191-192.
Christianson, S. (1992). Emotional stress and eyewitness memory: a critical review. Psychological bulletin, 112 (2), 284.
Grether, W.F., & Baker, C.A. (1972). Visual presentation of information. In H.P. Van Cott & R.G. Kinkade (Eds.), Human engineering guide to equipment design (pp. 41-121). Washington, D.C.: American Institutes for Research
Gingko Biloba -- Part I
What are the author's general conclusions (summarized) on the effectiveness of Gingko Biloba as a cognitive enhancer?
According to the author, effects of Gingko on cognition are perplexing because of its dual actions as following. It's seen improving short-term memory but at the same time it impairs digit recall ability. It slows down mental decline in patients with Alzheimer's disease but has lower dose response curve than acetyl cholinesterase inhibitors. Gingko slows mental decline during dementia owing to its action as an anti-oxidant and ability to combat stress. This action is of short-term and isn't seen chronically. Gingko has more scores for improvement seen in patients when compared to acetyl cholinesterase inhibitors like Donepezil but has fewer efficacies than the later. Effects of Gingko are mainly attributable not to its direct action on improving memory but to its indirect action of improving attention…
Mark A. McDaniel, Steven F. Maier, and Gilles O. Einstein. (2003) 'Brain-specific nutrients: A memory cure?' Nutrition, vol. 19, pp. 957-973
Paul E. Gold, Larry Cahill, and Gary L. Wenk. (2002) 'Gingko Biloba: A cognitive enhancer?' Psychological Science in Public Interest, vol. 3, May, pp. 2-10.
AM and What it Does
andom Access Memory (AM) Analysis and Overview
The intent of this analysis and overview of andom Access Memory (AM) is to define its various types and how they are used in system configurations. Included in this analysis is an overview of the operational characteristics of AM including how to install and use dual in-line memory modules (DIMMs) and single in-line memory modules (SIMMs). Memory modules of all types also require prescriptive maintenance, and several recommendations are provided in this analysis and overview of how best to keep each form of memory functioning at an optimal level. Troubleshooting tips for managing memory are also included.
Overview of andom Access Memory
The rapid adoption of andom Access Memory (AM) in electronics products historically has been driven by the exponential increase in integrated circuit design-ins for consumer and commercial products and the compounding effects of Moore's Law (Adee,…
Adee, S. (2009). Thanks for the memories. IEEE Spectrum, 46(5), 48.
Chen, Y., Ranganathan, K., Pai, V.V., Lilja, D.J., & Bazargan, K. (2005). A novel memory structure for embedded systems: Flexible sequential and random access memory. Journal of Computer Science and Technology, 20(5), 596-606.
Luo, Y., Luo, S., Guan, J., & Zhou, S. (2013). A RAMCloud storage system based on HDFS: Architecture, implementation and evaluation. The Journal of Systems and Software, 86(3), 744.
Mandelman, J.A., Dennard, R.H., Bronner, G.B., DeBrosse, J.K., & al, e. (2002). Challenges and future directions for the scaling of dynamics random-access memory (DRAM). IBM Journal of Research and Development, 46(2), 187-212.
The control of motor movement progresses from mastery of gross movement to fine motor control as humans develop (Wilson, 2013). This progression depends on the maturation of the extrapyramidal motor system, followed by the maturation of the pyramidal motor system. The extrapyramidal motor system incorporates multiple areas of the brain that are involved in controlling gross motor movements, including the cerebellum and basal ganglia. The cerebellum functions to coordinate muscle movement in response to sensory stimuli generated by muscles, tendons, the reticular formation, and the vestibular system. By comparison, the role of the basal ganglia in regulating muscle movement is still being investigated. In general terms, the basal ganglia serve as an information relay center for various centers within the cerebral cortex; however, researchers seem to agree that one of the functions of the basal ganglia is to inhibit muscle movements before they can begin.
esearchers have also…
Rieger, Martina, Gauggel, Siegfied, and Burmeister, Katja. (2003). Neuropsychology, 17(2), 272-282.
Shohamy, D., Myers, C.E., Onlaor, S., and Gluck, M.A. (2004). Role of the basal ganglia in category learning: How do patients with Parkinson's disease learn? Behavioral Neuroscience, 118(4), 676-686.
Stocco, Andrea, Lebiere, Christian, and Anderson, John R. (2010). Conditional routing of information to the cortex: A model of the basal ganglia's role in cognitive coordination. Psychological Review, 117(2), 541-574.
Wilson, Josephine F. (2013). Biological Basis of Behavior. San Diego: Bridgepoint Education, Inc. ISBN: 978-1-62178-103-5.
etirees Attending College
The latest retirement planning book entitled 'Boomers: Visons of the New etirement', written by a person who is about thirty years old, Dr. Maria Maylater, PhD., states the author's opinion that it is not what an individual, or in other words, a retiree 'has' when he retires that is important; it is the ways in which he plans out this important phase in his life in which he would be able to actually're-invent' himself totally. She states that today, all the Baby Boomers of yesterday are looking forward to another twenty years of a full and productive life, and an extremely rewarding one, what with all the technological and scientific advances that have taken place in recent years, an average individual can hope to love a longer life than his father or his grandfathers before him. (3 etirement Challenges that you were Never Told)
The idea is…
Fact-sheet on older Americans. Retrieved From
http://www.civicventures.org/261.98.html Accessed on 21 January, 2005
Falcon, Michael. Sharing your Vision of Retirement. Retrieved From
http://askmerrill.ml.com/publish/marketing_centers/articles/ret_article_r058 / Accessed on 21 January, 2005
These sequences included: progressive, random, anti-progressive.
The results of this study showed that the extent of sequencing in learning and progressive training advantages cannot be completely explained by direct associations between stimulus features and the equivalent responses. These findings were shown to be consistent with the idea of perceptual learning but not with a focus on stimulus variability.
The results of this study support the idea that easy-to-hard sequencing presents an advantage in learning. When looking at all the sequencing types, progressive sequencing was shown to have the highest discrimination of the contrasts. It was also shown to have the best generalization to new contrasts even when participants are not trained to discriminate rate. Even though the study showed that participants experienced the exact same stimuli with matching stimulus variability and equal probabilities of having the last trained item are the critical contrast, progressive sequencing was found to…
" (Eugenia Costa-Giomi 2004, 141) Among the academic benefits associated with three years of piano lessons, the children tended to have higher math computation scores, higher language scores, and higher self-esteem than children not involved in music.
Many studies and a wide array of empirical evidence supports the hypothesis that music improves the academic performance and test scores of children, including those in Middle and High School, but certainly also including Elementary and College students. These benefits may occur because of the increased activity in the temporal and left-frontal areas of the brain that have been observed during exposure to music, or because music brings "cohesion" to already existing background noise. (Geake & Ivanov 2003) Or perhaps the link between music and academic success may trace back to the Ancient ideas of how the arts affect the essence of the soul. (Costa-Giomi 2004) Regardless of the root cause of why…
Catterall, J.S. (1998, July) Does experience in the arts boost academic achievement? A response to Eisner. Art Education, 51(4), Windows on the World: 6-11.
Costa-Giomi, E. (2004) Effects of three years of piano instruction on children's academic achievement, school performance and self-esteem. Psychology of Music, 32(2): 139-52.
Ho, Yim-Chi, Cheung, Mei-Chun, & Chan, Agnes S. (2003) Music training improves verbal but not visual memory: Cross-sectional and longitudinal explorations in children. Neuropsychology, 17(3): 439-50.
Ivanov, V.K. & Geake, J.G. (2003) The Mozart Effect and primary school children. Pyschology of Music, 31(4): 405-13.