He stated that people are simply good at a variety of skills, although some individuals may have higher levels of specialized intelligences more in the spheres than others. ("Charles Spearman," Major Theories of Intelligence, 2004) in other words, a gifted musician can also be a gifted poet, but these are still different intelligences -- Spearman, in contrast, would suggest the two are interrelated.
Spearman also came up with another term known as the "s" factor. This he said was the factor devoted to "specific skills and information" needed to perform intellectual tasks. Thus, even Spearman allowed that there were multiple factors that went into an individuals' success in life and on intelligence tests. But he felt that overall scores on IQ tests, however specific were highly saturated with "g" an intelligence that pervades all tasks. Thus, the most important information to have about a person's intellectual ability is an estimate of their "g" rather than any knowledge of their particular an innate mastery of the flute of factoring an equation. (Plucker, 2004)
Thus, may be concluded there are two forms of intelligence gathering in theory has come into greater favor, simply because it seems more flexible and human -- perhaps more in line with the acceptable notion that every individual has a potentially rich contribution to make in a specific area, even if he or she cannot excel at all things equally well.
Charles Spearman." (2004) Major Theories of Intelligence. Retrieved on October 24, 2004 at http://academic.scranton.edu/student/WEBBM2/theories.htm
Gardner, Howard. (1984) Multiple Intelligences.
Learning Center. (2004) "Howard Gardner: Seven Intelligence Model" Retrieved on October 24, 2004 at http://www2.wmin.ac.uk/eic/learningskills/cognition/learning_styles/howard_model.html
Plucker, T. (2004) "Charles Spearman." Human Intelligence. Retrieved on October 24, 2004 at http://www.indiana.edu/~intell/spearman.shtml
Spearman, Howard. (1904) General Intelligence, Objectively Determined and Measured.
He hypothesized that certain parts within the brain could map with certain areas of cognitive functioning, such as social, cognitive, or creative functions. To prove this, Gardner cites cases of brain damage that leads to the loss of some, but not all, cognitive functions. On this basis, one could also say that Spearman's test findings, while all located in the brain, relate to different parts of the brain and
According to him, a theory of intelligence can be adequately mapped with three components: analytic (academic) intelligence, creative intelligence, and practical intelligence. This theory accounts for both cognition and context is also referred as Sternberg's "triarchic" theory of human intelligence. According to Sternberg, intelligence has three aspects. These are not multiple intelligences, as in Gardner's scheme. Where Gardner viewed the various intelligences as separate and independent, Sternberg posited three integrated
Chapter 2: Review of Related Literature Chapter Introduction This chapter provides a review of the literature concerning hypnosis, Eastern Meditation, Chi Kung, and Nei Kung and how these methods are used to treat various ailments and improve physical and mental functioning. A summary of the review concludes the chapter. Hypnosis In his study, "Cognitive Hypnotherapy in the Management of Pain," Dowd (2001) reports that, "Several theories have been proposed to account for the effect of
Clinical Psychology and Gender Dysphoria Advancement of Clinical Psychology with Gender Dysphoria Clinical psychology is recognized as a psychology branch that deals with the assessment and treatment of abnormal behavior, mental illness, and psychiatric problems (Brennan, 2003). Clinical psychology integrates the science of psychology with treatment of complicated human problems, which makes it a challenging and rewarding field. American psychologist Lightner Witmer introduced the term in 1907. Witmer defined clinical psychology as