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They show that mood swings in depressed children alternate with days of a pervasive down mood. These moods involve sadness, loneliness, unhappiness, hypersensitivity, overreactivity, and negative attitudes. All of this is combined with irritability caused by sadness, self-deprecation ("I am worthless, stupid, and ugly"), feelings of being persecuted by others, an aggressive orientation toward authority, argumentativeness, and suicidal thoughts. Present as well is the trend of self-isolation or withdrawal from friends and a loss of social interest. Depressed children predict that activities at school will be boring, and thus tend to watch peers rather than participate (Friedberg & McClure, 2002). This decreased involvement in pleasure perpetuates their isolation. hen related to school performance, this means lowered desire to complete schoolwork, turning in incomplete work, trouble concentrating, resistance to participation, and changed peer-groups.
hile there are biological explanations for childhood depression that emphasize genetic factors and neurochemical determinants, this paper wants…
Achenbach, T.M., & Rescorla, L.A. (2006). Multicultural understanding of child and adolescent psychopathology: Implications for mental health assessment. New York: Guilford.
American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th Ed., Text Rev.). Washington, DC: Author.
Birmaher, B., Brent, B., & Benson, R.S. (1998). Summary of the practice parameters for the assessment and treatment of children and adolescents with Depressive Disorders. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 37, 1234-1238.
Birmaher, B., Ryan, N.D., Williamson, D.E., Brent, D.A., Kaufman, J., Dahl, R.E., Perel, J., & Nelson, B. (1996). Childhood and adolescent depression: A review of the past 10 years. Part I. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 35, 1427-1439.
Suicide- Mental Disorder
Beginning with a historical analysis of suicide, the psychopathology of suicide is analyzed. Empirical findings are also presented to address probable causes of suicide. This paper addresses the psychopathology of suicide starting with its historical backdrop. It additionally contemplates the probable reasons leading to this pathology founded on latest empirical results. Control of suicidal behaviors and ideation are addressed, along with prevention and treatment strategies. Finally, the religious and cultural purviews with respect to suicide are considered based upon current research in the field.
Globally, suicide is one of the major causes of death. As many as 36,000 commit suicide in the United States annually and estimates suggest that 1 million individuals commit suicide in the rest of the world. While the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) does not classify suicide as a mental disorder (DSM-IV-T), practitioners recognize the correlation between psychological…
American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.
Barnes, DH (2010). The truth about suicide. Retrieved from https://www.overdrive.com/media/322303/the-truth-about-suicide
Comer, R.J. (2013). Abnormal Psychology. New York, NY: Worth Publishers
Colucci, E. (2006). The cultural facet of suicidal behaviour: Its importance and neglect. Australian e-Journal for the Advancement of Mental Health, 5(3). Retrieved from http://www.livingisforeveryone.com.au/uploads/docs/Cultural %20facet%20of%20suicidal%20behaviour%20' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
mental disorder disease known as "Schizophrenia', further exploration of the disease will be made based on the observation of the movie "I never promised you a rose garden" Comparison of Schizophrenia in the movies to Schizophrenia in real life will be made in the paper. "I Never Promised You A ose Garden" is the movie chosen to discuss these questions, which are as under:
How the character is portrayed to schizophrenia in real life?
Whether the actions in the movie are correct with reality or if Schizophrenia is different than the movie?
DESCIPTION OF THE DISEASE 'SCHIZOPHENIA':
Schizophrenia is a psychiatric diagnosis denoting a persistent, often chronic, mental illness variously affecting behavior, thinking, and emotion. The term schizophrenia comes from the Greek words ? (schizo, split or divide) and (frenos, mind) and is best translated "shattered mind." Psychiatrist Emil Kraepelin was first to make the distinction between what he called…
As retrieved from Schizophrenia & Psychosis
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SchizophreniaOn April 16,2004
Juvenile Delinquent and Mental Disorders
Maltreated youth and delinquent behaviors
Maltreatment, Family and Childhood
Peers and Adolescence
Aging into Early Adulthood
Crime risk and out-of-home care youth
Juvenile Delinquent and Mental Disorders
The transition of youth from adolescence to adulthood is usually a difficult and painful period. This is an even more difficult time for the youth who are removed from the home of biological parents to be placed into out-of-home care. For them, they not only had the experience of maltreatment, hurt or neglected, but also are facing the uncertainties associated with being removed from the original family. Under this situation, their behavior development may be troublesome, as they may desire returning to the original home or conflict with foster parents and siblings. As a result, such children may join a delinquency group for support. If the experience of out-of-home care affects youth behavior negatively and can…
Beaver, K.M. (2009). An Introduction to the Brain. In K.M. Beaver, Biosocial Criminology: A Primer (pp. 135-139). Dubuque, Iowa: Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company.
Borum, R. (2000). Assessing Violence Risk among Youth. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 56, pp. 1263-1288.
Broidy, L.M., Tremblay, R.E., Brame, B., Fergusson, D., Horwood, J.L., Laird, R., et al. (2003). Developmental Trajectories of Childhood Disruptive Behaviors and Adolescent Delinquency: A Six-Site, Cross-National Study. Developmental Psychology, 39, pp. 222-245.
Courtney, M.E., Piliavin, I., Grogan-Kaylor, A., & Nesmith, A. (2001, November / December). Foster Youth Transitions to Adulthood: A Longitudinal View of Youth Leaving Care. Child Welfare, 80(6), pp. 685-717.
Changing the DSM (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders)
Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorder is crucial for psychiatry. The importance of such manual, assists psychiatrist classify mental disorder and in diagnosis of such disorders. The manual provides a standard classification and common language in the diagnosis of mental disorders. The manual provides a classification of mental disorders and provides results when used by researchers, as well as clinicians. The manual also assist in bringing the gap between psychiatrist and drug regulation agencies, insurance, pharmaceutical companies, legal entities, and policy makers. This manual assists all practicing psychiatrist practice within their area of authority, interacting with all other stakeholders in the mental disorder management field (American Psychiatric Association, 2000).
The diagnostic manual for mental disorders, on the other hand, collects statistical data from various hospitals. The manual also has had information from the United States Army. In relation to…
American Psychiatric Association (Ed.). (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders: DSM-IV-TR®. American Psychiatric Pub.
Tandon, R., & Carpenter, W.T. (2012). DSM-5 status of psychotic disorders: 1 year prepublication. Schizophrenia bulletin, 38(3), 369-370.
First, M.B. (2005). Clinical utility: a prerequisite for the adoption of a dimensional approach in DSM. Journal of abnormal psychology, 114(4), 560.
Frances, A.J., & Widiger, T. (2012). Psychiatric diagnosis: lessons from the DSM-IV past and cautions for the DSM-5 future. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 8, 109-130.
Living with Mental Disorders
People who have mental disorders always have a hard time in the community since they are not easily accepted. In most cases, people always consider them violent because they have a difficult social life. After exploring BringChange2Mind.org, I have learned that mental disorders such as bipolar, schizophrenia, and PSTD cause stress and depression to individuals or even attracts discrimination and unfair treatment by the society. Sadly, it attracts other social issues such as poverty, homelessness, or struggle to find jobs due to their condition. Moreover, they find it hard to communicate with others because they lack moral support. Therefore, the circumstances make their life unbearable, which predisposes them to drug abuse and other risky behaviors.
BringChange2Mind.org shows that there have been many cases of people with mental disorders trying to commit suicide because they are unhappy with their lives. It confirms that their social lives become…
Boyd, J. E., Adler, E. P., Otilingam, P. G., & Peters, T. (2014). Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness (ISMI) scale: a multinational review. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 55(1), 221-231.
Casaletto, K. B., Kwan, S., Montoya, J. L., Obermeit, L. C., Gouaux, B., Poquette, A., & HNRP Group. (2016). Predictors of psychotropic medication adherence among HIV+ individuals living with bipolar disorder. The International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine, 51(1), 69-83.
National Alliance on Mental Illness (n.d). Mental Health by the Numbers. Retrieved 23 Nov. 2017 from https://www.nami.org/learn-more/mental-health-by-the-numbers
Therapies for Mental Disorder
Mental disorders represent a wide range of clinical conditions ranging from simple attention deficit, mood irregularities, stress and anxiety conditions to more complex psychotic disorders like schizophrenia, autism, delirium, dementia etc. that considerably affect the cognitive ability. While some of these problems are organic in nature, indicating an underlying structural deformity of the brain or other biological basis, others are categorized as functional disorders that are not attributed to any physiological anomalies. Though there is no clear agreement on classification of the different mental disorders, depending on the severity of the conditions these disorders are basically classified as either neurotic or the Psychotic (severe) disorders. The treatment methods for these conditions are also varied including psychological therapies (cognitive therapy, behavioral modification therapy), insight therapy, biomedical treatment and even psychosurgical interventions. Let us have a brief overview of some of these different treatment approaches.
Types of Psychotherapies…
1) Philip G. Zimbardo, Ann L. Weber & Robert L. Johnson, " Psychology: Core Concepts," Fourth Edition
2) Treatment Advocacy Center, "Do Antipsychotic Drugs Change Brain Structure?," Accessed on 21st November 2004, http://www.psychlaws.org/BriefingPapers/BP1.htm
3) Raymond Lloyd Richmond, PhD, " Systematic Desensitization,"
Accessed on 21st November 2004,
This is because as patients admit that they have a mental disorder and their behavioral malfunction is associated with a serious condition, it gives rise to intense feelings of depression and complete frustration. Patients may lose hope and thus may decide to end their lives. Thus risk of suicide increase as awareness of disorder increases in patients.
It has also been found that while suicide risk may increase as patients become aware of their condition; the awareness still plays a significant role in treating the patients. Most schizophrenia patients are likely to respond more positively to medical intervention if they understand their condition. There is a general willingness to cooperate and to feel better even though risk of suicide remains high.
Cannabis Use and Schizophrenia
It is believed that cannabis use is connected with onset of schizophrenia or worsening of its symptoms. A condition known as cannabic psychosis has been…
Linzsen DH, Dingemans PM, Lenior ME. Cannabis abuse and the course of recentonset schizophrenic disorders. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1994;51:273-279.
Horan WP, Blanchard JJ, Clark LA. Affective Traits in Schizophrenia and Schizotypy. Schizophrenia Bulletin 2008 34(5):856-874;
Siever LJ, M.D., Davis KL, M.D. The Pathophysiology of Schizophrenia Disorders: Perspectives From the Spectrum. Am J. Psychiatry 161:398-413, March 2004
Kring AM and Moran EK. Emotional Response Deficits in Schizophrenia: Insights From Affective Science. Schizophrenia Bulletin 2008 34(5):819-834;
Faith and reasoned thought can give an anxious person some much-needed perspective. For instance one therapist suggests that patients who are experiencing anxiety actually "allow themselves to feel the storm [of anxiety within] whip up, then let it pass, concentrating on not doing anything," rather than retreating to the hectic, hurrying busyness that is often the instinctive treatment for anxious feelings. (Carey, 2004) "This Zen-like self-observation, called mindfulness, is an exercise not in avoidance but in feeling and enduring emotional pain. It dramatizes one principle of the therapy: that what patients do can be independent of how they feel. Emotion does not have to rule behavior." Or to put it more bluntly, as the psychiatrist told one of his patients, "you can feel [anxious] like a mental patient, but that doesn't mean you have to act like one." Accept the feeling, don't feel anxious about feeling anxious, about feeling less…
Carey, Bernard. (15 Jul 2005) "With Toughness and Caring, a Novel Therapy Helps Tortured Souls." The New York Times. Retrieved 17 Mar 2005 at http://query.nytimes.com/gst/health/article-page.html?pagewanted=1&res=9B03E4DD1E3BF930A25754C0A9629C8B63
Mental Illness from a Counselor's Perspective
Alcohol Dependency in Women
Symptoms of Alcohol Dependency
Alcohol dependency or alcoholism is suspected when persons appear to be preoccupied by the consumption of alcoholic beverages (Johnson, 2003). The three prototypical markers of alcohol dependency are a loss of control over the consumption of alcohol, preoccupation with alcohol consumption, and the use of alcohol despite adverse affects on the person's quality of life. For example, Elaine Gustafson was disturbed by her inability to have just a few drinks. According to her, when she went out with friends they would have two to three drinks and she would invariably consume over a dozen drinks until she was drunk.
Effects of Illness
The social consequences of alcoholism differ between men and women, with men typically incurring less condemnation (Johnson, 2003). A drunk male is generally seen as out having a good time, but a drunk female…
Alexander Street Press. (2008). Teen anxiety disorder [video]. (Available from Aquarius Health Care Media, Millis, MA).
APA (American Psychiatric Association). (2013). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) (5th ed.). Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Association.
Armstrong, P. (2014). Recognition and treatment of social anxiety disorder. Nursing Times, 110(1-3), 27.
Johnson, B. (2003). Women with alcohol dependency: More common than you think [video]. (Available from Aquarius Health Care Media, Millis, MA).
The downside of these customs is more obvious in a modern world. ural Irish villages typically had only about a dozen households, so marriage between second cousins was common (Schepper-Hughes, 2001). Prior to the 1950s, most marriages were arranged, so the experience of romantic love and attachment was uncommon. Under the weight of both social and religious sanctions against homosexuality, gay men and women could find themselves facing a life of marriage and conformity that forced them to reject their true nature. Bachelor farmers facing a long winter sometimes spent their time working menial jobs in England, while courting and marrying an Irish woman of the same class. When these women returned with their husbands, they face a lifetime of social isolation.
Schepper-Hughes (2001) painted a grim portrait of an Clochan and it's hard to argue with most of her conclusions; however, she seems to miss the historical significance…
Scheper-Hughes, Nancy. (2001). Saints, Scholars, and Schizophrenics. Mental Illness in Rural Ireland. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
Bipolar Disorder in Children
The CBCL Bipolar Profile and Attention, Mood, and Behavior Dysregulation
Database: Academic Search Premiere
I knew I wanted to review a paper on bipolar disorder in children. I chose the database "Academic Search Premiere." I clicked "advanced search" so I could use more than one term. For my keywords, I chose "bipolar disorder" in one box and "children" in the other. I also checked the boxes that limited my results to full text articles and articles from scholarly journals. When the list of articles appeared, I was able to choose one that sounded interesting and that was published in the last five years.
Bipolar disorder is difficult to diagnose in children, especially before the onset of puberty. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder share features with bipolar disorder. These include impaired attention, talkativeness, high levels of motor activity, impulsivity, irritability, and…
Doerfler, L.A., Connor, D.F., and Toscano, P.F., Jr. (2011). The CBCL bipolar profile and attention, mood, and behavior dysregulation. Journal of Child and Family Studies 20(5), pp. 545-553.
Peer 1 Chieyka
This is a well-researched article on anorexia nervosa. You describe the disorder, look at the neurotransmitter systems involved in the disorder, and describe the care treatment used in intervention. One interesting finding is the neurotransmitter system does not process the information of feeling full, primarily because of a lack of nutrition. This is interesting as the parts of the brain impacted are the frontal lobe that connect with the basal ganglia (APA, 2013; Wilson, 2013). Cognitive behavioral therapy can be used to treat this issue, which is also interesting because this is basically a method of care that involves identifying negative triggers and then working on responses to those triggers that can help one achieve a particular goal. But what can be done if the patient is not interested in the therapy? Pharmacological intervention can be implemented, but I might suggest a supportive therapy—something like animal-assisted therapy…
American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Section II: Feeding and Eating Disorders. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders: DSM-5 (5th ed.). http://dx.doi.org.10.1176/appi.books.9780890425596
Barton, B & Salama, C (2008). An update on Pica: Prevalence, Contributing cause and treatment. Eating Disorders, Anxiety, Comorbidity in Psychiatry, Cultural Psychiatry. Psychiatric Times. Vol 25 (6) https://www.psychiatrictimes.com/eating-disorders/update-pica-prevalence-contributing-causes-and-treatment/page/0/3
American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Section II: Feeding and Eating Disorders. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders: DSM-5 (5th ed.). http://dx.doi.org.10.1176/appi.books.9780890425596
Wilson, J. F. (2013). Biological basis of behavior.
Usually, diagnosis is symptom driven, then combined with testing, forms an opinion, sometimes verified by lab tests, of a specific diagnosis. For instance, someone may have symptoms of nausea, pain, depression, anxiety, and their skin has a yellowish hue. The physician runs blood tests and finds that the liver is malfunctioning and there is likely a diagnosis of hepatitis. In this case, there are both physical and mental symptoms, but it is the physical nature that is diagnosed first. For mental diagnosis, symptoms are also important, but are based more on the functioning of the individual in social systems, or by observing the patient's behavior (How are Mental Illnesses Diagnosed? 2012). Thus, both use symptoms as a guide, but mental diagnosis is more empirical and uses observation, while physical diagnosis uses quantitative measurements.
Etiology- Etiology is the study of basic causation. We now know that there are a number of…
American Psychiatric Association Practice Guidelines. (2006). PsychiatryOnline. Retrieved from: http://psychiatryonline.org/guidelines.aspx
How are Mental Illnesses Diagnosed? (2012). WebMD. Retrieved from: http://www.webmd.com/anxiety-panic/guide/mental-health-making-diagnosis
Curtis, a.J. et.al. (2000), Introduction to Health Psychology, New York: Routledge.
Dombeck, M. (2003). Blurring the Boundary Between Mental and Physical. Seven Counties Services, Inc. Retrieved from: http://www.sevencounties.org / poc/view_doc.php?type=doc&id=1855&cn=74
Grand Canyon University (GCU) presents an inclusive doctorate course adaptable to every doctorate program. DNA represents a metaphor that denotes distinctive artifacts personalized by GCU’s doctorate course for simplifying pupils’ academic journey. The course is grounded in curricular and content development, research guidance, competences and acquaintance, and a detailed dissertation procedure (Gcumedia.com, 2017). The aim is: creation of an effectual, engaging, and stimulating academic experience for doctorate level pupils.
The campus provides corporate leadership and educational courses concentrating on cultivating accountability and knowledge with regard to the development and inspiration of superior- performance entities. The institution also offers other doctoral courses like philosophy in nursing practice, general phycology, and business administration. This course is grounded in the DNA system utilized for instilling economic, leadership and business capabilities among directors and educators. It is based on in- depth scientific, practical and abstract research. Learners imbibe skills that facilitate the application of…
New findings show that the spouses of veterans also experience mental health disorders, and the prevalence increases with the length of deployment (Mansfield, Kaufman, Marshall, Gaynes, Morrissey & Engel, 2010). When spouses are considered to be clients of health services, the need for improved and more robust resources becomes apparent. Moreover, spouses with mental health disorders present unique issues and questions for treatment. eturning soldiers may find that they have supportive partners who can lead to a mutually beneficial treatment relationship, via couples or family therapy. On the other hand, the mental health problems of the spouse can exacerbate those of the soldier, and vice-versa. Thus, a family systems approach can be extremely helpful when addressing the multifaceted mental health concerns among veterans.
Veteran health services are at a critical juncture. The need for targeted mental health interventions, ranging from screenings and assessments to therapies and treatments, has been proven…
Britt, T.W., Greene-Shortridge, T.M. & Castro, C.A. (2007). The Stigma of Mental Health Problems in the Military. Military Medicine 172(2), February 2007, pp. 157-161(5)
Bliese, P.D., Wright, K.M., Adler, a.B., Thomas, J.L. & Hoge, C.W. (2007). Timing of postcombat mental health assessments. Psychological Services 4(3), Aug 2007, 141-148.
Hoge, C.W., Auchterlonie, J.L. & Milliken, C.S. (2006). Mental Health Problems, Use of Mental Health Services, and Attrition From Military Service After Returning From Deployment to Iraq or Afghanistan. JAMA. 2006;295(9):1023-1032. doi:10.1001/jama.295.9.1023.
Hoge, C.W., Castro, C.A., Messer, S.C., McGurk, D., Cotting, D.I. & Koffman, R.L. (2004). Combat Duty in Iraq and Afghanistan, Mental Health Problems, and Barriers to Care. N Engl J. Med 2004; 351:13-22July 1, 2004 DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa040603
Mental Health Counseling
Discuss the role in relationship to the prescription and monitoring of pharmacological treatments for mental health issues.
Unique advances have been achieved in the treatment offered to clients suffering from mental illness. Mental health care providers must understand the original causes of mental health disorders in order to provide treatment to clients with these disorders. Therefore, mental healthcare providers are able to treat disorders associated with mental health. This is being done with much success as physical disorders (Madden, 2008).
The profession of mental health provision has categorized strategies of treating mental health problems as either psychotherapeutic or somatic. Somatic methods of treating mental disorders include therapies such as electroconvulsive therapy, which have the potential of stimulating the brain. Psychotherapeutic method includes behavioral therapy strategies, hypnotherapy, and psychotherapy. esearchers have established that most mental health disorders require treatment strategies that involve both psychotherapy and drugs. This is…
Madden, R.G. (2008). Legal issues in social work, counseling, and mental health: Guidelines for clinical practice in psychotherapy. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications
Palmo, A.J., Weikel, W.J., & Borsos, D.P. (2011). Foundations of mental health counseling.
Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas.
World Health Organization (2009). Mental health aspects of women's reproductive health: A
This creates a nerve with the client that their private information is going to be unprotected and confidentiality is going to be broken . There is no safe way to keep all information private. However, all mental health professionals must take all necessary precautions to keep client information private .
As you look around the mall, classroom, church, family history, friend's family, or place of employment, you're sure to know someone with a mental illness, or someone who might of attempted suicide . Assessing and treating these disorders is essential in the mental health field, more trained mental health professionals are needed, more agencies, and more funding . Otherwise if society keeps assuming that the mind and brain are separate and that mental disorders are " different" or " bad" misunderstanding, mistreatment, and stigma will persist in this society . We need to stop seeing individuals with mental health…
American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (Revised 4th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.
American Association of Suicidology. ( 2006, February), U.S.A. suicide: 2003 official final data. Retrieved March 19, 2010, from http:/ / www.suiciodology.org.
Bonner, L. ( 2001). Rethinking suicide prevention and manipulative behavior in corrections. Jail Suicide Mental Health Update, 10(4), 7-8.
Bonner, L. (2006) . Stressful segregation housing in psychosocial vulnerability in prison suicide. Suicide and Life Threatening Behavior, 36,250-254.
mental health professionals, understanding what is impacting patients and their employees requires careful observation. This occurs through seeing if there is anything that is out of the ordinary. The situation with Eileen; is classic example of using these tools to realize when something more severe is happening. (Palmo, 2006)
In this particular case, Eileen is known as someone who is stable and reliable in organizing / managing the office. However, once she starts crying, is when she is dealing with more unusual challenges. Mental health professionals have a duty to identify the root causes of these problems and helping her to address them. (Palmo, 2006)
For Cora, she has unique responsibilities as a counselor and her employer. This is because she has to make certain that Eileen is able to work through these problems in order to perform her job efficiently. At the same time, she has an obligation to…
Palmo, A. (2006). Foundations of Mental Health Counseling. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas.
mental health and poor mental health. Explain two ways your own culture influences your definitions of mental health. Then explain how your definition of mental health might differ from that of your selected culture. Finally, describe a behavior that is considered normal in your culture but would be considered abnormal in the culture you selected.
Defining mental health: Japan vs. The United States
Even within a culture, the definition of what constitutes 'sanity' or 'insanity' can be extremely controversial. Where to draw the line between eccentricity and quirkiness vs. full-blown mental illness? In Western culture, definitions of mental illness have changed over time. For example, during the 19th century, a woman who did not want to get married and have sex outside of marriage might be considered deranged. Today, being gay is not considered a mental illness, but less than 50 years ago homosexuality was officially classified as an abnormality.…
Given the subjective nature of mental illness, it is not surprising that every culture has a different definition of what constitutes deviancy. In Japan, for example, a new mental disorder has been identified called "hikikomori," meaning "pulling in" or "withdrawal" (Grisafe 2012) Hikikomori usually affects young men who "withdraw entirely from society and stay in their own homes for more than six months, with onset by the latter half of their twenties, and for whom other psychiatric disorders do not better explain the primary causes of this condition" (Grisafe 2012). Most of these young men are middle-class and come from households able to support them financially. The young men spend their days watching television, playing video games, and pursing other activities that do not require social interaction. While some have reported self-destructive behavior like 'cutting' or obsessive-compulsive cleaning, their most distinguishing feature is their complete social isolation.
One of the causes of hikikomori is thought to be the famously rigid Japanese social system. If a young person does not get into a good school and find a good job immediately upon graduation, few opportunities are available for him or for her. While women have the possibility of marriage, men have little else to look forward to, given that society regards them as a 'failure.' The condition was first identified during Japan's great recession in the 1990s, when the formerly stable, booming economy began to unravel.
Of course, the phenomenon of young people struggling to find work after graduation is not confined to Japan. In the wake of the recession of 2008, many young American graduates were forced to return home. "The number of young adults ages 20 to 34 who lived with their parents jumped from 17% in 1980 to 24% in 2007-09" (Nasser 2012). Young male returnees are also reported to have fewer domestic demands placed upon them by their parents, such as cooking and cleaning (Nasser 2012). However, the sense of complete emotional stasis and failure that afflicted the Japanese men is not characteristic of American graduates enough to be regarded as a mental illness. Although some graduates undeniably experience depression and frustration, the fact that society in America takes a more permissive view of taking time to 'find one's feet' after graduation likely has a more positive emotional impact upon graduates unable to be financially independent. Also, in contrast to Japan, American colleges tend to be prohibitively expensive, and the need to alleviate their debt burden forces many young graduates to take some kind of a job (and therefore, to leave the house), in contrast
Patient is a Hispanic male, aged 31. He is the father of one son, aged 10. The patient is Puerto ican, and was born and spent his childhood in Puerto ico. He came to live in the U.S. at age 11. He now lives in Brooklyn, New York. The patient is separated from the mother of his son. His son lives with his mother. The patient currently lives alone and is unemployed.
The chief complaint of the patient is that he is "feeling down and alone recently," and that he also feels separated from his family: "I also haven't seen my son for a while." Clearly he is depressed about his living situation, his prospects, and his health.
History of Present Illness
The patient's present illness is related to drug abuse, of which the patient has a considerable history. Essentially, the patient reports that over the past…
Beck, J. (2011). Cognitive Behavior Therapy: Basics and Beyond. NY: Guilford Press.
Hewitt, J. P. (2009). Oxford Handbook of Positive Psychology. Oxford University
McKay, D. et al. (2015). Efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy for obsessive-
ecovery can be a difficult journey for many. The reality of having to change old habits for new ones can take a lifetime. The recovery approach/model realizes the struggle of change and transformation and makes it so that way emphasis is not placed on the destination, but rather the journey. Although other approaches like the disease/medical model aim to treat one aspect of recovery from addiction, the recovery model encompasses all aspects making it one of the most advantageous models to adopt to fight addiction.
The recovery approach/model to addiction and/or mental disorder places a strong emphasis on a support for an individual's potential for recovery. ecovery means a person undergoing a personal journey instead of determining and setting an outcome. This personal journey involves the development of hope, a sense of self, a secure base, social inclusion, meaning, empowerment, and coping skills that will take that person past the…
Barker, P. & Buchanan-Barker, P. (2012). Tidal Model of Mental Health Nursing. Currentnursing.com. Retrieved 24 July 2016, from http://currentnursing.com/nursing_theory/Tidal_Model.html
Best, D. & Lubman, D. (2012). The recovery paradigm - a model of hope and change for alcohol and drug addiction. Aust Fam Physician., 41(8), 593.
Hall, W., Carter, A., & Forlini, C. (2015). The brain disease model of addiction: is it supported by the evidence and has it delivered on its promises?. The Lancet Psychiatry, 2(1), 105-110. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s2215-0366 (14)00126-6
Hammer, R., Dingel, M., Ostergren, J., Partridge, B., McCormick, J., & Koenig, B. (2013). Addiction: Current Criticism of the Brain Disease Paradigm. AJOB Neuroscience, 4(3), 27-32. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21507740.2013.796328
Mental health services for adults and children in Florida are commonly provided by community health facilities and agencies. The use of community health agencies and facilities is providing these services are fueled by the need for an intensive care level to address the increase and impact of mental disorders. Florida State has embraced a framework of directive principles of care as the foundation for providing mental health services to adults and children. However, this framework has been insufficient to effectively deal with mental disorders for children in Jacksonville, Florida. Based on recent statistics, over 20% of children and young people experience the signs and symptoms of these illnesses during the course of a year (Goldhagen, 2006). A comprehensive, integrated community mental health service program is a suitable community-based approach this problem in Jacksonville, Florida.
Description of the Population
Mental disorders have developed to become a major health problem…
Buchanan, D. (2007). Integrating Behavioral Health into Primary Care. Retrieved from University of Nebraska -- Medical Center website: http://webmedia.unmc.edu/Community/CityMatch/EMCH/062807/DCBHS%202007.ppt
Cohen et. al. (2011). Three Models of Community Mental Health Services in Low-income
Countries. International Journal of Mental Health Systems, 5(3), 1-10. Retrieved from http://www.ijmhs.com/content/pdf/1752-4458-5-3.pdf
Flannery, F., Adams, D. & O'Connor, N. (2011, February). A Community Mental Health Service
The health of women has been a subject of discussion for many years and it has been emphasized because the health of women is directly related to the health of the child and thus the health of the society (Jacobson, 1993). However, the unfortunate part is that when considering the health of the women, only her physical and reproductive health is given importance and there is no consideration of her mental health that is equally as important as her physical health. All around the world, efforts have increased to make the health conditions of the women better especially since the last decade. Women are now regularly screened for HIV and other diseases that have a vertical pattern of transmission so that the children can be saved from such diseases. Awareness has also increased over the years among the women and they realize that their health, both mental and…
Belle, D. Poverty and Women's Mental Health.American Psychologist (1990) 45:385-389.
Jacobson, J. Women's Health: The Price of Poverty. In The Health of Women: A Global Perspective, edited by M. Koblinsky, J. Timyan, and J. Gay, pp. 3-32. Boulder, CO: Westview Press (1993).
Jayarajan, Nishanth; Chandra, Prabha.HIV and Mental Health: An Overview of Research from India. Indian Journal of Psychiatry, September 2010.
WHO.Mental Health Determinants and Populations.Geneva (2000) http://whqlibdoc.who.int/hq/2000/who_msd_mdp_00.1.pdf .
Mental illness appears in various forms. It is characterized by some serious disruptions in someone's thoughts or even demonstrated in their actions. The person presenting these symptoms is often unable to deal with the day-to-day activities and patterns of a normal life. Mental illness can take over 200 forms each having an effect on the patient's disposition, character, traits, and even the way they interact with others. Some of the common forms of mental illness are 'schizophrenia', 'depression,' 'bipolar disorders' and 'dementia'. Taylor and Brown (1988) state that mental illness can be presented in a psychological, emotional way and even in physical symptoms. A person under severe stress due to dealing with an incident or series of stressors' build-up over time is prone to mental illness. A person may also present symptoms of mental illness through a biochemical imbalance, a negative reaction to his environment, and the pressures accrued thereby,…
Bartlett, A., & McGauley, G. (2010). Forensic mental health: Concepts, systems, and practice. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Clinic, M. (2015, October 13). Mental illness. Retrieved December 7, 2015, from http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/mental-illness/basics/definition/CON-20033813
Corrigan, P. W., Morris, S., Larson, J., Rafacz, J., Wassel, A., Michaels, P., ... Rusch, N. (2010). SELF-STIGMA AND COMING OUT ABOUT ONE'S MENTAL ILLNESS. Journal of Community Psychology, 38(3), 259-275. http://doi.org/10.1002/jcop.20363
Dowrick. C., Dunn. G., Ayuso-Mateos.J et al. (2000). Problem-solving treatment and group psycho-education for depression: multicenter randomized controlled trial. British Medical Journal, 321, 1450-4
Mental Health Disorder
The following is a close examination of the psychosocial status of mental health disorder. There is going to be an examination of the symptoms along with a comprehensive diagnosis of the case.
Mental Health Disorder- Background
Childhood mental health disorder refers to all mental health conditions that affect a person in childhood. The disorder in children is described as critical changes that affect the way a child behaves, learns or even handles emotional situations. Some of the known childhood mental health disorders include (CDC - Child Development, Children's Mental Health -- NCBDDD, n.d):
Hyperactivity disorder/attention deficit disorder (ADHD) (http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/adhd/index.html)
Disorders related to behavior
Anxiety and mood disorders
Substance use disorders
Mental health is essential in life. Mental health disorders can persist throughout a person's life (CDC - Child Development, Children's Mental Health -- NCBDDD, n.d). The problem needs to be diagnosed early. Otherwise, children continue…
(n.d.). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. CDC - Child Development, Children's Mental Health - NCBDDD. Retrieved February 6, 2016, from http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/childdevelopment/mentalhealth.html
Klauck, S. (2006). Genetics of autism spectrum disorder. European Journal of Human Genetics, 14, 714-720. Retrieved February 6, 2016 from http://www.nature.com/ejhg/journal/v14/n6/full/5201610a.html
(n.d.). Medicine Net. Mental Health: Get the Facts on Common Disorders. Retrieved February 6, 2016, from http://www.medicinenet.com/mental_health_psychology/article.htm
(n.d.). MU School of Health Professions. Autism Spectrum Disorders: Case Study. Retrieved February 6, 2016, from http://shp.missouri.edu/vhct/case4108/case_study.htm
Mental Imagery and Its Limitations
Sports coaches, just as the athletes they train are also viewed as performers. While the nature of their performance might differ from those of the athletes, their jobs do require meticulous planning in areas like training, competition as well as the execution of the training procedures. They must be flexible enough to adapt to different situations, as they present themselves, and be good at coping with stress arising from the nature of the competition and media intrusion and also the pressure on them to produce good results (Olosuga, Maynard, Butt & Hays, 2014).
It is apparent therefore that psychological factors have a part to play in getting results. A theoretical framework for athletes to self-regulate their emotional states made suggestions that psychological skills like relaxation, self-talk, imagery and goal setting are needed for the enhancement of psychological abilities like the ability to completely relax (Olosuga…
Beauchemin, J. (2014). College Student-Athlete Wellness: An Integrative Outreach Model. College Student Journal, 268-278.
Burke, A., Shanahan, C., & Herlambang, E. (2014). An Exploratory Study Comparing Goal-Oriented Mental Imagery with Daily To-Do Lists: Supporting College Student Success. CurrPsychol, 33, 20-34.
Klein, J., & Moritz, S. (2014). On the relevance of mental imagery beyond stress-related psychiatric disorders. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 5, 1-3.
Loft, M., & Cameron, L. (2013). Using Mental Imagery to Deliver Self-Regulation Techniques to Improve Sleep Behaviors. The Society of Behavioral Medicine 2013, 46, 260 -- 272.
Jones relates that statement of Corrigan: "Our work suggests that the biggest factor changing stigma is contact between people with mental illness and the rest of the population. The public needs to understand that many people with mental illness are functioning, fully contributing members of society." (Jones, 2006) Jones states that "the social cost of stigma associated with mental illness is high because it translates into huge numbers of people with treatable mental illness not getting help." Jones relates the fact that the National Alliance of Mental Illness (NAMI) is a group of advocates that works toward fighting the "inaccurate, hurtful representations of mental illness" that are found in the media. Jang (2002) states that the National Health Law Program has a priority to access of healthcare. In fact, the Executive Order (EO 13166) was focused toward the implementation of guidelines in overcoming the language barriers. Jang states that LEP…
Anderson, S.K. & Middleton, V.A.
Explorations in privilege, oppression and DiversityBrooks Cole 2005. ISBN0-534-51742-0
Barber, J.G. (1995). Politically progressive casework. Families in Society: The Journal of Contemporary Human Services, 76(1), 30-37.
Children Who Can't Pay Attention/ADHD (2004) Facts for Families. Academy of child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Online available at http://www.aacap.org/page.ww?section=Facts+for+Families&name=Children+Who+Can%27t+Pay+Attention%2FADHD
The severity of mental retardation covers a wide spectrum, as discussed before, and variation in ability of individuals within this spectrum is wide (Tammi, 2006). In order to understand and to assist such persons, it is important to know the category in which they fall and the possible causes of the condition. In most cases, a little psychological instability leads to a mental retardation and therefore psychological interventions can be very effective in solving such cases. The notion of viewing mental retardation as a case of pure medical condition should be changed in order to find means of reducing such situations.
Christopher D. Prater, MD. (2006, June 15). Medical Care of Adults with Mental etardation.
etrieved March 11, 2010, from American Family Physician: http://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0615/p2175.html
Donna K. Daily, MD. (2000, February 15). Identification and Evaluation of Mental etardation.
etrieved March 11, 2010, from American Family Physician: http://www.aafp.org/afp/20000215/1059.html
Gotiesrnati, .L. (s.f.).…
Christopher D. Prater, MD. (2006, June 15). Medical Care of Adults with Mental Retardation.
Retrieved March 11, 2010, from American Family Physician: http://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0615/p2175.html
Donna K. Daily, MD. (2000, February 15). Identification and Evaluation of Mental Retardation.
Retrieved March 11, 2010, from American Family Physician: http://www.aafp.org/afp/20000215/1059.html
Vocational training can help place within the adolescent mind the strategies they will need to adapt to life as an adult.
Further research is needed within the field of adolescents with the condition. According to research, "Unfortunately, most psychiatrists are ill-equipped to handle this situation, having received little or no formal training in this area," (Sebastian 2008). Therefore, more research can only open up new information to psychiatrists and physicians who work with families to make the most comfortable life for the adolescent dealing with mental retardation.
Biasini, Fred J.; Grupe, Lisa; Huffman, Lisa; & Bray, Norman W. (2010). Mental retardation: A symptom and a syndrome. Comprehensive Textbook of Child and Adolescent Disorders. New York: Oxford University Press. etrieved March 10, 2010 from http://www.uab.edu/cogdev/mentreta.htm
Collins, H. (2004). Children who are mentally retarded. American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. etrieved March 10, 2010 from http://www.aacap.org/cs/root/facts_for_families/children_who_are_mentally_retarded
Daigneault, obert. (2007). Mental…
Biasini, Fred J.; Grupe, Lisa; Huffman, Lisa; & Bray, Norman W. (2010). Mental retardation: A symptom and a syndrome. Comprehensive Textbook of Child and Adolescent Disorders. New York: Oxford University Press. Retrieved March 10, 2010 from http://www.uab.edu/cogdev/mentreta.htm
Collins, H. (2004). Children who are mentally retarded. American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Retrieved March 10, 2010 from http://www.aacap.org/cs/root/facts_for_families/children_who_are_mentally_retarded
Daigneault, Robert. (2007). Mental retardation / adolescent issues for mental retardation. Your Total Health. Retrieved March 10, 2010 from http://yourtotalhealth.ivillage.com/mental-retardation.html?pageNum=4#4
Mental Retardation -- Developmental delay. (2010). Mass General Hospital for Children. Retrieved March 10, 2010 from http://www.massgeneral.org/children/adolescenthealth/articles/aa_mental_retardation.aspx
They very seldom become fully integrated into society or become independent. (Mental etardation: Free Health Encyclopedia)
The is little doubt that mental retardation has an effect on society in general and in terms of care and treatment of the affected person. However, it is also true that with the knowledge and expertise that has been accumulated about mental retardation it is also become more feasible to accommodate the mentally retarded person as a productive member of society.
My perception of the mentally retarded in society is that are less fortunate and that the mentally healthy members of society should help and assist these individuals wherever possible. The research for this paper has made me aware that we often categorize the mentally retarded in a general way without realizing that there are different categories and degrees of retardation. Cognizance should be taken of the fact that many people who…
References. Retrieved June 24, 2008, at http://www.cloudnet.com/~edrbsass/mrdefinitions2.htm
Goldstein, G. And Shapiro B. (2007) Mental Retardation. Retrieved June 24, 2008 at http://www.dana.org/news/brainhealth/detail.aspx?id=9836
Lustig D.C. (1996)
Family adaptation to a young adult with mental retardation. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0825 " Journal of Rehabilitation,
Relationships provide the key experience that connects children's personal and social worlds. It is within the dynamic interplay between these two worlds that minds form and personalities grow, behavior evolves and social competence begins." (1999) Howe relates that it is being acknowledged increasingly that "...psychologically, the individual cannot be understood independently of his or her social and cultural context. The infant dos not enter the world as a priori discrete psychological being. Rather, the self and personality form as the developing mind engages with the world in which it finds itself." (Howe, 1999) Therefore, Howe relates that there is: "...no 'hard boundary' between the mental condition of individuals and the social environments in which they find themselves. The interaction between individuals and their experiences creates personalities. This is the domain of the psychosocial." (Howe, 1999) the work of Howe additionally states that attachment behavior "...brings infants into close proximity to…
Ainsworth, M.D.S. (1989). Attachments beyond infancy. American Psychologist, 44, 709-716.
Allen, Jon G. (2001) a Model for Brief Assessment of Attachment and Its Application to Women in Inpatient Treatment for Trauma Related Psychiatric Disorders Journal of Personality Assessment 2001 Vol. 76. Abstract Online available at http://www.leaonline.com/doi/abs/10.1207/S15327752JPA7603_05?cookieSet=1&journalCode=jpa
Armsden, G.C., & Greenberg, M.T. (1987). The inventory of parent and peer attachment: Individual differences and their relationship to psychological well-being in adolescence. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 16, 427-454.
Barrocas, Andrea L. (2006) Adolescent Attachment to Parents and Peers. The Emory Center for Myth and Ritual in American Life. Working Paper No. 50 Online available at http://www.marial.emory.edu/pdfs/barrocas%20thesisfinal.doc
Experts report improved interactions with peers, support for the parents to act as teachers at home, improved motivation for the child, and aiding the family in learning about other support available in the community (mmerman & Herson, 2000).
Medications may play a role if the child has other concerns such as D/HD or seizures (mmerman & Herson, 2000).
Inclusion with Mental Retardation
Educationally, some research suggests that students with mental retardation learn more in general education classes than in special education. Studies on inclusion aren't quite as clear. Students may benefit from inclusion when younger, but when older it may have more negative effects unless the non-handicapped students are supportive of the program (Turnbull et. al.). In addition to behavioral and socialization support, students need functional as well as academic skills. For instance, they should be taught how to use public transportation and information about handling money (Turnbull et. al.).…
Ammerman, Robert T., and Hersen, Michel. Advanced Abnormal Child Psychology. 2000: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Michel Hersen; Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2000.
Swartz, Stanley, L., Ph.D. "Positive Behavior Support: An Inclusion Strategy." Accessed via the Internet 6/10/05. http://www.stanswartz.com/positivebehaviorsupport.htm
Turnbull, Rud; Turnbull, Ann; Shank, Marilyn; and Smith, Shean J. Exceptional Lives.
Disorder of the Hypothalamus
There is a tremendous amount of importance associated with the hypothalamus, which extends throughout various physical, emotional, and mental aspects of life. The hypothalamus is a part of the brain that creates hormones that are critical to a number of processes of the body including temperature, sex drive, mood, and others. It is also directly related to certain glands that secrete hormones. Therefore, it is very important that it functions properly because it plays a role in a number of vital processes that most people take for granted. Those with this condition have a reduced sense of smell (Houneida et al., 2013, p. 144).
Several different disorders exist that pertain to the hypothalamus. One that is fairly rare is termed Kallman syndrome, and is a genetic disorder that is related to bodily processes that typically develop during puberty for those with a normal functioning hypothalamus. The…
Arkoncel, M., Arkoncel, F., Lantion-Ang, F. (2011). A case of Kallman syndrome. BMJ Case Rep. 13(2), 24-37.
Houneida., Z., Slim, I., Zina, N., Mallet, N., Tajouri, H., Kraiem, C. (2013). Kallman syndrome: MRI findings. Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism. 17(2) 142-146.
" (Wagner, 2000, p. 6)
As an almost limitless tool for advertisement, though some self censorship has recently occurred as more and more people reduce ad time by restricting adware and popup ads on their computer systems, the internet can ad to the most vile of physical, social and mental health state, especially in the young and impressionable.
For these reasons and more, it makes sense for everyone -- especially for children and young adults -- to consider how advertising can affect four basic types of health. First, it can affect our physical health. We may learn about a healthy practice or vitamin, but may also be prone to engaging in unhealthy activities, lulled by media depictions of glamorous smokers and drinkers, as well as by direct ads for tobacco and alcohol. Second, advertising can affect our emotional health by delivering media-imposed definitions of beauty, sexuality, maturity, and problem-solving. Advertising…
Fox, R.F. (2001, November). Warning Advertising May Be Hazardous to Your Health: Ads Pose a Threat to Physical, Emotional, Social, and Cultural Well-Being. USA Today (Society for the Advancement of Education), 130, 62-77.
Gattiker, U.E. (2001). The Internet as a Diverse Community: Cultural, Organizational, and Political Issues. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Harris, L.M. (Ed.). (1995). Health and the New Media: Technologies Transforming Personal and Public Health. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Hatfield, T.H., & Erbeck, G.W. (1997). The Internet: Legitimate Educational Tool or Giant Electronic Sandbox?. Journal of Environmental Health, 59(8), 19-25.
However, more empirical studies have been published in recent years which have both reported outcomes but also have acknowledged the complexity of the interaction of the number of variables involved in predicting outcome effects on children whose parents are substance abusers (Dworkin & Hirsch, 2004). This literature is particularly important because of the large number of children affected by substance abuse of various kinds and the social policy directed toward substance abuse offenders including parents.
Although the empirical research base is growing on the relationship of parental disability to child outcome effects (Emerick & Zirpoli, 2000) there continues to be a need for research that methodologically addresses specific critical parental disability factors.
Implementing Culturally Sensitive Crisis
In conclusion, when faced with an individual who is recognizably from a culture different from the crisis worker, some modification in approach will be considered. However, there is sufficient cultural diversity present in our…
Colangelo, N. (2007). Counseling gifted students: Issues and practices. In N. Colangelo and G.A. Davis (Eds.), Handbook of Gifted Education (2nd ed.), (pp. 353-381). Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
Colangelo, N., & Assouline, a. (1993). Families of gifted children. A research agenda. Quest, 4, 1-4.
Dworkin, M., & Hirsch, G. (2004). Responding to managed care: A roadmap for the therapist. Psychotherapy in Private Practice, 13, 1-21.
Emerick, L., & Zirpoli, T. (2000). Different concerns, different needs? Perceptions of gifted children and parents of children with disabilities. Paper presented at the conference of the American Association of Gifted and Talented, Little Rock, AR.
Mental epresentations and the Mind-Brain elationship
MENTAL EPESENTATIONS AND THE MIND-BAIN
The Dualism Argument
Pure Materialist Viewpoint
Visual Stimuli vs. Speech stimuli
Neurons and Synapses
Mental epresentations and the Mind-Brain elationship
In cognitive (neuro) science all through the last few decades, as in philosophy in the last 100 years, the issue of the mind-body (or mind-brain) occurrences is still open to discussion. Illogically, ever since Descartes nobody has suggested a workable alternate view of this problem. esearchers and thinkers have offered some approaches, yet none has gained the assent of the majority of thinkers. During a person's daily toils the separation that goes on between an individual mind and consciousness is hardly ever thought about or talked about. But then again it is the primary cause for the majority of your existence problems. This separation is not even a recognized fact, as consciousness and mind seem to…
Baars, J.B. (2013). An architectural model of consciousand unconscious brain functions: Global workspace theory and IDA. Neural Networks, 20, 955-961.
Bartels, A. (2010). Visual perception: Converging mechanisms of atten-tion, binding, and segmentation. Current Biology, 7(9), 56-78.
Gabbard, G.O. (2013). Mind, Brain, and Personality Disorders. American Journal of Psychiatry, 34-45.
Sevush, S. (2013). Single-neuron theory of consciousness. Journal ofTheoretical Biology, 21(9), 704-725.
Additionally, the questioner should know that some mood disorders can present themselves somatically: someone who is anxious may have a racing pulse, and someone who is depressed may have difficulty sleeping, eating, or engaging in basic self-care.
Aspects of the client's presentation to consider when evaluating his or her perception may include orientation (knowing where he or she is), alertness, coherence and ability to concentrate. ecall can be tested by asking questions about the date, who is president, etcetera; concentration can be tested by using a Digit Span test -- asking the client to count backwards from 100 to 50 by 7s or 3s (Niolin 2000). Noting the presence of delusions or hallucinations, gaining a rough estimate of the client's intellectual ability, thought processes, and judgment (ability to understand why he or she is being assessed), and assessing his or her ability to engage in abstraction (such as understanding…
Niolin. (2000). The mental status examination. Psych Page. Retrieved January 20, 2010 at http://www.psychpage.com/learning/library/assess/mse.htm
Given this priest is able to coax and created situations where boys are with him alone is even worse. In short, the counselor in this situation has no choice but to step in and say/do something.
To make a final decision, it would normally be wise to do some information gathering and to truly find out for sure whether or not this man has offended or not. However, the only real way to do that is to prod the priest even more and/or to ask the children and/or parents what is going on, if anything, and that would probably not be the best idea, at least in the latter case. Any querying of children would have to be done with the full knowledge and consent of the parents, and this is true both ethically and legally, and even if such permission was not garnered it would get back to them…
Brown, Francesca, and Mark R. Kebbell. "Policing Indecent Images of Children. What Are the Critical Issues Surrounding Police Risk Assessment?." Sexual Abuse in
Australia & New Zealand 5.1 (2013): 52-59. SocINDEX with Full Text. Web. 5
DeYoung, Mary. "The World According to NAMBLA: Accounting for Deviance." Journal
The individuals with the condition often face a series of exclusions and rejections (Widiger 2011). There are many scenarios that have been denied basic needs such as housing on the basis of their mental status. People are denied loans, job opportunities and health insurances on the basis of mental health. The stigmatization cases are so prevalent that many people affected or who suspect they have the condition fear to seek professional assistance.
Stigmatization causes the person to have low self-esteem the strong social, religious and cultural beliefs have greatly distorted views of people on mental illness. Media portrays most of the characters with aggressive behavior and other negative traits as suffering from mental illness. This has created the impression that mental sickness is a sign of inferior character.
The basics of mental health include examination of theories of psychology, sociology, health psychology and transitions of life in relation to mental…
Jensen-doss, a., & Hawley, K.M. (2011). Understanding clinicians' diagnostic practices:
Attitudes toward the utility of diagnosis and standardized diagnostic tools. Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research, 38(6), 476-85. doi:
Widiger, T.A. (2011). Integrating normal and abnormal personality structure: A proposal for DSM-V. Journal of Personality Disorders, 25(3), 338-63. doi:
17). Likewise, left untreated, mental health problems such as anxiety disorders can result in increased healthcare utilization over the lifespan, but access to effective and proven mental health treatments remains a problem across the country (Gauthier, 2004) .
The research showed that a wide range of efficacious treatments exist for mental health disorders that can help people regain control over their lives and avoid the long-term adverse consequences of untreated mental disorders. Unfortunately, the research also showed that just a tithe of those with mental health disorders receive treatment for them because a broad array of obstacles remain in place that inhibits or prevents access to timely and effective interventions. These obstacles were shown to include the fact that mental health care is costly, services are often fragmented, and insurance is frequently nonexistent or inadequate for the mental health services that are needed. In addition, other obstacles were shown…
Allen-Kelly, K. & Charikar, K. (2010, Autumn). Social workers and occupational therapists shut out of Medicare. Impact, 17-19.
Brindis, C.D., Morreale, M.C. & English, a. (2003). The unique health care needs of adolescents. The Future of Children, 13(1), 116-117
Conyne, R.K. (2004). Preventive counseling: Helping people to become empowered in systems and settings. New York: Brunner-Routledge.
Gauthier, J. (2004). The costs of anxiety disorders and their treatment: a commentary. Canadian Psychology, 45(3), 219-221.
Consistent with this, other findings propose that women are more likely than men to take part in violence in the home whereas men are more likely than women to take part in violence in public places.
Even though there is some evidence that mental illness is associated with violence, it appears that the bigger contributing factor is that of outside influences. Substance abuse appears to be the greatest contributing factor, but it can be something as insignificant as one's living arrangements or even just their gender. Overall people with mental health problems do not appear to be at an increased risk of violence.
Appelbaum, P.S., Robbins, P.C., Monahan, J. (2000). Violence and delusions: data from the MacArthur Violence Risk Assessment Study. American Journal of Psychiatry, 157,
Cottle, C. (2004). The role of social context in the prediction and management of violence among persons with mental illness. Dissertation…
Mental Issue 2226
esearches indicate that poverty and mental illness are correlated with each other in a broader spectrum. This research paper is commissioned on the basis of two exhaustively researched hypotheses: H1 Poverty can cause mental illness and H2 Mental illness is subjected to poverty. Throughout this research paper, these two hypotheses have been investigated from scholarly academic resources. At the end of the proposed research it has been concluded that those, who are financially deprived, as exposed to severe mental illness due to their inability of fulfilling their basic needs, including house, education, food and employment. Likewise, evidences have also been explored on the fact that metal illness can cause extreme levels of poverty to the suffering beings. This signifies that both the research hypotheses are accepted by the research in the projected domain.
For affirming the undertaken pinching social reality, a statement…
Alegria, M., Canino, G., Rios, R., Vera, M., Calderon, J., Rusch, D. & Ortega, A. (2002).
Inequalities in Use of Specialty Mental Health Services among Latinos, African-Americans, and Non-Latino Whites. Psychiatric Services 53(12): 1547-1555.
Battle, K., Mendelson, M. & Torjman, S. (2009). Towards a new architecture for Canada's adult benefits. Caledon Institute of Social Policy, June.
Burstein, M. (2005). Combating the social exclusion of at-risk groups. Policy Research
Forensic Mental Health Legislation and Policies
The current position on forensic mental health issues when it comes to legislation and policies is a strong one, but there are some difficulties that do not translate well into the probation and parole policies that are currently offered. In other words, there are issues that are not being addressed, and that are allowing individuals with mental health problems who on are probation and parole to slip through the cracks and struggle with their issues on their own (Wang, et al., 2005). Not only are they not getting the help they need in order to live productive lives, they are also more likely to reoffend, violate their probation or parole, become homeless, drink to excess, do drugs, and get involved in other unsavory behavior (Patel & Prince, 2002). The high proportion of indigenous offenders is one of the biggest issues that indicates mental health…
Australian Government (2012). Mental health services in Australia. Retrieved from https://mhsa.aihw.gov.au/home/
Demyttenaere, K., Bruffaerts, R., Posada-Villa, J., Gasquet, I., Kovess, V., Lepine, JP., Angermeyer, MC., Bernert, S., et al. (2004). WHO World Mental Health Survey Consortium. Prevalence, severity, and unmet need for treatment of mental disorders in the World Health Organization World Mental Health Survey. Journal of the American Medical Association, 291(21): 2581 -- 2590.
Keyes, C. (2002). The mental health continuum: From languishing to flourishing in life. Journal of Health and Social Behaviour, 43(2): 207 -- 222.
Munce, S.E., Stansfeld, S.A., Blackmore, E.R., & Stewart, D.E. (2007). The role of depression and chronic pain conditions in absenteeism: Results from a national epidemiologic survey. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 49(11): 1206 -- 1211.
This is discussed at length by Fusick and ordeau (2004) "...school-based counselors need to be aware of the disturbing inequities that exist in predominantly Afro-American urban school districts, where nearly 40% of Afro-American students attend school in the United States" (Fusick and ordeau, 2004) This again places emphasis on the need for mental health programs in these areas of concern. This is also related to findings from a study by McDavis et al. (1995) Counseling African-Americans, which refers to research that stresses the "...widening achievement gap between Afro-American and Euro-American students." (McDavis, et al. 1995)
An important study Laura a. Nabors, Evaluation of Outcomes for Adolescents Receiving School-ased Mental Health Services (2002) refers to the particular issue and problems experience at inner-city schools. The author states that, "School mental health (SMH) programs are an important setting for providing mental health services to adolescents, especially urban youth who typically face in-…
Smith, P.B., Buzi, R.S., & Weinman, M.L. (2001). Mental Health Problems and Symptoms among Male Adolescents Attending a Teen Health Clinic. Adolescence, 36(142), 323. Retrieved December 9, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001042308 www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001243622
Stern, S.B., Smith, C.A., & Jang, S.J. (1999). Urban Families and Adolescent Mental Health. Social Work Research, 23(1), 15. Retrieved December 9, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001243622 www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=77001228
Sternberg, R.J., & Dennis, M.J. (1997). Elaborating Cognitive Psychology through Linkages to Psychology as a Helping Profession. Teaching of Psychology, 24(3), 246-249. Retrieved December 9, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=77001228 www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000581383
Stock, M.R., Morse, E.V., Simon, P.M., Zeanah, P.D., Pratt, J.M., & Sterne, S. (1997). Barriers to School-Based Health Care Programs. Health and Social Work, 22(4), 274+. Retrieved December 9, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000581383
Apparent health can be generally positive or negative; in spite of how it links with the real health; it may be significant to comprehend its function in certain kinds of psychopathology. Negatively apparent health has been anticipated to symbolize a cognitive risk factor for panic disorder (PD), detached from elevated anxiety feeling. As a result, PD may be more likely to take place on a background of negative perceptions of one's health. A negatively perceived health may also have predictive implications for PD patients, bearing in mind that negatively perceived health has been found to be a considerable predictor of mortality in general and that individuals with panic-like anxiety indications, panic attacks, and PD have elevated mortality rates, mostly due to cardiovascular and cerebrovascular illnesses (Starcevick, Berle, Fenech, Milicevic, Lamplugh and Hannan, 2009).
Studies have suggested that panic attacks (PA) are widespread and connected with an augmented occurrence of…
Carrera, M.; Herran, a.; Ramirez, M.L.; Ayestaran, a.; Sierra-Biddle, D.; Hoyuela, F.;
Rodriguez-Cabo, B.; Vazquez-Barquero, J.L..(2006). Personality traits in early phases of panic disorder: implications on the presence of agoraphobia, clinical severity and short-
term outcome. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 114(6), p.417-425.
Craske, Michelle G., Kircanski, Katharina, Phil., C., Epstein, Alyssa, Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich,
Swanson, Ph.D., University of California, Irvine, CA 92715
Age: ____ Grade:
Ethnicity (circle one which best applies): African-American Asian Caucasian Hispanic
Completed by:____ Type of Class:
For each item, check the column which best describes this child:
Not at Just a Quite
1. Often fails to give close attention to details or makes careless mistakes in schoolwork or tasks
2. Often has difficulty sustaining attention in tasks or play activities
3. Often does not seem to listen when spoken to directly
4. Often does not follow through on instructions and fails to finish schoolwork, chores, or duties
5. Often has difficulty organizing tasks and activities
6. Often avoids, dislikes, or reluctantly engages in tasks requiring sustained mental effort
7. Often loses things necessary for activities (e.g., toys, school assignments, pencils, or books)
8. Often is distracted by extraneous stimuli
9. Often is forgetful in…
The Columbia World of Quotations. New York: Columbia University Press, 1996. Retrieved April 16, 2008, at http://www.bartleby.com/66/3/33503.html
Cloward, Janessa. "ADHD drugs pose heart risks, federal panel says," University Wire, February 15, 2006. Retrieved April 17, 2008, at http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1P1118518952.html
DeMarle, Daniel J.;Denk, Larry;Ernsthausen, Catherine S.. "Working with the family of a child with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.(Family Matters)," Pediatric Nursing, July 1, 2003. Retrieved April 16, 2008, at http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1107215868.html
Edwards, Jason H.. "Evidenced-based treatment for child ADHD: "real-world" practice implications." Journal of Mental Health Counseling, April 1, 2002. Retrieved April 17, 2008, at http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-87015306.html
The first group will receive a placebo. The second group will receive a spiritual chakra treatment designed to correct electrochemical imbalances within the body. The third group will receive medication to treat psychosis. The specific medication does not matter and therefore will not be specified. The dose will be the same for each patient and therefore will be monitored to determine whether dosage is sufficient.
Therefore, the measurements will track each participant and determine which treatment is most effective given the parameters of the study. The placebo group is expected to see no difference, other than perhaps unrelated psychological improvement which will be tracked and recorded as standard error or standard margin of the error estimate. The second group will undergo a physical treatment of chakra adjustment to maximize the flow of energy throughout the body and remedy the physiological response. The treatment will be administered once per day over…
Hall, J., Whalley, H.C., Marwick, K., McKirdy, J., Sussmann, J., Romaniuk, L., (2010). Hippocampal function in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Psychological Medicine, 40(5), 761-761-70. doi:10.1017/S0033291709991000
Kinsella, Caroline and Kinsella, Connor Introducing Mental Health: A Practical Guide (London: Jessica Kingsley, (2006)
Kutscher M., Attwood M.L., Wolff R.R. Kids in the Syndrome Mix of ADHD, LD, Asperger's, Tourette's, Bipolar, and More!: The one stop guide for parents, teachers, and other professionals. Philadelphia Kingsley Publishing (2005)
Martinez-Aran, A., Vieta, E., Colom, F., Torrent, C., Reinares, M., Goikolea, J.M., . . . . (2005). Do cognitive complaints in euthymic bipolar patients reflect objective cognitive impairment? Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 74(5), 295-295-302. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/235461846?accountid=13044
Bipolar I disorder is an axis 1 clinical disorder in the DSM-IV and is a serious mental illness that can lead to suicidal ideation or action. The history of bipolar disorder research is a long one, and understanding of the disease has deepened considerably over the last several generations. Diagnosis of bipolar disorder 1 is complicated by its resemblance to other mood disorders, mainly major depression but also psychotic disorders like schizophrenia. esearch is revealing new treatment interventions that are targeted to the biological needs of bipolar patients, as antidepressants are often or usually contraindicated. A Christian worldview suggests that individualized treatment plans take into account the family history and patient's lifestyle when recommending a treatment plan.
Bipolar I disorder is a serious mental illness that affects between 1 and 2.5% of the general population in the United States (Ghaznavi & Deckersbach, 2012). The more conservative estimate, 1%, is…
"A Brief History of Bipolar Disorder," (2012). Today's Caregiver. Retrieved online: http://www.caregiver.com/channels/bipolar/articles/brief_history.htm
Angst, J. & Marneros, A. (2001). Bipolarity from ancient to modern times: Conception, birth, and rebirth. Journal of Affective Disorders 67(1-3): 3-19.
Angst, J. & Sellaro, R. (2000). Historical perspectives and natural history of bipolar disorder. Biological Psychiatry 48(6): 445-457.
Baethge, C. Salvatore, P. & Baldessarini, R.J. (2003). Cyclothymia, a circular mood disorder. Historical Psychiatry 2003/14: 377-399
Eating disorders are the number one cause of mortality among mental disorders. A significant portion of women in America suffer from eating disorders. This paper describes these disorders and identifies common, practical and theoretical approaches to eating disorders that are used by counselors, therapists and care givers to help women overcome their struggles. It discusses some of the causes of these disorders. Finally, it identifies the how the Christian perspective and faith-based interventions can be used to help women obtain a better, healthier, more positive, and more realistic image of womanhood to help them deal with the social and peer pressures, the unhealthy emotions, and the mental afflictions that can cause them to develop eating disorders. This paper concludes with the affirmation that the Christian perspective on healing can be an effective approach to helping women who suffer from eating disorders.
a. Key facts and statistics…
, 2009). To the extent that these young people are perceived in terms of stereotypical views by clinicians will likely be the extent to which the therapeutic relationship will be adversely affected. In this regard, Villaneuva and her associates conclude that, "Myths and stereotypes about mental illness that can create personal biases and lead to discrimination. Such stereotypical views together with long-standing beliefs about mental illness can affect the nurse-patient relationship and ultimately influence the care that patients receive" (p. 221).
In response to this potential for stereotypical perceptions influencing clinicians' treatment of adolescents with mental disorders, a growing number of programs across the country have been launched in recent years to educate the public and healthcare professionals concerning stereotypes about mental illness in general and among young people in particular. Popular stereotypes about mental illness, though, can be powerful forces that are not easily changed. For example, a study…
Hinkelman, L. & Granello, DH (2003). Biological sex, adherence to traditional gender roles, and attitudes toward persons with mental illness: An exploratory investigation. Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 25(4), 259-261.
Overton, S.L. & Medina, S.L. (2008). The stigma of mental illness. Journal of Counseling and Development, 86(2), 143-144.
Villanueva, C.S., Scott, S.H., Guzzetta, C.E. & Foster, B. (2009). Development and psychometric testing of the attitudes toward mental illness in Pediatric Patients Scale.
Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Nursing, 22(4), 220-221.
Moreover, in Perry v. Louisiana, 498 U.S. 38 (1990), the Court used that decision to bolster Louisiana's attempts to forcibly medicate a prisoner in order to make him death-eligible. If one agrees that the death penalty is a just penalty for one who has committed a capital crime, and that the reason that mentally ill defendants should not be executed is because they lack competence, then it does not seem unethical to allow them to be forcibly medicated in order to be competent. After all, in that scenario, avoiding medication could be likened to any other attempt to avoid punishment. Moreover, an organic physical disorder that arose after conviction, but that would have prevented a defendant from committing a crime, would not be sufficient reason not to execute a person on death row.
However, forced medication, especially for court appearances, may violate a defendant's Fifth Amendment right to present a…
Bonnie, R. (2007). Panetti v. Quarterman: mental illness, the death penalty, and human dignity. Ohio State Journal of Criminal Law, 5, 257-283.
Fentiman, L. (1986). Whose right is it anyway? Rethinking competency to stand trial in light of the synthetically sane insanity defense. University of Miami Law Review, 40, 1109-1127.
Ford v. Wainwright, 477 U.S. 399 (1986).
Panetti v. Quarterman, 127 S. Ct. 2842 (2007).
..in their view, rather than promoting wholeness and recovery, the experience recreated the secrecy of abuse and fed the stigma associated with each of the three issues."
In the hopes of a more well-organized approach to providing these key services to women, the WELL project instituted a mechanism for promoting strategy and collaboration changes at the state, regional, and local levels. The WELL project also recommended an open dialogue between agencies as to better systems to put in place, and suggested giving individuals within each area of service "freedom to make change at any given moment" when a better approach can be taken by a trained professional healthcare provider.
Predominantly Female Caseloads: Identifying Organizational Correlates in Private Substance Abuse Treatment Centers, a piece in the Journal of Behavioral Health Services & esearch (Tinney, et al., 2004), speaks to the issue of the need for healthcare providers to be meeting "distinctive…
Conrad, Patricia J., Pihl, Robert O., Stewart, Sherry H., & Dongier, Maurice. (2000). Validation
Of a System of Classifying Female Substance Abusers on the Basis of Personality and Motivational Risk Factors for Substance Abuse. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 14(3),
Markoff, Laurie S., Finkelstein, Norma, Kammerer, Nina, Kreiner, Peter, & Prost, Carol a.
2005). Relational Systems Change: Implementing a Model of Change in Integrating
Attention Deficit HyperactivITY Disorder DIAGNOSIS IN CHILDEN
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is a diverse behavioral set of symptoms described by the hub indication of impulsivity, hyperactivity and inattention. Even as, these symptoms have a tendency to gather together, some individuals are for the most part hyperactive and impetuous, even as others are predominantly inattentive. This disease affects both toddlers and adults of all ages and should be taken seriously. When this disease is being diagnosed in children, doctors often make quick decisions to make a diagnosis and handing out prescriptions. This should not be the case as doctors are supposed to take enough time to well analyze the condition of the children before offering prescriptions.
About Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
There are two main diagnostic decisive factors that are currently in use. These are the International Classification of Mental and Behavioral Disorders uses the initials (ICD-10) and the…
Honos-Webb, L. (2010). The gift of ADHD: How to transform your child's problems into strengths. Oakland, CA: New Harbinger Publications.
Kushner, T.K. (2010). Surviving health care: A manual for patients and their families.
Cambridge England: Cambridge University Press.
Nass, R.D. & Leventhal, F.,. (2011). 100 questions & answers about your child's ADHD: From
history of mental health in the United States has not always been a pleasant one. Prior to the mid-20th century those unfortunate numbers of Americans who were considered mentally ill were either ignored or placed in asylums (Philo, 1997). The asylum approach was considered to be a logical one. It protected the community for potentially dangerous or unwanted individuals; it provided families relief from the burden of having to care for a mentally ill family member; and, at least theoretically, they offered humane custodial care. The asylum system operated without question for many years in the United States. Society, as a whole, paid little attention to the concerns of the mentally ill and there was a general attitude that the mentally ill were largely undesirable.
Subsequent to the Second World War societal attitudes began to transform as the warehousing of the mentally ill in asylum was beginning to be considered…
Iglehart, J.K. (1996). Managed Care and Mental Health. New England Journal of Medicine, 131-136.
Institute of Medicine. (2005, November 1). Improviing the Quality of Health Care for Mental and Substance -Use Conditions: Quality Chasm Series. Retrieved October 30, 2011, from Institute of Medicine of the National Academies: http://www.iom.edu/Reports/2005/Improving-the-Quality-of-Health-Care-for-Mental-and-Substance-Use-Conditions-Quality-Chasm-Series.aspx
National Mental Health Act. Public Law 79-487, 79th Congress (1946).
New Freedom Commission on Mental Health. (2003). Achieving the Promise: Transforming Mental Health Care in America. Washington, D.C.: Government Publishing Office.
Joan of Arc
Thanks to the many media representations of her, Joan of Arc has become somewhat of a household name. Also known as Jeanne or Jehanne D'Arc, this extraordinary young woman fearlessly led the French Army to victory at a time when it became obvious to all but her that they would lose. In addition to devising military strategies that would ultimately lead them to victory, Joan of Arc also boosted the morale of her soldiers to such an extent that they rapidly came from a deep depression about their possibilities as an army towards a unified front that few could defeat. In the end, however, and perhaps this is the most well-known part of her story, Joan of Arc came to her tragic end by being burned at the stake as a heretic at best or a witch at worst. Today, this story has culminated in many speculations.…
Graham, G. (2010). The disordered mind: An introduction to philosophy of mind and mental illness. New York: Routledge.
Keko, D. (2011, May 29). Joan of Arc: The Visions. Examiner.com. Retrieved from: http://www.examiner.com/article/joan-of-arc-the-visions
National Post (2014). Joan of Arc's Secret. Retrieved from: http://www.nationalpost.com/news/story.html?id=18ce2b05-67d7-402a-833e-f0618da5c4e6
, 2001). (Corrigan, Watson, Byrne & Davis, 2005, p. 363)
Individuals who then enter the system and attempt treatment are taking a leap of faith that doing so will improve rather than continue to degrade their life and their options in it. Though HIPPA (Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act) attempts to resolve issues of confidentiality, creating strict rules for who when and how communications about one's health can be communicated between individuals attempts to aide all health care clients they are specifically helpful with regard to mental health clients. Possible barriers they create with regard to the sharing of information between clinicians can also be specifically troubling in the mental health arena as the individual must be shown to be giving consent in some way to these communications and they also bar clinicians from sharing information with the individual's support network, such as family, unless permission has been granted…
Suicide. (2007). In the Columbia Encyclopedia (6th ed.). New York: Columbia University Press.
Corrigan, P.W., Watson, a.C., Byrne, P., & Davis, K.E. (2005). Mental Illness Stigma: Problem of Public Health or Social Justice?. Social Work, 50(4), 363.
Heeringen, K. (Ed.). (2001). Understanding Suicidal Behaviour: The Suicidal Process Approach to Research, Treatment, and Prevention. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Seaburn, D.B., Lorenz, a.D., Gunn, W.B., Gawinski, B.A., & Mauksch, L.B. (1996). Models of Collaboration: A Guide for Mental Health Professionals Working with Health Care Practitioners. New York: Basic Books.
Bipolar disorder, originally called manic depressive disorder, is a severe mood disorder that vacillates between extreme "ups" (mania, hypomania) and "downs" (depression). The effects of having bipolar disorder can be observed across the patients social and occupational functioning. Often the patient is left isolated from work, friends, and family. Medications have become the first-line treatments for bipolar disorder; however, psychotherapy can offer additional benefits in the ongoing treatment of patients with bipolar disorder. This paper discusses the symptoms and treatment of bipolar disorder focusing on cognitive behavioral therapy and emotion focused therapy.
Description and differentiation
According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders -- Fourth Edition -- Text evision (DSM-IV-T) one's mood is an all-encompassing and sustained feeling tone experienced internally by the person and influences the person's behavior and perception of the world. Affect is the external or outward expression of this inner…
Alloy, L.B., Abramson, L.Y., Walshaw, P.D., Keyser, J., & Gerstein, R.K. (2006). A cognitive vulnerability-stress perspective on bipolar spectrum disorders in a normative adolescence brain, cognitive, and emotional development context. Developmental Psychopathology, 18(4), 1057-1103.
American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV-Text Revision. Washington, DC: Author.
Beck, J.S. (1995). Cognitive therapy: Basics and beyond. New York: Guilford Press.
Butler, A.C., Chapman, J.E., Forman, E.M., & Beck, A.T. (2006). The empirical status of cognitive-behavioral therapy: A review of meta-analyses. Clinical Psychology Review, 26, 17-31
Compulsive hoarding is a disorder that is characterized by an inability discarding items that to most people appear to have little or no value. This inability to throw things away results in an accumulation of clutter that often leads to an inability to use living areas and workspaces for their intended functions. Moreover, the clutter can lead to potential serious health conditions and to safety risks of the hoarder or others.
In order for a person to meet criteria to qualify for a diagnosis of compulsive hoarding the person must experience significant personal distress and/or impairment in their functioning due to their hoarding behaviors. More often it is the impairment in functioning that qualifies someone for a diagnosis as the hoarding behavior serves to reduce anxiety in the person associated with discarding items. Several types of functional impairment seen in hoarders include: health or fire hazards due to clutter or…
American Psychiatric Association (2000). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental
Disorders, IV- Text Revision. Washington, DC: Author.
Sadock, B.J., and Sadock, V.A., (2007). Kaplan and Sadock's Synopsis of Psychiatry:
Behavioral Sciences/Clinical Psychiatry (10th edition). Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Bipolar psychiatric disorder (BD) -- which is characterized by "…cycles of depression and mania" -- is a "euphoric, high-energy state" that can produce remarkable bursts of creativity or, on the other hand, can produce erratic behavioral events that are risky and provocative (Gardner, 2011). About 2.4% of the world's population has been diagnosed with bipolar disorder (at one time or another in their lifetime) but the rate in the United States (4.4% of the population) is the highest of any nation (Gardner, p. 1). The lowest rate on record is in India, 0.1%. This paper reviews various aspects and ramifications of the effects of bipolar disorder through nine peer-reviewed research articles.
Bipolar disorder and cigarette smoking
In the journal Bipolar Disorders the authors point out that adults suffering from bipolar disorder are "…two to three times more likely" have begun a serious smoking habit, which is a "devastating addiction" and…
Calkin, Cynthia, and Alda, Martin. (2012). Beyond the Guidelines for Bipolar Disorder: Practical
Issues in Long-Term Treatment with Lithium. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 57(7), 437-
Gardner, Amanda. (2011). U.S. has highest bipolar rate in 11-nation study. CNN Health.
Retrieved March 27, 2013, from http://www.cnn.com .