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National Association of Social Workers (NASW, 2017), the majority -- 60% -- of mental health services in the United States is provided by social workers. Psychologists provide only 23% of the country's mental health services (NASW, 2017). Social workers have the greatest responsibilities for patient advocacy in mental health and have the ability to influence mental health public policy. The best way to advocate on behalf of clients in the social work sector is to improve personal and professional competencies by staying aware of the emerging issues in both social work and mental health care. Current emerging issues including working with an increasingly diverse client base, not just in terms of ethnicity but also in terms of needs diversity, gender, gender identity, and sexual orientation diversity, diversity of socio-economic status, and other issues that require a personalized plan of care (Marsella, 2011). Another emerging issue globally is recognition of the…
Co-Occurring Disorder and the Substance Disorder
The concept of disorder in people has been a hard to grasp condition and psychiatrists often face various challenges in handling these patients since there is no single blueprint on how to handle the patients who walk into their offices. The co-occurring disorders effectively present an even more complex situation as the psychiatrist has to deal with the preceding disorder and the occurring disorder in order for the patient to be claimed to have fully recovered. With the high rates of recidivism this is a task that is very complicated and rarely achieved.
The statistics in the presented in the chapter speck volumes of the way the co-occurring disorder is being handled in the U.S. and even more so the related drug abuse statistics that are captured in various researches. One statistical piece that never presented a surprise in the read is the high…
Hasin D.S., et.al, (2013). DSM-5 Criteria for Substance Use Disorders: Recommendations and Rationale. http://ajp.psychiatryonline.org/doi/pdf/10.1176/appi.ajp.2013.12060782
Nuget C.D., (2012). Addictions and Mental Health Recovery Dialogue: Similarities and Differences in Our Communities. http://www.samhsa.gov/sites/default/files/similarities-differences-dialogue.pdf
New findings show that the spouses of veterans also experience mental health disorders, and the prevalence increases with the length of deployment (Mansfield, Kaufman, Marshall, Gaynes, Morrissey & Engel, 2010). When spouses are considered to be clients of health services, the need for improved and more robust resources becomes apparent. Moreover, spouses with mental health disorders present unique issues and questions for treatment. eturning soldiers may find that they have supportive partners who can lead to a mutually beneficial treatment relationship, via couples or family therapy. On the other hand, the mental health problems of the spouse can exacerbate those of the soldier, and vice-versa. Thus, a family systems approach can be extremely helpful when addressing the multifaceted mental health concerns among veterans.
Veteran health services are at a critical juncture. The need for targeted mental health interventions, ranging from screenings and assessments to therapies and treatments, has been proven…
Britt, T.W., Greene-Shortridge, T.M. & Castro, C.A. (2007). The Stigma of Mental Health Problems in the Military. Military Medicine 172(2), February 2007, pp. 157-161(5)
Bliese, P.D., Wright, K.M., Adler, a.B., Thomas, J.L. & Hoge, C.W. (2007). Timing of postcombat mental health assessments. Psychological Services 4(3), Aug 2007, 141-148.
Hoge, C.W., Auchterlonie, J.L. & Milliken, C.S. (2006). Mental Health Problems, Use of Mental Health Services, and Attrition From Military Service After Returning From Deployment to Iraq or Afghanistan. JAMA. 2006;295(9):1023-1032. doi:10.1001/jama.295.9.1023.
Hoge, C.W., Castro, C.A., Messer, S.C., McGurk, D., Cotting, D.I. & Koffman, R.L. (2004). Combat Duty in Iraq and Afghanistan, Mental Health Problems, and Barriers to Care. N Engl J. Med 2004; 351:13-22July 1, 2004 DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa040603
However, more empirical studies have been published in recent years which have both reported outcomes but also have acknowledged the complexity of the interaction of the number of variables involved in predicting outcome effects on children whose parents are substance abusers (Dworkin & Hirsch, 2004). This literature is particularly important because of the large number of children affected by substance abuse of various kinds and the social policy directed toward substance abuse offenders including parents.
Although the empirical research base is growing on the relationship of parental disability to child outcome effects (Emerick & Zirpoli, 2000) there continues to be a need for research that methodologically addresses specific critical parental disability factors.
Implementing Culturally Sensitive Crisis
In conclusion, when faced with an individual who is recognizably from a culture different from the crisis worker, some modification in approach will be considered. However, there is sufficient cultural diversity present in our…
Colangelo, N. (2007). Counseling gifted students: Issues and practices. In N. Colangelo and G.A. Davis (Eds.), Handbook of Gifted Education (2nd ed.), (pp. 353-381). Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
Colangelo, N., & Assouline, a. (1993). Families of gifted children. A research agenda. Quest, 4, 1-4.
Dworkin, M., & Hirsch, G. (2004). Responding to managed care: A roadmap for the therapist. Psychotherapy in Private Practice, 13, 1-21.
Emerick, L., & Zirpoli, T. (2000). Different concerns, different needs? Perceptions of gifted children and parents of children with disabilities. Paper presented at the conference of the American Association of Gifted and Talented, Little Rock, AR.
Mental Health Counseling
Discuss the role in relationship to the prescription and monitoring of pharmacological treatments for mental health issues.
Unique advances have been achieved in the treatment offered to clients suffering from mental illness. Mental health care providers must understand the original causes of mental health disorders in order to provide treatment to clients with these disorders. Therefore, mental healthcare providers are able to treat disorders associated with mental health. This is being done with much success as physical disorders (Madden, 2008).
The profession of mental health provision has categorized strategies of treating mental health problems as either psychotherapeutic or somatic. Somatic methods of treating mental disorders include therapies such as electroconvulsive therapy, which have the potential of stimulating the brain. Psychotherapeutic method includes behavioral therapy strategies, hypnotherapy, and psychotherapy. esearchers have established that most mental health disorders require treatment strategies that involve both psychotherapy and drugs. This is…
Madden, R.G. (2008). Legal issues in social work, counseling, and mental health: Guidelines for clinical practice in psychotherapy. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications
Palmo, A.J., Weikel, W.J., & Borsos, D.P. (2011). Foundations of mental health counseling.
Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas.
World Health Organization (2009). Mental health aspects of women's reproductive health: A
ecovery can be a difficult journey for many. The reality of having to change old habits for new ones can take a lifetime. The recovery approach/model realizes the struggle of change and transformation and makes it so that way emphasis is not placed on the destination, but rather the journey. Although other approaches like the disease/medical model aim to treat one aspect of recovery from addiction, the recovery model encompasses all aspects making it one of the most advantageous models to adopt to fight addiction.
The recovery approach/model to addiction and/or mental disorder places a strong emphasis on a support for an individual's potential for recovery. ecovery means a person undergoing a personal journey instead of determining and setting an outcome. This personal journey involves the development of hope, a sense of self, a secure base, social inclusion, meaning, empowerment, and coping skills that will take that person past the…
Barker, P. & Buchanan-Barker, P. (2012). Tidal Model of Mental Health Nursing. Currentnursing.com. Retrieved 24 July 2016, from http://currentnursing.com/nursing_theory/Tidal_Model.html
Best, D. & Lubman, D. (2012). The recovery paradigm - a model of hope and change for alcohol and drug addiction. Aust Fam Physician., 41(8), 593.
Hall, W., Carter, A., & Forlini, C. (2015). The brain disease model of addiction: is it supported by the evidence and has it delivered on its promises?. The Lancet Psychiatry, 2(1), 105-110. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s2215-0366 (14)00126-6
Hammer, R., Dingel, M., Ostergren, J., Partridge, B., McCormick, J., & Koenig, B. (2013). Addiction: Current Criticism of the Brain Disease Paradigm. AJOB Neuroscience, 4(3), 27-32. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21507740.2013.796328
Mental Health, Prisons and Hospitals
The two videos -- the news piece on Connecticut's "purple pods" used in Hartford hospital and the Frontline special on prisons and mental health -- both indicate a problem in how society copes with and treats individuals with mental health. They also portray the two extremes of society's response to mental health issues. The Hartford hospital is on the one extreme -- in which the patient's comfort and security are top priorities (to the extent that mental health patients are given their own specially constructed rooms where safety mechanisms and soothing features have been built into the room). The prison system in Ohio described in Frontline is on the other extreme -- where prisons essentially act as mental health hospitals because the mental health facilities in Columbus are no longer able to tend to the needs of mental health patients: the patients end up being…
Gonzalez, M., Connell, N. (2014). Mental health of prisoners: identifying barriers to mental health treatment and medication continuity. American Journal of Public Health, 104(12): 2328-2333.
Harner, H., Riley, S. (2013). The impact of incarceration on women's mental health.
Qualitative Health Research, 23(1); 26-42.
Mental health services for adults and children in Florida are commonly provided by community health facilities and agencies. The use of community health agencies and facilities is providing these services are fueled by the need for an intensive care level to address the increase and impact of mental disorders. Florida State has embraced a framework of directive principles of care as the foundation for providing mental health services to adults and children. However, this framework has been insufficient to effectively deal with mental disorders for children in Jacksonville, Florida. Based on recent statistics, over 20% of children and young people experience the signs and symptoms of these illnesses during the course of a year (Goldhagen, 2006). A comprehensive, integrated community mental health service program is a suitable community-based approach this problem in Jacksonville, Florida.
Description of the Population
Mental disorders have developed to become a major health problem…
Buchanan, D. (2007). Integrating Behavioral Health into Primary Care. Retrieved from University of Nebraska -- Medical Center website: http://webmedia.unmc.edu/Community/CityMatch/EMCH/062807/DCBHS%202007.ppt
Cohen et. al. (2011). Three Models of Community Mental Health Services in Low-income
Countries. International Journal of Mental Health Systems, 5(3), 1-10. Retrieved from http://www.ijmhs.com/content/pdf/1752-4458-5-3.pdf
Flannery, F., Adams, D. & O'Connor, N. (2011, February). A Community Mental Health Service
Given this priest is able to coax and created situations where boys are with him alone is even worse. In short, the counselor in this situation has no choice but to step in and say/do something.
To make a final decision, it would normally be wise to do some information gathering and to truly find out for sure whether or not this man has offended or not. However, the only real way to do that is to prod the priest even more and/or to ask the children and/or parents what is going on, if anything, and that would probably not be the best idea, at least in the latter case. Any querying of children would have to be done with the full knowledge and consent of the parents, and this is true both ethically and legally, and even if such permission was not garnered it would get back to them…
Brown, Francesca, and Mark R. Kebbell. "Policing Indecent Images of Children. What Are the Critical Issues Surrounding Police Risk Assessment?." Sexual Abuse in
Australia & New Zealand 5.1 (2013): 52-59. SocINDEX with Full Text. Web. 5
DeYoung, Mary. "The World According to NAMBLA: Accounting for Deviance." Journal
Hughes proceeded to institute a system of "Confusing Military Structures," the www.CDNMilitary.casitecontinues. Battlefront unites were "constantly formed, disbanded, reformed and disbanded again"; and as though that wasn't enough, the Ross Rifle issue was another problem that Hughes' legacy is left with, according to the site. One army driver is quoted as saying, "To hell with the [Ross Rifle]. I'll take a club." In fact, Ross did not fully understand why soldiers objected to the use of the Ross Rifle, the military eb site claims, because even though Hughes "dressed up like a military officer while being Minister of the Militia," he was "nothing more than a civilian...and never did have to use the rifle in combat" (www.CDNMilitary.ca).
And the Ross Rifle wasn't the only snag in Hughes' pursuit of innovative wartime materials and technologies, the CNDMilitary site claims. Indeed, the "MacAdam shield-shovel" - termed a "Canadian-designed miracle" by Hughes, who…
CDNMilitary.CA. 2002. "The Canadian World War One Mobilization: A Complicated
Matter." Retrieved March 15, 2009, at http://www.cdnmilitary.ca/index.php?p=20.
Cook, Tim. 2004. "The Madman and the Butcher: Sir Sam Hughes, Sir Arthur Currie,
And Their War of Reputations." The Canadian Historical Review 85 no. 4, 695-719.
Standards of Care/Mental Health/Cultural Competence
EMEGING STANDADS OF CAE/MENTAL HEALTH/CULTUAL
Sometime in 1999, the Surgeon General released Mental Health: A eport of the Surgeon General. Inside this report, it acknowledged that not every Americans, particularly minorities, are getting the equal mental health treatment, a discovery that provoked the Surgeon General to give out a supplemental report on differences in mental health care for individuals of color (Donini-Lenhoff, 2006). The addition, which was available in 2001, sends out one obvious message: culture does actually count. Cultural competency is considered to be one the vital ingredients in closing the differences hole in health care. It is looked as the way patients and doctors are able to come together and then talk about health issues without cultural differences stopping the conversation, nonetheless improving it. Fairly simply, health care services that are deferential of and receptive to the health beliefs, practices and cultural and…
Choi, H.M. (2006). ETHNIC DIFFERENCES IN ADOLESCENTS' MENTAL DISTRESS, SOCIAL STRESS, AND RESOURCES. Adolescence, 41(126), 263-83.
Donini-Lenhoff, F. (2006). HEALTH: Cultural competence in the health professions; insuring a juniform standard of care. The Hispanic Outlook in Higher Education, 65(45), 45.
Furler, J. & . (2012). Mental health: Cultural competence. Australian Family Physician, 39(5), 206-8.
Sawrikar, P. & . (2013). The relationship between mental health, cultural identity and cultural values in non-english speaking background (NESB) australian adolescents. Behaviour Change, 21(3), 97-113.
incidence tuberculosis as an Urban Health issue among ethnic minority group in Canning Town, Newham Borough of London. Large scale incidence of tuberculosis (TB) has been a major concern for public health planners in the UK. The report is structured as follows to enhance a greater understanding of the TB rate in Newham and strategies to reduce the TB rates in Newham London.
First, the report explores the TB rates in the entire UK. Moreover, the report provides the rational the TB cases in an urban health issue since Newham is a part of London. Moreover, the paper provides overall urban health issues and their implications to urban residents. The paprt explores the TB incidents in London and narrow the incidents to the Newham in London. Moreover, paper compares the TB rates of all important cities in the UK to enhance a greater understanding of urban health issues. Finally, the…
A2D, (2011).Newham -- Key Statistics. Advance to Deliver Project.UK.
Barton, H, Mitcham, C, Tsourou, C (2003), Healthy urban planning in practice: experience of European cities, WHO City Action Group on Healthy Urban Planning.
Bothamley, G.H. Kruijshaar, M.E. Kunst, H. et al.(2011). Tuberculosis in the UK cities: Effectiveness and Workload of control of tuberculosis programmes. BMC Public Health, 11:896
City of London, (2008 ), Pollution control, CITY OF LONDON, eshot, United Kingdom.
Secondly, there is a need for a Code of Ethics to interpret mental health in these settings. Third, therapists require training that consists of knowledge about the cognitive, social, emotional and psychological development of deaf people. Fourth, interpreters also need specialized training for therapeutic contexts. Finally, both therapists and interpreters need to work collaboratively with the deaf community's professional organizations to offer informative and psychoeducational workshops for deaf members and to provide them with further insights on the role that the therapist plays, the purpose of and techniques that are used in therapy and the function of the interpreters and families in the therapeutic process.
Given this found need for better training, education and understanding by healthcare professionals and interpreters, it comes as no surprise, then, that deaf individuals may be reluctant to get mental health care support when they need it or have greater fear, mistrust and frustration than…
DeVinney, J, & Murphy, S. (2002) Mental Health Experiences and Deafness: Personal and Legal Perspectives. Psychiatric rehabilitative journal, 25(3), 304-309.
Cornes, a. & Napier, J. (2005) Challenges of mental health interpreting when working with deaf people. Australasian Psychiatry. 13(4).
Dickert, J. (1988) Examination of Bias in Mental Health Evaluation of Deaf Patients.
Social Work, May-June.
US Mental Health Assistance
Mental health problems or mental illnesses are among the major public health issues in the United States given their prevalence. Mental health illnesses affected nearly all populations in the United States including children and adults. However, the prevalence of mental illnesses among adults is high in comparison to other populations. Mental health problems among adults in the U.S. incorporate many different conditions whose degree of severity varies from mild to moderate to severe (National Institute of Mental Health, 2019). One of the major contributing factors to the prevalence of mental illnesses among adults in America is the rapid growth of the aging population. Adults suffering from mental illness don't always understand they are sick and are difficult to help. Our system puts them out on the street or locks them up. There is need for policy changes to address the prevalence of mental health illnesses among…
Making available recovery program treatment besides collaborating with partnership to leverage resources and knowledge is a role that I perform in efforts of helping clients access care. I am also involved in continual community-based quality improvement programs that are designed to support care access and quality.
B. Veteran Centered Care
With respect to centered care, I normally assist with provision of alternatives to inpatient care for mental health linked problems. Additionally, I make CVT available for weekend and evening hours. As a MHICM practitioner, I perform various administrative and clinical functions for clients and my team. Clinical tasks entail stress and crisis management, group therapy, advocacy and treatment planning. I also ensure that patient preferences with respect to appointments and mental health care providers are maintained.
C. Performance Measures
I offer administrative and clinical supervision for my team besides facilitating cohesiveness communication, education programs and systems concerning community-based services. Given…
Committee on the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation initiative on the future of nursing.(2011). The future of nursing: Leading change, advancing health. New York: National Academies Press
Daniels, R., & Nicoll, L.(2011). Contemporary medical-surgical nursing, Volume 1. New York: Cengage Learning.
Sullivan-Marx, E.(2010). Nurse practitioners: The evolution and future of advanced practice. New York: Springer Publishing Company.
Thonicroft, G. (2011). Oxford textbook of community mental health. London: Oxford University Press.
acism and Mental Health Issues in Juvenile Justice Systems
It seems that, not only are juvenile justice systems deficient in mental health services, and not only is there a disparity between services for whites and African-American youths - but some juvenile facilities may even be contributing to the deterioration of kids' emotional and mental well-being. This paper looks at racial prejudice in the administration of juvenile justice from the point-of-view of who gets locked up, what happens once they're in, and the built-in system cruelty.
ace: Chances of incarceration are far greater if you're a Black kid
Between the years 1985 and 1994, delinquency cases brought through the Juvenile Justice System (JJS) increased by 41%; but more disturbing is the fact that in that time period, delinquency cases involving blacks jumped 78% and cases involving other non-white youths skyrocketed by 94% (Lardiero, 1997). Another key fact illustrating the institutional bias…
Bishop, Donna M., & Frazier, Charles E. (1996). Race effects in juvenile justice
Decision-making: finding of a statewide analysis. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology. 86, 392-414.
Glasser, Jeff (2000, May 8). And Justice for Some. U.S. News & World Report.
Lardiero, Carl J. (1997). Of disproportionate minority confinement. Corrections Today. 59, 14-16.
Forensic Mental Health Legislation and Policies
The current position on forensic mental health issues when it comes to legislation and policies is a strong one, but there are some difficulties that do not translate well into the probation and parole policies that are currently offered. In other words, there are issues that are not being addressed, and that are allowing individuals with mental health problems who on are probation and parole to slip through the cracks and struggle with their issues on their own (Wang, et al., 2005). Not only are they not getting the help they need in order to live productive lives, they are also more likely to reoffend, violate their probation or parole, become homeless, drink to excess, do drugs, and get involved in other unsavory behavior (Patel & Prince, 2002). The high proportion of indigenous offenders is one of the biggest issues that indicates mental health…
Australian Government (2012). Mental health services in Australia. Retrieved from https://mhsa.aihw.gov.au/home/
Demyttenaere, K., Bruffaerts, R., Posada-Villa, J., Gasquet, I., Kovess, V., Lepine, JP., Angermeyer, MC., Bernert, S., et al. (2004). WHO World Mental Health Survey Consortium. Prevalence, severity, and unmet need for treatment of mental disorders in the World Health Organization World Mental Health Survey. Journal of the American Medical Association, 291(21): 2581 -- 2590.
Keyes, C. (2002). The mental health continuum: From languishing to flourishing in life. Journal of Health and Social Behaviour, 43(2): 207 -- 222.
Munce, S.E., Stansfeld, S.A., Blackmore, E.R., & Stewart, D.E. (2007). The role of depression and chronic pain conditions in absenteeism: Results from a national epidemiologic survey. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 49(11): 1206 -- 1211.
This is discussed at length by Fusick and ordeau (2004) "...school-based counselors need to be aware of the disturbing inequities that exist in predominantly Afro-American urban school districts, where nearly 40% of Afro-American students attend school in the United States" (Fusick and ordeau, 2004) This again places emphasis on the need for mental health programs in these areas of concern. This is also related to findings from a study by McDavis et al. (1995) Counseling African-Americans, which refers to research that stresses the "...widening achievement gap between Afro-American and Euro-American students." (McDavis, et al. 1995)
An important study Laura a. Nabors, Evaluation of Outcomes for Adolescents Receiving School-ased Mental Health Services (2002) refers to the particular issue and problems experience at inner-city schools. The author states that, "School mental health (SMH) programs are an important setting for providing mental health services to adolescents, especially urban youth who typically face in-…
Smith, P.B., Buzi, R.S., & Weinman, M.L. (2001). Mental Health Problems and Symptoms among Male Adolescents Attending a Teen Health Clinic. Adolescence, 36(142), 323. Retrieved December 9, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001042308 www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001243622
Stern, S.B., Smith, C.A., & Jang, S.J. (1999). Urban Families and Adolescent Mental Health. Social Work Research, 23(1), 15. Retrieved December 9, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001243622 www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=77001228
Sternberg, R.J., & Dennis, M.J. (1997). Elaborating Cognitive Psychology through Linkages to Psychology as a Helping Profession. Teaching of Psychology, 24(3), 246-249. Retrieved December 9, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=77001228 www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000581383
Stock, M.R., Morse, E.V., Simon, P.M., Zeanah, P.D., Pratt, J.M., & Sterne, S. (1997). Barriers to School-Based Health Care Programs. Health and Social Work, 22(4), 274+. Retrieved December 9, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000581383
ather than treating their problems, the community attempts to punish them for their behaviors, placing them in systems where they rarely have access to the type of treatment that will teach them how to avoid engaging in further antisocial behaviors (Thomas & Penn, 2002). In fact, the overrepresentation of mental illness in the juvenile delinquent population as compared to the normal population suggests that the shifting of ill kids to the criminal justice system is commonplace.
Even more troubling is the idea that juveniles who are not involved in the criminal justice system but who experience significant mental health issues may not have access to mental health care. Out-of-pocket expenses for residential mental health treatment for adolescents are exorbitant, even for parents with health insurance. Copays can literally be thousands of dollars a week. However, parents who cannot afford those costs may find the state unwilling to help them; parents…
Texas Department of State Health Services. (2010, December 21). Mental health. Retrieved May 15, 2013 from State of Texas website: http://www.dshs.state.tx.us/mentalhealth.shtm
Thomas, C.R. & Penn, J.V. (2002). Juvenile justice mental health services. Child Adolesc
Psychiatr Clin N. Am, 11(4), 731-48.
Community Mental Health "ecovery Model"
What is the recovery orientation/paradigm model of treatment?
A mental health ecovery Model is a treatment alternative in which the service delivery is such that clients have the primary and final decision-making ability over their own treatment. This is unlike the majority of most conventional forms of treatment, in which physicians have the primary control over decisions or clients are just consulted as a formality. The underlying principle of the ecovery Model is that if a client is empowered to have greater choice and control over their service delivery, then he or she will have a greater incentive and drive to take increased initiative and control of their lives (NASW Practice Snapshot: The Transformation of the Mental Health System, 2006).
b. What is the medical model and what are the differences between the medical model and the recovery model of treatment?
A mental health medical…
(MHALA) Mental Health America of Los Angeles (2002) Retrieved 19 January 2016 from http://static1.1.sqspcdn.com/static/f/1084149/15460123/1323368260403/07theFourStagesofRecovery.pdf?token=QVu5IU26jUq7rItXobfRwvf4yW8%3D
(SAMHSA) Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (2015). Treatments for Mental Disorders Retrieved 19 January 2016 from http://www.samhsa.gov/treatment/mental-disorders
Buckley, P., M.D., Bahmiller, D., M.D., Kenna, C. A., M.S., Shevitz, S., M.D., Powell, I., & Fricks, L. (2007). Resident education and perceptions of recovery in serious mental illness: Observations and commentary. Academic Psychiatry, 31(6), 435-8. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/196531576?accountid=28844
Duckworth, K. (2015). NAMI: National Alliance on Mental Illness -- Science Meets the Human Experience: Integrating the Medical and Recovery Models. Retrieved January 19, 2016, from
ecent research shows that mental health problems can manifest in early childhood. As many as one in ten Australian children under five exhibit symptoms of social, emotional, and mental disorders including temper tantrums, difficulty adapting to new surroundings, problems relating to peers, and hyperactivity (Edwards & Martin, 2012). Although psychological diagnoses like clinical anxiety or depression are not typically made on populations under five, researchers do identify early childhood behaviors as risk factors for developing mental health disorders later in life. Thus, being withdrawn or inhibited has been identified as "one of the best identified risk factors for later anxiety disorders," (apee, Kennedy, Ingram, Edwards & Sweeney, 2005, p. 488). Early childhood behaviors can reveal to parents and counselors the warning signs of childhood and adolescent psychiatric problems such as Depressive Disorder, Conduct Disorder and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (Sawyer, Arney, Baghurst, et al., 2008). It is important to…
Bakermans-Kranenburg, M.J.; van IJzendoorn, M.H. & Juffer, F. (2003). Less is more: Meta-analyses of sensitivity and attachment interventions in early childhood. Psychological Bulletin, Vol 129(2), Mar 2003, 195-215.
Duncan, G.J., Brooks-Gunn, J. & Kato Klebanov, P. (2008). Economic deprivation and early childhood development. Child Development 65(2): 296-318.
Edwards, V. & Martin, S. (2012). Preschool mental health toll at 10pc. The Australian. 24 Dec, 2012.
Felner, R.D.; Stolberg, A. & Cowen, E.L. (1975). Crisis events and school mental health referral patterns of young children. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, Vol 43(3), Jun 1975, 305-310.
Gamification in Mental Healthcare
There is no doubt that we have had decades of research geared at developing new and more effective treatments for mental conditions ranging from autism to anxiety, from schizophrenia to depression and so on. What is rather worrying, however, is that we have very little to show for it. Mental disorders such as these continue to impact on the quality of life of a significant proportion of the population, costing the taxpayer millions of dollars every year. Currently, approximately 90 million Americans, which translates to approximately one-third of the population, suffers from some form of anxiety disorder, yet a majority of these fail to seek out treatment for the same owing to the stigma, burden and cost associated with such evidence-based treatments. Mental health professionals are, thus, focusing their attention towards the development of low-burden, effective interventions for mental illness. Gamification, the introduction of game-like elements…
Arthur, G., 2015. Cellphone Therapy: New Apps Help Track and Treat Mental Illness. Aljazeera.com [online] Available at http://america.aljazeera.com/articles/2015/5/15/cell-phone-therapy-new-apps-help-track-and-treat-mental-illness.html [accessed 22 May 2015]
Bolluyt, V., 2013. How Apps are Tackling Important Mental Health Issues. Cheatsheet. [online] Available at http://www.cheatsheet.com/technology/how-apps-are-tackling-important-mental-health-issues.html/?a=viewall [accessed 21 May 2015].
Chan, S.R., Torous, J., Hinton, L., and Yellowlees, P., 2014. Mobile Tele-Mental Health: Increasing Applications and a Move to Hybrid Models of Care. Healthcare, 2(1), pp. 220-233
Cugelman, B., 2013. Gamification: What it is and why it Matters to Digital Health Behavior Change Developers. JMIR Serious Games, 1(1), pp. 1-6.
social and psychological interventions are important in youth mental health
The most productive and creative generation of any nation are the youth, Australia included. Nations largely depend on the youth for almost everything hence the need to be in the best shape physically and more importantly psychologically. The mental health of the youth has been widely viewed as a subject of concern among the medical fraternity and one that needs constant and continuous intervention in order to have a sound mental health. This paper will delve into the prevalent mental disorder and the different ways in which they manifest themselves and the relevant social and psychological interventions that are appropriate in the intervention especially among the youth. Through understanding of these mental health conditions or disorders and the available interventions, one is able to evaluate whether the interventions have been sufficient and if not, interrogate the inefficiencies and the possible…
Lee R.S.C., et.al, (2012). Cognitive Remediation Improves Memory and Psychosocial Functioning in First-episode Psychiatric Out-patients. Psychological Medicine. Cambridge University Press.
Mario A.J., (2011). Preventing the Second Episode: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Psychosocial and Pharmacological Trials in First-Episode psychosis. Schizophrenia Bulletin Vol.37. Oxford University Press.
Mathew S. et.al., (2008). Recent Advances in the Neurobiology of Anxiety Disorders: Implications for Novel Therapeutics. American Journal of Medical Genetics. Wiley-Liss Inc.
Peters A.T & Nierenberg A.A., (2011). Stepping Back to Step Forward: Lessons From the Systematic Treatment Enhancement Program for Bipolar Disorder (STEP-BD). American Society of Clinical Psychopharmacology Corner.
joy than that of serving those who need our services most. I enjoy working with patients. What drives my interest in mental health is not the salary or perks that come with jobs in this field -- rather, it is the professional satisfaction that comes with improving the lives of others.
Being a Reservist Trauma nurse in the USN, I have had the rare opportunity of serving my country in a very unique way. In addition to closely working with those actively engaged in defending our country, I have also met and interacted with civilians in diverse settings. To some extent, my growing interest in mental health has largely been informed by my interaction with individuals having a wide range of mental health problems. For instance, during my deployment to Afghanistan, I encountered, first hand, the effects of trauma and other mental health problems on the minds of those affected.…
It is a generally known fact that some weaknesses in the body start developing that directly or indirectly affect one's mental health. Since physical health is related to its impact on the mental health visible in later stages of life, older people must take extra care of their mental health. This paper aims at first, graphically representing mental health conditions in older people in the form of Microsoft Word Excel bar chart for both males and females so that a better comparison could be made, and secondly analyzing the factors for one of those mental health diseases and explaining the reason for its gender disparity.
The following graphical representation of the five mental diseases for the age group 65 years and older within the US population. The data is extracted from Statista.com (2020) from the most recent years, 2017 and 2020. The only slight difference in the…
Alzheimer\\\\'s Society. (n.a.). Smoking and dementia. Retrieved from https://www.alzheimers.org.uk/about-dementia/risk-factors-and-prevention/smoking-and-dementia
Hasselgren, C., Ekbrand, H., Hallerod, B., Fassberg, M.M., Zettergren, A., Johansson, L., Skoog, I. & Dellve, L. (2020). Sex differences in dementia: On the potentially mediating effects of educational attainment and experiences of psychological distress. BMC Psychiatry, 20(434). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12888-020-02820-9
Kiely, A. (2018, September 20). Why is dementia different for women? Alzheimers.org. Retrieved from https://www.alzheimers.org.uk/blog/why-dementia-different-women
Mosca, L., Barrett-Connor, E. & Wenger, N.K. (2012). Sex/gender differences in cardiovascular disease prevention what a difference a decade makes. Circulation, 124(19), 2145-2154. DOI: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.110.968792
Peralta, J. (2018, August 13). Can estrogen help protect women against dementia? Health line. Retrieved from https://www.healthline.com/health-news/can-estrogen-protect-women-against-dementia
Reckelhoff, J.F. (2000). Gender differences in the regulation of blood pressure. Hypertension, 2001, 1199-1208. https://www.ahajournals.org/doi/pdf/10.1161/01.HYP.37.5.1199
Sabia, S., Fayosse, A., Dumurgier, J., Dugravot, A., Akbaraly, T., Britton, A., Kivimaki, M., & Singh-Manoux, A. (2018). Alcohol consumption and risk of dementia: 23-year follow-up of White hall II cohort study. BMJ, 2018, 362. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.k2927
Stanford Health Care. (n.a.). Risk factors for dementia. Retrieved from https://stanfordhealthcare.org/medical-conditions/brain-and-nerves/dementia/risk-factors.html
Killing on Mental Health
Are Veterans Impacted by Indirect and Direct Killings?
On February 2010, a study was reported on nearly 3,000 United States soldiers who came home after being among active duty that were exposed to indirect and direct killings. The soldiers were men and women of the Army involved in Operational Iraqi Freedom were questioned in a survey as part of a "post-deployment screening program," which involved eight professionals who came together including: Shira Maguen, Karen Seal, Sara Knight, and Charles Marmar from California medical facilities. The Washington state experts included: Mark eger, Gregory Gahm, and Barbara Lucenko, as well as, Brett Litz, from Boston, and they released their findings to the Journal of Dramatic Stress, volume 23, No. 1. These authors examined the relationship between psychological well-being and its negative impact when veterans come home from battlefields to show significant signs of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder. In…
Maguen, S., Lucenko, B., Reger, M., Gahm, G., & Litz B. (2010). The impact of reported direct and indirect killing on mental health symptoms in iraq war veterans. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 23(1), doi: 10.1002
Downe, A. (2008), April). Cause and prevention of roadway crashes among young, high-risk drivers in malaysia: a multi-disciplinary approach. Retrieved from http://www.scribd.com/doc/50330347/101/Reliability-Test-Results-Cronbach%80%99s-Alpha
Mental Health with Health Care Use and Cost: A Population Study" published in the Canadian Journal of Psychiatry written by Cawthorpe, Guyn, Li and Lu (2011).
Cawthorpe, Guyn, Li and Lu (2011) report a study with the goals of comparing the health costs of two groups: (1) those with psychiatric diagnoses; and (2) those without psychiatric diagnoses. Nine years of billing data from physicians was used in the study. The methodology reported is that the dataset that contained registration data for the patients who were in receipt of public mental health service was "constructed and subsequently matched" according to sex and age. (p.490)
Sampling in the Study
It is reported that three groups emerged: (1) a comparison patient PD group; (2) comparison patients with psychiatric disorders in physicians only; and (3) patients without PDs treated in specialized care that was publicly funded or by their physicians. (Cawthorpe, Guyn, Li and…
Cawthorpe, D., Wilkes, T.C.R., Guyn, L., Li, B., & Lu, M. (2011). Association of Mental Health With Health Care Use and Cost: A Population Study. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, Aug2011, Vol. 56 Issue 8, 490-494.
Curry, LA, Nembhard, IM, and Bradley, EH (2009) Key Issues in Outcomes Research. Circulation. 2009; 119:1442-1452. Retrieved from: http://circ.ahajournals.org/content/119/10/1442.full?viewType=Print&viewClass=Print
mental health prisoners usa. I've included outline main idea, I apply ideas questions. contact clarifications. I. Introduce define global health issue connection nursing. For, .
Mental Health in the American Prison System
There has always been much controversy regarding prisoners and their mental health, but as civilization has experienced much progress throughout this century people have become more and more concerned about making sure that prisons are able to differentiate between individuals who are mentally ill and persons who are not. Even with the fact that prisons were never design to accommodate the mentally ill, conditions are critical today as a great deal of men and women who are unable to get mental health treatment in the communities they live in are incarcerated consequent to committing an illegality. There are a great deal of people suffering from schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, or depression in U.S., thus meaning that society needs to…
Austin, W. And Boyd, M.A. (2010). Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing for Canadian Practice. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Cornwell, D.J. (2009). The Penal Crisis and the Clapham Omnibus: Questions and Answers in Restorative Justice. Waterside Press.
Finkel, M.L. (2010). Public Health in the 21st Century: [Three Volumes]. ABC-CLIO.
Videbeck, S.L. (2010). Psychiatric-Mental Health Nursing. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Such equipment should be adequate to ensure personnel are protected from chemical exposure to the eyes, skin, and respiratory tract. PPE may be upgraded or downgraded by the site industrial hygienist, HSM, or qualified Site Safety Officer based upon site conditions and air monitoring results (Levin, et al., 2002)
Work practice and administrative controls
Administrative controls or work practice controls are changes in work procedures such as written safety policies, rules, supervision, schedules, and training with the aim of reducing the interval, frequency, and sternness of exposure to hazardous chemicals or situations. Workers who handle hazardous chemicals in the workplace should be familiar with the administrative controls required fewer than 29 CF 1910.1200, and the OSHA Hazard Communication Standard. This controls are perhaps most important, because they impact your people directly. On the one hand, they are the simplest, since all it takes is education. On the other hand, education…
Annual report on 9/11 health (September, 2009). Retrieved on March 20, 2010 from http://www.nyc.gov/html/fdny/pdf/2009_wtc_medical_working_group_annual_report.pdf
Burright, D. et al., (1999). Evaluation guidelines for air sampling methods utilizing chromatographic analysis. OSHA Salt Lake Technical Center, U.S. Department of Labor: Salt Lake City, UT.
Harris, J.S., (ed.) (1997). Occupational medicine practice guidelines: Evaluation and management of common health problems and functional recovery in workers. The American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Beverly, Mass.: OEM Press.
Levin, S. et al.,. (2002). Health effects of World Trade Center site workers. America Journal of Industrial Medicine 42:545 -- 547.
A 2006 study that examined the rates of depression and other mental health disorders following the December 2004 tsunami found that large numbers of people still faced significant health impairment from the event, and that treatment had been negligible when compared to relief and rebuilding efforts in other areas (CDC 2006). These efforts would likely be made far more effective and efficient, however, if mental health issues were dealt with. Addressing the depression and other mental health maladies that the people suffered from following the tsunami would have led to a better adjusted and more productive (as well as healthier) population.
There was an effective degree of trauma care provided immediately after the tsunami struck, but preventative care measures could have been stepped up during this time to forestall and mitigate the spread of infectious diseases that often comes after a major disaster event (WHO 2005). Obviously, trauma care was…
CDC (2006). "204 South Asia tsunamis." Center for disease control. Accessed 14 November 2009. http://www.bt.cdc.gov/disasters/tsunamis/
WHO (2005). "South Asia earthquake and tsunamis: Inter-agency rapid health assessment." World health organization. Accessed 14 November 2009. http://www.who.int/hac/crises/international/asia_tsunami/final_report/en/index.html
Nonetheless, people who received some level of ACRP intervention had a lower rate of criminal recidivism than people who received no intervention at all.
The study found that the case flow through the ACRP was a little slow. The amount of time between the Initial Opt-In Hearing and the Formal Opt-In Hearing averaged 74 days. While there are no hard and fast rules governing how long this process should take, the study found that that "the ACRP is performing rather well on the front-end of the admissions process (up to the initial opt-in stage) but that more could be done to work on the back end (time between the Initial Opt-In Hearing and the Formal Opt-In Hearing)."
The study found that the incentives and sanctions used by ACRP judges to promote compliance at status hearings, though standardized, were not tailored to correspond to participant progress.
Outcomes from the Last Frontier: An Evaluation of the Anchorage Mental Health Court (Alaska Mental Health Trust Authority, Ferguson-Hornby-Zeller, 2008).
Improving Responses to People with Mental Illnesses: The Essential Elements of a Mental Health Court (Thompson, Osher, Tomasini-Joshi, 2008).
Mental Health Courts: Decriminalizing the Mentally Ill. (Irwin Law, Schneider-Hyman-Bloom, 2007).
Mental Health Courts. (Wiley Encyclopedia of Forensic Science, Schneider, 2009).
Healthcare Quality Management
PDCA Modeling in Healthcare
Psychiatric emergencies in medical settings may be particularly challenging since the staff does not encounter them frequently and may not have experience dealing with behavioral crisis intervention. The purpose of this exercise is to help staff improve understanding and coping with nonmedical emergencies that occur in medical settings using the PDCA cycle.
X is a 41-year-old male admitted to a medical unit with a diagnosis of possible stroke. The patient is ambulatory, 5'10," and 350 lbs. Mr. X presented to the emergency department the day before after apparently losing consciousness at home. The initial CAT scan of his head was negative. It is suspected that Mr. X may be an IV drug user since his urine toxicology screening came back positive for opiates. The medical staff thinks that Mr. X had a seizure prior to admission, but he has shown no abnormal signs…
Bennet, L., & Slavin, L. (2009, April 3). What Every Health Care Manager Needs to Know. Retrieved from Continous Quality Improvement: http://www.cwru.edu/med/epidbio/mphp439/CQI.htm
i Six Sigma. (N.d.). Focus - PDCA. Retrieved from I Six Sigma: http://www.isixsigma.com/dictionary/focus-pdca/
Pestka, E., Hatterberg, D., Larson, L., Zwygart, L., Cox, A., & Cox, D. (2012). Enhancing Safety in Behavioral Emergency Situations. Medsurg Nursing, 335-341.
This creates a nerve with the client that their private information is going to be unprotected and confidentiality is going to be broken . There is no safe way to keep all information private. However, all mental health professionals must take all necessary precautions to keep client information private .
As you look around the mall, classroom, church, family history, friend's family, or place of employment, you're sure to know someone with a mental illness, or someone who might of attempted suicide . Assessing and treating these disorders is essential in the mental health field, more trained mental health professionals are needed, more agencies, and more funding . Otherwise if society keeps assuming that the mind and brain are separate and that mental disorders are " different" or " bad" misunderstanding, mistreatment, and stigma will persist in this society . We need to stop seeing individuals with mental health…
American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (Revised 4th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.
American Association of Suicidology. ( 2006, February), U.S.A. suicide: 2003 official final data. Retrieved March 19, 2010, from http:/ / www.suiciodology.org.
Bonner, L. ( 2001). Rethinking suicide prevention and manipulative behavior in corrections. Jail Suicide Mental Health Update, 10(4), 7-8.
Bonner, L. (2006) . Stressful segregation housing in psychosocial vulnerability in prison suicide. Suicide and Life Threatening Behavior, 36,250-254.
The deinstitutionalization trend that began during the 1960s was based on the notion that people suffering from mental illness would be able to receive better treatment for their disorder in community-based facilities while also saving the state and federal governmental tens of millions of dollars in the process (Lamb & Weinberger, 2019). This movement, however, ultimately backfired and the incidence of individuals with mental illness that become involved with the criminal justice system remains a serious problem for American policymakers and citizens alike today. The purpose of this paper is to review the relevant literature to determine the types of problems that are typically experienced by the criminal justice system in the provision of timely and effective treatment for incarcerated mentally ill offenders and what moral dilemmas arise as a result. In addition, an analysis concerning the costs that are associated with treating mentally ill prisoners is followed by a…
Addressing mental illness in the criminal justice system. (2009). U.S. Department of Justice. Retrieved from https://www.justice.gov/archives/opa/blog/addressing-mental-illness-criminal-justice-system .
Gilbert, M. (2015, May 5). Treatment, not jail: It’s time to step up. National Alliance on Mental Illness. Retrieved from https://www.nami.org/ .
Interventions for adults with serious mental illness who are involved with the criminal justice system. (2012, September 13). U.S. Department of Health & Human Services. Retrieved from https://effectivehealthcare.ahrq.gov/products/mental-illness-adults-prisons/research-protocol .
Ireland, J. L. & Ireland, C. A. (2011). Personality structure among prisoners: How valid is the five-factor model, and can it offer support for Eysenck’s theory of criminality? Criminal Behavior and Mental Health, 21, 35–50.
Lamb, R. & Weinberger, L. E. (2019, October 10). Deinstitutionalization and other factors in the criminalization of persons with serious mental illness and how it is being addressed. CNS Spectrums, 25(2), 173-180.
mental health professionals, understanding what is impacting patients and their employees requires careful observation. This occurs through seeing if there is anything that is out of the ordinary. The situation with Eileen; is classic example of using these tools to realize when something more severe is happening. (Palmo, 2006)
In this particular case, Eileen is known as someone who is stable and reliable in organizing / managing the office. However, once she starts crying, is when she is dealing with more unusual challenges. Mental health professionals have a duty to identify the root causes of these problems and helping her to address them. (Palmo, 2006)
For Cora, she has unique responsibilities as a counselor and her employer. This is because she has to make certain that Eileen is able to work through these problems in order to perform her job efficiently. At the same time, she has an obligation to…
Palmo, A. (2006). Foundations of Mental Health Counseling. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas.
National Council for Behavioral Health (n.d.) points out, at least thirty percent of active duty military personnel suffer from a serious mental health disorder that requires treatment, but less than half of these individuals receive treatment. However, there are a variety of state and national mental health services specifically for individuals and families affiliated with the military. The state of Washington maintains a list of mental health resources including family resources for military and veteran families (Washington Mental Health Care esources, n.d.). The state of California's Department of Health Care Services (n.d.) offers a similar set of resources including suicide prevention hotlines for homeless veterans. The California Department of Veterans Affairs (n.d.) draws attention to the range of state and federal resources available, including those that are funded under the Mental Health Services Act (MHSA), Proposition 63. The primary resource for service members and their families is the Department of…
Mental Health and Stigma
Stigma influences the lives of people living with serious mental illnesses in many ways, including via the experience of self-stigma, whereby a person gives intense focus to what others might think about one’s own mental illness, internalizing their conception of the illness (Link, Wells, Phelan & Yang, 2015). Stigma can also come from society, from the workplace, from one’s own family or set of peers, and even from strangers. When an illness is stigmatized in the media, a person who suffers from that illness may feel taboo, ostracized from society, isolated from the “normal” group of people who have normal lives and can function without problem (Corrigan, Druss & Perlick, 2014).
Stigma influences the lives of people living with serious mental illnesses in other ways too. They become afraid to seek medical help because of the fear of being labeled as a person with a…
These needs are only beginning to be addressed in Canada and while there do not appear to be many well-established initiatives there is a growing recognition of the need for such if Canada's healthcare sector is to gain and retain the necessary workers to deliver optimal healthcare in Canada.
Polls & Research (2006) Health Care, Environment Top Issues in Canada. 1 Nov 2006. AngusReid Global Monitor. Online available at: http://www.angus-reid.com/polls/view/13653
ack, Chris (2008) Current and Emerging Trends: Occupational Health and Safety in the C Healthcare Sector. 19 Sept 2008. Prepared for the OHSAH Stakeholder Meeting. Online available at: http://www.ohsah.bc.ca/media/240-OHS-Current-and-Emerging-Trends-full.pdf
Canadian Institute for Health Information, Workforce Trends of Registered Nurses in Canada, 2006 (Ottawa: CIHI, 2007).
Canadian Nursing Advisory Committee, Full-time Equivalents and Financial Costs Associated with Absenteeism, Overtime, and Involuntary Part-time Employment in the Nursing Profession, February 15, 2002.
Canadian Health Services Research Foundation, What's Ailing our Nurses? A…
Polls & Research (2006) Health Care, Environment Top Issues in Canada. 1 Nov 2006. AngusReid Global Monitor. Online available at: http://www.angus-reid.com/polls/view/13653
Back, Chris (2008) Current and Emerging Trends: Occupational Health and Safety in the BC Healthcare Sector. 19 Sept 2008. Prepared for the OHSAH Stakeholder Meeting. Online available at: http://www.ohsah.bc.ca/media/240-OHS-Current-and-Emerging-Trends-full.pdf
Canadian Institute for Health Information, Workforce Trends of Registered Nurses in Canada, 2006 (Ottawa: CIHI, 2007).
Canadian Nursing Advisory Committee, Full-time Equivalents and Financial Costs Associated with Absenteeism, Overtime, and Involuntary Part-time Employment in the Nursing Profession, February 15, 2002.
healthcare as an institution is, of course, the need to care for the sick and the injured. However, in the contemporary model of healthcare, effective communication during a crisis is not only important, but also vital. Communication by healthcare professionals takes the concern and worry out of the situation; offers a quicker resolution, makes better control of information possible, earns the trust of the public and individual families; and keeps the flow of information consistent and accurate, thus averting potential external problems. Based on my current experience in the nursing field, I realize that to advance my professional goals, as well as contribute soundly to the profession, I must expand my educational experience and am therefore seeking entrance into the Doctor of Nursing Practice (DNP) in Psychiatric Mental Health Nursing.
I believe I am well-qualified and motivated to undergo this program. Currently, I am a master's prepared Neonatal Nurse Practitioner…
Poverty and Community Mental Health
Based on the supplemental reading for this week found in the resource folder, we can agree that poverty is a solid predictor of multiple challenges found in the field of mental health. In your own words (support your response by citing your sources) express your understanding of poverty and how it influences Community Mental Health at large (your response should meet the criteria found on the discussion board rubric). Please do not respond by using bullet points, utilize complete sentences to respond to this question.
Despite spending close to three trillion dollars a year on healthcare, significantly more than any other country in total or per capita, the United States does exactly maintain a healthy population (comparatively speaking) (Lavizzo-Mourey, 2015). Although there have been many proposed and attempted reforms to the system, and there have been many different ideas about how to make the system…
Best, M. (2006). Ethics in Health Services Management. Quality Management in Healthcare, 311.
Jones, T. (2015). A Descriptive Analysis of Implicit Rationing of Nursing Care: Frequency and Patterns in Texas. Nursing Economics, 144-154.
Lavizzo-Mourey, R. (2015). Why We Need to Build a Culture of Health in the United States. Academic Medicine, 846-848.
Savage, C., Lindsell, C., Gillespie, G., Lee, R., & Corbin, A. (2008). Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Improving health status of homeless patients at a nurse-managed clinic in the Midwest USA. Health and Social Care in the Community, 469-475.
Mental Health Issues in Hispanic Community
The Hispanic community comprises of one of the fastest growing ethnic/racial groups within the United States. According to census results of 2000, the number of Hispanics in the United States has increased by about 60% over the last decade. This is from 23 back in 1990 to 35.5 million in 2000. In March 2002, the number of Hispanics in United States was 37.4 million. Hispanic population in the United States in 44 million now this is about 14% of the U.S. population. Nearly 805 of all the Hispanics in the U.S. are either immigrants or children of immigrants. It is expected that by 2050, the Hispanic population will be 108 million and about a quarter of the population in United States.
Sociocultural and historical factors suggest that the Hispanic community needs mental health services greatly. Hispanics in general have low economic and education status.…
Escarce, J & Kapur, K. (2008).Hispanics and the Future of America: Access to and Quality of Health Care. Retrieved August 5, 2014 from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK19910/
Talamantes, M., Lindeman, R & Mounton, C. (2009). Health and Healthcare of Hispanic/Latino-American elders. Retrieved August 5, 2014 from http://web.stanford.edu/group/ethnoger/hispaniclatino.html
Morales, L., Kington, R., Valdez, R & Escarce, J. (2007).Socioeconomic, cultural, and behavioral factors affecting Hispanic health outcomes. Retrieved August 5, 2014 from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1781361/
Vega, W. (2008). Mental Health issue affecting Latino youth and families. Retrieved August 5, 2014 from http://www.sdprc.net/wp-content/uploads/2012/11/keynoteaddress-pte.pdf
Mental Issue 2226
esearches indicate that poverty and mental illness are correlated with each other in a broader spectrum. This research paper is commissioned on the basis of two exhaustively researched hypotheses: H1 Poverty can cause mental illness and H2 Mental illness is subjected to poverty. Throughout this research paper, these two hypotheses have been investigated from scholarly academic resources. At the end of the proposed research it has been concluded that those, who are financially deprived, as exposed to severe mental illness due to their inability of fulfilling their basic needs, including house, education, food and employment. Likewise, evidences have also been explored on the fact that metal illness can cause extreme levels of poverty to the suffering beings. This signifies that both the research hypotheses are accepted by the research in the projected domain.
For affirming the undertaken pinching social reality, a statement…
Alegria, M., Canino, G., Rios, R., Vera, M., Calderon, J., Rusch, D. & Ortega, A. (2002).
Inequalities in Use of Specialty Mental Health Services among Latinos, African-Americans, and Non-Latino Whites. Psychiatric Services 53(12): 1547-1555.
Battle, K., Mendelson, M. & Torjman, S. (2009). Towards a new architecture for Canada's adult benefits. Caledon Institute of Social Policy, June.
Burstein, M. (2005). Combating the social exclusion of at-risk groups. Policy Research
Consistent with this, other findings propose that women are more likely than men to take part in violence in the home whereas men are more likely than women to take part in violence in public places.
Even though there is some evidence that mental illness is associated with violence, it appears that the bigger contributing factor is that of outside influences. Substance abuse appears to be the greatest contributing factor, but it can be something as insignificant as one's living arrangements or even just their gender. Overall people with mental health problems do not appear to be at an increased risk of violence.
Appelbaum, P.S., Robbins, P.C., Monahan, J. (2000). Violence and delusions: data from the MacArthur Violence Risk Assessment Study. American Journal of Psychiatry, 157,
Cottle, C. (2004). The role of social context in the prediction and management of violence among persons with mental illness. Dissertation…
This is when there will be a focused approach that is seeking out the best tools for addressing a host of issues.
Clearly, the field of mental health is continually changing. Part of the reason for this, is because there is emphasis on identifying new techniques for effectively treating patients. This has created a transformation in what kind of tools that are being used to address these issues. At the same time, there has been a focus on implementing supervisory procedures that will have an impact on kinds of treatment options that are being provided. This is important, because these kinds of transformations mean that they are providing effective support to mental health professionals in dealing with these issues. Once this occurs, is when there will be an emphasis on how psychologists are interacting with: patients, colleagues and supervisors. As this approach, is based upon respect, understanding, compassion and…
Clinical Supervision. (2009). Health. Retrieved from: http://www.health.qld.gov.au/qcmhl/src/superguide_2009.pdf
Bernard, J.M., & Goodyear, R.K. (2009). Fundamentals of clinical supervision. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.
Brown, L. (2008). The New Handbook of Counseling Supervision. Mahwah, NJ: Taylor and Francis.
Campbell, J. (2006). Essentials of clinical supervision. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
To deal with these difficulties, several recommendations can be formulated:
1. Cross-cultural variables: Ethnic matches should be arranged between client and therapist. These will be effective in dealing not only with communication problems, but also with cultural perceptions of the disease as well as with possible social stigmas attached to the disease. The therapist, sharing similar cultural background to the patient understands the patient's concern and speaks the patient's language therefore is more able than another to 'pull' her through.
Other recommendations include items such as that Government should allocate more funding to establishing specific mental health treatments that are run by and appeal to the various ethnic minorities. In a similar manner, government should increase their funding for research and clinical training of ethnic and racial minority members (e.g. The minority Fellowship Program and the CO). Finally, general Mental health services should incorporate cross-cultural communication variables in…
Leong, F.T.L., & Lau, A.S.L. (2001). Barriers to providing effective mental health services to Asian-Americans. Mental Health Services Research, 3, 201 -- 214.
Leong, F.T.L., & Kalibatseva, Z. (2011) Cross-cultura Barriers to mental Health services in United States. Cerebrum. The DANA Foundation. http://www.dana.org/news/cerebrum/detail.aspx?id=31364
Mental Health, and Welfare
Society, mental health and welfare:
A problem related to counseling (under-insurance) and a social problem (the lack of adequate healthcare coverage)
The course text Social action: A mandate for counselors discusses the ethical implications of such issues as race and social injustice in the counseling profession. However, perhaps even more important than these factors is the issue of class, specifically the affordability of counseling on an individual basis. Wealthier individuals with better insurance or who can afford to pay 'pout of pocket' often have the luxury of 'talk' therapy that poorer people, or people without adequate health insurance, lack. This creates a 'haves' versus 'have not' situation in terms of the availability and the quality of counseling. Poorer individuals with minimal insurance coverage for mental health care are often offered fewer counseling sessions, or have their psychological complaints treated as medical disorders, rather than fully addressed…
Considering some practical matters. (2011). AMHA (American Mental Health Alliance).
Retrieved June 8, 2011 at http://www.americanmentalhealth.com/index.tpl?page=10737827503031878
Harris, G. (2011, March 6). Talk doesn't pay. The New York Times. Retrieved June 8, 2011 at http://www.nytimes.com/2011/03/06/health/policy/06doctors.html?_r=1&scp=1&sq=psychiatrist%20talk%20therapy&st=cse
Write a summary of this interview. Do not submit a transcript of the interview.
5. Using the information from your reading, this interview and any journal articles that you find, discuss the impact that public policies have on the roles and responsibilities of clinical mental health counselors working in diverse communities. Be sure to discuss the roles and responsibilities of counselors providing services to clients of diverse ages, backgrounds, and exceptional abilities, including strategies for differentiated interventions. (How do counselors ensure that interventions "fit" for diverse clients?)
6. Discuss how the policies of professional, governmental, and accrediting organizations have impacted the practice of this counselor.
. Share your impressions of the information that the counselor shared, anything that you found particularly interesting, surprising, or that you expected to hear. Discuss the impact that the interview had on your beliefs, expectations, and goals related to becoming a clinical mental health counselor…
7. Share your impressions of the information that the counselor shared, anything that you found particularly interesting, surprising, or that you expected to hear. Discuss the impact that the interview had on your beliefs, expectations, and goals related to becoming a clinical mental health counselor working in this setting.
Summary of the interview
The ability of a clinical mental health counselor to work with a socially and culturally diverse population (e.g race, gender, ethnicity, sexual orientation, economic status) is noted by the American Mental Health Association (AMHA, 2011) to be an important quality of all professional clinical mental health counselors. The work of Patterson (1996) indicated that multicultural counseling is important in order for the inadequacies of the mental health services targeting the minority groups to be eliminated. Such inadequacies include the lack of bilingual counselors, discrimination, and the lack of counselors who are members of the minority groups as well as prejudice in counselors. In this paper we discuss the impact that public policies have on the roles and responsibilities of clinical mental health counselors working in diverse
One of the best things about the WAP program is the flexibility that it has. Every patient has their own individual needs that need to be met by a recovery program. Most recovery programs are very rigid and to not have much give to them. The WAP program is just the opposite. It allows each patient to recover at their own rate and using the best resources available to them.
The flexibility that the WAP program allows each patient to have helps to reinforce the idea of self-management recovery. This is so important is giving each patient the responsibility for their own recovery. Empowering each patient to design and implement their own recovery helps to ensure that they will follow through and be successful in recovering.
Davidson, Laurie. (2005). ecovery, self-management and the expert patient - Changing the culture of mental health from a UK perspective. Journal of Mental…
Davidson, Laurie. (2005). Recovery, self-management and the expert patient - Changing the culture of mental health from a UK perspective. Journal of Mental Health, 14(1), 25-35.
Dewa, Carolyn S., Hoch, Jeffrey S., Carmen, Glenn, Guscott, Richard, and Anderson, Chris.
(2009). Cost, Effectiveness, and Cost-Effectiveness of a Collaborative Mental Health
Care Program for People Receiving Short-Term Disability Benefits for Psychiatric
history of mental health in the United States has not always been a pleasant one. Prior to the mid-20th century those unfortunate numbers of Americans who were considered mentally ill were either ignored or placed in asylums (Philo, 1997). The asylum approach was considered to be a logical one. It protected the community for potentially dangerous or unwanted individuals; it provided families relief from the burden of having to care for a mentally ill family member; and, at least theoretically, they offered humane custodial care. The asylum system operated without question for many years in the United States. Society, as a whole, paid little attention to the concerns of the mentally ill and there was a general attitude that the mentally ill were largely undesirable.
Subsequent to the Second World War societal attitudes began to transform as the warehousing of the mentally ill in asylum was beginning to be considered…
Iglehart, J.K. (1996). Managed Care and Mental Health. New England Journal of Medicine, 131-136.
Institute of Medicine. (2005, November 1). Improviing the Quality of Health Care for Mental and Substance -Use Conditions: Quality Chasm Series. Retrieved October 30, 2011, from Institute of Medicine of the National Academies: http://www.iom.edu/Reports/2005/Improving-the-Quality-of-Health-Care-for-Mental-and-Substance-Use-Conditions-Quality-Chasm-Series.aspx
National Mental Health Act. Public Law 79-487, 79th Congress (1946).
New Freedom Commission on Mental Health. (2003). Achieving the Promise: Transforming Mental Health Care in America. Washington, D.C.: Government Publishing Office.
ole of Mental Health Group in Helping an Individual
ole Of Mental Health Group In A Helping Individual Overcome Schizophrenia In Hawaii: A Substantive Grounded Theory
ole of mental health group in helping an individual overcome schizophrenia in Hawaii: a substantive grounded theory
Schizophrenia is a brain disease that is emotionally distressing for patients and their families. In a society that has misunderstood schizophrenia for a long time, its victims have been undeservingly stigmatized. This study compares the development of social skills and coping skills of schizophrenia patients in support groups: can support groups help these patients? The purpose of this study is to analyze and compare schizophrenia patients with social skills issues and the care they receive from support groups with respect to developing these skills. Schizophrenia patients need a lot of support. They attend support groups to discuss housing, job, and family issues. This also gives them an…
Aneshensel, C.S. (2009). Toward Explaining Mental Health Disparities. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 50(4), 377-394. doi: 10.2307/20617650
Austrian, S.G. (2005). Mental Disorders, Medications, and Clinical Social Work (3 ed.): Columbia University Press.
Bateman, J., & Smith, T. (2011). Taking Our Place: Community Managed Mental Health Services in Australia. International Journal of Mental Health, 40(2), 55-71. doi: 10.2307/41345351
Dyke, C.V. (2013). Research Policies for Schizophrenia in the Global Health Context. International Journal of Mental Health, 42(1), 51-76. doi: 10.2307/42003833
Maternal Mental Health in Pregnancy and Child Behavior. This is designed to provide better insights about how parental postpartum depression (PPD) is impacting the mother and the child. The findings are determined based upon looking at different cultures and the frequency of them. It is at this point, when there is a focus on previous research and any kind of gaps in existing theories. (Lukose, 2011)
In the future, these conclusions can improve everyone's understanding of how this is impacting both the patent and child during the pregnancy process. Then, after they are born is when these factors are taken into consideration to see how this is influencing their development. Over the course of time, this will enable healthcare professionals to understand the impact PPD on the parents and their children. (Lukose, 2011)
Provide a summation of the research conducted and the research findings
The research looked at the effects…
Lukose, A. (2011). Maternal Mental Health. Indian Journal of Psychiatry, 53 (4), 351 -- 361.
working for a community mental health agency that serves male adolescents aged 14-16 who have received a diagnosis of conduct disorder. You have been asked by your director of clinical training to answer the following questions (choose only one): a) What family treatment modes have been found to be effective (best practices, evidence-based) for treating this population?
Submit an annotated bibliography with an entry for each of your resources. Include the references in proper APA format. Write a brief summary highlighting the theory, treatment, intervention, and research methodology discussed in each resource.
Authors conducted thorough review of existent studies on psychosocial conduct disorder and interventions in regards to children and adolescents. They also investigated oppositional defiant disorder. 82 experimental studies were evaluated using certain criteria created by the Clinical Psychology Task Force on Promotion and Dissemination of Psychological Procedures. Authors concluded that the two most effective programs that met all…
Brestan, EV. & Eyberg, EM (1998) Effective psychosocial treatments of conduct-disordered children and adolescents: 29 years, 82 studies, and 5,272 kids Journ. Clin. Child Psyc. 27, 180-189
Burke, JD, Loeber, B., & Birmaher, R. (2002) Oppositional Defiant Disorder and Conduct Disorder: A Review of the Past 10 Years, Part II, J. Am. Acad. Child Adolesc. Psychiatry, 41, 1275-1293.
Kumpfer, K & Alvarado, R (2003). Family-Strengthening Approaches for the Prevention of Youth Problem Behaviors American Psychologist, 58, 457-465
Low socio-economic status (SES) is linked with a number of mental health outcomes in both adults and children. For young people, low SES has been associated with higher rates of attempted suicide, higher levels of behavioral and emotional issues, higher levels of aggression, higher rates of specific behavioral and mental health concerns including anxiety, depression, and conduct disorders (APA, 2015a). egardless of the specific environmental conditions, "type of hardship," or type of mental illness evaluated, a study of 34,000 patient records revealed "the poorer one's socioeconomic conditions are, the higher one's risk is for mental disability and psychiatric hospitalization," (Hudson, 2005). While correlation does not signal causation, there are certainly reasons to consider low SES a major risk factor for mental illnesses of all types.
One of the proximate causes of some mental illnesses are environmental stressors like unemployment, housing uncertainty, and general material insecurity (Hudson, 2005). For adolescents and…
American Psychological Association (APA, 2015a). Children, youth, families, and socioeconomic status. Retrieved online: http://www.apa.org/pi/ses/resources/publications/factsheet-cyf.aspx
American Psychological Association (APA, 2015b). Disability and socioeconomic status. Retrieved online: http://www.apa.org/pi/ses/resources/publications/factsheet-disability.aspx
Hudson, C.G. (2005). Socioeconomic Status and Mental Illness: Tests of the Social Causation and Selection Hypotheses. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry 75(1).
McLaughlin, K.A. et al. (2012). Socioeconomic status and adolescent mental disorders. American Journal of Public Health 102(9): 1742-1750.
detection and intervention in childhood mental health help prevent mental health problems in adult life?
Disregarding the mental well-being requirements of children is an intolerable violation of our basic undertaking to protect their well-being. Unfavorable mental disposition amidst our children is a less acknowledged difficulty that influences their literary, societal, and emotional enhancement. Mental well-being is a wide attribute to be analyzed. The mental well-being requirements of children and youth demand introspection. There is prevalent refuting that mental well-being is comprehensive of the influence on the children -- amidst all age distinct ions, variety of cultural sections, and all income sections. Such miscomprehensions are recurring, and involvement and care are unlikely to be found. Many people have the belief that children having mental well-being difficulties are just under the impact of a particular passing cloud. (Promoting Access for Children to Mental Health Screens and Assessments in Medicaid and the Children's…
AAMR. "Mental retardation: Definition, classification, and systems of supports," 9th edition (1992).
Caplan G. "Principles of Preventive Psychiatry," Basic Books, New York, 1964
Children's Mental Health: Current Challenges and a Future Direction Traditional Mental Health Services for Children: Current Arrangements and Challenges." Retrieved at http://www.healthinschools.org/mhs3.asp . Accessed on 12/08/2003
Children, Youth and Mental Disorders." The Primer May, 2003
Mental Health Drugs as Panacea
A culture is made up of people who have developed the same language (or at least dialect of a larger language), art forms, religion, and other means of distinguishing one group from another. It can be said that all groups have a certain culture that they have established by which they are constrained. For example, a company develops a culture that is specific to it, and that culture governs everyone who works at, or is affiliated with, that company. In ethnic terms, a culture will define the ways in which one ethnic grouping is different from another. Although certain groupings may have similar languages, religions and ways of doing things, they will also have differences which distinguish them. In the same way that different species of birds are characterized by slight differences in appearance or location, people are grouped by the culture from…
Cottone, R.R. (2007). Paradigms of counseling and psychotherapy, revisited: Is social constructionism a paradigm? Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 29(3), 189- 199.
Haylock, B. (2004). Resilience education and drug information. Australian Screen Education, 38, 142-144.
Sharav, V.H. (2005). Screening for mental illness: The merger of eugenics and the drug industry. Ethical Human Psychology and Psychiatry, 7(2), 111-121.
WebMD. (2005). Major depression (clinical depression). Retrieved from http://www.webmd.com/depression/guide/major-depression
For mental health professionals, working with patients can be challenging. This is because they will have issues that could be directly associated with their condition. In the movie One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest, it is discussing these problems. To fully understand how this relates to crisis theory and intervention requires comparing different scenes from the film that are relevant. This will be accomplished by focusing on: the precipitating event, identifying the type of crisis, examining the material / personal / social resources available, studying the different perspectives, looking at how it was handled by the protagonist, suggesting coping skills, discussing referral sources that are available and biblical perspectives. Together, these elements will provide specific insights as to the way it is illustrating crisis theory and intervention challenges.
Identify precipitating events
The main event is when andal Patrick McMurphy is sent to a mental hospital from the state prison.…
Holly Bible New International Version. (1985). Oak Ridge, TN: Gideon's International.
How Do I Find a Local Support Group. (2012). NMHA. Retrieved from: http://www.nmha.org/go/find_support_group
Douglas, M. (Producer), & Forman, M. (Director). (1975). One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest. USA: United Artists.
Wright, N. (2011). The Complete Guide to Crisis and Trauma Counseling. Ventura, CA: Regal.
Mental illness appears in various forms. It is characterized by some serious disruptions in someone's thoughts or even demonstrated in their actions. The person presenting these symptoms is often unable to deal with the day-to-day activities and patterns of a normal life. Mental illness can take over 200 forms each having an effect on the patient's disposition, character, traits, and even the way they interact with others. Some of the common forms of mental illness are 'schizophrenia', 'depression,' 'bipolar disorders' and 'dementia'. Taylor and Brown (1988) state that mental illness can be presented in a psychological, emotional way and even in physical symptoms. A person under severe stress due to dealing with an incident or series of stressors' build-up over time is prone to mental illness. A person may also present symptoms of mental illness through a biochemical imbalance, a negative reaction to his environment, and the pressures accrued thereby,…
Bartlett, A., & McGauley, G. (2010). Forensic mental health: Concepts, systems, and practice. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Clinic, M. (2015, October 13). Mental illness. Retrieved December 7, 2015, from http://www.mayoclinic.org/ diseases-conditions/mental-illness/basics/definition/CON-20033813
Corrigan, P. W., Morris, S., Larson, J., Rafacz, J., Wassel, A., Michaels, P., ... Rusch, N. (2010). SELF-STIGMA AND COMING OUT ABOUT ONE'S MENTAL ILLNESS. Journal of Community Psychology, 38(3), 259-275. http://doi.org/10.1002/jcop.20363
Dowrick. C., Dunn. G., Ayuso-Mateos.J et al. (2000). Problem-solving treatment and group psycho-education for depression: multicenter randomized controlled trial. British Medical Journal, 321, 1450-4
web pages devoted to mental health in general and mood disorders in specific. CANMAT and Dr. Ivan's Depression Central are two worth investigating. The Canadian Network for Mood and Anxiety Treatments (CANMAT) is an organization of Canadian mental health professionals who specialize in mood and anxiety disorders. CANMAT runs an educational and informative website, http://www.canmat.org.hilenot the most navigable site on the eb, http://www.canmat.org/isa non-commercial, reliable source of information about depression and anxiety. hile the "here to Find Help" section is aimed at Canadian residents, the information on mood and anxiety disorders contained in the site is universal.
The CANMAT board of trustees consists of 21 psychiatrists and one psychologist, all of whom are associated with major Canadian universities. They are not trying to sell anything; there are no links to pharmaceutical companies nor are there pop-up ads. The site's content is edited and compiled by an MD. There are sections…
Canadian Health Network. Health Canada. 2002. http://www.canadian-health-network.ca/customtools/homee.html
CANMAT. Ed. Sagar V. Parikh. 2001 http://www.canmat.org/index.shtml
Dr. Ivan's Depression Central. Ed. Ivan Goldberg, MD. 2002. http://www.psycom.net/depression.central.html
Mayo Clinic. 2002. http://www.mayoclinic.org/
Chronic Fatigue Syndrome -- A Case Study
Case study 'Monique.'
Case presentation and history
Monique, a female aged 30, possesses a history of depression and chronic fatigue syndrome, starting at the age of 16 to 17, together with suicide attempts (entailing overdosing), in addition to a long record of anxiety. During baseline evaluation, she reported continuous constant fatigue as well as anhedonia. She also expressed dense retrograde amnesia following a 12-week program of bi-weekly electroconvulsive therapy early in 2006 (she asserts that has no memory of any occurrences preceding this). In late 2006, Monique was also diagnosed with ADHD, however, trusts that she has had continuous problems with distractibility and vagueness. At one point, dexamphetamine was experimented on her, which, even though enhanced her attention, also reduced her mood and hence it was discontinued. Monique also reported that when she was 2 years old, she cracked her skull consequent to…
Canadian Mental Health Association, 2015. Mood Disorders. [Online]
Available at: https://www.cmha.ca/mental-health/understanding-mental-illness/mood-disorders / [Accessed 19 September 2015].
APA, 2010. Anxiety Disorders and Effective Treatment. [Online]
Available at: http://www.apa.org/helpcenter/anxiety-treatment.aspx [Accessed 19 September 2015].
Another essential teaching strategy is the use of targeting specific behaviors. Once a teacher becomes familiar with a student's problem behaviors through daily interaction and observations, the teacher should spend time determining which specific behavior or behaviors need to be attended to. Typically the most disruptive or dangerous behaviors are targeted, as often times these are the causes of other, more minor problems. Next, the teacher should work individually with the student in developing a plan on how they, as a team, plan to replace the undesirable behavior with a more appropriate behavior. For example, if the targeted behavior is inappropriate anger placement, such as when a student throws a desk or other classroom materials when angry, the teacher should have that student work on talking about their anger with an adult or other trusted peer. The goal of these conversations is to learn how to be assertive without being…
Algozzine, Bob, and Jim Ysseldyke. (2006): Teaching Students with Emotional Disturbance: A Practical Guide for Every Teacher. London: SAGE Publications.
Bambara, Linda M.M., and Lee Kern. (2005): Individualized Supports for Students with Problem Behaviors: Designing Postivie Behavior Plans. Guilford Publishing, Inc.
Holland, Melissa and Gretchen a. Gimpel. (2003): Emotional and Behavioral Problems of Young Children: Effective Interventions in the Preschool and Kindergarten Years. Guilford Publications, Inc.
Kauffman, James, M. (2004): Cases in Emotional and Behavioral Disorder of Children and Youth. New York: Prentice Hall.