Hughes proceeded to institute a system of "Confusing Military Structures," the www.CDNMilitary.casitecontinues. Battlefront unites were "constantly formed, disbanded, reformed and disbanded again"; and as though that wasn't enough, the Ross Rifle issue was another problem that Hughes' legacy is left with, according to the site. One army driver is quoted as saying, "To hell with the [Ross Rifle]. I'll take a club." In fact, Ross did not fully understand why soldiers objected to the use of the Ross Rifle, the military Web site claims, because even though Hughes "dressed up like a military officer while being Minister of the Militia," he was "nothing more than a civilian...and never did have to use the rifle in combat" (www.CDNMilitary.ca).
And the Ross Rifle wasn't the only snag in Hughes' pursuit of innovative wartime materials and technologies, the CNDMilitary site claims. Indeed, the "MacAdam shield-shovel" - termed a "Canadian-designed miracle" by Hughes, who always wanted Canada to show leadership in technologies - it turned out not so well. It had no handle, "was heavy, and could not stop a bullet at all...a completely useless piece of equipment" (www.CDNMilitary.ca).Thereason Hughes was so high on the potential of this shovel is apparently because Hughes' "young secretary" had dreamed up the idea "while observing war games in Switzerland in 1913" (www.DCNMilitary.ca).
As to why Sam Hughes continues to stir interest among editors and scholars, it is clear he was above all a true Canadian character, whose legacy jumps out of the historical record like a frog launching up and out of an open box that a small boy thought would keep him in custody. There were indeed successes during the controversial career of Sam Hughes, according to the Library and Archives Canada (www.collectionscanada.gc.ca).Oneof those successes was Hughes' ability to recruit men for the militia; by using "patriotic fervour" and by telling the "thousands of young men" who enrolled that the enemy would soon be "crushed," Hughes put together battalions at breakneck speed. But every publication and historical record of Sam Hughes also digs out his errors and mischief as well. The Library and Archives Canada points out that beyond the Ross Rifle disaster, Hughes' other attempts to provide his "boys" with equipment went awry; the boots "leaked"; the vehicles "lacked spare parts"; the military belts were "irregular"; and "much effort was wasted on limiting the consumption of alcohol."
In the Web site First World War, it is alleged that not only was Hughes' push for the Ross Rifle wrongheaded, there were "widespread accusations of corruption"...
In his letter Hughes, defiant to the end, said to the Prime Minister that "...While, as a rule, your actions and manner to me... [have been] courteous... [you] have never been apparently frank or loyal [to me]."
CDNMilitary.CA. 2002. "The Canadian World War One Mobilization: A Complicated
Matter." Retrieved March 15, 2009, at http://www.cdnmilitary.ca/index.php?p=20.
Cook, Tim. 2004. "The Madman and the Butcher: Sir Sam Hughes, Sir Arthur Currie,
And Their War of Reputations." The Canadian Historical Review 85 no. 4, 695-719.
First World War. 2002. "Who's Who: Sam Hughes." Retrieved March 16, 2009, at http://www.firstworldwar.com/bio/hughes_sam.htm.
Haycock, Ronald G. Sam Hughes: The Public Career of a Controversial Canadian, 1885-1916. Waterloo, Ontario, Canada: Wilfred Lauier University Press, 1986.
Hughes, Sam. 1916. "Letter of Resignation - Sir Sam Hughes - We were there." Library
And Archives Canada. Retrieved March 16, 2009, at http://www.collectionscanada.gc.ca.
Library and Archives Canada. 2000. "Canada and the First World War: We Were There Sir Sam Hughes." Retrieved March 16, 2009, at http://www.collectionscanada.gc.ca/firstworldwar/e.html.
Stewart, Robert. 2003. "The Obsessions of Sam Hughes." Beaver 83 no. 5, 14-21.
Trent University Archives. 2000. "Fonds Level Description - Hughes, Sir Samuel, 1853-
1921." Retrieved March 15, 2009, at http://www.trentu.ca/acmin/library/archives/83-1014.htm.
Ronald G. Haycock, Sam Hughes: The Public Career of a Controversial Canadian, 1885-1916, (Waterloo, Ontario: Wilfred Lauier University Press, 1986), 1.
Trent University Archives, "Hughes, Sir Samuel, 1853-1921," Retrieved March 17, 2009, at http://www.trentu.ca/admin/library/archives/83-1014.html.
Tim Cook, "The Madman and the Butcher: Sir Sam Hughes, Sir Arthur Currie, and Their War of Reputations," the Canadian Historical Review 85, no. 4 (2004): 693.
Robert Stewart, "The Obsessions of Sam Hughes," Beaver 83, no. 5 (2003): 2.
CDNMilitary.CA, "The Canadian World War One Mobilization: A Complicated Matter," http://www.cdnmilitary.ca/index.php?p=20.
Library and Archives Canada, "Canada and the First World War: We Were There / Sir Sam Hughes," Retrieved March 16, 2009, at http://www.collectionscanada.gc.ca/firstworldwar/e-html.
First World War. "Who's Who: Sam Hughes," (2002). Retrieved March 16, 2009, at http://www.firstworldwar.com/bio/hughes_sam.htm.
Library and Archives Canada, "Canada and the First World War: Letter of Resignation - Sir Sam Hughes - We Were there - Page 4 - November 11, 1916." Retrieved March 16, 2009, at http://www.collectionscanada.gc.ca/firstworldwar/.021.01-e.html.
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