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Mental Illness and Child Abuse
The physical abuse of children was 'rediscovered' by physicians over fifty years ago. Since then, some observers have expressed concern at the continuing 'medicalisation' of what they consider to be essentially a social problem (Parton, 1985). A widely-held view emerged from the ensuing debate that child physical abuse and neglect occurred through an interaction between parents, children and their social environment. The model described parents with emotional conflicts, caring for vulnerable children, while living in circumstances of social stress (Schmitt and Krugman, 2005). In the context of this model, parents who maltreated their children were not generally considered to be suffering from a psychiatric disorder.
However, recent research into child abuse and neglect has not fully supported this assumption. In particular, reviews of child deaths have shown significant associations with parental mental health problems. Research in this area has been hampered by problems of definition.…
Agathonos-Georgopoulou, H. And Browne, K.D. (1997) The prediction of child maltreatment in Greek families. Child Abuse and Neglect, 21, 721-735.
Button, J.H. And Reivich, R.S. (2010) Obsessions of infanticide: a review of 42 cases. Archives of General Psychiatry, 27, 235-240.
Cleaver, H., Unell, I. And Aldgate, J. (1999) Children's Needs-Parenting Capacity: The Impact of Parental Mental Illness, Problem Alcohol and Drug Use, and Domestic Violence on Children's Development. London: The Stationery Office.
Falkov, A. And Davies, N. (1997) Solutions on the ground: a family mental health service? In: Report of the 12th Annual Michael Sieff Foundation Conference 'Keeping Children in Mind: Balancing Children's Needs with Parents' Mental Health'. Michael Sieff Foundation.
When one throws the element of ethnicity into the mix, the process of diagnosis becomes even more difficult. Let us take, for instance the effect of religion on the diagnosis of a mental illness.
In some religions it is considered to be "normal" to experience visions, see ghosts, and talk to the dead. However, from a strict clinical standpoint, these things do not exist and therefore indicate a break from reality. There have certainly been people diagnosed with a serious mental illness for "hallucinating." However, it is much more difficult to determine when to label such a happening a "hallucination" or a "vision." For the person being diagnosed, the experience does not change. However, the label that is applied to the experience can mean the difference between the accepted norm and mental illness (Griffiths et al., 2006, 2).
There are differences in reactions to clinicians that are culturally based as…
Bentall, R. 2004, Madness explained: Psychosis and human nature. Penguin, London, 95-96.
Boyce, P, 2006. Restoring wisdom to the practice of psychiatry. Australasian Psychiatry. 14(1), 3-7.
Clark, L. 2007. "http: Assessment and Diagnosis of Personality Disorder: Perennial Issues and an Emerging Reconceptualization Annual Review of Psychology 58, 227-257
Elder, R., Evans, K. & Nizette, D. 2005, Psychiatric and mental health nursing. Mosby, Marrickville, 51-63.
Edwards challenges the extreme on the other end as well, i.e. that total wellness sis the only possible state of being labeled healthy. The scholar sites the World Health Organization's definition of wellness as complete mental and physical wellness as far too broad and encompassing and illegitimates the reality of human existence. (16. Edwards, CC2010, pp. 0090) Edwards ultimately argues that the challenges faced by both those who believe that the "optimum" health of an individual is the only alternative associated with curative behaviors is fundamentally to charged as it means that an individual is not acceptable to society until he or she is completely well. The answer then according to Edwards is to set a more realistic goal of reaching rational autonomy, i.e. The most basic ability of an individual to function in society. (17. Edwards, CC2010, pp. 0091-0092)
Though Edwards makes strong points regarding the extremes of mental…
The foremost question relating to mental illness concerns about its very existence - whether mental illness actually exists or not? According to Thomas Szasz, mental illness is a mere myth (Szasz, 1960) and does not exist, as illness can be defined only in terms of physical pathology and most mental disorders have no such demonstrable pathology. In a similar viewpoint, it was argued that biology was not relevant to the disorders of mind and behavior and such disorders could be fully understood from a sociological point-of-view. (Laing, 1960) Another theory is that some forms of mental disorders are the result of social incompetence and can be cured by social skills training. (Tower, Bryant and Argyle, 1978)
However, the medical profession holds the opposite view and is satisfied that mental illness does exist and is usually divided into two major groups - the psychoses and the neuroses. (oth and…
Eysenck, H.J. (1960) 'Classification and the problems of diagnosis: Handbook of Abnormal Psychology', First Edition, Pitman: London
Hollingshead, A.B., and Redlich, F.C., (1958) 'Social Class and Mental Illness', Wiley: New York, Laing, R.D. (1960) 'The divided self', Tavistock, London
Macionis, J (2001) 'Society, the Basics', Prentice Hall Publishing Inc., NJ
Roth, M., and Kroll, J., (1986) 'The Reality of Mental Illness', Cambridge University Press
Null Hypothesis 2: The mentally ill are not particularly at risk of substance abuse or criminal activity.
4) Independent and Dependent Variables
Independent variables that might influence the study focused on the mentally ill include other influencing factors such as support from family, friends, age, and the use of psychotropic drugs.
Independent variables that can influence the study includes attitudes and stigmatization by professionals at institutions that house mentally ill inmates. This can be influenced by individuals' knowledge of the mentally ill, such as having family members or friends with related conditions.
5) Operational Definitions:
Support from family and friends is taken to mean monitoring medication and liaising with mental health professionals.
In terms of age, it is commonly experienced that mentally ill patients tend to become more responsible with age in terms of understanding the nature of their condition and taking responsibility for medication and regular clinic visits.
References During Prime-Time Television. International Communication Association. Retrieved from AllAcademic.com: http://www.allacademic.com/meta/p113127_index.html
However many people displaying psychiatric symptoms were over represented in jail and there is no tangible evidence to prove that it is their mental illness that got them to jail.
Indeed unless it can be shown that factors unique to serious mental illness are specifically associated with behavior leading to arrest and incarceration, the criminalization hypothesis ought to be reconsidered. It should put into consideration more powerful risk factors for crime inherent in social settings. Though jails and prisons continue to be seen as psychiatric warehouses, this may not indicate mental health care crisis but rather much of a public policy crisis in accordance with Junginger et.al (2006).
Melissa Schaefer Marabito (2007) has it that since the 1970s a large number of people have entered the criminal justice system of which can only be attributed to criminalization hypothesis. She goes on to critic the criminalization hypothesis saying that it oversimplifies…
Dr. Junginger and colleagues (2006). Effects of Serious Mental Illness and Substance Abuse on Criminal Offenses. June 2006 Vol. 57 No. 6
Melissa Schaefer Morabit (2007). Criminalization Hypothesis: An Historical Policy Analysis.
Retrieved August 20, 2011 from http://apha.confex.com/apha/135am/techprogram/paper_163813.htm
mental health field and the economy. The writer presents a hypothesis that the economic downturn can and does contribute to increased mental health issues.
National economies fluctuate constantly. Sometimes the slump is short lived and other times the downturn lasts for years. The mental health of those who live in an area that is suffering from an economic downturn can fluctuate as well. Those who are caught in the throes of the downturn experience life chances that might include less disposable income, fewer job opportunities and fewer health benefits. All of these things and the other factors that an economic downturn brings to ones life can create an atmosphere that is conducive to mental illness being triggered.
Before one can determine that a downturn in local, regional or national economies can cause an increase in mental illness one must first have an understanding about what mental illness is. Mental illnesses…
Freire P; Ramos MB (1970). trans. Pedagogy of the Oppressed. New York, NY: Seabury;.
BOB EDWARDS (2001). Profile: Effect of the economic downturn on people on welfare., Morning Edition.
Suvendrini Kakuchi (1998). DEVELOPMENT-ASIA: DOWNTURN DRAINING HEALTH BUDGETS., Inter-Press Service English News Wire.
Social-Environmental Context of Violent Behavior in Persons
Treated for Severe Mental Illness
Society as a whole understands that two major demographic predictors of violent behavior are being male and being young. Two major clinical predictors of violent behavior are a past experiential history of violence (e.g., in the home, the community, personal delivery or receipt of violent acts or behaviors) and substance abuse (i.e., alcohol and/or drugs). ecently, it has been established that a third factor may well partner with these clinical predictors to violent behavior - being 'severely' mentally ill and refusing or refraining from taking disease management medications.
Severely mentally ill people who take their disease management medications are not more dangerous than the general population. The MacArthur Foundation Study on violence and mental illness found that psychiatric patients without substance abuse influences were no more likely to demonstrate violent behavior than any other individual…
Swanson J, Holzer C, Ganju V, Jono R. Violence and psychiatric disorder in the community: evidence from the Epidemiologic Catchment Area surveys. Hosp Community Psychiatry. 1990;41:761-770.
Link B, Stueve A. Psychotic symptoms and the violent/illegal behavior of mental patients compared to community controls. In: Monahan J, Steadman H, eds. Violence and Mental Disorder: Developments in Risk Assessment. Chicago, Ill: University of Chicago Press; 1994:137-159.
Steadman HJ, Mulvey EP, Monahan J, et al. Violence by people discharged from acute psychiatric inpatient facilities and others in the same neighborhoods. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1998;55:393-401.
Swanson J. Mental disorder, substance abuse, and community violence: an epidemiological approach. In: Monahan J, Steadman H, eds. Violence and Mental Disorder: Developments in Risk Assessment. Chicago, Ill: University of Chicago Press; 1994:101-136.
Health and Well-Being of a Chosen Group:
Diagnosed mental disorders
Barriers to assistance for diagnosed mental disorders exist on the individual, community, and social level. On an individual level, people are often reluctant to admit to themselves that they are mentally ill, or a refusal to recognize that they are ill is actually part of the pathology of their illness. On a social level, discomfort in dealing with people who are mentally ill, a lack of financial resources for treatment (particularly for the poor but even for members of the middle class that lack enough insurance for extensive mental health coverage) can also create barriers to care. A lack of financial resources in general can prevent a full, expansive treatment option being offered combining necessary psychopharmacology and therapy even for patients who are able to afford some types of care.
egulatory, legal, ethical, and accreditation requirements/issues
On a personal…
Clay, R. (2011). Advocating for psychotherapy. APA. 42 (8): 48. Retrieved from:
McLaughlin, C. (2004). Delays in treatment for mental disorders and health insurance coverage.
Health Services Res 39 (2): 221-224. Retrieved from:
ANCOVA and MANOVA
ANCOVA or MANOVA
A multivariate analysis of variance (MONOVA) is a statistical procedure for comparing a the population means of several groups and when two or more dependent variables exist ("StatSoft," 2011). One of the strengths of a MONOVA is that individual p-values are produced for each dependent variable. This enables a comparison of the levels of significance of the variables, and can show interactions among the dependent variables ("StatSoft," 2011). It is also possible to determine if changes to the independent variables will create significant effects on the dependent variables ("StatSoft," 2011).
If we consider the question about the influence of course delivery methods on the academic performance of students enrolled in statistics classes, we may find a MONOVA approach to be of assistance in our analysis. ecall that the three course delivery methods are: online, face-to-face, and hybrid. The course delivery methods are the independent…
Carey, G. (1998). Multivariate analysis of variance (MONAVA): I. Theory. Retreived from http://ibgwww.colorado.edu/~carey/p7291dir/handouts/manova1.pdf
Pieterse, A.L., Carter, R.T., Evans, S.A., & Walter, R.A. (2010). An exploratory examination of the associations among racial and ethnic discrimination, racial climate, and trauma-related symptoms in a college student population. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 57 (3), 255-263. doi: 10.1037/a0020040.
Trochim, W.M.K. (2006). Analysis of Covariance. In Research methods knowledge base (2nd ed.). Retrieved from http://www.socialresearchmethods.net/kb/statcov.php
Differences between The Mental Illnesses
The challenge of near-similar presentation of symptoms between schizophrenia, dissociative identity, and bipolar disorder has led to many cases of misdiagnosis. This warrants the need to differentiate the three illnesses as a way of limiting the recurrence of misdiagnosis challenge. Bipolar disorder is a common mental infirmity characterized by alternating mood depressions and mania for several months or even weeks. Maniacs exhibit high levels of energy and hyperactivity associated with restlessness (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). Such individuals have an irrational belief of accomplishing huge workloads in a short time. Moreover, the commit themselves to different projects although none can be accomplished. Those around the patients will notice that they are always on the move and have many things to say. Lastly, they do not sleep much because of the depressive and manic mood that leaves them feeling sad.
Contrastingly, schizophrenia is a mental illness where…
American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Arlington, VA: Author.
Corbiere, M., Samson, E., Villotti, P., & Pelletier, J. F. (2012). Strategies to fight stigma toward people with mental disorders: perspectives from different stakeholders. The Scientific World Journal, 2012. From https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3475300/
In recent years, mental illnesses have been the focus of considerable attention from medical professionals. These are conditions that can cause disruptions in individual's moods, feelings, thinking, daily functioning, and the ability to relate with other people and things. Mental illness is a condition of the brain which results in different symptoms, as well as affecting the day-to-day life of that person and the people around him or her in different ways. The mental illnesses include borderline personality disorder, post-traumatic stress, obsessive compulsive disorder, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, depression, and anxiety to name a few. More than sixty million people in America, i.e. one out of four adults, are going through mental illnesses in a given year. One out of seventeen people experiences disorders such as bipolar disorder, depression, and schizophrenia while one out of ten million children are going through emotional disorders and mental illnesses. Every person who…
Miles, J., Espiritu, R., Horen, N., Sebian, J., & Waetzig, E. (2007). A public health approach to children's mental health. Georgetown: Center for Child and Human Development.
(n.d.). Models of Human Service Delivery.
NAMI. (2013). Mental Illness: What you need to know. Virginia: National Alliance on Mental Illness.
NIMH. (n.d.). NIMH Plan of Research. Retrieved from www.nimh.nih.org: https://www.nimh.nih.gov/about/strategic-planning-reports/introduction.shtml
Mental illness appears in various forms. It is characterized by some serious disruptions in someone's thoughts or even demonstrated in their actions. The person presenting these symptoms is often unable to deal with the day-to-day activities and patterns of a normal life. Mental illness can take over 200 forms each having an effect on the patient's disposition, character, traits, and even the way they interact with others. Some of the common forms of mental illness are 'schizophrenia', 'depression,' 'bipolar disorders' and 'dementia'. Taylor and Brown (1988) state that mental illness can be presented in a psychological, emotional way and even in physical symptoms. A person under severe stress due to dealing with an incident or series of stressors' build-up over time is prone to mental illness. A person may also present symptoms of mental illness through a biochemical imbalance, a negative reaction to his environment, and the pressures accrued thereby,…
Bartlett, A., & McGauley, G. (2010). Forensic mental health: Concepts, systems, and practice. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Clinic, M. (2015, October 13). Mental illness. Retrieved December 7, 2015, from http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/mental-illness/basics/definition/CON-20033813
Corrigan, P. W., Morris, S., Larson, J., Rafacz, J., Wassel, A., Michaels, P., ... Rusch, N. (2010). SELF-STIGMA AND COMING OUT ABOUT ONE'S MENTAL ILLNESS. Journal of Community Psychology, 38(3), 259-275. http://doi.org/10.1002/jcop.20363
Dowrick. C., Dunn. G., Ayuso-Mateos.J et al. (2000). Problem-solving treatment and group psycho-education for depression: multicenter randomized controlled trial. British Medical Journal, 321, 1450-4
homelessness and mental illness are inextricably intertwined. One way that mental illness impacts people's lives is that it oftentimes renders them unable to carry out the functions of daily life, such as keeping a job, paying their bills, and managing a household. In addition to disrupting the events of daily life, mental illness "may also prevent people from forming and maintaining stable relationships or cause people to misinterpret others' guidance and react irrationally" (National Coalition for the Homeless, 2009). What this means is that a population that is already vulnerable because of an inability to consistently manage self-care lacks the same safety net as much of the rest of society.
People with mental illnesses are at greater risk of homelessness. This is particularly true for people with serious mental illnesses, particularly those that might impact their reality testing, such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, or major depression (National Coalition for the…
Folsom, D.P., Hawthorne, W., Lindamer, L., Gilmer, T., Bailey, A., Golshan, S., Garcia, P.,
Unutzer, J., Hough, R., and Jeste, D.V. (2005). Prevalence and risk factors for homelessness and utilization of mental health services among 10,340 patients with serious mental illness in a large public mental health system." American Journal of Psychiatry, 162, 370-376.
National Coalition for the Homeless. (2009, July). Mental illness and homelessness.
Retrieved April 13, 2013 from National Coalition for the Homeless website: http://www.nationalhomeless.org/factsheets/Mental_Illness.pdf
Multifaceted Media epresentations of Mental Illness in Australia
In the 21st century, the age of the digital and social media revolutions, as well as the age that demands information, media, and technological literacy from the average person, it is becoming common and respected knowledge that all forms of media have the power to influence behavior and attitudes. Media is a form of communication, entertainment, and education. While most media is not generally considered as contributing to normative/institutional education, media educates viewers nonetheless. Media educates viewers as to how to participate in various cultures by practicing similar beliefs, rituals, behaviors, attitudes, and preferences and more. Media teaches culture, whatever the culture may be. It is a common experience of the human condition to feel pressure to conform at various stages of life. The paper analyzes and reflects upon the messages the media sends viewers regarding attitudes of people with mental illnesses.…
Highet, N.J., Luscombe, G.M., Davenport, T.A., Burns, J.M., & Hickie, I.B. (2006) Positive relationships between public awareness activity and recognition of the impacts of depression in Australia. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 40, 55 -- 58.
Hocking, B. (2003) Reducing mental illness stigma and discrimination -- everybody's business. Medical Journal of Australia: Schizophrenia Supplement, 178, S47 -- S48.
Huang, B., & Priebe, S. (2003) Media coverage of mental health care in the UK, USA, and Australia. The Psychiatric Bulletin, 27, 331 -- 333.
Stout, P.A., Villegas, J., & Jennings, N.A. (2003) Images of Mental Illness in the Media: Identifying Gaps in the Research. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 30(3), 543 -- 561.
mental illness on the individual, family, and community, and identify mental health resources for individuals experiencing mental illness. Mental illness does not just affect the patient, it affects the entire patient's family and friends, and it can affect them throughout their life. Unfortunately, mental illness still invokes a stigma in this country, which has a negative affect on patients suffering from mental illness.
Even when people attempt to be open minded, there is still a stigma that revolves around people who suffer from mental health issues. Two authors note, "People suffering from mental illness and other mental health problems are among the most stigmatized, discriminated against, marginalized, disadvantaged and vulnerable members of our society" (Overton & Medina, 2008). This is just one of the negative affects of suffering from mental illness, and it can be as debilitating as the disease itself. In the past, (such as the middle ages, people…
Corrigan, P.W., Watson, A.C., Byrne, P., & Davis, K.E. (2005). Mental illness stigma: Problem of public health or social justice?. Social Work, 50(4), 363+.
Neugeboren, J. (2006, October 6). Side effects. Commonweal, 133, 38.
Overton, S.L., & Medina, S.L. (2008). The stigma of mental illness. Journal of Counseling and Development, 86(2), 143+.
The ability for patients to access mental health services these days are more wide ranging than ever before. This is in part due to the fact that the realm of mental health, once simply governed by physicians, is now peopled by staff of all different types and disciplines. In addition, many mental health professionals are now multiply credentialed, so it is not impossible to see a mental health professional who is all at once a family and marital therapist, a chemical dependency practitioner and a social worker. All these elements only serve to improve the ability of patients/clients to receive quality mental health services, whether it be in a large institutional setting, a community mental health center or in a private clinical office.
But what are the different types of mental health professionals who are trained in the identification and treatment of patients with mental health issues? There…
Bridget, J. 1994, Treatment of Lesbians with Alcohol Problems in Alcohol services in North-West England, Lesbian Information Service.
Faulkner, A. 1997, Briefing No.1 - Suicide and Deliberate Self-Harm. Mental Health Foundation
National Patient Safety Agency 2001, Safety First, National Confidential Inquiry into Suicide and Homicide by People with Mental Illness, five-year report of the National Confidential Inquiry
Shaffi, M., Carigan, S., Whittinghall, J.R. et al. 1985, 'Psychological Autopsy of Completed Suicide in Children and Adolescents', American Journal of Psychiatry, 142, 1061-1064.
This is a fact that is virtually undisputed among the sociological and medical school of thought and practice. Many researchers of late have suggested alternative approaches to treating abnormal behaviors evident in persons diagnosed with mental illness.
By far the most common of these is a cooperative approach to care that involves treatment utilizing pharmacological and cognitive or counseling therapies. It is believed that the combination of both of these will work in tandem to best serve the needs of the patient afflicted with a mental illness. A cooperative approach to treating mental illness will also guarantee that both the sociological aspects and physiological aspects of the disease are treated adequately.
Buelow, G., & Hebert, S. (1995). Counselor's resource on psychiatric medications, issues of treatment and referral. Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole.
Christensen, O.J., England, J.T. & Scovel, K.A. (2002). "Mental health counselors'
Perceptions regarding Psychopharmacological prescriptive privileges." Journal of…
Buelow, G., & Hebert, S. (1995). Counselor's resource on psychiatric medications, issues of treatment and referral. Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole.
Christensen, O.J., England, J.T. & Scovel, K.A. (2002). "Mental health counselors'
Perceptions regarding Psychopharmacological prescriptive privileges." Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 24(1), 36
Hagan, J. (1991). "The disreputable pleasures: Crime and deviance in Canada, 3rd ed."
Moreover, in Perry v. Louisiana, 498 U.S. 38 (1990), the Court used that decision to bolster Louisiana's attempts to forcibly medicate a prisoner in order to make him death-eligible. If one agrees that the death penalty is a just penalty for one who has committed a capital crime, and that the reason that mentally ill defendants should not be executed is because they lack competence, then it does not seem unethical to allow them to be forcibly medicated in order to be competent. After all, in that scenario, avoiding medication could be likened to any other attempt to avoid punishment. Moreover, an organic physical disorder that arose after conviction, but that would have prevented a defendant from committing a crime, would not be sufficient reason not to execute a person on death row.
However, forced medication, especially for court appearances, may violate a defendant's Fifth Amendment right to present a…
Bonnie, R. (2007). Panetti v. Quarterman: mental illness, the death penalty, and human dignity. Ohio State Journal of Criminal Law, 5, 257-283.
Fentiman, L. (1986). Whose right is it anyway? Rethinking competency to stand trial in light of the synthetically sane insanity defense. University of Miami Law Review, 40, 1109-1127.
Ford v. Wainwright, 477 U.S. 399 (1986).
Panetti v. Quarterman, 127 S. Ct. 2842 (2007).
, 2009). To the extent that these young people are perceived in terms of stereotypical views by clinicians will likely be the extent to which the therapeutic relationship will be adversely affected. In this regard, Villaneuva and her associates conclude that, "Myths and stereotypes about mental illness that can create personal biases and lead to discrimination. Such stereotypical views together with long-standing beliefs about mental illness can affect the nurse-patient relationship and ultimately influence the care that patients receive" (p. 221).
In response to this potential for stereotypical perceptions influencing clinicians' treatment of adolescents with mental disorders, a growing number of programs across the country have been launched in recent years to educate the public and healthcare professionals concerning stereotypes about mental illness in general and among young people in particular. Popular stereotypes about mental illness, though, can be powerful forces that are not easily changed. For example, a study…
Hinkelman, L. & Granello, DH (2003). Biological sex, adherence to traditional gender roles, and attitudes toward persons with mental illness: An exploratory investigation. Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 25(4), 259-261.
Overton, S.L. & Medina, S.L. (2008). The stigma of mental illness. Journal of Counseling and Development, 86(2), 143-144.
Villanueva, C.S., Scott, S.H., Guzzetta, C.E. & Foster, B. (2009). Development and psychometric testing of the attitudes toward mental illness in Pediatric Patients Scale.
Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Nursing, 22(4), 220-221.
psychological basis of mental illness is certainly only half of the story. Though mental illness is genetic, the actual symptoms and condition being presented is based on a careful marriage between biological and environmental factors. In particular, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), is a mental illness in which "people have unwanted and repeated thoughts, feelings, ideas, sensations or obsession, or behaviors that make them feel driven to do something (compulsions)" (National Institute of Mental Health, 2011). This mental illness, like many others is multi-faceted, in that there is a physiological process associated with it, a set of symptoms that manifest, certain diagnostic criterion and then a set of treatment options.
Foremost, the physiological process of mental illness is mainly concerned with the brain and certain regions of it. The physiological process is a process that evaluates the neural mechanisms of perception and behavior. esearch examining the brain has found that "a selective…
Riccardi, Christina J, Timpano, Kiara R, & Schmidt, Norman B (2010). A Case Study Perspective on the Importance of motivation in the Treatment of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder. Clinical Case Studies, Volume 9, (Issue 4), pages 273-284.
Rosenberg, David R. & Keshavan, Matcheri S. (1998). Toward a Neurodevelopment Model of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder. Biological Psychiatry: Official Journal of the Society of Biological Psychiatry, Volume 43 (Issue 9), Pages 623-640.
Swinson, Richard P (2001). Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Theory, Research, and Treatment. New York: The Guilford Press.
Another reason for not seeking treatment is that people are sacred of the mental illness help. People get scared and are afraid of what will happen if they agree to go ahead and get help. They often have visions of electrocutions, over-medicated zombies as well as being forced to stay in asylums. They also do not seek treatment since they are overwhelmed by the mental health problems. People with mental health problems are worst placed mentally and they are not at the best state to make any decisions. They are often scared, lonely and they are doing anything so as to get on to the next day. Therefore adding the idea of getting help to what they are going through is terrifying to them hence they do not seek help (Conley, 2012).
Improving mental health treatment in the community
The treatment of mental health problem is very crucial .As a…
Conley, M. (2012).1 in 5 Americans Suffers From Mental Illness. Retrieved May 26, 2013 from http://abcnews.go.com/blogs/health/2012/01/19/1-in-5-americans-suffer-from-mental-illness/
SoRelle, R, (2000). Circulation Electronic Pages. Nearly Half of Americans with Severe Mental Illness Do Not Seek Treatment. Retrieved May 26, 2013 from http://circ.ahajournals.org/content/101/5/e66.full
, 2001). (Corrigan, Watson, Byrne & Davis, 2005, p. 363)
Individuals who then enter the system and attempt treatment are taking a leap of faith that doing so will improve rather than continue to degrade their life and their options in it. Though HIPPA (Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act) attempts to resolve issues of confidentiality, creating strict rules for who when and how communications about one's health can be communicated between individuals attempts to aide all health care clients they are specifically helpful with regard to mental health clients. Possible barriers they create with regard to the sharing of information between clinicians can also be specifically troubling in the mental health arena as the individual must be shown to be giving consent in some way to these communications and they also bar clinicians from sharing information with the individual's support network, such as family, unless permission has been granted…
Suicide. (2007). In the Columbia Encyclopedia (6th ed.). New York: Columbia University Press.
Corrigan, P.W., Watson, a.C., Byrne, P., & Davis, K.E. (2005). Mental Illness Stigma: Problem of Public Health or Social Justice?. Social Work, 50(4), 363.
Heeringen, K. (Ed.). (2001). Understanding Suicidal Behaviour: The Suicidal Process Approach to Research, Treatment, and Prevention. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Seaburn, D.B., Lorenz, a.D., Gunn, W.B., Gawinski, B.A., & Mauksch, L.B. (1996). Models of Collaboration: A Guide for Mental Health Professionals Working with Health Care Practitioners. New York: Basic Books.
ecovery From Mental Illness
People of all ages, backgrounds, and walks of life have, at some time or another, experienced catastrophes. When these tragic events occur, the challenge of recovery must be confronted. ecovery is a unifying human experience that transcends both illness and disability (Anthony, 1993). In regards to mental illness, recovery has not been addressed through research or discussion as extensively as recovery from physical illness or injury. ecovery involves much more than symptom alleviation. It is a subjective, unique process of altering and adapting one's values, attitudes, goals, feelings and roles in order to live a more satisfying, hopeful and fulfilled life (Anthony, 1993). Anthony (1993) and Deegan (1988) both provide evaluations of the mental health system in reference to its efficacy in aiding and encouraging, not only rehabilitation, but recovery. Deegan (1988) explains the importance of recovery-based mental health services through the parallel stories of a…
Anthony, W. (1993). Recovery from mental illness: The guiding vision of the mental health service system in the 1990s. Psychosocial Rehabilitation Journal, 16(4), 11-24.
Deegan, P. (1988). Recovery: The lived experience of rehabilitation. Psychosocial Rehabilitation Journal, 11(4), 11-19.
Mental Illness and Substance Abuse
Does mental illness cause substance abuse addiction or does substance abuse addiction cause a mental illness diagnosis? Does it go both ways?
A complex relationship exists between substance abuse and mental illness. Those suffering from depression, anxiety and other mental illnesses may use alcohol and drugs as self-medication. Unfortunately, though such options may appear to work temporarily, substance abuse is no treatment for any condition; in fact, it often aggravates the problem during severe intoxication as well as in the course of substance withdrawal (NAMI, 2010).
Furthermore, alcohol and drugs can initiate mental illness in persons who are otherwise mentally healthy, while worsening problems in those who are already mentally ill. Active substance users will tend to not follow-through properly with therapy, and are more vulnerable to serious health complications and even premature death. Those having dual diagnosis will also be more prone to violent…
Anderson P, & Baumberg B. (2006). Alcohol in Europe: a public health perspective. London: Institute of Alcohol Studies.
Anderson, M. L., Ziedonis, D. M., & Najavits, L. M. (2014). Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and substance Use Disorder Comorbidity among Individuals with Physical Disabilities: Findings from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 27(2), 182-191. doi:10.1002/jts.21894
Book SW, & Randall CL. (2002). Social anxiety disorder and alcohol use. Alcohol Res Health; 26:130-5.
Cerda M, Sagdeo A, Galea S. (2008). Comorbid forms of psychopathology: key patterns and future research directions. Epidemiol Rev; 30:155_177.
Providing more effective and less painful treatments would indeed be a very large step in the right direction. The study results indicated by the above authors provide significant hope in this direction.
Jaffee, S.. And Price, T.S. (2007). Gene-environment correlations: a review of the evidence and implications for prevention of mental illness. Molecular Psychiatry, Vol. 12. etrieved from: http://www.biostat.sdu.dk/courses/f11/TwinAnalysis/papers/Gene%20Environment%20interaction/jaffee2007.pdf
Lahey, B.B., D'Onofrio, B.M. And Waldman, I.D. (2010, Feb. 10). Using Epidemiological Methods to Test Hypotheses egarding Causal Influences on Child and Adolescent Mental Disorders. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. etrieved from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2819309/
oth, T.L., Lubin, F.D., Sodhi, M. And Kleinman, J.E. (2009, Jun. 25). Epigenetic mechanisms in schizophrenia. Biochim Biophys Acta. etrieved from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2779706/
utter, M. (2010). The Cutting Edge: Gene-Environment Internplay. Depression and Anxiety. Vol. 27. etrieved from: http://www.moffittcaspi.com/Documents/utter_2010_D%26A.pdf
Wermter, A-K., Lauch, M., Schimmelmann, B.G., Banaschweski, T., and Sonuga-Barke, E.J.S. (2010). From nature vs. nurture, via nature…
Jaffee, S.R. And Price, T.S. (2007). Gene-environment correlations: a review of the evidence and implications for prevention of mental illness. Molecular Psychiatry, Vol. 12. Retrieved from: http://www.biostat.sdu.dk/courses/f11/TwinAnalysis/papers/Gene%20Environment%20interaction/jaffee2007.pdf
Lahey, B.B., D'Onofrio, B.M. And Waldman, I.D. (2010, Feb. 10). Using Epidemiological Methods to Test Hypotheses Regarding Causal Influences on Child and Adolescent Mental Disorders. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. Retrieved from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2819309/
Roth, T.L., Lubin, F.D., Sodhi, M. And Kleinman, J.E. (2009, Jun. 25). Epigenetic mechanisms in schizophrenia. Biochim Biophys Acta. Retrieved from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2779706/
Rutter, M. (2010). The Cutting Edge: Gene-Environment Internplay. Depression and Anxiety. Vol. 27. Retrieved from: http://www.moffittcaspi.com/Documents/Rutter_2010_D%26A.pdf
One aspect of a goal attainment program researched within the content of an article by Ng & sang, is group therapy work, where individuals are offered the opportunity to self-reflect through the group process to help assimilate "normal" behaviors and reasonable goals into their own hoped for future.
raditional psychiatric rehabilitation programs focus on 'problems' and 'negatives' of individuals and tend to ignore strengths and assets (Hagedorn, 1992). Unlike the traditional approach, this program uses a holistic and client-centered approach (Rogers, 1984) which helps individuals establish future directions in home and work resettlement. he Goal Attainment Program focused on the participants' future expected life roles and social functioning in relation to the environmental context (i.e. their 'participation level', according to the International Classification of Impairment, Disability and Handicap (ICIDH-2) of the World Health Organization). he program emphasized the needs and positive aspects of individuals (Rogers, 1984), as well as the…
Traditional psychiatric rehabilitation programs focus on 'problems' and 'negatives' of individuals and tend to ignore strengths and assets (Hagedorn, 1992). Unlike the traditional approach, this program uses a holistic and client-centered approach (Rogers, 1984) which helps individuals establish future directions in home and work resettlement. The Goal Attainment Program focused on the participants' future expected life roles and social functioning in relation to the environmental context (i.e. their 'participation level', according to the International Classification of Impairment, Disability and Handicap (ICIDH-2) of the World Health Organization). The program emphasized the needs and positive aspects of individuals (Rogers, 1984), as well as the attainment of self-esteem in the self-actualization hierarchy (Maslow, 1970). The program is based on the belief that each individual has the potential to control his/her life and to choose what he/she wishes to become. With this belief, change can only take place when the individual finds the meaning in himself/herself. Positive change can occur throughout life. The role of therapist is to facilitate the willingness to change (Hagedorn, 1992). This study also used Frankl's (1946/1992) belief that the most basic human motivation is the will to meaning. (Ng & Tsang, 2002, p. 59)
Self-control and self-esteem cannot be learned in a vacuum, as individuals have little if any comparison models, which given them hope for their own future, if they are isolated from society. Group therapy settings can allow the individual to create a reasonable set of hopes that can build social health and help the individual learn how to develop coping skills for their positive, rather than negative future in the community where they live. Group therapy is an essential tool for this attainment, as the intense interaction within groups helps individuals see and feel what it might be like to confront the steps and stages of social growth while commiserating with others who have the same or similar obstacles, i.e. mental illness management, as they themselves have.
Managing Mental Illness: Variations of Group Therapies in the Literature
There is a high correlation between youth with substance abuse problems and youth with mental illness. Often, the substance abuse is a means of self-medicating. There are a lot of potential underlying factors for this high comorbidity, but it is important to recognize that the comorbidity exists, and it has implications for treatment. Proper psychiatric care is often required in concert with addiction treatment interventions, in order to ensure that youth facing these issues are able to overcome their addictions.
There are a number of psychiatric disorders that can occur with substance abuse during adolescence. For example, among those with an alcohol use disorder, 37% had comorbidity with a mental disorder. The odds are particularly high for multiple addictive disorders, such as drug use disorders. Some of the most common comorbidities with substance abuse disorders are antisocial personality disorder, schizophrenia and bipolar disorders (egier et al.,…
Bukstein, O., Brent, D. & Kaminer, Y. (1989). Comorbidity of substance and other psychiatric disorders in adolescents. American Journal of Psychiatry. Vol. 146 (9) 1131-1141.
Greenbaum, P., Prange, M., Friedman, R. & Silver, S. (1991). Substance abuse prevalence and comorbidity with other psychiatric disorders among adolescents with severe emotional disturbances. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. Vol. 30 (4) 575-583.
NIH (2011). Comorbidity: Addiction and other mental disorders. NIH.gov. Retrieved April 11, 2016 from https://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/drugfacts/comorbidity-addiction-other-mental-disorders
NIH (2016). Comorbidity: Addiction and other mental illnesses. National Institute of Drug Abuse Retrieved April 11, 2016 from https://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/comorbidity-addiction-other-mental-illnesses/why-do-drug-use-disorders-often-co-occur-other-mental-illnesses
Family Therapy Treatment of Mental Illness
There has been a growing movement towards the use of family therapy methods for the treatment of mental illness in recent years. To determine the facts about this trend, this paper provides a review of the relevant literature concerning family therapy treatment of mental illness in three sections. In Section 1, a discussion concerning the views of O'Hanlon and owan's (2003) and Zeig and Munion (1999) for working with clients with chronic or severe mental illness is followed by an analysis of the extent to which they succeed in making a strong case for "brief therapy" with intensive clients. An assessment concerning the contribution of Milton Erickson to the assessment and treatment of different mental health diagnoses is followed by an analysis of their respective approaches and the corresponding benefits and limitations of each of these models. Section II provides a discussion concerning the…
Daroff, R. B. (2005, Fall). Solution-oriented therapy for chronic and severe mental illness. Journal of Psychotherapy Practice Research, 8(4), 318.
Gurman, A. S. & Messer, S. B. (2003). Essential psychotherapies: Theory and practice. New York: Guilford Press.
McFarlane, W. R., Dixon, L., Lukens, E., & Lucksted, A. (2003): A review of the literature about psychoeducation and schizophrenia. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 29(2), 223-227.
Simoneau, T., & Miklowitz, D. (2001): The sights and sounds of schizophrenia.
While all mental illnesses continue to carry some sort of stigma, perhaps no mental illness is more widely misunderstood than schizophrenia. In fact, prior to the introduction of some of the more modern medications, it was virtually impossible to live a normal life if one had a diagnosis of schizophrenia. The complex interplay of symptoms experienced by most schizophrenics lent those patients the classic air of madness. Moreover, the combination of hallucinations, delusions, and disorganized thought contributed to the air of dangerousness (see APA, 2000). While the mentally ill, as a whole, are no more dangerous to themselves or others than the general population, the reality is that an individual with schizophrenia could be much more dangerous than the population as a whole. Moreover, there was no standard treatment of the patient with schizophrenia. Schizophrenia crosses all races and cultures, so that a wide variety of cultural treatments contributed…
American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders: DSM-
IV. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Publishing, Inc.; 2000.
Bentall RP. Prospects for a cognitive-developmental account of psychotic experiences. Br J. Clin
Psychol. 2007;46(Pt 2):155 -- 73.
Joan of Arc
Thanks to the many media representations of her, Joan of Arc has become somewhat of a household name. Also known as Jeanne or Jehanne D'Arc, this extraordinary young woman fearlessly led the French Army to victory at a time when it became obvious to all but her that they would lose. In addition to devising military strategies that would ultimately lead them to victory, Joan of Arc also boosted the morale of her soldiers to such an extent that they rapidly came from a deep depression about their possibilities as an army towards a unified front that few could defeat. In the end, however, and perhaps this is the most well-known part of her story, Joan of Arc came to her tragic end by being burned at the stake as a heretic at best or a witch at worst. Today, this story has culminated in many speculations.…
Graham, G. (2010). The disordered mind: An introduction to philosophy of mind and mental illness. New York: Routledge.
Keko, D. (2011, May 29). Joan of Arc: The Visions. Examiner.com. Retrieved from: http://www.examiner.com/article/joan-of-arc-the-visions
National Post (2014). Joan of Arc's Secret. Retrieved from: http://www.nationalpost.com/news/story.html?id=18ce2b05-67d7-402a-833e-f0618da5c4e6
The recurrence of homelessness for individuals may be frequently attributed to drug addiction.
The recurrence of homelessness for individuals may be frequently attributed to mental illness.
There is a clear reciprocal relationship between homelessness, drug addiction and mental illness.
Mental illness plays a significant role in preventing homeless individuals from f inding suitable long-term housing. .
Singleton identifies the systematic procedure as a form of data gathering in which a survey or interview will be utilized in order to gather information for further analysis. His text points to the large-scale probability study as a form in which substantial populations can be measured according to representative sample sets. The "scientific sampling…
The National Institutional Health (NIH). (1979). Regulations and Ethical Guidelines. The National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research.
Singleton, R.A. & Straits, B.C. (1999). Approaches to Social Research. Oxford
psychotherapeutic drugs overprescribed for treating mental illness?
With the development of SSIs such as Prozac, some psychotherapists proclaimed the end of depression and there were even concerns that such drugs would change the human character by making treatment of the illness too easy. Now, after many years after the birth of Prozac, it is clear that no antidepressant is a silver bullet when it comes to eliminating a particular mental health problem. In fact, the concerns are that SSIs and other drugs commonly used to treat depression are substantially less effective than their manufacturers claim. "An analysis of all FDA clinical trials for four SSI antidepressants found that the drugs didn't perform significantly better than placebos in treating mild or moderate depression, and the benefits of the drugs were "relatively small even for severely depressed patients" (PLoS Medicine, 2008, cited by Smith 2012:36). Even studies which indicate a more…
Cohen, B. (2001). Mind and medicine: Drug treatments for psychiatric illness. Social Research.
Hershel, J., Kayne, J., Jick, S. (2004). Antidepressants and the risk of suicidal behaviors.
JAMA, 292(3):338-343. .
McHenry, L. (2006). Ethical issues in psychopharmacology. Journal of Medical Ethics.
social structures exert a definite pressure upon certain persons in the society to engage in nonconformist rather than conformist conduct," (Merton, 1938, p. 672). With his own italics emphasizing the stress and strain that social structures can produce in the individual, obert Merton outlines the basis of strain and stress theories. Stress is a natural part of life; it is how people cope with stress or react to it that matters most. Individual differences in background, situational variables, and also personality and psychological traits can also impact how people deal with stress and respond to stressors. However, some people will naturally encounter more stressors and more strain than others. Merton and other sociologists who recognized the value of strain theory showed how poverty and other structural variables cause stress and strain, and can often be the cause for behavioral problems including criminality. Yet once a person has been labeled a…
Agnew, R. & Scheuerman, H. (2015). Strain theories. Retrieved online: http://www.oxfordbibliographies.com/view/document/obo-9780195396607/obo-9780195396607-0005.xml
"Labeing Theory," (n.d.). Retrieved online: https://www.d.umn.edu/~bmork/2306/Theories/BAMlabeling.htm
McLeod, S. (2010). Stressful life events. Retrieved online: http://www.simplypsychology.org/SRRS.html
Merton, R.K. (1938). Social structure and anomie. American Sociological Review 3(5): 672-682.
Schizophrenia, Dissociative Disorder and Bipolar Disorder
While some symptoms of schizophrenia, dissociative disorder and bipolar disorder might seem similar, prompting individuals to suspect that the three different mental health disorders are interchangeable, the reality is that these three problems are quite distinct. This paper will discuss the broad differences between them as well as way to educate the client about his or her disorder, his or her family about it, and ways to reduce stigma.
As the DSM-5 points out, schizophrenia a mental disorder that causes the patient to experience hallucinations, delusions, irrational speech patterns, anti-social behavior, a loss of willpower/motivation, or even a possible catatonic state at times. Symptoms include incoherent speech, paranoia, distorted perceptions, confused or disordered thinking, and an inability to concentrate. This broad spectrum of symptoms should be seen for at least a month, with behavior being monitored for up to six months (American Psychiatric Association,…
Dance and the Treatment of PTSD/Mental Illness
The first key concept of the article is the notion that "arts-based programming" is a positive and helpful way to treat PTSD. This theory aligns with classical psychology/philosophy -- namely, the ideas of the ancient Greeks and Romans, which was that the best way to cure the body and mind was to start by curing the soul. In order to do this, they used music, good environments, art, and other types of "cultural" productions to alleviate the stress in the individual's life and provide a better balance of confidence and ability in the person's psyche. This is the main idea of the study by the researchers ilbur et al. They elaborate on this idea by highlighting the effectiveness of dance as a treatment modality, stating that "dance is one of the most synchronized activities in which humans engage, and its neural substrates are…
Wilbur, Sarah, et al. "Dance for Veterans: A complementary health program for veterans with serious mental illness." Arts and Health, vol. 7, no. 2 (2015): 96-108.
Jones relates that statement of Corrigan: "Our work suggests that the biggest factor changing stigma is contact between people with mental illness and the rest of the population. The public needs to understand that many people with mental illness are functioning, fully contributing members of society." (Jones, 2006) Jones states that "the social cost of stigma associated with mental illness is high because it translates into huge numbers of people with treatable mental illness not getting help." Jones relates the fact that the National Alliance of Mental Illness (NAMI) is a group of advocates that works toward fighting the "inaccurate, hurtful representations of mental illness" that are found in the media. Jang (2002) states that the National Health Law Program has a priority to access of healthcare. In fact, the Executive Order (EO 13166) was focused toward the implementation of guidelines in overcoming the language barriers. Jang states that LEP…
Anderson, S.K. & Middleton, V.A.
Explorations in privilege, oppression and DiversityBrooks Cole 2005. ISBN0-534-51742-0
Barber, J.G. (1995). Politically progressive casework. Families in Society: The Journal of Contemporary Human Services, 76(1), 30-37.
Children Who Can't Pay Attention/ADHD (2004) Facts for Families. Academy of child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Online available at http://www.aacap.org/page.ww?section=Facts+for+Families&name=Children+Who+Can%27t+Pay+Attention%2FADHD
New findings show that the spouses of veterans also experience mental health disorders, and the prevalence increases with the length of deployment (Mansfield, Kaufman, Marshall, Gaynes, Morrissey & Engel, 2010). When spouses are considered to be clients of health services, the need for improved and more robust resources becomes apparent. Moreover, spouses with mental health disorders present unique issues and questions for treatment. eturning soldiers may find that they have supportive partners who can lead to a mutually beneficial treatment relationship, via couples or family therapy. On the other hand, the mental health problems of the spouse can exacerbate those of the soldier, and vice-versa. Thus, a family systems approach can be extremely helpful when addressing the multifaceted mental health concerns among veterans.
Veteran health services are at a critical juncture. The need for targeted mental health interventions, ranging from screenings and assessments to therapies and treatments, has been proven…
Britt, T.W., Greene-Shortridge, T.M. & Castro, C.A. (2007). The Stigma of Mental Health Problems in the Military. Military Medicine 172(2), February 2007, pp. 157-161(5)
Bliese, P.D., Wright, K.M., Adler, a.B., Thomas, J.L. & Hoge, C.W. (2007). Timing of postcombat mental health assessments. Psychological Services 4(3), Aug 2007, 141-148.
Hoge, C.W., Auchterlonie, J.L. & Milliken, C.S. (2006). Mental Health Problems, Use of Mental Health Services, and Attrition From Military Service After Returning From Deployment to Iraq or Afghanistan. JAMA. 2006;295(9):1023-1032. doi:10.1001/jama.295.9.1023.
Hoge, C.W., Castro, C.A., Messer, S.C., McGurk, D., Cotting, D.I. & Koffman, R.L. (2004). Combat Duty in Iraq and Afghanistan, Mental Health Problems, and Barriers to Care. N Engl J. Med 2004; 351:13-22July 1, 2004 DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa040603
However, more empirical studies have been published in recent years which have both reported outcomes but also have acknowledged the complexity of the interaction of the number of variables involved in predicting outcome effects on children whose parents are substance abusers (Dworkin & Hirsch, 2004). This literature is particularly important because of the large number of children affected by substance abuse of various kinds and the social policy directed toward substance abuse offenders including parents.
Although the empirical research base is growing on the relationship of parental disability to child outcome effects (Emerick & Zirpoli, 2000) there continues to be a need for research that methodologically addresses specific critical parental disability factors.
Implementing Culturally Sensitive Crisis
In conclusion, when faced with an individual who is recognizably from a culture different from the crisis worker, some modification in approach will be considered. However, there is sufficient cultural diversity present in our…
Colangelo, N. (2007). Counseling gifted students: Issues and practices. In N. Colangelo and G.A. Davis (Eds.), Handbook of Gifted Education (2nd ed.), (pp. 353-381). Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
Colangelo, N., & Assouline, a. (1993). Families of gifted children. A research agenda. Quest, 4, 1-4.
Dworkin, M., & Hirsch, G. (2004). Responding to managed care: A roadmap for the therapist. Psychotherapy in Private Practice, 13, 1-21.
Emerick, L., & Zirpoli, T. (2000). Different concerns, different needs? Perceptions of gifted children and parents of children with disabilities. Paper presented at the conference of the American Association of Gifted and Talented, Little Rock, AR.
Additionally, the questioner should know that some mood disorders can present themselves somatically: someone who is anxious may have a racing pulse, and someone who is depressed may have difficulty sleeping, eating, or engaging in basic self-care.
Aspects of the client's presentation to consider when evaluating his or her perception may include orientation (knowing where he or she is), alertness, coherence and ability to concentrate. ecall can be tested by asking questions about the date, who is president, etcetera; concentration can be tested by using a Digit Span test -- asking the client to count backwards from 100 to 50 by 7s or 3s (Niolin 2000). Noting the presence of delusions or hallucinations, gaining a rough estimate of the client's intellectual ability, thought processes, and judgment (ability to understand why he or she is being assessed), and assessing his or her ability to engage in abstraction (such as understanding…
Niolin. (2000). The mental status examination. Psych Page. Retrieved January 20, 2010 at http://www.psychpage.com/learning/library/assess/mse.htm
This creates a nerve with the client that their private information is going to be unprotected and confidentiality is going to be broken . There is no safe way to keep all information private. However, all mental health professionals must take all necessary precautions to keep client information private .
As you look around the mall, classroom, church, family history, friend's family, or place of employment, you're sure to know someone with a mental illness, or someone who might of attempted suicide . Assessing and treating these disorders is essential in the mental health field, more trained mental health professionals are needed, more agencies, and more funding . Otherwise if society keeps assuming that the mind and brain are separate and that mental disorders are " different" or " bad" misunderstanding, mistreatment, and stigma will persist in this society . We need to stop seeing individuals with mental health…
American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (Revised 4th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.
American Association of Suicidology. ( 2006, February), U.S.A. suicide: 2003 official final data. Retrieved March 19, 2010, from http:/ / www.suiciodology.org.
Bonner, L. ( 2001). Rethinking suicide prevention and manipulative behavior in corrections. Jail Suicide Mental Health Update, 10(4), 7-8.
Bonner, L. (2006) . Stressful segregation housing in psychosocial vulnerability in prison suicide. Suicide and Life Threatening Behavior, 36,250-254.
Mental Health Counseling
Discuss the role in relationship to the prescription and monitoring of pharmacological treatments for mental health issues.
Unique advances have been achieved in the treatment offered to clients suffering from mental illness. Mental health care providers must understand the original causes of mental health disorders in order to provide treatment to clients with these disorders. Therefore, mental healthcare providers are able to treat disorders associated with mental health. This is being done with much success as physical disorders (Madden, 2008).
The profession of mental health provision has categorized strategies of treating mental health problems as either psychotherapeutic or somatic. Somatic methods of treating mental disorders include therapies such as electroconvulsive therapy, which have the potential of stimulating the brain. Psychotherapeutic method includes behavioral therapy strategies, hypnotherapy, and psychotherapy. esearchers have established that most mental health disorders require treatment strategies that involve both psychotherapy and drugs. This is…
Madden, R.G. (2008). Legal issues in social work, counseling, and mental health: Guidelines for clinical practice in psychotherapy. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications
Palmo, A.J., Weikel, W.J., & Borsos, D.P. (2011). Foundations of mental health counseling.
Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas.
World Health Organization (2009). Mental health aspects of women's reproductive health: A
mental health prisoners usa. I've included outline main idea, I apply ideas questions. contact clarifications. I. Introduce define global health issue connection nursing. For, .
Mental Health in the American Prison System
There has always been much controversy regarding prisoners and their mental health, but as civilization has experienced much progress throughout this century people have become more and more concerned about making sure that prisons are able to differentiate between individuals who are mentally ill and persons who are not. Even with the fact that prisons were never design to accommodate the mentally ill, conditions are critical today as a great deal of men and women who are unable to get mental health treatment in the communities they live in are incarcerated consequent to committing an illegality. There are a great deal of people suffering from schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, or depression in U.S., thus meaning that society needs to…
Austin, W. And Boyd, M.A. (2010). Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing for Canadian Practice. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Cornwell, D.J. (2009). The Penal Crisis and the Clapham Omnibus: Questions and Answers in Restorative Justice. Waterside Press.
Finkel, M.L. (2010). Public Health in the 21st Century: [Three Volumes]. ABC-CLIO.
Videbeck, S.L. (2010). Psychiatric-Mental Health Nursing. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Nonetheless, people who received some level of ACRP intervention had a lower rate of criminal recidivism than people who received no intervention at all.
The study found that the case flow through the ACRP was a little slow. The amount of time between the Initial Opt-In Hearing and the Formal Opt-In Hearing averaged 74 days. While there are no hard and fast rules governing how long this process should take, the study found that that "the ACRP is performing rather well on the front-end of the admissions process (up to the initial opt-in stage) but that more could be done to work on the back end (time between the Initial Opt-In Hearing and the Formal Opt-In Hearing)."
The study found that the incentives and sanctions used by ACRP judges to promote compliance at status hearings, though standardized, were not tailored to correspond to participant progress.
Outcomes from the Last Frontier: An Evaluation of the Anchorage Mental Health Court (Alaska Mental Health Trust Authority, Ferguson-Hornby-Zeller, 2008).
Improving Responses to People with Mental Illnesses: The Essential Elements of a Mental Health Court (Thompson, Osher, Tomasini-Joshi, 2008).
Mental Health Courts: Decriminalizing the Mentally Ill. (Irwin Law, Schneider-Hyman-Bloom, 2007).
Mental Health Courts. (Wiley Encyclopedia of Forensic Science, Schneider, 2009).
mental health and poor mental health. Explain two ways your own culture influences your definitions of mental health. Then explain how your definition of mental health might differ from that of your selected culture. Finally, describe a behavior that is considered normal in your culture but would be considered abnormal in the culture you selected.
Defining mental health: Japan vs. The United States
Even within a culture, the definition of what constitutes 'sanity' or 'insanity' can be extremely controversial. Where to draw the line between eccentricity and quirkiness vs. full-blown mental illness? In Western culture, definitions of mental illness have changed over time. For example, during the 19th century, a woman who did not want to get married and have sex outside of marriage might be considered deranged. Today, being gay is not considered a mental illness, but less than 50 years ago homosexuality was officially classified as an abnormality.…
Given the subjective nature of mental illness, it is not surprising that every culture has a different definition of what constitutes deviancy. In Japan, for example, a new mental disorder has been identified called "hikikomori," meaning "pulling in" or "withdrawal" (Grisafe 2012) Hikikomori usually affects young men who "withdraw entirely from society and stay in their own homes for more than six months, with onset by the latter half of their twenties, and for whom other psychiatric disorders do not better explain the primary causes of this condition" (Grisafe 2012). Most of these young men are middle-class and come from households able to support them financially. The young men spend their days watching television, playing video games, and pursing other activities that do not require social interaction. While some have reported self-destructive behavior like 'cutting' or obsessive-compulsive cleaning, their most distinguishing feature is their complete social isolation.
One of the causes of hikikomori is thought to be the famously rigid Japanese social system. If a young person does not get into a good school and find a good job immediately upon graduation, few opportunities are available for him or for her. While women have the possibility of marriage, men have little else to look forward to, given that society regards them as a 'failure.' The condition was first identified during Japan's great recession in the 1990s, when the formerly stable, booming economy began to unravel.
Of course, the phenomenon of young people struggling to find work after graduation is not confined to Japan. In the wake of the recession of 2008, many young American graduates were forced to return home. "The number of young adults ages 20 to 34 who lived with their parents jumped from 17% in 1980 to 24% in 2007-09" (Nasser 2012). Young male returnees are also reported to have fewer domestic demands placed upon them by their parents, such as cooking and cleaning (Nasser 2012). However, the sense of complete emotional stasis and failure that afflicted the Japanese men is not characteristic of American graduates enough to be regarded as a mental illness. Although some graduates undeniably experience depression and frustration, the fact that society in America takes a more permissive view of taking time to 'find one's feet' after graduation likely has a more positive emotional impact upon graduates unable to be financially independent. Also, in contrast to Japan, American colleges tend to be prohibitively expensive, and the need to alleviate their debt burden forces many young graduates to take some kind of a job (and therefore, to leave the house), in contrast
ecovery can be a difficult journey for many. The reality of having to change old habits for new ones can take a lifetime. The recovery approach/model realizes the struggle of change and transformation and makes it so that way emphasis is not placed on the destination, but rather the journey. Although other approaches like the disease/medical model aim to treat one aspect of recovery from addiction, the recovery model encompasses all aspects making it one of the most advantageous models to adopt to fight addiction.
The recovery approach/model to addiction and/or mental disorder places a strong emphasis on a support for an individual's potential for recovery. ecovery means a person undergoing a personal journey instead of determining and setting an outcome. This personal journey involves the development of hope, a sense of self, a secure base, social inclusion, meaning, empowerment, and coping skills that will take that person past the…
Barker, P. & Buchanan-Barker, P. (2012). Tidal Model of Mental Health Nursing. Currentnursing.com. Retrieved 24 July 2016, from http://currentnursing.com/nursing_theory/Tidal_Model.html
Best, D. & Lubman, D. (2012). The recovery paradigm - a model of hope and change for alcohol and drug addiction. Aust Fam Physician., 41(8), 593.
Hall, W., Carter, A., & Forlini, C. (2015). The brain disease model of addiction: is it supported by the evidence and has it delivered on its promises?. The Lancet Psychiatry, 2(1), 105-110. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s2215-0366 (14)00126-6
Hammer, R., Dingel, M., Ostergren, J., Partridge, B., McCormick, J., & Koenig, B. (2013). Addiction: Current Criticism of the Brain Disease Paradigm. AJOB Neuroscience, 4(3), 27-32. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21507740.2013.796328
Mental health services for adults and children in Florida are commonly provided by community health facilities and agencies. The use of community health agencies and facilities is providing these services are fueled by the need for an intensive care level to address the increase and impact of mental disorders. Florida State has embraced a framework of directive principles of care as the foundation for providing mental health services to adults and children. However, this framework has been insufficient to effectively deal with mental disorders for children in Jacksonville, Florida. Based on recent statistics, over 20% of children and young people experience the signs and symptoms of these illnesses during the course of a year (Goldhagen, 2006). A comprehensive, integrated community mental health service program is a suitable community-based approach this problem in Jacksonville, Florida.
Description of the Population
Mental disorders have developed to become a major health problem…
Buchanan, D. (2007). Integrating Behavioral Health into Primary Care. Retrieved from University of Nebraska -- Medical Center website: http://webmedia.unmc.edu/Community/CityMatch/EMCH/062807/DCBHS%202007.ppt
Cohen et. al. (2011). Three Models of Community Mental Health Services in Low-income
Countries. International Journal of Mental Health Systems, 5(3), 1-10. Retrieved from http://www.ijmhs.com/content/pdf/1752-4458-5-3.pdf
Flannery, F., Adams, D. & O'Connor, N. (2011, February). A Community Mental Health Service
The health of women has been a subject of discussion for many years and it has been emphasized because the health of women is directly related to the health of the child and thus the health of the society (Jacobson, 1993). However, the unfortunate part is that when considering the health of the women, only her physical and reproductive health is given importance and there is no consideration of her mental health that is equally as important as her physical health. All around the world, efforts have increased to make the health conditions of the women better especially since the last decade. Women are now regularly screened for HIV and other diseases that have a vertical pattern of transmission so that the children can be saved from such diseases. Awareness has also increased over the years among the women and they realize that their health, both mental and…
Belle, D. Poverty and Women's Mental Health.American Psychologist (1990) 45:385-389.
Jacobson, J. Women's Health: The Price of Poverty. In The Health of Women: A Global Perspective, edited by M. Koblinsky, J. Timyan, and J. Gay, pp. 3-32. Boulder, CO: Westview Press (1993).
Jayarajan, Nishanth; Chandra, Prabha.HIV and Mental Health: An Overview of Research from India. Indian Journal of Psychiatry, September 2010.
WHO.Mental Health Determinants and Populations.Geneva (2000) http://whqlibdoc.who.int/hq/2000/who_msd_mdp_00.1.pdf .
Mental Health and Stigma
Stigma influences the lives of people living with serious mental illnesses in many ways, including via the experience of self-stigma, whereby a person gives intense focus to what others might think about one’s own mental illness, internalizing their conception of the illness (Link, Wells, Phelan & Yang, 2015). Stigma can also come from society, from the workplace, from one’s own family or set of peers, and even from strangers. When an illness is stigmatized in the media, a person who suffers from that illness may feel taboo, ostracized from society, isolated from the “normal” group of people who have normal lives and can function without problem (Corrigan, Druss & Perlick, 2014).
Stigma influences the lives of people living with serious mental illnesses in other ways too. They become afraid to seek medical help because of the fear of being labeled as a person with a…
Mental Health Disorder
The following is a close examination of the psychosocial status of mental health disorder. There is going to be an examination of the symptoms along with a comprehensive diagnosis of the case.
Mental Health Disorder- Background
Childhood mental health disorder refers to all mental health conditions that affect a person in childhood. The disorder in children is described as critical changes that affect the way a child behaves, learns or even handles emotional situations. Some of the known childhood mental health disorders include (CDC - Child Development, Children's Mental Health -- NCBDDD, n.d):
Hyperactivity disorder/attention deficit disorder (ADHD) (http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/adhd/index.html)
Disorders related to behavior
Anxiety and mood disorders
Substance use disorders
Mental health is essential in life. Mental health disorders can persist throughout a person's life (CDC - Child Development, Children's Mental Health -- NCBDDD, n.d). The problem needs to be diagnosed early. Otherwise, children continue…
(n.d.). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. CDC - Child Development, Children's Mental Health - NCBDDD. Retrieved February 6, 2016, from http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/childdevelopment/mentalhealth.html
Klauck, S. (2006). Genetics of autism spectrum disorder. European Journal of Human Genetics, 14, 714-720. Retrieved February 6, 2016 from http://www.nature.com/ejhg/journal/v14/n6/full/5201610a.html
(n.d.). Medicine Net. Mental Health: Get the Facts on Common Disorders. Retrieved February 6, 2016, from http://www.medicinenet.com/mental_health_psychology/article.htm
(n.d.). MU School of Health Professions. Autism Spectrum Disorders: Case Study. Retrieved February 6, 2016, from http://shp.missouri.edu/vhct/case4108/case_study.htm
They very seldom become fully integrated into society or become independent. (Mental etardation: Free Health Encyclopedia)
The is little doubt that mental retardation has an effect on society in general and in terms of care and treatment of the affected person. However, it is also true that with the knowledge and expertise that has been accumulated about mental retardation it is also become more feasible to accommodate the mentally retarded person as a productive member of society.
My perception of the mentally retarded in society is that are less fortunate and that the mentally healthy members of society should help and assist these individuals wherever possible. The research for this paper has made me aware that we often categorize the mentally retarded in a general way without realizing that there are different categories and degrees of retardation. Cognizance should be taken of the fact that many people who…
References. Retrieved June 24, 2008, at http://www.cloudnet.com/~edrbsass/mrdefinitions2.htm
Goldstein, G. And Shapiro B. (2007) Mental Retardation. Retrieved June 24, 2008 at http://www.dana.org/news/brainhealth/detail.aspx?id=9836
Lustig D.C. (1996)
Family adaptation to a young adult with mental retardation. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0825 " Journal of Rehabilitation,
However, the concept that the shapes depict actually occurs in three dimensions. In two dimensions, the smaller sphere spirals into the depression formed by the larger very quickly; in three dimensions, the planets fall toward one another without spiraling together except over billions of years (Feynman, 1995).
Even more astonishing than having visualized gravity independently, Einstein visualized traveling along on a beam of light in four dimensions that also included the dimension of time, which allowed Einstein to deduce fundamental properties of space, time, and their interaction for the first time in human history. Nearly a century later, what began as visual "thought experiments" in one man's mind continue to be monumentally important in modern science and human history and affairs on earth and beyond earth.
Applications of Three-Dimensional otation in Chemistry and Biology:
The ability to mentally visualize three-dimensional shapes and their movement is also applicable in chemistry and…
Atkins, P. (1995). The Periodic Kingdom: A Journey into the land of the Chemical
Elements. New York: Basic Books.
Feynman, R. (1995). Six Easy Pieces: Essentials of Physics Explained by Its Most
Brilliant Teacher. New York: Addison Wesley.
He had built a wall around him that was preventing his normal interaction with people. This was causing real suffering and sickness. "hat then became of me? I know not; I lost sensation, and chains and darkness were the only objects that pressed upon me." (p.168) He loses interest in life even more when his dear ones are killed: "I had formed in my own heart a resolution to pursue my destroyer to death; and this purpose quieted my agony, and provisionally reconciled me to life." (p.169)
Sickness is thus a multifaceted theme in the novel. It serves many purposes. On the one hand, we see it as a force fighting against the evil ambitions of Victor and on the other, it can also be seen as a compassionate force trying to restrain Victor. It is all a matter of perception. Had Frankenstein understood why he was falling ill so…
Anne K. Mellor, " Making a "monster": an Introduction to Frankenstein," the Cambridge Companion to Mary Shelley, ed. Esther Schor (Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 2003)
The Mary Shelley Reader, eds. Betty T. Bennett and Charles E. Robinson (New York: Oxford University Press, 1990)
Given this priest is able to coax and created situations where boys are with him alone is even worse. In short, the counselor in this situation has no choice but to step in and say/do something.
To make a final decision, it would normally be wise to do some information gathering and to truly find out for sure whether or not this man has offended or not. However, the only real way to do that is to prod the priest even more and/or to ask the children and/or parents what is going on, if anything, and that would probably not be the best idea, at least in the latter case. Any querying of children would have to be done with the full knowledge and consent of the parents, and this is true both ethically and legally, and even if such permission was not garnered it would get back to them…
Brown, Francesca, and Mark R. Kebbell. "Policing Indecent Images of Children. What Are the Critical Issues Surrounding Police Risk Assessment?." Sexual Abuse in
Australia & New Zealand 5.1 (2013): 52-59. SocINDEX with Full Text. Web. 5
DeYoung, Mary. "The World According to NAMBLA: Accounting for Deviance." Journal
Mental Issue 2226
esearches indicate that poverty and mental illness are correlated with each other in a broader spectrum. This research paper is commissioned on the basis of two exhaustively researched hypotheses: H1 Poverty can cause mental illness and H2 Mental illness is subjected to poverty. Throughout this research paper, these two hypotheses have been investigated from scholarly academic resources. At the end of the proposed research it has been concluded that those, who are financially deprived, as exposed to severe mental illness due to their inability of fulfilling their basic needs, including house, education, food and employment. Likewise, evidences have also been explored on the fact that metal illness can cause extreme levels of poverty to the suffering beings. This signifies that both the research hypotheses are accepted by the research in the projected domain.
For affirming the undertaken pinching social reality, a statement…
Alegria, M., Canino, G., Rios, R., Vera, M., Calderon, J., Rusch, D. & Ortega, A. (2002).
Inequalities in Use of Specialty Mental Health Services among Latinos, African-Americans, and Non-Latino Whites. Psychiatric Services 53(12): 1547-1555.
Battle, K., Mendelson, M. & Torjman, S. (2009). Towards a new architecture for Canada's adult benefits. Caledon Institute of Social Policy, June.
Burstein, M. (2005). Combating the social exclusion of at-risk groups. Policy Research
Consistent with this, other findings propose that women are more likely than men to take part in violence in the home whereas men are more likely than women to take part in violence in public places.
Even though there is some evidence that mental illness is associated with violence, it appears that the bigger contributing factor is that of outside influences. Substance abuse appears to be the greatest contributing factor, but it can be something as insignificant as one's living arrangements or even just their gender. Overall people with mental health problems do not appear to be at an increased risk of violence.
Appelbaum, P.S., Robbins, P.C., Monahan, J. (2000). Violence and delusions: data from the MacArthur Violence Risk Assessment Study. American Journal of Psychiatry, 157,
Cottle, C. (2004). The role of social context in the prediction and management of violence among persons with mental illness. Dissertation…
The individuals with the condition often face a series of exclusions and rejections (Widiger 2011). There are many scenarios that have been denied basic needs such as housing on the basis of their mental status. People are denied loans, job opportunities and health insurances on the basis of mental health. The stigmatization cases are so prevalent that many people affected or who suspect they have the condition fear to seek professional assistance.
Stigmatization causes the person to have low self-esteem the strong social, religious and cultural beliefs have greatly distorted views of people on mental illness. Media portrays most of the characters with aggressive behavior and other negative traits as suffering from mental illness. This has created the impression that mental sickness is a sign of inferior character.
The basics of mental health include examination of theories of psychology, sociology, health psychology and transitions of life in relation to mental…
Jensen-doss, a., & Hawley, K.M. (2011). Understanding clinicians' diagnostic practices:
Attitudes toward the utility of diagnosis and standardized diagnostic tools. Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research, 38(6), 476-85. doi:
Widiger, T.A. (2011). Integrating normal and abnormal personality structure: A proposal for DSM-V. Journal of Personality Disorders, 25(3), 338-63. doi:
Torrey and Zdanowicz (2001) identify some important aspects of outpatient commitment that would need to be present in order to ensure positive outcomes such as clear legal principles, a clear need-for-treatment standard (p. 340), available legal counsel for individuals with mental illness, and systematic processes for reviews and appeals. When determining the criteria by which a person should be deemed appropriate for outpatient commitment there should be considerable attention paid to their propensity for violence or victimization (Torrey & Zdanowicz, 2001). It should not be based upon an individual's non-dangerous behaviors such as substance abuse, relapse rate, or repeated hospitalizations.
Outpatient commitment must be coupled with a strong service delivery system that has readily available, appropriate services. It should be viewed as a commitment not just of the individual with mental illness to participate in services but of the system as a whole to ensure availability of service providers and…
RAND Corporation (2000). Does involuntary outpatient treatment work? Retrieved from:
Torrey, E.F., & Zdanowicz, M. (2001). Outpatient commitment: What, why, and for whom.
Psychiatric Services, 52, 337-341.
Usually, diagnosis is symptom driven, then combined with testing, forms an opinion, sometimes verified by lab tests, of a specific diagnosis. For instance, someone may have symptoms of nausea, pain, depression, anxiety, and their skin has a yellowish hue. The physician runs blood tests and finds that the liver is malfunctioning and there is likely a diagnosis of hepatitis. In this case, there are both physical and mental symptoms, but it is the physical nature that is diagnosed first. For mental diagnosis, symptoms are also important, but are based more on the functioning of the individual in social systems, or by observing the patient's behavior (How are Mental Illnesses Diagnosed? 2012). Thus, both use symptoms as a guide, but mental diagnosis is more empirical and uses observation, while physical diagnosis uses quantitative measurements.
Etiology- Etiology is the study of basic causation. We now know that there are a number of…
American Psychiatric Association Practice Guidelines. (2006). PsychiatryOnline. Retrieved from: http://psychiatryonline.org/guidelines.aspx
How are Mental Illnesses Diagnosed? (2012). WebMD. Retrieved from: http://www.webmd.com/anxiety-panic/guide/mental-health-making-diagnosis
Curtis, a.J. et.al. (2000), Introduction to Health Psychology, New York: Routledge.
Dombeck, M. (2003). Blurring the Boundary Between Mental and Physical. Seven Counties Services, Inc. Retrieved from: http://www.sevencounties.org / poc/view_doc.php?type=doc&id=1855&cn=74
Standards of Care/Mental Health/Cultural Competence
EMEGING STANDADS OF CAE/MENTAL HEALTH/CULTUAL
Sometime in 1999, the Surgeon General released Mental Health: A eport of the Surgeon General. Inside this report, it acknowledged that not every Americans, particularly minorities, are getting the equal mental health treatment, a discovery that provoked the Surgeon General to give out a supplemental report on differences in mental health care for individuals of color (Donini-Lenhoff, 2006). The addition, which was available in 2001, sends out one obvious message: culture does actually count. Cultural competency is considered to be one the vital ingredients in closing the differences hole in health care. It is looked as the way patients and doctors are able to come together and then talk about health issues without cultural differences stopping the conversation, nonetheless improving it. Fairly simply, health care services that are deferential of and receptive to the health beliefs, practices and cultural and…
Choi, H.M. (2006). ETHNIC DIFFERENCES IN ADOLESCENTS' MENTAL DISTRESS, SOCIAL STRESS, AND RESOURCES. Adolescence, 41(126), 263-83.
Donini-Lenhoff, F. (2006). HEALTH: Cultural competence in the health professions; insuring a juniform standard of care. The Hispanic Outlook in Higher Education, 65(45), 45.
Furler, J. & . (2012). Mental health: Cultural competence. Australian Family Physician, 39(5), 206-8.
Sawrikar, P. & . (2013). The relationship between mental health, cultural identity and cultural values in non-english speaking background (NESB) australian adolescents. Behaviour Change, 21(3), 97-113.