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Callaghan, points out that exercise has been used for many years to prevent disease, promote good health and a sense of well-being. Callaghan asserts in the article that current evidence shows "empirical" evidence that mental health and well-being are enhanced through the use of frequent exercise. The author uses an intensive literature search -- meta-analyses in peer-reviewed publications like the British Medical Journal and Clinical Evidence -- to verify the assertion that exercise aids mental health and psychological functioning.
Callaghan's research uncovered a study -- that utilized qualitative research methods -- showing that a 10-week exercise program given to people with schizophrenia actually "reduced participants' perception of auditory hallucinations," heightened their sense of self-esteem and helped their sleep patterns (Callaghan, 2004, 480). On page 481 Callaghan admits that "on the whole" mental health professionals don't use exercise as a "therapeutic tool"; however, psychologist Kate Hays has been using exercise with…
Callaghan, P. (2004). Exercise: a neglected intervention in mental health care? Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing. Volume 11, 476-483.
Stathopoulou, G., and Powers, M.B. (2006). Exercise Interventions for Mental Health: A Quantitative and Qualitative Review. Clinical Psychology Science and Practice, 13(2),
Zschucke, E., Gaudilitz, K., and Strohle, A. (2013). Exercise and Physical Activity in Mental
veterans leaving the military. Specifically, it will attempt to solve some of the problems veterans being discharged from the military are facing. Veterans returning from the war in Iraq face a variety of problems and issues, and many of them are not being addressed by the military. Health care is one vital problem, many veterans coming home find that if they need health care, the Veterans Administration (VA) hospitals are so crowded they cannot receive treatment for weeks or even months. However, probably the biggest problem facing returning vets is readjusting to civilian life, and all that entails, from dealing with family and friends to the stresses of their jobs. Many returning vets will not admit they may need mental health counseling, and if they do admit it, they may not be able to find it. The problems of returning veterans are many, and until we learn how to solve…
Anonymous. 23 Nov. 2004. Nightmare #1. Retrieved from the Veterans for Common Sense Web site: http://www.veteransforcommonsense.org/NewsArticle.cfm?ID=2432 24 Nov. 2004.
Author not Available. (2 Oct. 2002). Readjustment, reconnecting after deployment. Retrieved from the United States Military Academy Web site: http://www.usma.edu/publicaffairs/PV/021004/Deployment.htm 24 Nov. 2004.
Editors (23 Oct. 2003). Coping with traumatic stress reactions. Retrieved from the National Center for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Web site: http://www.ncptsd.org//war/fs_coping.html?printable=yes 24. Nov. 2004.
Finally, the empirical demonstration should be followed by directly addressing the concerns of educators about any possible detrimental effect on reading comprehension skills as a function of any reduction in reliance on textbook-based learning. That component would consist of outlining criteria and limitations for using video-based instructional methods to ensure that it does not have any negative effect on that crucial aspect of primary and secondary education.
Moral Purpose Statement for Change and Stakeholder Issues
Educators have a fundamental responsibility to provide all of their students with the best possible opportunity to maximize their educational opportunity. That responsibility includes overcoming learned prejudices that may limit our ability to recognize valuable educational approaches and methods. One example of such prejudices would include the assumption among professional educators that video-based learning is inferior to traditional textbook-based learning and therefore inappropriate as the basis for substantive academic instruction.
In terms of different classes…
Choi, H.J. And Johnson, S.D. "The Effect of Problem-Based Video Instruction on Learner Satisfaction, Comprehension, and Retention in College Courses." British
Journal of Educational Technology, Vol. 38, No. 5 (2007): 885 -- 895.
Duffy, F.M. "Paradigms, Mental Models, and Mindsets: Triple Barriers to Transformational Change in School Systems: PART 1." International Journal of Educational Leadership Preparation, Vol. 4, No. 3 (July - September, 2009).
Franciszkowicz, M. "Video-Based Additional Instruction." Journal of the Research
They very seldom become fully integrated into society or become independent. (Mental etardation: Free Health Encyclopedia)
The is little doubt that mental retardation has an effect on society in general and in terms of care and treatment of the affected person. However, it is also true that with the knowledge and expertise that has been accumulated about mental retardation it is also become more feasible to accommodate the mentally retarded person as a productive member of society.
My perception of the mentally retarded in society is that are less fortunate and that the mentally healthy members of society should help and assist these individuals wherever possible. The research for this paper has made me aware that we often categorize the mentally retarded in a general way without realizing that there are different categories and degrees of retardation. Cognizance should be taken of the fact that many people who…
References. Retrieved June 24, 2008, at http://www.cloudnet.com/~edrbsass/mrdefinitions2.htm
Goldstein, G. And Shapiro B. (2007) Mental Retardation. Retrieved June 24, 2008 at http://www.dana.org/news/brainhealth/detail.aspx?id=9836
Lustig D.C. (1996)
Family adaptation to a young adult with mental retardation. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0825 " Journal of Rehabilitation,
Jones relates that statement of Corrigan: "Our work suggests that the biggest factor changing stigma is contact between people with mental illness and the rest of the population. The public needs to understand that many people with mental illness are functioning, fully contributing members of society." (Jones, 2006) Jones states that "the social cost of stigma associated with mental illness is high because it translates into huge numbers of people with treatable mental illness not getting help." Jones relates the fact that the National Alliance of Mental Illness (NAMI) is a group of advocates that works toward fighting the "inaccurate, hurtful representations of mental illness" that are found in the media. Jang (2002) states that the National Health Law Program has a priority to access of healthcare. In fact, the Executive Order (EO 13166) was focused toward the implementation of guidelines in overcoming the language barriers. Jang states that LEP…
Anderson, S.K. & Middleton, V.A.
Explorations in privilege, oppression and DiversityBrooks Cole 2005. ISBN0-534-51742-0
Barber, J.G. (1995). Politically progressive casework. Families in Society: The Journal of Contemporary Human Services, 76(1), 30-37.
Children Who Can't Pay Attention/ADHD (2004) Facts for Families. Academy of child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Online available at http://www.aacap.org/page.ww?section=Facts+for+Families&name=Children+Who+Can%27t+Pay+Attention%2FADHD
New findings show that the spouses of veterans also experience mental health disorders, and the prevalence increases with the length of deployment (Mansfield, Kaufman, Marshall, Gaynes, Morrissey & Engel, 2010). When spouses are considered to be clients of health services, the need for improved and more robust resources becomes apparent. Moreover, spouses with mental health disorders present unique issues and questions for treatment. eturning soldiers may find that they have supportive partners who can lead to a mutually beneficial treatment relationship, via couples or family therapy. On the other hand, the mental health problems of the spouse can exacerbate those of the soldier, and vice-versa. Thus, a family systems approach can be extremely helpful when addressing the multifaceted mental health concerns among veterans.
Veteran health services are at a critical juncture. The need for targeted mental health interventions, ranging from screenings and assessments to therapies and treatments, has been proven…
Britt, T.W., Greene-Shortridge, T.M. & Castro, C.A. (2007). The Stigma of Mental Health Problems in the Military. Military Medicine 172(2), February 2007, pp. 157-161(5)
Bliese, P.D., Wright, K.M., Adler, a.B., Thomas, J.L. & Hoge, C.W. (2007). Timing of postcombat mental health assessments. Psychological Services 4(3), Aug 2007, 141-148.
Hoge, C.W., Auchterlonie, J.L. & Milliken, C.S. (2006). Mental Health Problems, Use of Mental Health Services, and Attrition From Military Service After Returning From Deployment to Iraq or Afghanistan. JAMA. 2006;295(9):1023-1032. doi:10.1001/jama.295.9.1023.
Hoge, C.W., Castro, C.A., Messer, S.C., McGurk, D., Cotting, D.I. & Koffman, R.L. (2004). Combat Duty in Iraq and Afghanistan, Mental Health Problems, and Barriers to Care. N Engl J. Med 2004; 351:13-22July 1, 2004 DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa040603
Vocational training can help place within the adolescent mind the strategies they will need to adapt to life as an adult.
Further research is needed within the field of adolescents with the condition. According to research, "Unfortunately, most psychiatrists are ill-equipped to handle this situation, having received little or no formal training in this area," (Sebastian 2008). Therefore, more research can only open up new information to psychiatrists and physicians who work with families to make the most comfortable life for the adolescent dealing with mental retardation.
Biasini, Fred J.; Grupe, Lisa; Huffman, Lisa; & Bray, Norman W. (2010). Mental retardation: A symptom and a syndrome. Comprehensive Textbook of Child and Adolescent Disorders. New York: Oxford University Press. etrieved March 10, 2010 from http://www.uab.edu/cogdev/mentreta.htm
Collins, H. (2004). Children who are mentally retarded. American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. etrieved March 10, 2010 from http://www.aacap.org/cs/root/facts_for_families/children_who_are_mentally_retarded
Daigneault, obert. (2007). Mental…
Biasini, Fred J.; Grupe, Lisa; Huffman, Lisa; & Bray, Norman W. (2010). Mental retardation: A symptom and a syndrome. Comprehensive Textbook of Child and Adolescent Disorders. New York: Oxford University Press. Retrieved March 10, 2010 from http://www.uab.edu/cogdev/mentreta.htm
Collins, H. (2004). Children who are mentally retarded. American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Retrieved March 10, 2010 from http://www.aacap.org/cs/root/facts_for_families/children_who_are_mentally_retarded
Daigneault, Robert. (2007). Mental retardation / adolescent issues for mental retardation. Your Total Health. Retrieved March 10, 2010 from http://yourtotalhealth.ivillage.com/mental-retardation.html?pageNum=4#4
Mental Retardation -- Developmental delay. (2010). Mass General Hospital for Children. Retrieved March 10, 2010 from http://www.massgeneral.org/children/adolescenthealth/articles/aa_mental_retardation.aspx
However, integrated continuum of care networks presents a viable solution to mental health care delivery that properly allocates resources a collaborative and cooperative service delivery system.
Needed, according to Mohatt (1997) is "vertical integration' in the "approaches to managed care" in networking a group of healthcare providers, at various levels of primary care and behavioral health, to form an integrated service network. They seek to develop, via cooperation, a coordinated, consumer focused, seamless continuum of care designed to improve access and availability through efficiencies gained by the elimination of redundant services or systems."
Mohatt reports just such as system being in existence and specifically the Laurel Health System in northeastern Pennsylvania "founded in 1989 with the merger of five not-for-profit organizations..." This network spans the human service gamut inclusive of primary care, nursing homes, senior housing, ambulance service, and hospital." (1997) Mohatt reports another example stating:
recent example of such…
Behar, Lenore B., Macbeth, Gary, and Holland, Joan M. (1993) Distribution and Costs of Mental Health Services Within a System of Care for Children and Adolescents. Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research. Vol. 20, No. 4, March 1993. Abstract online available at Springerlink online: http://www.springerlink.com/content/q73873hn78112345/
Hamner, Karl M., Lambert, E. Warren, and Bickman, Leonard (1996) Children's Mental Health in a Continuum of Care: Clinical Outcomes at 18 Months for the Fort Bragg Demonstration. ERIC Digest. 28 Feb 1996. Online available at http://eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/custom/portlets/recordDetails/detailmini.jsp?_nfpb=true&_&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED460476&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=no&accno=ED460476
Yager, J. (1996) Do Full Continuum of Care Services Yield Better Results? Am Psychol 1996 July. Journal Watch. Online available at http://psychiatry.jwatch.org/cgi/content/citation/1996/1001/14
Mohatt, Dennis F. (1997) Access To Mental Health Services In Frontier America
The severity of mental retardation covers a wide spectrum, as discussed before, and variation in ability of individuals within this spectrum is wide (Tammi, 2006). In order to understand and to assist such persons, it is important to know the category in which they fall and the possible causes of the condition. In most cases, a little psychological instability leads to a mental retardation and therefore psychological interventions can be very effective in solving such cases. The notion of viewing mental retardation as a case of pure medical condition should be changed in order to find means of reducing such situations.
Christopher D. Prater, MD. (2006, June 15). Medical Care of Adults with Mental etardation.
etrieved March 11, 2010, from American Family Physician: http://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0615/p2175.html
Donna K. Daily, MD. (2000, February 15). Identification and Evaluation of Mental etardation.
etrieved March 11, 2010, from American Family Physician: http://www.aafp.org/afp/20000215/1059.html
Gotiesrnati, .L. (s.f.).…
Christopher D. Prater, MD. (2006, June 15). Medical Care of Adults with Mental Retardation.
Retrieved March 11, 2010, from American Family Physician: http://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0615/p2175.html
Donna K. Daily, MD. (2000, February 15). Identification and Evaluation of Mental Retardation.
Retrieved March 11, 2010, from American Family Physician: http://www.aafp.org/afp/20000215/1059.html
Mental Quality Assurance
Quality Assurance in Mental Health Settings
A major part of providing medical services to any population, including the provision of mental health services to rehabilitation patients, is assuring and maintaining a certain level of quality in the manner in which these services are provided and in the outcomes of medical decisions and actions. This is important for professional as well as legal reasons; the professional implications of quality assurance are fairly direct and self-evident, while the legal necessity for quality assurance can be found in certain pieces of legislation and in service agreements with patients, communities, etc. The following paragraphs will describe a general framework of quality assurance in a low-security rehabilitative mental health institution as it relates to both professional standards and legal requirements.
Quality assurance includes an ongoing effort towards quality improvement, and there are a variety of practical and perceptual methods for establishing an…
Breakey, W. (1996). Integrated Mental Health Services. New York: Oxford University Press.
Lloyd, C.; King, R. & Deane, F. (2009). Clinical Management in Mental Health Services. New York: Wiley.
McMillen, C.; Zayas, L.; Books, S. & Lee, M. (2008). Quality Assurance and Improvement Practice in Mental Health Agencies: Roles, Activities, Targets and Contributions. Administrative Policy of Mental Health 35(6): 458-67.
WHO. (2003). Quality Improvement for Mental Health. Geneva: World Health Organization.
Experts report improved interactions with peers, support for the parents to act as teachers at home, improved motivation for the child, and aiding the family in learning about other support available in the community (mmerman & Herson, 2000).
Medications may play a role if the child has other concerns such as D/HD or seizures (mmerman & Herson, 2000).
Inclusion with Mental Retardation
Educationally, some research suggests that students with mental retardation learn more in general education classes than in special education. Studies on inclusion aren't quite as clear. Students may benefit from inclusion when younger, but when older it may have more negative effects unless the non-handicapped students are supportive of the program (Turnbull et. al.). In addition to behavioral and socialization support, students need functional as well as academic skills. For instance, they should be taught how to use public transportation and information about handling money (Turnbull et. al.).…
Ammerman, Robert T., and Hersen, Michel. Advanced Abnormal Child Psychology. 2000: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Michel Hersen; Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2000.
Swartz, Stanley, L., Ph.D. "Positive Behavior Support: An Inclusion Strategy." Accessed via the Internet 6/10/05. http://www.stanswartz.com/positivebehaviorsupport.htm
Turnbull, Rud; Turnbull, Ann; Shank, Marilyn; and Smith, Shean J. Exceptional Lives.
Essentially, this is the ability to form mental images, sensation or concepts in a way that is not specifically tied to sight, hearing or other senses. It is about taking experience and knowledge and making sense of the world through learning and evocation of new thoughts, mental pictures, or perceptions of the world -- whether individual or shared (Byrne, 2005).
Inspiration- Inspiration is a constant search for bursts of creativity and may be found through the influences of others (speakers, leaders, etc.) or through one's own mental abilities. Depending on the paradigm used, inspiration is seen as either being divinely inspired or through unique processes that allow for a change in the usual mode of thinking or operation.
Five Forces Influence- In combination with the four creative styles, we also have five forces that influence these models of thinking and operation: education, training, influence from others, rewards and incentives, and…
Byrne, R. (2005). The Rational Imagination. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
DeVol, R. And Wong, P. (January 2010). Jobs for America. Milken Institute. Cited in: http://www.nam.org/~/media/58F813B0D1E643DC91E564FE4C3B3C2F.ashx-utm_source=nam&utm_medium=alias&utm_campaign=innovationreport
Garlick, D. (2010). Intelligence and the Brain. Burbank, CA: Aesop Press.
Malone-Cline, J. (October 16, 2009). Mental Process. KnowEverything. Cited in: http://knoweverythinginfo.blogspot.com/2009/10/mental-process.html
" (Wagner, 2000, p. 6)
As an almost limitless tool for advertisement, though some self censorship has recently occurred as more and more people reduce ad time by restricting adware and popup ads on their computer systems, the internet can ad to the most vile of physical, social and mental health state, especially in the young and impressionable.
For these reasons and more, it makes sense for everyone -- especially for children and young adults -- to consider how advertising can affect four basic types of health. First, it can affect our physical health. We may learn about a healthy practice or vitamin, but may also be prone to engaging in unhealthy activities, lulled by media depictions of glamorous smokers and drinkers, as well as by direct ads for tobacco and alcohol. Second, advertising can affect our emotional health by delivering media-imposed definitions of beauty, sexuality, maturity, and problem-solving. Advertising…
Fox, R.F. (2001, November). Warning Advertising May Be Hazardous to Your Health: Ads Pose a Threat to Physical, Emotional, Social, and Cultural Well-Being. USA Today (Society for the Advancement of Education), 130, 62-77.
Gattiker, U.E. (2001). The Internet as a Diverse Community: Cultural, Organizational, and Political Issues. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Harris, L.M. (Ed.). (1995). Health and the New Media: Technologies Transforming Personal and Public Health. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Hatfield, T.H., & Erbeck, G.W. (1997). The Internet: Legitimate Educational Tool or Giant Electronic Sandbox?. Journal of Environmental Health, 59(8), 19-25.
he author's method was simply collecting older data through secondary sources like previous studies and researches. He examined the methods used in these studies and critically evaluated them and also mentioned their limitations according to his assessment.
he author has not clearly discussed the significance of his results but he has thoroughly mentioned the results from previous studies and their positive and negatives have been identified too. He shows why some results cannot be trusted and why some were optimistic but are not relevant his particular hypothesis. For example in one study he found that though the results were optimistic, they are not relevant because the researchers had focused on immediate effects on mental exercise instead of its long-term benefits. In other words, the author agrees that there is a significant difference in mental performance immediately after a mentally stimulating exercise but he doesn't agree that the benefits would last…
The article concludes that there is no significant difference in the rate of mental aging between people who engaged in stimulating exercises and those who did not. I do agree that author has done a good job of evaluating previous studies and their limitations, but I do not agree with his conclusion. The article is widely cited which shows that many experts trust the results or find the article useful in their studies but due to the lack of a scientific method for comparison, examination and evaluation of studies, it is difficult to disregard the results found by others and agree with author's conclusion. His conclusion is mostly a matter of opinion and for that reason; I do not think it can be assigned much weight. I have also observed that people who have led a very active life in pursuance of mental activities generally age much slower mentally. Their cognition level remains very high compared to in-active individuals and they tend to speak more clearly, understand others better and if other health issues are not a problem, they are generally very agile mentally and demonstrate better mental faculties.
Salthouse TA. Mental exercise and mental aging. Perspectives on Psychological Science 2007;1:68-86.
Mental epresentations and the Mind-Brain elationship
MENTAL EPESENTATIONS AND THE MIND-BAIN
The Dualism Argument
Pure Materialist Viewpoint
Visual Stimuli vs. Speech stimuli
Neurons and Synapses
Mental epresentations and the Mind-Brain elationship
In cognitive (neuro) science all through the last few decades, as in philosophy in the last 100 years, the issue of the mind-body (or mind-brain) occurrences is still open to discussion. Illogically, ever since Descartes nobody has suggested a workable alternate view of this problem. esearchers and thinkers have offered some approaches, yet none has gained the assent of the majority of thinkers. During a person's daily toils the separation that goes on between an individual mind and consciousness is hardly ever thought about or talked about. But then again it is the primary cause for the majority of your existence problems. This separation is not even a recognized fact, as consciousness and mind seem to…
Baars, J.B. (2013). An architectural model of consciousand unconscious brain functions: Global workspace theory and IDA. Neural Networks, 20, 955-961.
Bartels, A. (2010). Visual perception: Converging mechanisms of atten-tion, binding, and segmentation. Current Biology, 7(9), 56-78.
Gabbard, G.O. (2013). Mind, Brain, and Personality Disorders. American Journal of Psychiatry, 34-45.
Sevush, S. (2013). Single-neuron theory of consciousness. Journal ofTheoretical Biology, 21(9), 704-725.
However, more empirical studies have been published in recent years which have both reported outcomes but also have acknowledged the complexity of the interaction of the number of variables involved in predicting outcome effects on children whose parents are substance abusers (Dworkin & Hirsch, 2004). This literature is particularly important because of the large number of children affected by substance abuse of various kinds and the social policy directed toward substance abuse offenders including parents.
Although the empirical research base is growing on the relationship of parental disability to child outcome effects (Emerick & Zirpoli, 2000) there continues to be a need for research that methodologically addresses specific critical parental disability factors.
Implementing Culturally Sensitive Crisis
In conclusion, when faced with an individual who is recognizably from a culture different from the crisis worker, some modification in approach will be considered. However, there is sufficient cultural diversity present in our…
Colangelo, N. (2007). Counseling gifted students: Issues and practices. In N. Colangelo and G.A. Davis (Eds.), Handbook of Gifted Education (2nd ed.), (pp. 353-381). Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
Colangelo, N., & Assouline, a. (1993). Families of gifted children. A research agenda. Quest, 4, 1-4.
Dworkin, M., & Hirsch, G. (2004). Responding to managed care: A roadmap for the therapist. Psychotherapy in Private Practice, 13, 1-21.
Emerick, L., & Zirpoli, T. (2000). Different concerns, different needs? Perceptions of gifted children and parents of children with disabilities. Paper presented at the conference of the American Association of Gifted and Talented, Little Rock, AR.
Mental Retardation in Forrest Gump
Forrest Gump, a cheerful and good-hearted, but mentally retarded young man with a low IQ, fights in and survives the Vietnam War, and also meets with a variety of important people of his time (between the 1950's and the 1970's). By chance, Forrest actually helps, through some of these meetings to shape certain national events from the 1950's on. However, his own mental deficiencies make him unable to realize any of this. He experiences meetings with Elvis Presley, John F. Kennedy, Lyndon Johnson, and Richard Nixon. He also comes to be seen by such people as representing his generation (the baby boomers.) Still, everything that happens to Forrest happens merely through a combination of his good attitude and his good luck.
Describe the relevance of the movie as it relates to persons with disabilities or exceptionalities:
I found the movie very touching and warm-hearted, especially…
Mental Retardation in Film: Radio
Main Actors: Cuba Gooding Jr., Ed Harris, Debra Winger
Year released: 2004
A mentally retarded young man, nicknamed "Radio" due to his love of radios (real name James Robert Kennedy; played by Cuba Gooding Jr.) is befriended by a high school football coach in Anderson, South Carolina, Harold Jones (played by Ed Harris), after some of the coach's star players play a mean trick on Radio and he rescues him from a storage shed where they have tied him up. At first, the young man is almost completely non-verbal and non-responsive, but little by little, as Radio comes to trust Coach Jones more, and Coach Jones takes him inside his office at the high school and even has him attending and participating in some of his regular classes, Radio becomes more verbal and more demonstrative. That football season, he helps out with the football team,…
Given this priest is able to coax and created situations where boys are with him alone is even worse. In short, the counselor in this situation has no choice but to step in and say/do something.
To make a final decision, it would normally be wise to do some information gathering and to truly find out for sure whether or not this man has offended or not. However, the only real way to do that is to prod the priest even more and/or to ask the children and/or parents what is going on, if anything, and that would probably not be the best idea, at least in the latter case. Any querying of children would have to be done with the full knowledge and consent of the parents, and this is true both ethically and legally, and even if such permission was not garnered it would get back to them…
Brown, Francesca, and Mark R. Kebbell. "Policing Indecent Images of Children. What Are the Critical Issues Surrounding Police Risk Assessment?." Sexual Abuse in
Australia & New Zealand 5.1 (2013): 52-59. SocINDEX with Full Text. Web. 5
DeYoung, Mary. "The World According to NAMBLA: Accounting for Deviance." Journal
Additionally, the questioner should know that some mood disorders can present themselves somatically: someone who is anxious may have a racing pulse, and someone who is depressed may have difficulty sleeping, eating, or engaging in basic self-care.
Aspects of the client's presentation to consider when evaluating his or her perception may include orientation (knowing where he or she is), alertness, coherence and ability to concentrate. ecall can be tested by asking questions about the date, who is president, etcetera; concentration can be tested by using a Digit Span test -- asking the client to count backwards from 100 to 50 by 7s or 3s (Niolin 2000). Noting the presence of delusions or hallucinations, gaining a rough estimate of the client's intellectual ability, thought processes, and judgment (ability to understand why he or she is being assessed), and assessing his or her ability to engage in abstraction (such as understanding…
Niolin. (2000). The mental status examination. Psych Page. Retrieved January 20, 2010 at http://www.psychpage.com/learning/library/assess/mse.htm
Hughes proceeded to institute a system of "Confusing Military Structures," the www.CDNMilitary.casitecontinues. Battlefront unites were "constantly formed, disbanded, reformed and disbanded again"; and as though that wasn't enough, the Ross Rifle issue was another problem that Hughes' legacy is left with, according to the site. One army driver is quoted as saying, "To hell with the [Ross Rifle]. I'll take a club." In fact, Ross did not fully understand why soldiers objected to the use of the Ross Rifle, the military eb site claims, because even though Hughes "dressed up like a military officer while being Minister of the Militia," he was "nothing more than a civilian...and never did have to use the rifle in combat" (www.CDNMilitary.ca).
And the Ross Rifle wasn't the only snag in Hughes' pursuit of innovative wartime materials and technologies, the CNDMilitary site claims. Indeed, the "MacAdam shield-shovel" - termed a "Canadian-designed miracle" by Hughes, who…
CDNMilitary.CA. 2002. "The Canadian World War One Mobilization: A Complicated
Matter." Retrieved March 15, 2009, at http://www.cdnmilitary.ca/index.php?p=20.
Cook, Tim. 2004. "The Madman and the Butcher: Sir Sam Hughes, Sir Arthur Currie,
And Their War of Reputations." The Canadian Historical Review 85 no. 4, 695-719.
Mental Issue 2226
esearches indicate that poverty and mental illness are correlated with each other in a broader spectrum. This research paper is commissioned on the basis of two exhaustively researched hypotheses: H1 Poverty can cause mental illness and H2 Mental illness is subjected to poverty. Throughout this research paper, these two hypotheses have been investigated from scholarly academic resources. At the end of the proposed research it has been concluded that those, who are financially deprived, as exposed to severe mental illness due to their inability of fulfilling their basic needs, including house, education, food and employment. Likewise, evidences have also been explored on the fact that metal illness can cause extreme levels of poverty to the suffering beings. This signifies that both the research hypotheses are accepted by the research in the projected domain.
For affirming the undertaken pinching social reality, a statement…
Alegria, M., Canino, G., Rios, R., Vera, M., Calderon, J., Rusch, D. & Ortega, A. (2002).
Inequalities in Use of Specialty Mental Health Services among Latinos, African-Americans, and Non-Latino Whites. Psychiatric Services 53(12): 1547-1555.
Battle, K., Mendelson, M. & Torjman, S. (2009). Towards a new architecture for Canada's adult benefits. Caledon Institute of Social Policy, June.
Burstein, M. (2005). Combating the social exclusion of at-risk groups. Policy Research
This is discussed at length by Fusick and ordeau (2004) "...school-based counselors need to be aware of the disturbing inequities that exist in predominantly Afro-American urban school districts, where nearly 40% of Afro-American students attend school in the United States" (Fusick and ordeau, 2004) This again places emphasis on the need for mental health programs in these areas of concern. This is also related to findings from a study by McDavis et al. (1995) Counseling African-Americans, which refers to research that stresses the "...widening achievement gap between Afro-American and Euro-American students." (McDavis, et al. 1995)
An important study Laura a. Nabors, Evaluation of Outcomes for Adolescents Receiving School-ased Mental Health Services (2002) refers to the particular issue and problems experience at inner-city schools. The author states that, "School mental health (SMH) programs are an important setting for providing mental health services to adolescents, especially urban youth who typically face in-…
Smith, P.B., Buzi, R.S., & Weinman, M.L. (2001). Mental Health Problems and Symptoms among Male Adolescents Attending a Teen Health Clinic. Adolescence, 36(142), 323. Retrieved December 9, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001042308 www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001243622
Stern, S.B., Smith, C.A., & Jang, S.J. (1999). Urban Families and Adolescent Mental Health. Social Work Research, 23(1), 15. Retrieved December 9, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001243622 www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=77001228
Sternberg, R.J., & Dennis, M.J. (1997). Elaborating Cognitive Psychology through Linkages to Psychology as a Helping Profession. Teaching of Psychology, 24(3), 246-249. Retrieved December 9, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=77001228 www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000581383
Stock, M.R., Morse, E.V., Simon, P.M., Zeanah, P.D., Pratt, J.M., & Sterne, S. (1997). Barriers to School-Based Health Care Programs. Health and Social Work, 22(4), 274+. Retrieved December 9, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000581383
Moreover, in Perry v. Louisiana, 498 U.S. 38 (1990), the Court used that decision to bolster Louisiana's attempts to forcibly medicate a prisoner in order to make him death-eligible. If one agrees that the death penalty is a just penalty for one who has committed a capital crime, and that the reason that mentally ill defendants should not be executed is because they lack competence, then it does not seem unethical to allow them to be forcibly medicated in order to be competent. After all, in that scenario, avoiding medication could be likened to any other attempt to avoid punishment. Moreover, an organic physical disorder that arose after conviction, but that would have prevented a defendant from committing a crime, would not be sufficient reason not to execute a person on death row.
However, forced medication, especially for court appearances, may violate a defendant's Fifth Amendment right to present a…
Bonnie, R. (2007). Panetti v. Quarterman: mental illness, the death penalty, and human dignity. Ohio State Journal of Criminal Law, 5, 257-283.
Fentiman, L. (1986). Whose right is it anyway? Rethinking competency to stand trial in light of the synthetically sane insanity defense. University of Miami Law Review, 40, 1109-1127.
Ford v. Wainwright, 477 U.S. 399 (1986).
Panetti v. Quarterman, 127 S. Ct. 2842 (2007).
Making available recovery program treatment besides collaborating with partnership to leverage resources and knowledge is a role that I perform in efforts of helping clients access care. I am also involved in continual community-based quality improvement programs that are designed to support care access and quality.
B. Veteran Centered Care
With respect to centered care, I normally assist with provision of alternatives to inpatient care for mental health linked problems. Additionally, I make CVT available for weekend and evening hours. As a MHICM practitioner, I perform various administrative and clinical functions for clients and my team. Clinical tasks entail stress and crisis management, group therapy, advocacy and treatment planning. I also ensure that patient preferences with respect to appointments and mental health care providers are maintained.
C. Performance Measures
I offer administrative and clinical supervision for my team besides facilitating cohesiveness communication, education programs and systems concerning community-based services. Given…
Committee on the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation initiative on the future of nursing.(2011). The future of nursing: Leading change, advancing health. New York: National Academies Press
Daniels, R., & Nicoll, L.(2011). Contemporary medical-surgical nursing, Volume 1. New York: Cengage Learning.
Sullivan-Marx, E.(2010). Nurse practitioners: The evolution and future of advanced practice. New York: Springer Publishing Company.
Thonicroft, G. (2011). Oxford textbook of community mental health. London: Oxford University Press.
Mental Illness and Substance Abuse
Does mental illness cause substance abuse addiction or does substance abuse addiction cause a mental illness diagnosis? Does it go both ways?
A complex relationship exists between substance abuse and mental illness. Those suffering from depression, anxiety and other mental illnesses may use alcohol and drugs as self-medication. Unfortunately, though such options may appear to work temporarily, substance abuse is no treatment for any condition; in fact, it often aggravates the problem during severe intoxication as well as in the course of substance withdrawal (NAMI, 2010).
Furthermore, alcohol and drugs can initiate mental illness in persons who are otherwise mentally healthy, while worsening problems in those who are already mentally ill. Active substance users will tend to not follow-through properly with therapy, and are more vulnerable to serious health complications and even premature death. Those having dual diagnosis will also be more prone to violent…
Anderson P, & Baumberg B. (2006). Alcohol in Europe: a public health perspective. London: Institute of Alcohol Studies.
Anderson, M. L., Ziedonis, D. M., & Najavits, L. M. (2014). Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and substance Use Disorder Comorbidity among Individuals with Physical Disabilities: Findings from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 27(2), 182-191. doi:10.1002/jts.21894
Book SW, & Randall CL. (2002). Social anxiety disorder and alcohol use. Alcohol Res Health; 26:130-5.
Cerda M, Sagdeo A, Galea S. (2008). Comorbid forms of psychopathology: key patterns and future research directions. Epidemiol Rev; 30:155_177.
One of the key social problems currently being faced in the United States is the gun control issue. In the contemporary, there is considerable and contentious debate regarding whether there should be more restrictions on the prevailing process or practice of purchasing and owing a gun or not. In particular, this social issue had great significance in the everyday lives of the general public with regard to safety and security. Gun holders across the nation have been involved in incidents of shooting other individuals prompting gun violence. This paper seeks to examine the issue of gun control, delineating the cultural and structural aspects that fashion the problem, the sociological standpoint and the social change necessitated in remedying the problem.
Cultural and Structural Factors
Gun control as a social issue is influenced by cultural and structural factors. There is actual and representational importance of gun ownership for millions of…
Beckett, L. (2016). What could actually work to fix gun violence in America -- and what doesn't. The Guardian. Retrieved from: https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2016/jun/23/gun-control-violence-what-works-what-doesnt
Henigan, D. A. (2011). Is Gun Control a Social Issue? The Huffington Post. Retrieved from: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/dennis-a-henigan/is-gun-control-a-cultural_b_219136.html
Perez-Pena, R. (2015). Gun Control Explained. The New York Times. Retrieved from: https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2015/10/07/us/gun-control-explained.html?_r=0
Speiser, M. (2015). DEAR AMERICA: Here's why everyone thinks you have a problem with guns. Business Insider. Retrieved from: http://www.businessinsider.com/americas-gun-problem-2015-6?IR=T#the-previous-map-bears-an-eerie-resemblance-to-this-one-which-shows-each-states-stance-on-the-concealed-carry-of-firearms-12
The problem is still being ignored by a vast number of people, and ignoring it will not make it go away. The church must be involved in the education of its youth, too, because studies have shown that strong religious background reduces the risk of suicide in some youths, particularly African-Americans and Latinos (Wardlaw, 2004, pg. 37). Schools must develop programs that are more comprehensive for students and for counselors and psychologists, and they must create more funding for these programs to protect their students from harm. Journalist Portner continues, "In fact, a quarter of the deaths on school grounds are suicides" (Portner, 2001, pg. 48). Clearly, the school is heavily involved in the welfare of the child, and to ignore this is to put children at risk. The government must recognize this too, and do more to create funding for schools and local government to create more programs. This…
Antidepressants, teen suicide link questioned. (2004, February 8). The Washington Times, p. A03.
Astroth, K.A. (1994). Beyond ephebiphobia: problem adults or problem youths?. Phi Delta Kappan, 75(5), 411+.
Davis, N.J. (1999). Youth crisis: Growing up in the high-risk society. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers.
Deaton, R.L., & Berkan, W.A. (1995). Planning and managing death issues in the schools. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
mental health prisoners usa. I've included outline main idea, I apply ideas questions. contact clarifications. I. Introduce define global health issue connection nursing. For, .
Mental Health in the American Prison System
There has always been much controversy regarding prisoners and their mental health, but as civilization has experienced much progress throughout this century people have become more and more concerned about making sure that prisons are able to differentiate between individuals who are mentally ill and persons who are not. Even with the fact that prisons were never design to accommodate the mentally ill, conditions are critical today as a great deal of men and women who are unable to get mental health treatment in the communities they live in are incarcerated consequent to committing an illegality. There are a great deal of people suffering from schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, or depression in U.S., thus meaning that society needs to…
Austin, W. And Boyd, M.A. (2010). Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing for Canadian Practice. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Cornwell, D.J. (2009). The Penal Crisis and the Clapham Omnibus: Questions and Answers in Restorative Justice. Waterside Press.
Finkel, M.L. (2010). Public Health in the 21st Century: [Three Volumes]. ABC-CLIO.
Videbeck, S.L. (2010). Psychiatric-Mental Health Nursing. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Mental Health Counseling
Discuss the role in relationship to the prescription and monitoring of pharmacological treatments for mental health issues.
Unique advances have been achieved in the treatment offered to clients suffering from mental illness. Mental health care providers must understand the original causes of mental health disorders in order to provide treatment to clients with these disorders. Therefore, mental healthcare providers are able to treat disorders associated with mental health. This is being done with much success as physical disorders (Madden, 2008).
The profession of mental health provision has categorized strategies of treating mental health problems as either psychotherapeutic or somatic. Somatic methods of treating mental disorders include therapies such as electroconvulsive therapy, which have the potential of stimulating the brain. Psychotherapeutic method includes behavioral therapy strategies, hypnotherapy, and psychotherapy. esearchers have established that most mental health disorders require treatment strategies that involve both psychotherapy and drugs. This is…
Madden, R.G. (2008). Legal issues in social work, counseling, and mental health: Guidelines for clinical practice in psychotherapy. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications
Palmo, A.J., Weikel, W.J., & Borsos, D.P. (2011). Foundations of mental health counseling.
Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas.
World Health Organization (2009). Mental health aspects of women's reproductive health: A
Problem Solving in Mathematics
GCSE or the General Certificate of Secondary Education is basically a system that is present in England, Northern Ireland and in Wales. In this system, a student is awarded an academic qualification based on the grades that they attain. The qualification that a person attains is equivalent to either a level 2 or Level 1 key skills qualification. Normally, a student can uptake as many subjects as he or she wants. However, different systems set a requirement for how many subjects or GCSEs a student must take. There is present an international system of IGCSE as well and these subjects can be up taken anywhere in the world. This was just a precise history of what exactly the GCSE system is all about. Interestingly enough, the GCSE system was not the first one of its kind. Prior to this, GCE and the English Baccalaureate System were…
Anderson, J. (2009) Mathematics Curriculum Development and the Role of Problem Solving. [E-Book] The University Of Sydney. Available Through: ACSA Conference 2009 Http://Www.Acsa.Edu.Au/Pages/Images/Judy%20Anderson%20-%20Mathematics%20Curriculum%20Development.Pdf [Accessed: 11th February 2013].
Bloom, B. (1971) Handbook Of Formative And Summative Evaluation Of Student Learning. New York: Mcgraw-Hill.
Boaler, J. (2002). Experiencing School Mathematics: Traditional And Reform Approaches To Teaching And Their Impact On Student Learning. Mahwah, N.J., L. Erlbaum.
Davies, I. (1975) Writing General Objectives And Writing Specific Objectives. In: Golby, M. Et Al. Eds. (1975) In Curriculum Design . 1st Ed. Open University Books .
Nonetheless, people who received some level of ACRP intervention had a lower rate of criminal recidivism than people who received no intervention at all.
The study found that the case flow through the ACRP was a little slow. The amount of time between the Initial Opt-In Hearing and the Formal Opt-In Hearing averaged 74 days. While there are no hard and fast rules governing how long this process should take, the study found that that "the ACRP is performing rather well on the front-end of the admissions process (up to the initial opt-in stage) but that more could be done to work on the back end (time between the Initial Opt-In Hearing and the Formal Opt-In Hearing)."
The study found that the incentives and sanctions used by ACRP judges to promote compliance at status hearings, though standardized, were not tailored to correspond to participant progress.
Outcomes from the Last Frontier: An Evaluation of the Anchorage Mental Health Court (Alaska Mental Health Trust Authority, Ferguson-Hornby-Zeller, 2008).
Improving Responses to People with Mental Illnesses: The Essential Elements of a Mental Health Court (Thompson, Osher, Tomasini-Joshi, 2008).
Mental Health Courts: Decriminalizing the Mentally Ill. (Irwin Law, Schneider-Hyman-Bloom, 2007).
Mental Health Courts. (Wiley Encyclopedia of Forensic Science, Schneider, 2009).
mental health professionals, understanding what is impacting patients and their employees requires careful observation. This occurs through seeing if there is anything that is out of the ordinary. The situation with Eileen; is classic example of using these tools to realize when something more severe is happening. (Palmo, 2006)
In this particular case, Eileen is known as someone who is stable and reliable in organizing / managing the office. However, once she starts crying, is when she is dealing with more unusual challenges. Mental health professionals have a duty to identify the root causes of these problems and helping her to address them. (Palmo, 2006)
For Cora, she has unique responsibilities as a counselor and her employer. This is because she has to make certain that Eileen is able to work through these problems in order to perform her job efficiently. At the same time, she has an obligation to…
Palmo, A. (2006). Foundations of Mental Health Counseling. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas.
Mental Health with Health Care Use and Cost: A Population Study" published in the Canadian Journal of Psychiatry written by Cawthorpe, Guyn, Li and Lu (2011).
Cawthorpe, Guyn, Li and Lu (2011) report a study with the goals of comparing the health costs of two groups: (1) those with psychiatric diagnoses; and (2) those without psychiatric diagnoses. Nine years of billing data from physicians was used in the study. The methodology reported is that the dataset that contained registration data for the patients who were in receipt of public mental health service was "constructed and subsequently matched" according to sex and age. (p.490)
Sampling in the Study
It is reported that three groups emerged: (1) a comparison patient PD group; (2) comparison patients with psychiatric disorders in physicians only; and (3) patients without PDs treated in specialized care that was publicly funded or by their physicians. (Cawthorpe, Guyn, Li and…
Cawthorpe, D., Wilkes, T.C.R., Guyn, L., Li, B., & Lu, M. (2011). Association of Mental Health With Health Care Use and Cost: A Population Study. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, Aug2011, Vol. 56 Issue 8, 490-494.
Curry, LA, Nembhard, IM, and Bradley, EH (2009) Key Issues in Outcomes Research. Circulation. 2009; 119:1442-1452. Retrieved from: http://circ.ahajournals.org/content/119/10/1442.full?viewType=Print&viewClass=Print
This creates a nerve with the client that their private information is going to be unprotected and confidentiality is going to be broken . There is no safe way to keep all information private. However, all mental health professionals must take all necessary precautions to keep client information private .
As you look around the mall, classroom, church, family history, friend's family, or place of employment, you're sure to know someone with a mental illness, or someone who might of attempted suicide . Assessing and treating these disorders is essential in the mental health field, more trained mental health professionals are needed, more agencies, and more funding . Otherwise if society keeps assuming that the mind and brain are separate and that mental disorders are " different" or " bad" misunderstanding, mistreatment, and stigma will persist in this society . We need to stop seeing individuals with mental health…
American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (Revised 4th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.
American Association of Suicidology. ( 2006, February), U.S.A. suicide: 2003 official final data. Retrieved March 19, 2010, from http:/ / www.suiciodology.org.
Bonner, L. ( 2001). Rethinking suicide prevention and manipulative behavior in corrections. Jail Suicide Mental Health Update, 10(4), 7-8.
Bonner, L. (2006) . Stressful segregation housing in psychosocial vulnerability in prison suicide. Suicide and Life Threatening Behavior, 36,250-254.
Problems and issues are inevitable in every society. These can be societal problems or issues that are profession-related. Sometimes people are so accustomed with their situation that effecting change would result to a social problem. A child who had been a victim of long-term domestic abuse may not welcome change if that change would mean being departed from his own family. A government employee would not welcome change if it would mean a loss in his
"corruption-takings." Or a victim of racism may be reluctant to change if his employment would be endangered.
Change is the only thing permanent in this world but it can be controlled. Change may cause problems but these problems may also cause further changes if not solved. 'Social change is the shifts in the attitudes and behavior that characterize a society' (Greenwood & Guner 2008).
Some of the societal and profession-related problems that need…
Greenwood, J. & Guner, N. (2008 May).Social Change. Bonn, Germany.
More. (2011). Social Justice Launch Pad. Retrieved 22 Jun 2011, www.more.com.
NASW. (2011). Code of Ethics of the Natl. Association of Social Workers. Retrieved 22 Jun
schemas in Problem Solving
Schemas refer to the certain interpretation-pattern in our minds, which help us decipher and decode information. When new information is received, our mind automatically interprets it according to certain schemas and that makes it easier to understand the new bits of information. Without these schemas, it would become difficult to synthesize new information and thus we would need completely new schemas first to decipher information. Previously embedded schemas are helpful in synthesis of information or knowledge and this process helps in almost every field from learning mathematical concepts to solving problems at work. Problem solving requires certain specific skills like critical thinking, ability to develop creative solutions etc. But above everything else, it is extremely important to first understand and define the problem.
In every organization and almost in every field, we come across problems almost regularly and are required to develop creative and effective solutions.…
Driscoll, M. (1994) Psychology of Learning for Instruction Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
Price, E. & Driscoll, M. (1997) "An Inquiry into the Spontaneous Transfer of Problem-Solving Skill." Contemporary Educational Psychology 22, 472-494
Kahney, Hank, (1993) Problem solving: current issues- 2. ed. Buckingham; Philadelphia; Open University Press
Incidence, Diagnoses, Characteristics and Safety Considerations Involved in the Provision of Physical Education Activities to Students with Mental Retardation with Autism
An Examination of the Incidence, Diagnoses, Characteristics and Safety Considerations Involved in the Provision of Physical Education Activities to Students with Mental Retardation ith and ithout Autism
To excuse students from physical education is the safe way out, but it does not meet their needs since it becomes costly to them in the long run. The inference here is not to say that physical educators advocate placing children in a program of physical education which will aggravate an injury, cause frustration, or to make him do things which are beyond their ability. -- Nancy Allison Close, Donald K. Matthews, 1973
This paper provides an overview of what physical education (PE) teachers should consider when developing activities and lesson plans for students with the cognitive and physical constraints associated with…
Ammerman, Robert T. And Michel Hersen. Advanced Abnormal Child Psychology. Mahwah,
NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2000.
Bauman, Joanne. (2004). Benefits and Barriers to Fitness for Children with Disabilities. The National Center on Physical Activity and Disability. Available: http://www.ncpad.
National Council for Behavioral Health (n.d.) points out, at least thirty percent of active duty military personnel suffer from a serious mental health disorder that requires treatment, but less than half of these individuals receive treatment. However, there are a variety of state and national mental health services specifically for individuals and families affiliated with the military. The state of Washington maintains a list of mental health resources including family resources for military and veteran families (Washington Mental Health Care esources, n.d.). The state of California's Department of Health Care Services (n.d.) offers a similar set of resources including suicide prevention hotlines for homeless veterans. The California Department of Veterans Affairs (n.d.) draws attention to the range of state and federal resources available, including those that are funded under the Mental Health Services Act (MHSA), Proposition 63. The primary resource for service members and their families is the Department of…
Inequalities in Mental Health
Over the last several years, different theories have been utilized to explain the societal factors in the quality of mental health. The basic idea is to understand which variables will have the greatest impact on the person's ability to contribute to society. The social structure theory is taking a unique perspective in studying the problem. To fully understand its importance requires looking at the main ideas and why it was chosen. Together, these elements will illustrate how this influences mental health and the effects it is having on contemporary thinking. (Gabbidon, 2005) (Cole, 2013)
The social structure theory believes that the economic class will have a direct impact on the quality of care, treatment options and the effects on society itself. This is because poor neighborhoods face greater amounts of strain, frustrations, reduced opportunities and disorganization. These variables will influence how someone sees their surroundings and…
Cole, G. (2013). Survey of Criminal Justice. Mason, OH: Southwestern.
Gabbidon, S. (2005). Race, Crime and Justice. New York, NY: Psychology Press.
Smith, D. (1988). "Social Structure and Criminal Victimization." Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 25 (1), 27-52.
Health Disparities of Uninsured
Statistics show that approximately 47 million of America's population lacks medical coverage, and another 38 million has inadequate health insurance. What these statistics imply is that one-third of Americans are insecure and unsure about whether they would afford healthcare if they fell sick or needed medical help today. The State of Texas tops the list, with an uninsured population of approximately 8 million, representing 25.1% of the total (Code ed, 2006). Minority groups form a bulk of the uninsured population (Wu & ingwalt, 2005). The impact of a large uninsured population, however, is massive -- the uninsured affect both themselves and the communities in which they live, compromising the quality of care and placing everyone at risk. They do not often have a primary care physician, which means that they neither seek out medical care when they are supposed to, nor turn up for preventive care…
Abdullah, F., Zhang, Y., Lardaro, T., Black, M., Colombani, P.M., Chrouser, K., Pronovost, P.J. & Chang, D.C. (2009). Analysis of 23 Million U.S. Hospitalizations: Uninsured Children have Higher All-Cause In-Hospital Mortality. Journal of Public Health, 32(2), 236-244.
ACEP. (2013). The Uninsured: Access to Medical Care. American College of Emergency Physicians. Retrieved 22 July 2014 from http://www.acep.org/News-Media-top-banner/The-Uninsured -- Access-To-Medical-Care/
ANA. (2008). ANA's Health System Reform Agenda. American Nurses Association (ANA). Retrieved 22 July 2014 from http://www.nursingworld.org/content/healthcareandpolicyissues/agenda/anashealthsystemreformagenda.pdf
Bernstein, J., Chollet, D. & Peterson, S. (2010). How does Insurance Coverage Improve Health Outcomes? Mathematica Policy Research Inc. (No. 1). Retrieved 22 July 2014 from http://www.mathematica-mpr.com/~/media/publications/PDFs/health/reformhealthcare_IB1.pdf
This concept says that the low zone represents what the child already knows and can handle alone, and the high zone represents what the child needs mentoring for. With help, Sara could very well pick a gift appropriate to her mother's interest and taste. Because Jane at 10 has a broader experience of the world and more experience with her mother's likes and dislikes, her zone of proximal or potential development will be much larger, however she might very well take advantage of the more complete knowledge of people around her and try to buy or possibly make something really special.
Siegler: Information Processing Theories
Information processing theories have much the same foundations as constructivist or socialcultural theory but seem to focus more on exactly how attention and memory work and grow and change in the child. Attention improves a lot in early childhood although with the younger child, focus…
PBL vs. Traditional
Two of the methods of pedagogy that are currently employed in respiratory therapy are Problem-Based Learning and Traditional Teaching. Both instructional methods can provide a strenuous curriculum for the student interested in comprehensive training in the field of respiratory therapy, and each method has its advantages and (of course) its disadvantages. The focus of this study will be to determine which pedagogical methodology provides the most efficient and effective results in a respiratory therapy educational setting.
To accomplish that objective, the study will administer surveys in questionnaire form to students attending two separate schools that offer training in respiratory therapy. The questionnaires will provide a quantifying response to qualitative, and quantitative, information. Each school's pedagogy will represent either problem-based or traditional teaching methods and students from each school will be asked to complete pre and post training questionnaires and surveys. Additionally, students will be tested on their…
Albanese, M.A. & Mitchell, S. (1993) Problem-based learning: A review of literature on its outcomes and implantation issues, Academic Medicine, Vol. 68, Issue 1, pp. 52-81
Ali, M.; Gameel, W.; Sebai, E.; Menom, N.A.; (2010) Effect of problem-based learning on nursing students' approaches to learning and their self-directed learning abilities, International Journal of Academic Research, Vol. 2, Issue 4, pp. 188 -- 195
Allie, S.; Armien, M.N.; Bennie. K.; Burgoyne, N.; Case, J.; Craig, T.; (2007) Learning as acquiring a discursive identity through participation in a community: A theoretical position on improving student learning in tertiary science and engineering programmes, Cape Town, South Africa, accessed at http://www.cree, uct.ac.za., on January 15, 2011
Biggs, J. (2003) Teaching for quality learning at university (2nd ed.), Buckingham: The Society for Research into Higher Education and Open University Press
ecovery can be a difficult journey for many. The reality of having to change old habits for new ones can take a lifetime. The recovery approach/model realizes the struggle of change and transformation and makes it so that way emphasis is not placed on the destination, but rather the journey. Although other approaches like the disease/medical model aim to treat one aspect of recovery from addiction, the recovery model encompasses all aspects making it one of the most advantageous models to adopt to fight addiction.
The recovery approach/model to addiction and/or mental disorder places a strong emphasis on a support for an individual's potential for recovery. ecovery means a person undergoing a personal journey instead of determining and setting an outcome. This personal journey involves the development of hope, a sense of self, a secure base, social inclusion, meaning, empowerment, and coping skills that will take that person past the…
Barker, P. & Buchanan-Barker, P. (2012). Tidal Model of Mental Health Nursing. Currentnursing.com. Retrieved 24 July 2016, from http://currentnursing.com/nursing_theory/Tidal_Model.html
Best, D. & Lubman, D. (2012). The recovery paradigm - a model of hope and change for alcohol and drug addiction. Aust Fam Physician., 41(8), 593.
Hall, W., Carter, A., & Forlini, C. (2015). The brain disease model of addiction: is it supported by the evidence and has it delivered on its promises?. The Lancet Psychiatry, 2(1), 105-110. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s2215-0366 (14)00126-6
Hammer, R., Dingel, M., Ostergren, J., Partridge, B., McCormick, J., & Koenig, B. (2013). Addiction: Current Criticism of the Brain Disease Paradigm. AJOB Neuroscience, 4(3), 27-32. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21507740.2013.796328
Patient is a Hispanic male, aged 31. He is the father of one son, aged 10. The patient is Puerto ican, and was born and spent his childhood in Puerto ico. He came to live in the U.S. at age 11. He now lives in Brooklyn, New York. The patient is separated from the mother of his son. His son lives with his mother. The patient currently lives alone and is unemployed.
The chief complaint of the patient is that he is "feeling down and alone recently," and that he also feels separated from his family: "I also haven't seen my son for a while." Clearly he is depressed about his living situation, his prospects, and his health.
History of Present Illness
The patient's present illness is related to drug abuse, of which the patient has a considerable history. Essentially, the patient reports that over the past…
Beck, J. (2011). Cognitive Behavior Therapy: Basics and Beyond. NY: Guilford Press.
Hewitt, J. P. (2009). Oxford Handbook of Positive Psychology. Oxford University
McKay, D. et al. (2015). Efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy for obsessive-
Language Barriers & Issues
Other cultures/languages iii. Issues specific to a given area/school
Improper terms used
Classroom Decorum (or lack thereof)
Gossiping/Cliquish behavior iii. Lack of Attentiveness
Students not staying on task
Insults b. Physical violence/injury
Groups cornering single victim
Text messages iii. Teasing/Taunting by Groups
Poorly Trained and/or Behaved Teachers
Use of unlicensed teachers
Teachers not adhering to curriculum
c. Teachers injecting personal/political/religious views
Overall inexperience of young teachers
a. Racial minorities tend to be poorer
b. Racial minorities more likely to be in single parent household
c. Racial minorities more likely to be discriminated against
d. Racial minorities often perform more poorly on tests
e. Accusations of institutional bias against minorities in general
f. Racist/stereotyping behavior by students
g. Segregated schools/neighborhoods
VI. Student Pacing
a. Students able to…
History Of Theory Behind Curriculum Development
The evolution of curriculum theory by and large reflects the current of thought found in the academic-political landscape. The essence of the ancient maxim cuius regio, eius religio applies here: who reigns, his religion. In this case, who reigns, his curriculum. This has been true throughout all the centuries where education was deemed important by a group of individuals or a State. For example, in the West, the ancient Greeks (most notably Plato and Aristotle) devised a curriculum with the purpose of attaining knowledge and/or achieving "soundness" in the mind. Curricula are ever-tied to an aim -- and the objective of a curriculum may be ascertained by a review of what it contains or what its teachers hope to achieve. Therefore, the evolution of curriculum theory is related to the evolution of individual and societal objectives. Historically speaking, these objectives are manifest in every…
Adrian, J. (1999). Mere or More?: Classical Rhetoric and Today's Classroom.
University of North Carolina SITES, 131: 11-21.
Aquinas, T. (1942). Summa Theologica. [Fathers of the English Dominican Province
Trans.]. Retrieved from http://www.ccel.org/a/aquinas/summa/FP/FP068.html
Mental Health Issues in Hispanic Community
The Hispanic community comprises of one of the fastest growing ethnic/racial groups within the United States. According to census results of 2000, the number of Hispanics in the United States has increased by about 60% over the last decade. This is from 23 back in 1990 to 35.5 million in 2000. In March 2002, the number of Hispanics in United States was 37.4 million. Hispanic population in the United States in 44 million now this is about 14% of the U.S. population. Nearly 805 of all the Hispanics in the U.S. are either immigrants or children of immigrants. It is expected that by 2050, the Hispanic population will be 108 million and about a quarter of the population in United States.
Sociocultural and historical factors suggest that the Hispanic community needs mental health services greatly. Hispanics in general have low economic and education status.…
Escarce, J & Kapur, K. (2008).Hispanics and the Future of America: Access to and Quality of Health Care. Retrieved August 5, 2014 from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK19910/
Talamantes, M., Lindeman, R & Mounton, C. (2009). Health and Healthcare of Hispanic/Latino-American elders. Retrieved August 5, 2014 from http://web.stanford.edu/group/ethnoger/hispaniclatino.html
Morales, L., Kington, R., Valdez, R & Escarce, J. (2007).Socioeconomic, cultural, and behavioral factors affecting Hispanic health outcomes. Retrieved August 5, 2014 from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1781361/
Vega, W. (2008). Mental Health issue affecting Latino youth and families. Retrieved August 5, 2014 from http://www.sdprc.net/wp-content/uploads/2012/11/keynoteaddress-pte.pdf
Mental health services for adults and children in Florida are commonly provided by community health facilities and agencies. The use of community health agencies and facilities is providing these services are fueled by the need for an intensive care level to address the increase and impact of mental disorders. Florida State has embraced a framework of directive principles of care as the foundation for providing mental health services to adults and children. However, this framework has been insufficient to effectively deal with mental disorders for children in Jacksonville, Florida. Based on recent statistics, over 20% of children and young people experience the signs and symptoms of these illnesses during the course of a year (Goldhagen, 2006). A comprehensive, integrated community mental health service program is a suitable community-based approach this problem in Jacksonville, Florida.
Description of the Population
Mental disorders have developed to become a major health problem…
Buchanan, D. (2007). Integrating Behavioral Health into Primary Care. Retrieved from University of Nebraska -- Medical Center website: http://webmedia.unmc.edu/Community/CityMatch/EMCH/062807/DCBHS%202007.ppt
Cohen et. al. (2011). Three Models of Community Mental Health Services in Low-income
Countries. International Journal of Mental Health Systems, 5(3), 1-10. Retrieved from http://www.ijmhs.com/content/pdf/1752-4458-5-3.pdf
Flannery, F., Adams, D. & O'Connor, N. (2011, February). A Community Mental Health Service
The health of women has been a subject of discussion for many years and it has been emphasized because the health of women is directly related to the health of the child and thus the health of the society (Jacobson, 1993). However, the unfortunate part is that when considering the health of the women, only her physical and reproductive health is given importance and there is no consideration of her mental health that is equally as important as her physical health. All around the world, efforts have increased to make the health conditions of the women better especially since the last decade. Women are now regularly screened for HIV and other diseases that have a vertical pattern of transmission so that the children can be saved from such diseases. Awareness has also increased over the years among the women and they realize that their health, both mental and…
Belle, D. Poverty and Women's Mental Health.American Psychologist (1990) 45:385-389.
Jacobson, J. Women's Health: The Price of Poverty. In The Health of Women: A Global Perspective, edited by M. Koblinsky, J. Timyan, and J. Gay, pp. 3-32. Boulder, CO: Westview Press (1993).
Jayarajan, Nishanth; Chandra, Prabha.HIV and Mental Health: An Overview of Research from India. Indian Journal of Psychiatry, September 2010.
WHO.Mental Health Determinants and Populations.Geneva (2000) http://whqlibdoc.who.int/hq/2000/who_msd_mdp_00.1.pdf .
In recent years, mental illnesses have been the focus of considerable attention from medical professionals. These are conditions that can cause disruptions in individual's moods, feelings, thinking, daily functioning, and the ability to relate with other people and things. Mental illness is a condition of the brain which results in different symptoms, as well as affecting the day-to-day life of that person and the people around him or her in different ways. The mental illnesses include borderline personality disorder, post-traumatic stress, obsessive compulsive disorder, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, depression, and anxiety to name a few. More than sixty million people in America, i.e. one out of four adults, are going through mental illnesses in a given year. One out of seventeen people experiences disorders such as bipolar disorder, depression, and schizophrenia while one out of ten million children are going through emotional disorders and mental illnesses. Every person who…
Miles, J., Espiritu, R., Horen, N., Sebian, J., & Waetzig, E. (2007). A public health approach to children's mental health. Georgetown: Center for Child and Human Development.
(n.d.). Models of Human Service Delivery.
NAMI. (2013). Mental Illness: What you need to know. Virginia: National Alliance on Mental Illness.
NIMH. (n.d.). NIMH Plan of Research. Retrieved from www.nimh.nih.org: https://www.nimh.nih.gov/about/strategic-planning-reports/introduction.shtml
Mental Health, Prisons and Hospitals
The two videos -- the news piece on Connecticut's "purple pods" used in Hartford hospital and the Frontline special on prisons and mental health -- both indicate a problem in how society copes with and treats individuals with mental health. They also portray the two extremes of society's response to mental health issues. The Hartford hospital is on the one extreme -- in which the patient's comfort and security are top priorities (to the extent that mental health patients are given their own specially constructed rooms where safety mechanisms and soothing features have been built into the room). The prison system in Ohio described in Frontline is on the other extreme -- where prisons essentially act as mental health hospitals because the mental health facilities in Columbus are no longer able to tend to the needs of mental health patients: the patients end up being…
Gonzalez, M., Connell, N. (2014). Mental health of prisoners: identifying barriers to mental health treatment and medication continuity. American Journal of Public Health, 104(12): 2328-2333.
Harner, H., Riley, S. (2013). The impact of incarceration on women's mental health.
Qualitative Health Research, 23(1); 26-42.
The patient is a 25-year-old male, single, unemployed, living with parents. The person seeking treatment in this case has been experiencing some extreme problems that have developed somewhat rapidly over the course of six months. The problem is very severe and has interfered with all of his personal relationships. He was recently fired from his janitorial job at a school for scaring the students with his words and actions. The patient has not sought treatment before but is now due to his parent's concern and him becoming much more violent and demonstrating strange and odd behavior. The patient claims to be hearing many voices in his head urging him to do strange acts. The patient has also recently taken up a hobby of collecting dead animals and placing them in mailboxes and other public places.
History of the Problem
The patient has described his life becoming…
National Institute of Mental Health. What are the symptoms' of schizophrenia? Veiwed on 22 Feb 2013. Retrieved from http://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/publications /schizophrenia/what-are-the-symptoms-of- schizophrenia.shtml
Mental illness appears in various forms. It is characterized by some serious disruptions in someone's thoughts or even demonstrated in their actions. The person presenting these symptoms is often unable to deal with the day-to-day activities and patterns of a normal life. Mental illness can take over 200 forms each having an effect on the patient's disposition, character, traits, and even the way they interact with others. Some of the common forms of mental illness are 'schizophrenia', 'depression,' 'bipolar disorders' and 'dementia'. Taylor and Brown (1988) state that mental illness can be presented in a psychological, emotional way and even in physical symptoms. A person under severe stress due to dealing with an incident or series of stressors' build-up over time is prone to mental illness. A person may also present symptoms of mental illness through a biochemical imbalance, a negative reaction to his environment, and the pressures accrued thereby,…
Bartlett, A., & McGauley, G. (2010). Forensic mental health: Concepts, systems, and practice. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Clinic, M. (2015, October 13). Mental illness. Retrieved December 7, 2015, from http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/mental-illness/basics/definition/CON-20033813
Corrigan, P. W., Morris, S., Larson, J., Rafacz, J., Wassel, A., Michaels, P., ... Rusch, N. (2010). SELF-STIGMA AND COMING OUT ABOUT ONE'S MENTAL ILLNESS. Journal of Community Psychology, 38(3), 259-275. http://doi.org/10.1002/jcop.20363
Dowrick. C., Dunn. G., Ayuso-Mateos.J et al. (2000). Problem-solving treatment and group psycho-education for depression: multicenter randomized controlled trial. British Medical Journal, 321, 1450-4
Mental Health Disorder
The following is a close examination of the psychosocial status of mental health disorder. There is going to be an examination of the symptoms along with a comprehensive diagnosis of the case.
Mental Health Disorder- Background
Childhood mental health disorder refers to all mental health conditions that affect a person in childhood. The disorder in children is described as critical changes that affect the way a child behaves, learns or even handles emotional situations. Some of the known childhood mental health disorders include (CDC - Child Development, Children's Mental Health -- NCBDDD, n.d):
Hyperactivity disorder/attention deficit disorder (ADHD) (http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/adhd/index.html)
Disorders related to behavior
Anxiety and mood disorders
Substance use disorders
Mental health is essential in life. Mental health disorders can persist throughout a person's life (CDC - Child Development, Children's Mental Health -- NCBDDD, n.d). The problem needs to be diagnosed early. Otherwise, children continue…
(n.d.). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. CDC - Child Development, Children's Mental Health - NCBDDD. Retrieved February 6, 2016, from http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/childdevelopment/mentalhealth.html
Klauck, S. (2006). Genetics of autism spectrum disorder. European Journal of Human Genetics, 14, 714-720. Retrieved February 6, 2016 from http://www.nature.com/ejhg/journal/v14/n6/full/5201610a.html
(n.d.). Medicine Net. Mental Health: Get the Facts on Common Disorders. Retrieved February 6, 2016, from http://www.medicinenet.com/mental_health_psychology/article.htm
(n.d.). MU School of Health Professions. Autism Spectrum Disorders: Case Study. Retrieved February 6, 2016, from http://shp.missouri.edu/vhct/case4108/case_study.htm
Mental Health and Stigma
Stigma influences the lives of people living with serious mental illnesses in many ways, including via the experience of self-stigma, whereby a person gives intense focus to what others might think about one’s own mental illness, internalizing their conception of the illness (Link, Wells, Phelan & Yang, 2015). Stigma can also come from society, from the workplace, from one’s own family or set of peers, and even from strangers. When an illness is stigmatized in the media, a person who suffers from that illness may feel taboo, ostracized from society, isolated from the “normal” group of people who have normal lives and can function without problem (Corrigan, Druss & Perlick, 2014).
Stigma influences the lives of people living with serious mental illnesses in other ways too. They become afraid to seek medical help because of the fear of being labeled as a person with a…
Consistent with this, other findings propose that women are more likely than men to take part in violence in the home whereas men are more likely than women to take part in violence in public places.
Even though there is some evidence that mental illness is associated with violence, it appears that the bigger contributing factor is that of outside influences. Substance abuse appears to be the greatest contributing factor, but it can be something as insignificant as one's living arrangements or even just their gender. Overall people with mental health problems do not appear to be at an increased risk of violence.
Appelbaum, P.S., Robbins, P.C., Monahan, J. (2000). Violence and delusions: data from the MacArthur Violence Risk Assessment Study. American Journal of Psychiatry, 157,
Cottle, C. (2004). The role of social context in the prediction and management of violence among persons with mental illness. Dissertation…
The individuals with the condition often face a series of exclusions and rejections (Widiger 2011). There are many scenarios that have been denied basic needs such as housing on the basis of their mental status. People are denied loans, job opportunities and health insurances on the basis of mental health. The stigmatization cases are so prevalent that many people affected or who suspect they have the condition fear to seek professional assistance.
Stigmatization causes the person to have low self-esteem the strong social, religious and cultural beliefs have greatly distorted views of people on mental illness. Media portrays most of the characters with aggressive behavior and other negative traits as suffering from mental illness. This has created the impression that mental sickness is a sign of inferior character.
The basics of mental health include examination of theories of psychology, sociology, health psychology and transitions of life in relation to mental…
Jensen-doss, a., & Hawley, K.M. (2011). Understanding clinicians' diagnostic practices:
Attitudes toward the utility of diagnosis and standardized diagnostic tools. Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research, 38(6), 476-85. doi:
Widiger, T.A. (2011). Integrating normal and abnormal personality structure: A proposal for DSM-V. Journal of Personality Disorders, 25(3), 338-63. doi:
Purpose: The Woodcock-Johnson III Diagnostic eading Battery's designation is for assessment and measurement of the important dimensions of phonological oral language abilities and phonological awareness, both in adult and children.
Population: Both adults and children (age of 3-80 years).
Date of Publication: 2004.
Acronym(s): WJ III (DB).
Score Scales: eading Comprehension, Basic eading Skills, Phonics Knowledge, Broad eading, Brief eading, Total eading, eading Fluency, Spelling of Words, Oral Comprehension, eading Vocabulary.
Time: 50-60 minutes.
Author (s): Fredrick, S.A., Nancy, M. & Woodcock, .C.
Publisher: iverside Publishing, Inc.
Comments: Software Scoring and Paper-and-Pencil.
Sub-tests: Passage Comprehension, Word-Letter Identification, Sound Awareness, Spelling of Sounds, Oral Vocabulary, Sound Blending.
elated eview: 1713318.
The Woodcock-Johnson III Diagnostic eading Battery is for the assessment and measurement of the important dimensions of phonological oral language abilities and phonological awareness, in both adult and children (Brande, 2008). By utilization of software scoring and the…
Risk & Needs Assessment Group. (1986). Substance Abuse Questionnaire (SAQ)-Adult
Probation III. In R.J. Nagle. (Ed.), the ninth mental measurement yearbook (Electronic
version). Retrieved from the Buros University Mental Measurement Yearbook online database.
Mental Imagery is a cognitive process that very much resembles the human experience of perceiving an object, scene, or event when that object, scene or event is not present. Some educators think that the use of mental imagery can both enhance memorization and learning. If the learning process can emphasize visual, auditory and kinesthetic experiences, then teaching in multiple sensory processes benefits the potential for memory. Being able to mentally "see" the event, page, process, formula, musical notes, etc. often creates a more robust memory experience for the learner (Kosslyn, et.al, 2003).
The loci technique, or the memory palace, is a mnemonic device that allows for images or facts to be associated with physical locations. Cognitively, it relies on an individual's ability to memorize spatial relationships that give order, and then that order helps with recollection. The idea is that we can increase our chances of memorizing something…
Peg Method for Remembering Lists. (2011). Retrieved from: http://www.memory-improvement-tips.com/remembering-lists.html
Strategies of Divergent Thinking. (2008). University of Washington. Retrieved from: http://faculty.washington.edu/ezent/imdt.htm
Carlson, N. (2010) Psychology: The Science of Behavior. Toronto: Pearson Canada.
Fliskowski, P. (2011). Understanding Sentences: Does the Garden Path Theory Sufficiently Explain How Humans Comprehend? Seminar Paper. Retrieved from: http://books. google.com/books?id=FKXdYsU49tQC&printsec=frontcover&dq=garden+path+sentences&hl=en&sa=X&ei=ZHWkUNm6JIb8igKnq4DoBw&ved=0CDkQ6AEwAg