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Mental Representations and the Mind-Brain

Words: 2282 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 16628063

Mental epresentations and the Mind-Brain elationship

MENTAL EPESENTATIONS AND THE MIND-BAIN

The Dualism Argument

Pure Materialist Viewpoint

Theories

Visual Stimuli vs. Speech stimuli

Descartes Point-of-View

Neurons and Synapses

Mental epresentations and the Mind-Brain elationship

In cognitive (neuro) science all through the last few decades, as in philosophy in the last 100 years, the issue of the mind-body (or mind-brain) occurrences is still open to discussion. Illogically, ever since Descartes nobody has suggested a workable alternate view of this problem. esearchers and thinkers have offered some approaches, yet none has gained the assent of the majority of thinkers. During a person's daily toils the separation that goes on between an individual mind and consciousness is hardly ever thought about or talked about. But then again it is the primary cause for the majority of your existence problems. This separation is not even a recognized fact, as consciousness and mind seem to…… [Read More]

References

Baars, J.B. (2013). An architectural model of consciousand unconscious brain functions: Global workspace theory and IDA. Neural Networks, 20, 955-961.

Bartels, A. (2010). Visual perception: Converging mechanisms of atten-tion, binding, and segmentation. Current Biology, 7(9), 56-78.

Gabbard, G.O. (2013). Mind, Brain, and Personality Disorders. American Journal of Psychiatry, 34-45.

Sevush, S. (2013). Single-neuron theory of consciousness. Journal ofTheoretical Biology, 21(9), 704-725.
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State Prisons vs Private Companies Operated Prisons

Words: 868 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 75851714

State vs. Private Prison

The United States prison system is designed to ensure that the members of society who have chosen to violate the law and commit crimes are suitably punished. Prisoners are sent away for a period of time based on the crime committed and the severity of that crime. Additional factors such as age, mental and emotional state, and motive may have a contribution to the sentencing of the prisoner. The prison system is comprised of both state-funded institutions and those run and controlled by private funding. Both forms of institutions serve the same inherent function, to punish those who have committed crimes and to rehabilitate the offenders so that they can be released back into society without posing a potential threat to other law-abiding citizens. Those who cannot be rehabilitated will either be executed by the state or sent to prison for a life sentence. However, there…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Levine, D.M. "What's Costlier than a Government Run Prison? A Private One." Fortune. 2010.

Print.

"Private Privatization and the Use of Incarceration." The Sentencing Project. 2004. Print.

Siegel, Larry J., and Joseph J. Senna. Introduction to Criminal Justice. Belmont, CA:
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Mental Health Prisoners Usa I've Included Outline

Words: 1860 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83733055

mental health prisoners usa. I've included outline main idea, I apply ideas questions. contact clarifications. I. Introduce define global health issue connection nursing. For, .

Mental Health in the American Prison System

There has always been much controversy regarding prisoners and their mental health, but as civilization has experienced much progress throughout this century people have become more and more concerned about making sure that prisons are able to differentiate between individuals who are mentally ill and persons who are not. Even with the fact that prisons were never design to accommodate the mentally ill, conditions are critical today as a great deal of men and women who are unable to get mental health treatment in the communities they live in are incarcerated consequent to committing an illegality. There are a great deal of people suffering from schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, or depression in U.S., thus meaning that society needs to…… [Read More]

Works cited:

Austin, W. And Boyd, M.A. (2010). Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing for Canadian Practice. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Cornwell, D.J. (2009). The Penal Crisis and the Clapham Omnibus: Questions and Answers in Restorative Justice. Waterside Press.

Finkel, M.L. (2010). Public Health in the 21st Century: [Three Volumes]. ABC-CLIO.

Videbeck, S.L. (2010). Psychiatric-Mental Health Nursing. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
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Mental Health Court Study the

Words: 2549 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Article Critique Paper #: 1040849



Nonetheless, people who received some level of ACRP intervention had a lower rate of criminal recidivism than people who received no intervention at all.

System Flow

The study found that the case flow through the ACRP was a little slow. The amount of time between the Initial Opt-In Hearing and the Formal Opt-In Hearing averaged 74 days. While there are no hard and fast rules governing how long this process should take, the study found that that "the ACRP is performing rather well on the front-end of the admissions process (up to the initial opt-in stage) but that more could be done to work on the back end (time between the Initial Opt-In Hearing and the Formal Opt-In Hearing)."

Status Hearings

The study found that the incentives and sanctions used by ACRP judges to promote compliance at status hearings, though standardized, were not tailored to correspond to participant progress.

Also,…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Outcomes from the Last Frontier: An Evaluation of the Anchorage Mental Health Court (Alaska Mental Health Trust Authority, Ferguson-Hornby-Zeller, 2008).

Improving Responses to People with Mental Illnesses: The Essential Elements of a Mental Health Court (Thompson, Osher, Tomasini-Joshi, 2008).

Mental Health Courts: Decriminalizing the Mentally Ill. (Irwin Law, Schneider-Hyman-Bloom, 2007).

Mental Health Courts. (Wiley Encyclopedia of Forensic Science, Schneider, 2009).
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Mental Health Professionals Understanding What Is Impacting

Words: 618 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 37462073

mental health professionals, understanding what is impacting patients and their employees requires careful observation. This occurs through seeing if there is anything that is out of the ordinary. The situation with Eileen; is classic example of using these tools to realize when something more severe is happening. (Palmo, 2006)

In this particular case, Eileen is known as someone who is stable and reliable in organizing / managing the office. However, once she starts crying, is when she is dealing with more unusual challenges. Mental health professionals have a duty to identify the root causes of these problems and helping her to address them. (Palmo, 2006)

For Cora, she has unique responsibilities as a counselor and her employer. This is because she has to make certain that Eileen is able to work through these problems in order to perform her job efficiently. At the same time, she has an obligation to…… [Read More]

References

Palmo, A. (2006). Foundations of Mental Health Counseling. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas.
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Frontline's Prisons and Mental Health Video

Words: 700 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Chapter Paper #: 78831261

Mental Health, Prisons and Hospitals

The two videos -- the news piece on Connecticut's "purple pods" used in Hartford hospital and the Frontline special on prisons and mental health -- both indicate a problem in how society copes with and treats individuals with mental health. They also portray the two extremes of society's response to mental health issues. The Hartford hospital is on the one extreme -- in which the patient's comfort and security are top priorities (to the extent that mental health patients are given their own specially constructed rooms where safety mechanisms and soothing features have been built into the room). The prison system in Ohio described in Frontline is on the other extreme -- where prisons essentially act as mental health hospitals because the mental health facilities in Columbus are no longer able to tend to the needs of mental health patients: the patients end up being…… [Read More]

References

Gonzalez, M., Connell, N. (2014). Mental health of prisoners: identifying barriers to mental health treatment and medication continuity. American Journal of Public Health, 104(12): 2328-2333.

Harner, H., Riley, S. (2013). The impact of incarceration on women's mental health.

Qualitative Health Research, 23(1); 26-42.
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Mental Models in Contemporary Education

Words: 1329 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64427440

Finally, the empirical demonstration should be followed by directly addressing the concerns of educators about any possible detrimental effect on reading comprehension skills as a function of any reduction in reliance on textbook-based learning. That component would consist of outlining criteria and limitations for using video-based instructional methods to ensure that it does not have any negative effect on that crucial aspect of primary and secondary education.

Moral Purpose Statement for Change and Stakeholder Issues

Educators have a fundamental responsibility to provide all of their students with the best possible opportunity to maximize their educational opportunity. That responsibility includes overcoming learned prejudices that may limit our ability to recognize valuable educational approaches and methods. One example of such prejudices would include the assumption among professional educators that video-based learning is inferior to traditional textbook-based learning and therefore inappropriate as the basis for substantive academic instruction.

In terms of different classes…… [Read More]

References

Choi, H.J. And Johnson, S.D. "The Effect of Problem-Based Video Instruction on Learner Satisfaction, Comprehension, and Retention in College Courses." British

Journal of Educational Technology, Vol. 38, No. 5 (2007): 885 -- 895.

Duffy, F.M. "Paradigms, Mental Models, and Mindsets: Triple Barriers to Transformational Change in School Systems: PART 1." International Journal of Educational Leadership Preparation, Vol. 4, No. 3 (July - September, 2009).

Franciszkowicz, M. "Video-Based Additional Instruction." Journal of the Research
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Mental Retardation Is Generally Understood

Words: 2000 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 76150564

They very seldom become fully integrated into society or become independent. (Mental etardation: Free Health Encyclopedia)

6. Conclusion

The is little doubt that mental retardation has an effect on society in general and in terms of care and treatment of the affected person. However, it is also true that with the knowledge and expertise that has been accumulated about mental retardation it is also become more feasible to accommodate the mentally retarded person as a productive member of society.

My perception of the mentally retarded in society is that are less fortunate and that the mentally healthy members of society should help and assist these individuals wherever possible. The research for this paper has made me aware that we often categorize the mentally retarded in a general way without realizing that there are different categories and degrees of retardation. Cognizance should be taken of the fact that many people who…… [Read More]

References. Retrieved June 24, 2008, at  http://www.cloudnet.com/~edrbsass/mrdefinitions2.htm 

Goldstein, G. And Shapiro B. (2007) Mental Retardation. Retrieved June 24, 2008 at  http://www.dana.org/news/brainhealth/detail.aspx?id=9836 

Lustig D.C. (1996)

Family adaptation to a young adult with mental retardation.  http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0825 " Journal of Rehabilitation,
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Mental Health Nearly 40 of

Words: 2015 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 30551883

New findings show that the spouses of veterans also experience mental health disorders, and the prevalence increases with the length of deployment (Mansfield, Kaufman, Marshall, Gaynes, Morrissey & Engel, 2010). When spouses are considered to be clients of health services, the need for improved and more robust resources becomes apparent. Moreover, spouses with mental health disorders present unique issues and questions for treatment. eturning soldiers may find that they have supportive partners who can lead to a mutually beneficial treatment relationship, via couples or family therapy. On the other hand, the mental health problems of the spouse can exacerbate those of the soldier, and vice-versa. Thus, a family systems approach can be extremely helpful when addressing the multifaceted mental health concerns among veterans.

Veteran health services are at a critical juncture. The need for targeted mental health interventions, ranging from screenings and assessments to therapies and treatments, has been proven…… [Read More]

References

Britt, T.W., Greene-Shortridge, T.M. & Castro, C.A. (2007). The Stigma of Mental Health Problems in the Military. Military Medicine 172(2), February 2007, pp. 157-161(5)

Bliese, P.D., Wright, K.M., Adler, a.B., Thomas, J.L. & Hoge, C.W. (2007). Timing of postcombat mental health assessments. Psychological Services 4(3), Aug 2007, 141-148.

Hoge, C.W., Auchterlonie, J.L. & Milliken, C.S. (2006). Mental Health Problems, Use of Mental Health Services, and Attrition From Military Service After Returning From Deployment to Iraq or Afghanistan. JAMA. 2006;295(9):1023-1032. doi:10.1001/jama.295.9.1023.

Hoge, C.W., Castro, C.A., Messer, S.C., McGurk, D., Cotting, D.I. & Koffman, R.L. (2004). Combat Duty in Iraq and Afghanistan, Mental Health Problems, and Barriers to Care. N Engl J. Med 2004; 351:13-22July 1, 2004 DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa040603
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Mental Retardation in Adults Mental

Words: 1735 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 11878955

The severity of mental retardation covers a wide spectrum, as discussed before, and variation in ability of individuals within this spectrum is wide (Tammi, 2006). In order to understand and to assist such persons, it is important to know the category in which they fall and the possible causes of the condition. In most cases, a little psychological instability leads to a mental retardation and therefore psychological interventions can be very effective in solving such cases. The notion of viewing mental retardation as a case of pure medical condition should be changed in order to find means of reducing such situations.

eferences

Christopher D. Prater, MD. (2006, June 15). Medical Care of Adults with Mental etardation.

etrieved March 11, 2010, from American Family Physician: http://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0615/p2175.html

Donna K. Daily, MD. (2000, February 15). Identification and Evaluation of Mental etardation.

etrieved March 11, 2010, from American Family Physician: http://www.aafp.org/afp/20000215/1059.html

Gotiesrnati, .L. (s.f.).…… [Read More]

References

Christopher D. Prater, MD. (2006, June 15). Medical Care of Adults with Mental Retardation.

Retrieved March 11, 2010, from American Family Physician:  http://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0615/p2175.html 

Donna K. Daily, MD. (2000, February 15). Identification and Evaluation of Mental Retardation.

Retrieved March 11, 2010, from American Family Physician:  http://www.aafp.org/afp/20000215/1059.html
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Mental Processes and Creativity Intelligence

Words: 1134 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45330517

Essentially, this is the ability to form mental images, sensation or concepts in a way that is not specifically tied to sight, hearing or other senses. It is about taking experience and knowledge and making sense of the world through learning and evocation of new thoughts, mental pictures, or perceptions of the world -- whether individual or shared (Byrne, 2005).

Inspiration- Inspiration is a constant search for bursts of creativity and may be found through the influences of others (speakers, leaders, etc.) or through one's own mental abilities. Depending on the paradigm used, inspiration is seen as either being divinely inspired or through unique processes that allow for a change in the usual mode of thinking or operation.

Five Forces Influence- In combination with the four creative styles, we also have five forces that influence these models of thinking and operation: education, training, influence from others, rewards and incentives, and…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Byrne, R. (2005). The Rational Imagination. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

DeVol, R. And Wong, P. (January 2010). Jobs for America. Milken Institute. Cited in:  http://www.nam.org/~/media/58F813B0D1E643DC91E564FE4C3B3C2F.ashx-utm_source=nam&utm_medium=alias&utm_campaign=innovationreport 

Garlick, D. (2010). Intelligence and the Brain. Burbank, CA: Aesop Press.

Malone-Cline, J. (October 16, 2009). Mental Process. KnowEverything. Cited in:  http://knoweverythinginfo.blogspot.com/2009/10/mental-process.html
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Mental Aging Is a Natural

Words: 794 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Journal Paper #: 81272481



he author's method was simply collecting older data through secondary sources like previous studies and researches. He examined the methods used in these studies and critically evaluated them and also mentioned their limitations according to his assessment.

he author has not clearly discussed the significance of his results but he has thoroughly mentioned the results from previous studies and their positive and negatives have been identified too. He shows why some results cannot be trusted and why some were optimistic but are not relevant his particular hypothesis. For example in one study he found that though the results were optimistic, they are not relevant because the researchers had focused on immediate effects on mental exercise instead of its long-term benefits. In other words, the author agrees that there is a significant difference in mental performance immediately after a mentally stimulating exercise but he doesn't agree that the benefits would last…… [Read More]

The article concludes that there is no significant difference in the rate of mental aging between people who engaged in stimulating exercises and those who did not. I do agree that author has done a good job of evaluating previous studies and their limitations, but I do not agree with his conclusion. The article is widely cited which shows that many experts trust the results or find the article useful in their studies but due to the lack of a scientific method for comparison, examination and evaluation of studies, it is difficult to disregard the results found by others and agree with author's conclusion. His conclusion is mostly a matter of opinion and for that reason; I do not think it can be assigned much weight. I have also observed that people who have led a very active life in pursuance of mental activities generally age much slower mentally. Their cognition level remains very high compared to in-active individuals and they tend to speak more clearly, understand others better and if other health issues are not a problem, they are generally very agile mentally and demonstrate better mental faculties.

REFERENCE

Salthouse TA. Mental exercise and mental aging. Perspectives on Psychological Science 2007;1:68-86.
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Mental Retardation in Adolescences Mental

Words: 1756 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 64628334

Vocational training can help place within the adolescent mind the strategies they will need to adapt to life as an adult.

Further research is needed within the field of adolescents with the condition. According to research, "Unfortunately, most psychiatrists are ill-equipped to handle this situation, having received little or no formal training in this area," (Sebastian 2008). Therefore, more research can only open up new information to psychiatrists and physicians who work with families to make the most comfortable life for the adolescent dealing with mental retardation.

eferences

Biasini, Fred J.; Grupe, Lisa; Huffman, Lisa; & Bray, Norman W. (2010). Mental retardation: A symptom and a syndrome. Comprehensive Textbook of Child and Adolescent Disorders. New York: Oxford University Press. etrieved March 10, 2010 from http://www.uab.edu/cogdev/mentreta.htm

Collins, H. (2004). Children who are mentally retarded. American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. etrieved March 10, 2010 from http://www.aacap.org/cs/root/facts_for_families/children_who_are_mentally_retarded

Daigneault, obert. (2007). Mental…… [Read More]

References

Biasini, Fred J.; Grupe, Lisa; Huffman, Lisa; & Bray, Norman W. (2010). Mental retardation: A symptom and a syndrome. Comprehensive Textbook of Child and Adolescent Disorders. New York: Oxford University Press. Retrieved March 10, 2010 from  http://www.uab.edu/cogdev/mentreta.htm 

Collins, H. (2004). Children who are mentally retarded. American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Retrieved March 10, 2010 from  http://www.aacap.org/cs/root/facts_for_families/children_who_are_mentally_retarded 

Daigneault, Robert. (2007). Mental retardation / adolescent issues for mental retardation. Your Total Health. Retrieved March 10, 2010 from http://yourtotalhealth.ivillage.com/mental-retardation.html?pageNum=4#4

Mental Retardation -- Developmental delay. (2010). Mass General Hospital for Children. Retrieved March 10, 2010 from  http://www.massgeneral.org/children/adolescenthealth/articles/aa_mental_retardation.aspx
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Mental Health Continuum of Care

Words: 1291 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 45975749

However, integrated continuum of care networks presents a viable solution to mental health care delivery that properly allocates resources a collaborative and cooperative service delivery system.

Needed, according to Mohatt (1997) is "vertical integration' in the "approaches to managed care" in networking a group of healthcare providers, at various levels of primary care and behavioral health, to form an integrated service network. They seek to develop, via cooperation, a coordinated, consumer focused, seamless continuum of care designed to improve access and availability through efficiencies gained by the elimination of redundant services or systems."

Mohatt reports just such as system being in existence and specifically the Laurel Health System in northeastern Pennsylvania "founded in 1989 with the merger of five not-for-profit organizations..." This network spans the human service gamut inclusive of primary care, nursing homes, senior housing, ambulance service, and hospital." (1997) Mohatt reports another example stating:

recent example of such…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Behar, Lenore B., Macbeth, Gary, and Holland, Joan M. (1993) Distribution and Costs of Mental Health Services Within a System of Care for Children and Adolescents. Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research. Vol. 20, No. 4, March 1993. Abstract online available at Springerlink online: http://www.springerlink.com/content/q73873hn78112345/

Hamner, Karl M., Lambert, E. Warren, and Bickman, Leonard (1996) Children's Mental Health in a Continuum of Care: Clinical Outcomes at 18 Months for the Fort Bragg Demonstration. ERIC Digest. 28 Feb 1996. Online available at  http://eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/custom/portlets/recordDetails/detailmini.jsp?_nfpb=true&_&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED460476&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=no&accno=ED460476 

Yager, J. (1996) Do Full Continuum of Care Services Yield Better Results? Am Psychol 1996 July. Journal Watch. Online available at http://psychiatry.jwatch.org/cgi/content/citation/1996/1001/14

Mohatt, Dennis F. (1997) Access To Mental Health Services In Frontier America
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Mental Retardation This Work Examines

Words: 6188 Length: 23 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 58210378

Jones relates that statement of Corrigan: "Our work suggests that the biggest factor changing stigma is contact between people with mental illness and the rest of the population. The public needs to understand that many people with mental illness are functioning, fully contributing members of society." (Jones, 2006) Jones states that "the social cost of stigma associated with mental illness is high because it translates into huge numbers of people with treatable mental illness not getting help." Jones relates the fact that the National Alliance of Mental Illness (NAMI) is a group of advocates that works toward fighting the "inaccurate, hurtful representations of mental illness" that are found in the media. Jang (2002) states that the National Health Law Program has a priority to access of healthcare. In fact, the Executive Order (EO 13166) was focused toward the implementation of guidelines in overcoming the language barriers. Jang states that LEP…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Anderson, S.K. & Middleton, V.A.

Explorations in privilege, oppression and DiversityBrooks Cole 2005. ISBN0-534-51742-0

Barber, J.G. (1995). Politically progressive casework. Families in Society: The Journal of Contemporary Human Services, 76(1), 30-37.

Children Who Can't Pay Attention/ADHD (2004) Facts for Families. Academy of child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Online available at  http://www.aacap.org/page.ww?section=Facts+for+Families&name=Children+Who+Can%27t+Pay+Attention%2FADHD
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Mental and Phsyical Health Effects

Words: 2208 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 7864555

" (Wagner, 2000, p. 6)

As an almost limitless tool for advertisement, though some self censorship has recently occurred as more and more people reduce ad time by restricting adware and popup ads on their computer systems, the internet can ad to the most vile of physical, social and mental health state, especially in the young and impressionable.

For these reasons and more, it makes sense for everyone -- especially for children and young adults -- to consider how advertising can affect four basic types of health. First, it can affect our physical health. We may learn about a healthy practice or vitamin, but may also be prone to engaging in unhealthy activities, lulled by media depictions of glamorous smokers and drinkers, as well as by direct ads for tobacco and alcohol. Second, advertising can affect our emotional health by delivering media-imposed definitions of beauty, sexuality, maturity, and problem-solving. Advertising…… [Read More]

References

Fox, R.F. (2001, November). Warning Advertising May Be Hazardous to Your Health: Ads Pose a Threat to Physical, Emotional, Social, and Cultural Well-Being. USA Today (Society for the Advancement of Education), 130, 62-77.

Gattiker, U.E. (2001). The Internet as a Diverse Community: Cultural, Organizational, and Political Issues. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Harris, L.M. (Ed.). (1995). Health and the New Media: Technologies Transforming Personal and Public Health. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Hatfield, T.H., & Erbeck, G.W. (1997). The Internet: Legitimate Educational Tool or Giant Electronic Sandbox?. Journal of Environmental Health, 59(8), 19-25.
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Mental Retardation

Words: 1031 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 50366141

Mental Retardation in Film: Radio

Main Actors: Cuba Gooding Jr., Ed Harris, Debra Winger

Year released: 2004

A mentally retarded young man, nicknamed "Radio" due to his love of radios (real name James Robert Kennedy; played by Cuba Gooding Jr.) is befriended by a high school football coach in Anderson, South Carolina, Harold Jones (played by Ed Harris), after some of the coach's star players play a mean trick on Radio and he rescues him from a storage shed where they have tied him up. At first, the young man is almost completely non-verbal and non-responsive, but little by little, as Radio comes to trust Coach Jones more, and Coach Jones takes him inside his office at the high school and even has him attending and participating in some of his regular classes, Radio becomes more verbal and more demonstrative. That football season, he helps out with the football team,…… [Read More]

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Mental Retardation

Words: 796 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 7900743

Mental Retardation in Forrest Gump

Forrest Gump, a cheerful and good-hearted, but mentally retarded young man with a low IQ, fights in and survives the Vietnam War, and also meets with a variety of important people of his time (between the 1950's and the 1970's). By chance, Forrest actually helps, through some of these meetings to shape certain national events from the 1950's on. However, his own mental deficiencies make him unable to realize any of this. He experiences meetings with Elvis Presley, John F. Kennedy, Lyndon Johnson, and Richard Nixon. He also comes to be seen by such people as representing his generation (the baby boomers.) Still, everything that happens to Forrest happens merely through a combination of his good attitude and his good luck.

Describe the relevance of the movie as it relates to persons with disabilities or exceptionalities:

I found the movie very touching and warm-hearted, especially…… [Read More]

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Mental Health Counseling and Research

Words: 3990 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 65935118

However, more empirical studies have been published in recent years which have both reported outcomes but also have acknowledged the complexity of the interaction of the number of variables involved in predicting outcome effects on children whose parents are substance abusers (Dworkin & Hirsch, 2004). This literature is particularly important because of the large number of children affected by substance abuse of various kinds and the social policy directed toward substance abuse offenders including parents.

Although the empirical research base is growing on the relationship of parental disability to child outcome effects (Emerick & Zirpoli, 2000) there continues to be a need for research that methodologically addresses specific critical parental disability factors.

Implementing Culturally Sensitive Crisis

In conclusion, when faced with an individual who is recognizably from a culture different from the crisis worker, some modification in approach will be considered. However, there is sufficient cultural diversity present in our…… [Read More]

References

Colangelo, N. (2007). Counseling gifted students: Issues and practices. In N. Colangelo and G.A. Davis (Eds.), Handbook of Gifted Education (2nd ed.), (pp. 353-381). Boston: Allyn and Bacon.

Colangelo, N., & Assouline, a. (1993). Families of gifted children. A research agenda. Quest, 4, 1-4.

Dworkin, M., & Hirsch, G. (2004). Responding to managed care: A roadmap for the therapist. Psychotherapy in Private Practice, 13, 1-21.

Emerick, L., & Zirpoli, T. (2000). Different concerns, different needs? Perceptions of gifted children and parents of children with disabilities. Paper presented at the conference of the American Association of Gifted and Talented, Little Rock, AR.
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Mental Health Problems

Words: 1237 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17753146

Mental health counseling is a field that focuses on helping people to achieve mental and emotional wellness. The treatment plan will typically consist of seeing clients continuously throughout the year. Specific areas of specialization exist in mental health counseling, such as counseling for addiction, trauma, or youth services. If a mental health counselor specializes in youth services, he could work in a variety of different settings, such as a school or a behavioral health center. This paper will define the mental health counseling profession and describe typical duties of the job, the population it serves, and the type of education needed.
Mental health counseling began to be accepted as a professional career in the 1970s. Mental health counselors had been in existence prior but their role had only been loosely defined. When the American Mental Health Counselor Association was established in the mid-1970s, it cleared the path for a more defined…… [Read More]

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Mental Health Ethics

Words: 2831 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 98623571

Given this priest is able to coax and created situations where boys are with him alone is even worse. In short, the counselor in this situation has no choice but to step in and say/do something.

To make a final decision, it would normally be wise to do some information gathering and to truly find out for sure whether or not this man has offended or not. However, the only real way to do that is to prod the priest even more and/or to ask the children and/or parents what is going on, if anything, and that would probably not be the best idea, at least in the latter case. Any querying of children would have to be done with the full knowledge and consent of the parents, and this is true both ethically and legally, and even if such permission was not garnered it would get back to them…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Brown, Francesca, and Mark R. Kebbell. "Policing Indecent Images of Children. What Are the Critical Issues Surrounding Police Risk Assessment?." Sexual Abuse in

Australia & New Zealand 5.1 (2013): 52-59. SocINDEX with Full Text. Web. 5

Apr. 2014.

DeYoung, Mary. "The World According to NAMBLA: Accounting for Deviance." Journal
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Psycho Path Reflections of Mental

Words: 1368 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42526056



The individuals with the condition often face a series of exclusions and rejections (Widiger 2011). There are many scenarios that have been denied basic needs such as housing on the basis of their mental status. People are denied loans, job opportunities and health insurances on the basis of mental health. The stigmatization cases are so prevalent that many people affected or who suspect they have the condition fear to seek professional assistance.

Stigmatization causes the person to have low self-esteem the strong social, religious and cultural beliefs have greatly distorted views of people on mental illness. Media portrays most of the characters with aggressive behavior and other negative traits as suffering from mental illness. This has created the impression that mental sickness is a sign of inferior character.

The basics of mental health include examination of theories of psychology, sociology, health psychology and transitions of life in relation to mental…… [Read More]

References

Jensen-doss, a., & Hawley, K.M. (2011). Understanding clinicians' diagnostic practices:

Attitudes toward the utility of diagnosis and standardized diagnostic tools. Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research, 38(6), 476-85. doi:

 http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10488-011-0334-3 

Widiger, T.A. (2011). Integrating normal and abnormal personality structure: A proposal for DSM-V. Journal of Personality Disorders, 25(3), 338-63. doi:
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Death Penalty and Mental Illness

Words: 2519 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 15774261

Moreover, in Perry v. Louisiana, 498 U.S. 38 (1990), the Court used that decision to bolster Louisiana's attempts to forcibly medicate a prisoner in order to make him death-eligible. If one agrees that the death penalty is a just penalty for one who has committed a capital crime, and that the reason that mentally ill defendants should not be executed is because they lack competence, then it does not seem unethical to allow them to be forcibly medicated in order to be competent. After all, in that scenario, avoiding medication could be likened to any other attempt to avoid punishment. Moreover, an organic physical disorder that arose after conviction, but that would have prevented a defendant from committing a crime, would not be sufficient reason not to execute a person on death row.

However, forced medication, especially for court appearances, may violate a defendant's Fifth Amendment right to present a…… [Read More]

References

Bonnie, R. (2007). Panetti v. Quarterman: mental illness, the death penalty, and human dignity. Ohio State Journal of Criminal Law, 5, 257-283.

Fentiman, L. (1986). Whose right is it anyway? Rethinking competency to stand trial in light of the synthetically sane insanity defense. University of Miami Law Review, 40, 1109-1127.

Ford v. Wainwright, 477 U.S. 399 (1986).

Panetti v. Quarterman, 127 S. Ct. 2842 (2007).
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Person for Mental Illness the

Words: 1953 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 10571299

, 2001). (Corrigan, Watson, Byrne & Davis, 2005, p. 363)

Individuals who then enter the system and attempt treatment are taking a leap of faith that doing so will improve rather than continue to degrade their life and their options in it. Though HIPPA (Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act) attempts to resolve issues of confidentiality, creating strict rules for who when and how communications about one's health can be communicated between individuals attempts to aide all health care clients they are specifically helpful with regard to mental health clients. Possible barriers they create with regard to the sharing of information between clinicians can also be specifically troubling in the mental health arena as the individual must be shown to be giving consent in some way to these communications and they also bar clinicians from sharing information with the individual's support network, such as family, unless permission has been granted…… [Read More]

References

Suicide. (2007). In the Columbia Encyclopedia (6th ed.). New York: Columbia University Press.

Corrigan, P.W., Watson, a.C., Byrne, P., & Davis, K.E. (2005). Mental Illness Stigma: Problem of Public Health or Social Justice?. Social Work, 50(4), 363.

Heeringen, K. (Ed.). (2001). Understanding Suicidal Behaviour: The Suicidal Process Approach to Research, Treatment, and Prevention. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Seaburn, D.B., Lorenz, a.D., Gunn, W.B., Gawinski, B.A., & Mauksch, L.B. (1996). Models of Collaboration: A Guide for Mental Health Professionals Working with Health Care Practitioners. New York: Basic Books.
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Big Brother Among Us George

Words: 2108 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 31229773

Everyone is under suspicion, according to the eye of the camera. Everyone is treated as if they are a likely criminal. This has a negative psychological affect on the general population who are not criminals.

For those who are not criminals, they feel as if their privacy is being invaded for no reason. They are reduced to being under suspicion and scrutinized even though they are upstanding citizens. They feel as if they are being treated as a criminal and that their freedoms are being slowly eaten away one by one. More and more the general population expresses concerns about the trend toward and Orwellian world. The telescreens in Orwell's world broadcast propaganda and continually exaggerated positive production numbers and lied about the failing state of the economy. The telescreens made the economy sound like a growth economy, when it was slowly slipping away, sound familiar?

In Orwell's novel, inston…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Froomkin, D. Obama Hasn't Entirely Abandoned the Bush Playbook. February 18, 2009. the

Washington Post. <  http://voices.washingtonpost.com/white-house-watch/bush-rollback/obama-hasnt-entirely-abandoned.html  >. Accessed December 6, 2010.

London Evening Standard. George Orwell, Big Brother is watching your house. March 31, 2007.

<  http://www.thisislondon.co.uk/news/article-23391081-george-orwell-big-brother-is-watching-your-house.do  > . Accessed December 5, 2010.
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United States Supreme Court Decision

Words: 2079 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 23442236



However, this Court also recognizes that mental illness oftentimes differs from other immutable characteristics, such as mental retardation and age, in that a defendant oftentimes has the ability to control mental illness through medical interventions. hile there is tremendous evidence of Panetti's deteriorated mental state, there is very little evidence to support Panetti's assertions that he was insane at the time of the murders. Though there are serious questions regarding Panetti's competency to stand trial, much less his competency to represent himself in that trial, there simply does not appear to be any evidence that he was insane at the time of the murders. Panetti engaged in preparations that were rationally aimed at accomplishing the murder of his in-laws, but was able to refrain from killing his wife and child. In addition, he engaged in a stand-off with police that resulted in him escaping the stand-off without being killed and…… [Read More]

Woodson v. North Carolina, 428 U.S. 280, 322 (1976).

Woodson v. North Carolina, 428 U.S. 280, 299 (1976).

Ford v. Wainwright, 477 U.S. 399, 409-10 (1986).
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Bronte When Catherine States It Will Degrade

Words: 1278 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Book Report Paper #: 97645968

Bronte

When Catherine states, "It will degrade me to marry Heathcliff," she exposes her prejudices and concerns about social status. She has yet to develop a mature level of self-awareness. Moreover, Catherine indicates a predisposition toward melodrama when she continues, "so he shall never know how I love him." Bronte achieves something clever with this passage, in that she withholds from Catherine her own self-awareness while indicating to the reader that the character is as shallow as anyone else in her milieu. Not being aware of her own shallowness becomes an ironic means by which Catherine can grow. Moreover, it is ironic that the reader is permitted to overhear Catherine's entire conversation on this matter but Heathcliff only hears the first sentence. He does not hear the part about "he shall never know how I love him," and Bronte deliberately structures the conversation in this way, so that the reader…… [Read More]

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Cyber-Citizen USA Cyber-Citizen USA the

Words: 5130 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 35659370

The fact that industrial control systems may be vulnerable to infiltration by other citizens, or international parties puts laws pertaining to intersection of systems transmission at the forefront of priorities for us all.

At present, telecommunications interference of private citizens holds an up to a five-year prison sentence by U.S. federal law. How cyberterrorism is addressed, when the stakes are heightened, leaves a whole host of opportunities for citizens, and legislators to voice their opinion as new technologies for privacy invasion come on the market.

Every ISP access point imaginable is cited within the literature on cyberterrorism, including direct access networks, maintenance of dial-up modems, and of course the internet, remote systems architectures. Exponential information like SCADA systems create an incredibly vulnerable area for hackers interested in "knowledge sharing" network data toward sabotage of industrial operations and state military interests. DHS strategic responsibilities take care of the broad brush stroke…… [Read More]

References

Amendments to Section 225 Cyber Security Enhancement Act, 2002 (2003). Washington, D.C.: Department of Homeland Security.

Antal, J. Counter-terrorism multipliers needed (2010). Military Technology, 34(4), 4.

Ashley, Col. (S) B.K, USAF (2004). The United States Is Vulnerable to Cyberterrorism. Signal Online. Retrieved from:  http://www.afcea.org/signal/articles/templates/SIGNAL_Article_Template.asp?articleid=32&zoneid=10 

Bivens v. Six Unknown Named Agents of Federal Bureau of Narcotics, 409 F.2d 718, (U.S.App. LEXIS 12867 2d Cir. N.Y., 1969).
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Mental Health Counseling Discuss the Role in

Words: 1923 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96482523

Mental Health Counseling

Discuss the role in relationship to the prescription and monitoring of pharmacological treatments for mental health issues.

Unique advances have been achieved in the treatment offered to clients suffering from mental illness. Mental health care providers must understand the original causes of mental health disorders in order to provide treatment to clients with these disorders. Therefore, mental healthcare providers are able to treat disorders associated with mental health. This is being done with much success as physical disorders (Madden, 2008).

The profession of mental health provision has categorized strategies of treating mental health problems as either psychotherapeutic or somatic. Somatic methods of treating mental disorders include therapies such as electroconvulsive therapy, which have the potential of stimulating the brain. Psychotherapeutic method includes behavioral therapy strategies, hypnotherapy, and psychotherapy. esearchers have established that most mental health disorders require treatment strategies that involve both psychotherapy and drugs. This is…… [Read More]

References

Madden, R.G. (2008). Legal issues in social work, counseling, and mental health: Guidelines for clinical practice in psychotherapy. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications

Palmo, A.J., Weikel, W.J., & Borsos, D.P. (2011). Foundations of mental health counseling.

Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas.

World Health Organization (2009). Mental health aspects of women's reproductive health: A
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Mental Health Problems Form a Larger Percentage

Words: 1554 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95566064

Mental health problems form a larger percentage of disability in developed countries more than other group of illnesses. Mental illness is exhibited by sustained and alterations in normal thinking, mood or behavior that is dominated with distress and impaired functioning CDC., 2012.

Care for mentally ill adults in communities is one of the biggest challenges in mental healthcare. Subsequently, the challenges are further compounded by the nature of intervention measures that are customized to manage, treat, and rehabilitate the condition of the mentally ill adults. It has been established that community care intervention programs have the potential of offering a wide array of services to mentally ill patients around the clock and this has led to the reduction in the number of patients being hospitalized. This paper discusses mental health problems in adult population and further proposes intervention measures for the group in a community setting.

Description of the Population…… [Read More]

References

Cattan, M., & Tilford, S. (2009). Mental Health Promotion: A lifespan approach. New York: McGraw-Hill International.

CDC. (2012). Mental Illness Surveillance Among Adults in the United States, from  http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/su6003a1.html 

Creek, J., & Lougher, L. (2011). Occupational Therapy and Mental Health. London: Elsevier Health Sciences.

Harkness, J., Newman, S.J., & Salkever, D. (2004). The Cost-Effectiveness of Independent Housing for the Chronically Mentally Ill: . Do Housing and Neighborhood Features Matter Health Services Research 39 (35), 1341-1360.
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Mental Health With Health Care Use and

Words: 440 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Article Critique Paper #: 16767345

Mental Health with Health Care Use and Cost: A Population Study" published in the Canadian Journal of Psychiatry written by Cawthorpe, Guyn, Li and Lu (2011).

Cawthorpe, Guyn, Li and Lu (2011) report a study with the goals of comparing the health costs of two groups: (1) those with psychiatric diagnoses; and (2) those without psychiatric diagnoses. Nine years of billing data from physicians was used in the study. The methodology reported is that the dataset that contained registration data for the patients who were in receipt of public mental health service was "constructed and subsequently matched" according to sex and age. (p.490)

Sampling in the Study

It is reported that three groups emerged: (1) a comparison patient PD group; (2) comparison patients with psychiatric disorders in physicians only; and (3) patients without PDs treated in specialized care that was publicly funded or by their physicians. (Cawthorpe, Guyn, Li and…… [Read More]

References

Cawthorpe, D., Wilkes, T.C.R., Guyn, L., Li, B., & Lu, M. (2011). Association of Mental Health With Health Care Use and Cost: A Population Study. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, Aug2011, Vol. 56 Issue 8, 490-494.

Curry, LA, Nembhard, IM, and Bradley, EH (2009) Key Issues in Outcomes Research. Circulation. 2009; 119:1442-1452. Retrieved from:  http://circ.ahajournals.org/content/119/10/1442.full?viewType=Print&viewClass=Print
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Mental View of New York

Words: 765 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92656392

Though filled with opportunity, it is also filled with people who missed the golden ring and slipped through the cracks, winding up living on the streets and begging for handouts to survive. This is the landscape that tourists are warned about and natives attempt to ignore by walking by them oblivious to their plight. This is not the celebrity singing cowboy street person who entertains, this is the homeless man in a wheelchair who represents man frailty and how close we all are to the streets. He is the New York that is hard to look at because if we look to closely we might find ourselves.

Then there is the New York of the elite. The debutantes, stockbrokers, old money, new money, famous; these are the royalty of America. They dine in fine restaurants, shop in the best stores, and spend an inordinate amount of money on the finer…… [Read More]

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State Level Challenges and Issues

Words: 656 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75028835

Sociology

State-Level Challenges and Issues

In the course of social worker's in Indiana performing clinical duties they are likely to provide service to Impaired Professionals. Impaired professionals bring to the clinical atmosphere additional clinical contemplations and challenges, not the least of which is their potential for endangerment or harm to the public (Supporting the Wellness and ecovery of Impaired Professionals, 2011). Impairment on the part of a professional is sure to contribute to unproductive service delivery, possibly even to bringing real harm to the client, and malpractice with all its consequences. Impairment may manifest itself in a number of ways, among them, chemical dependency, stress responses, and inadequate attention to the professionals own emotional troubles (The Impaired Helper, 2011).

Impaired professionals often experience inappropriate anger or resentment in the form of: intimidation, insulting or demeaning language, blaming or shaming others for mistakes or errors, needless sarcasm or pessimism and threats…… [Read More]

References

Ethical Standards for Human Service Professionals. (2009). Retrieved from  http://www.nationalhumanservices.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id 

=43

Supporting the Wellness and Recovery of Impaired Professionals. (2011). Retrieved from http://www.naswin.org/displayconvsceduledesc.cfm?SessionId=1988418B-FB48-2FAD-

F596D9FA08444EC6&schedulenbr=34749&convnbr=10397
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Mental Health Illness the Ability

Words: 1546 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28829089

This creates a nerve with the client that their private information is going to be unprotected and confidentiality is going to be broken . There is no safe way to keep all information private. However, all mental health professionals must take all necessary precautions to keep client information private .

Conclusion

As you look around the mall, classroom, church, family history, friend's family, or place of employment, you're sure to know someone with a mental illness, or someone who might of attempted suicide . Assessing and treating these disorders is essential in the mental health field, more trained mental health professionals are needed, more agencies, and more funding . Otherwise if society keeps assuming that the mind and brain are separate and that mental disorders are " different" or " bad" misunderstanding, mistreatment, and stigma will persist in this society . We need to stop seeing individuals with mental health…… [Read More]

Reference

American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (Revised 4th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.

American Association of Suicidology. ( 2006, February), U.S.A. suicide: 2003 official final data. Retrieved March 19, 2010, from http:/ / www.suiciodology.org.

Bonner, L. ( 2001). Rethinking suicide prevention and manipulative behavior in corrections. Jail Suicide Mental Health Update, 10(4), 7-8.

Bonner, L. (2006) . Stressful segregation housing in psychosocial vulnerability in prison suicide. Suicide and Life Threatening Behavior, 36,250-254.
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Mental-Health Care for Mexican-Americans With

Words: 2607 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 98440360

Who lives with you in you household? Quien vive con usted en la casa?

B. Tell me about you family. Cuenteme aceca de su familia

C. What's a typical day like fo you? With you Family? With you fiends? Como pasa Usted el dia? Con su familia? Con sus amigos?

D. Tell me about you fiends Cuenteme sobe sus amigos

E. Who ae the people you can count on the most in time of need?

Quienes son las pesonas con las que puede conta cuando las necesita?

F. Do you belong to goups o oganizations that you feel you get suppot fom? Examples? What kind of suppot?

Petenece an algun gupo u oganizacion que le popociona apoyo?

Pongame algun ejemplo, que tipo de apoyo?

G. How does the family and fiends suppot you and you family?

Como le apoya la familiay/o amigos a usted y su familia?

Language

Idioma (About…… [Read More]

references for mental health treatment for relative's name)

Que tratamientos para la salud mental prefiere que reciba su familiar?

B. Before taking (relative's name) to the hospital, what did you think about mental health treatment?

Antes de traer a su familiar al hospital, que opinaba usted de los tratamientos de salud mental?

Were you familiar with mental health treatment?
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Mental health problems experienced by college'students

Words: 1284 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19172867

American Healthcare
One of the key healthcare issues in America as well as globally is mental health. The news article by Rinker (2017) in Kaiser News Health delineates the mental health problems experienced by college students. Based on the article, when students begin their life in college, several of them come to experience anxieties, face a difficult time to adjust to life in college, and possibly plunge into austere depression or self-destructive feelings and points of view. Owing to this issue, the Chancellor of UCLA, Gene Block, proclaimed that the college is offering charitable mental health screenings to all students entering the school including transfer students and the freshmen students. In acknowledgement of the stress that income students face as they begin their college life, UCLA purposes to screen for depression to aid in ensuring that all students are mentally healthy. The institution will also screen for traits associated with…… [Read More]

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Mental Health and Poor Mental Health Explain

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32821915

mental health and poor mental health. Explain two ways your own culture influences your definitions of mental health. Then explain how your definition of mental health might differ from that of your selected culture. Finally, describe a behavior that is considered normal in your culture but would be considered abnormal in the culture you selected.

Defining mental health: Japan vs. The United States

Even within a culture, the definition of what constitutes 'sanity' or 'insanity' can be extremely controversial. Where to draw the line between eccentricity and quirkiness vs. full-blown mental illness? In Western culture, definitions of mental illness have changed over time. For example, during the 19th century, a woman who did not want to get married and have sex outside of marriage might be considered deranged. Today, being gay is not considered a mental illness, but less than 50 years ago homosexuality was officially classified as an abnormality.…… [Read More]

Given the subjective nature of mental illness, it is not surprising that every culture has a different definition of what constitutes deviancy. In Japan, for example, a new mental disorder has been identified called "hikikomori," meaning "pulling in" or "withdrawal" (Grisafe 2012) Hikikomori usually affects young men who "withdraw entirely from society and stay in their own homes for more than six months, with onset by the latter half of their twenties, and for whom other psychiatric disorders do not better explain the primary causes of this condition" (Grisafe 2012). Most of these young men are middle-class and come from households able to support them financially. The young men spend their days watching television, playing video games, and pursing other activities that do not require social interaction. While some have reported self-destructive behavior like 'cutting' or obsessive-compulsive cleaning, their most distinguishing feature is their complete social isolation.

One of the causes of hikikomori is thought to be the famously rigid Japanese social system. If a young person does not get into a good school and find a good job immediately upon graduation, few opportunities are available for him or for her. While women have the possibility of marriage, men have little else to look forward to, given that society regards them as a 'failure.' The condition was first identified during Japan's great recession in the 1990s, when the formerly stable, booming economy began to unravel.

Of course, the phenomenon of young people struggling to find work after graduation is not confined to Japan. In the wake of the recession of 2008, many young American graduates were forced to return home. "The number of young adults ages 20 to 34 who lived with their parents jumped from 17% in 1980 to 24% in 2007-09" (Nasser 2012). Young male returnees are also reported to have fewer domestic demands placed upon them by their parents, such as cooking and cleaning (Nasser 2012). However, the sense of complete emotional stasis and failure that afflicted the Japanese men is not characteristic of American graduates enough to be regarded as a mental illness. Although some graduates undeniably experience depression and frustration, the fact that society in America takes a more permissive view of taking time to 'find one's feet' after graduation likely has a more positive emotional impact upon graduates unable to be financially independent. Also, in contrast to Japan, American colleges tend to be prohibitively expensive, and the need to alleviate their debt burden forces many young graduates to take some kind of a job (and therefore, to leave the house), in contrast
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Mental Retardation With Autism

Words: 4103 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 76295287

Incidence, Diagnoses, Characteristics and Safety Considerations Involved in the Provision of Physical Education Activities to Students with Mental Retardation with Autism

An Examination of the Incidence, Diagnoses, Characteristics and Safety Considerations Involved in the Provision of Physical Education Activities to Students with Mental Retardation ith and ithout Autism

To excuse students from physical education is the safe way out, but it does not meet their needs since it becomes costly to them in the long run. The inference here is not to say that physical educators advocate placing children in a program of physical education which will aggravate an injury, cause frustration, or to make him do things which are beyond their ability. -- Nancy Allison Close, Donald K. Matthews, 1973

This paper provides an overview of what physical education (PE) teachers should consider when developing activities and lesson plans for students with the cognitive and physical constraints associated with…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Ammerman, Robert T. And Michel Hersen. Advanced Abnormal Child Psychology. Mahwah,

NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2000.

Bauman, Joanne. (2004). Benefits and Barriers to Fitness for Children with Disabilities. The National Center on Physical Activity and Disability. Available: http://www.ncpad.

org/yourwrites/fact_sheet.php.
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Mental Health for Military Personnel

Words: 714 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 15504681

National Council for Behavioral Health (n.d.) points out, at least thirty percent of active duty military personnel suffer from a serious mental health disorder that requires treatment, but less than half of these individuals receive treatment. However, there are a variety of state and national mental health services specifically for individuals and families affiliated with the military. The state of Washington maintains a list of mental health resources including family resources for military and veteran families (Washington Mental Health Care esources, n.d.). The state of California's Department of Health Care Services (n.d.) offers a similar set of resources including suicide prevention hotlines for homeless veterans. The California Department of Veterans Affairs (n.d.) draws attention to the range of state and federal resources available, including those that are funded under the Mental Health Services Act (MHSA), Proposition 63. The primary resource for service members and their families is the Department of…… [Read More]

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States of Consciousness

Words: 1640 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 7324872

Consciousness

The term consciousness has been defined as "mental awareness of sensations, perceptions, memories, and feelings" (Brown, et al. 2003, p. 166). Most human beings live in three states of consciousness: waking, sleeping, and dreaming. Two other states of consciousness, meditation and drug-altered consciousness, can be induced. This essay will explore these five states further and will conclude with a discussion on their psychological relevance.

Waking

Most of our lives are spent in waking consciousness, that is, a state of clear and organized alertness (Brown, et al., 2003). When we are awake, our perception of time, places, and events are real and often accurate. An electroencephalograph (EEG), a device that monitors the electrical activity of the brain, reveals that a person in the waking state has low-amplitude brain wave patterns that are fast and irregular.

Sleeping

Contrary to popular beliefs, sleep does involve some awareness (Lindsay et al., 2004). The…… [Read More]

References

Brannon, L. & Feist, J. (2007). Health psychology: an introduction to behaviour and health.

Belton, CA: Wadsworth.

Brown, P., Coon, D., Malik, R., & McKenzie, S. (2003). Psychology: a journey. Scarborough,

ON: Thompson Nelson.
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State of Nature General Will

Words: 2320 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 92224182

Nature.... General Will

The ideas to create just and liberal society go all the way back to ancient times. The first examples of civil society were proposed by Plato and Aristotle, who saw the ideal state to be a republic ruled by the wise men and aristocrats as "first among equal." They didn't go in depth to explain its structure, functions of government in details, etc. These were the first discourses about the state where the harmony and equality established by the laws of nature will be preserved and developed. But the history shows that Greek republic failed under the pressure of power-gaining ome and Greek democracy was forgotten for centuries, but some of its principles preserved and where later developed by the philosophers of Enlightenment.

Enlightenment or renaissance of political thought and birth of civil political teachings was represented by a new idea of state, where the power was…… [Read More]

References:

1. Locke, John, The Second Treatise on Government, ed by Thomas P. Peardon, Indianapolis, In.; The Library of Liberal Arts, 1952

2. Lavine, T.Z From Socrates to Sartre Bantam; Reissue edition, 1985

3. Camus, Albert The Stranger Vintage; Reissue edition, 1989

4. Marx, Karl Communist Manifesto Signet Classics; Reprint edition, 1998
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State Statue and Rules and Regulations

Words: 1595 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 74141144

Statue and ules and egulations Concerning Dental Hygienists and Dentist in Hawaii and Florida

American Dental Hygienist's Association is the largest governing body for maintaining the dental hygiene and care. The members of ADHA body get pleasure from professional support, educational programs and other variety of opportunities for them to participate and strengthen their decision making process and professional expertise. Government affairs division of ADHA works in close association with state constituent to support issues that are important for the dental care of public and dental hygiene profession. This covers licensing, scope of practice, patient access to care, water fluoridation and other dental care services. The dental hygienists interest is promoted through the governmental affairs division through federal and state policy efforts. The legalization of the ADHA affairs sustain close collaboration with other institutions where public or private to institutionalize the oral health policy document and improve the quality of…… [Read More]

References

ADHA's corporate website, (2011) User Guide to ADHA's Government Affair Division,

Retrieved on 28th Sept 2011 through:

 http://www.adha.org/governmental_affairs/downloads/User 's_Guide_to_Governmental_Affairs.pdf

Chapter 448 hrs dentistry, Retrieved on 28th Sept 2011 through:
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Mental Health Case Study Depression

Words: 2894 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 50384493

Demographics

Patient is a Hispanic male, aged 31. He is the father of one son, aged 10. The patient is Puerto ican, and was born and spent his childhood in Puerto ico. He came to live in the U.S. at age 11. He now lives in Brooklyn, New York. The patient is separated from the mother of his son. His son lives with his mother. The patient currently lives alone and is unemployed.

Chief Complaint

The chief complaint of the patient is that he is "feeling down and alone recently," and that he also feels separated from his family: "I also haven't seen my son for a while." Clearly he is depressed about his living situation, his prospects, and his health.

History of Present Illness

The patient's present illness is related to drug abuse, of which the patient has a considerable history. Essentially, the patient reports that over the past…… [Read More]

References

Beck, J. (2011). Cognitive Behavior Therapy: Basics and Beyond. NY: Guilford Press.

Hewitt, J. P. (2009). Oxford Handbook of Positive Psychology. Oxford University

Press.

McKay, D. et al. (2015). Efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy for obsessive-
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States of Consciousness

Words: 952 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 11736261

consciousness has been studied actively since the 1960s. Interestingly, Taylor (2003) notes, "Consciousness is a subtle phenomenon, which has so far resisted all attempts to understand it." Taylor's statement may be an exaggeration, as the author of this assigned reading goes on to discuss a number of facets of consciousness that have been well studied. These include biological rhythms, facets of waking consciousness, automatic vs. controlled processing, shifts in self-awareness, sleep, and drugs that alter consciousness.

This article notes that circadian rhythms can be either short-term or longer term, and are simply biological rhythms that occur as regular changes in our bodily functions and processes. The pineal gland plays an important role in long-term biological rhythms like hibernation through its production of melatonin. Human differences between day and night people is a common example of biological rhythms in humans.

The author then moves on to examine common disturbances in circadian…… [Read More]

References

Morin, Alain. 2002. Self-awareness review part 1: Do you 'self-reflect' or 'self-ruminate'? SCR, December, No. 1. 26 August 2004.  http://www2.mtroyal.ab.ca/~amorin/Rumination.pdf 

Chapter: States of Consciousness. p. 121 -154.

Revonsuo, Antti and Valli, Katja. 2000. Dreaming and Consciousness: Testing the Threat Simulation Theory of the Function of Dreaming. PSYCHE, 6(8), October 2000. 26 August 2004. http://psyche.cs.monash.edu.au/v6/psyche-6-08-revonsuo.html

Tart, Charles T. 1975. States of Consciousness. First published by E.P. Dutton & Co., New York, in 1975. ISBN 0-525-20970-0. August 26, 2004.  http://www.druglibrary.org/special/tart/soccont.htm
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Hispanics and Mental Issues

Words: 1106 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 43042792

Mental Health Issues in Hispanic Community

The Hispanic community comprises of one of the fastest growing ethnic/racial groups within the United States. According to census results of 2000, the number of Hispanics in the United States has increased by about 60% over the last decade. This is from 23 back in 1990 to 35.5 million in 2000. In March 2002, the number of Hispanics in United States was 37.4 million. Hispanic population in the United States in 44 million now this is about 14% of the U.S. population. Nearly 805 of all the Hispanics in the U.S. are either immigrants or children of immigrants. It is expected that by 2050, the Hispanic population will be 108 million and about a quarter of the population in United States.

Sociocultural and historical factors suggest that the Hispanic community needs mental health services greatly. Hispanics in general have low economic and education status.…… [Read More]

References

Escarce, J & Kapur, K. (2008).Hispanics and the Future of America: Access to and Quality of Health Care. Retrieved August 5, 2014 from  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK19910/ 

Talamantes, M., Lindeman, R & Mounton, C. (2009). Health and Healthcare of Hispanic/Latino-American elders. Retrieved August 5, 2014 from http://web.stanford.edu/group/ethnoger/hispaniclatino.html

Morales, L., Kington, R., Valdez, R & Escarce, J. (2007).Socioeconomic, cultural, and behavioral factors affecting Hispanic health outcomes. Retrieved August 5, 2014 from  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1781361/ 

Vega, W. (2008). Mental Health issue affecting Latino youth and families. Retrieved August 5, 2014 from http://www.sdprc.net/wp-content/uploads/2012/11/keynoteaddress-pte.pdf
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Community Mental Health Service Program

Words: 2418 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 32797947

Mental Disorders

Mental health services for adults and children in Florida are commonly provided by community health facilities and agencies. The use of community health agencies and facilities is providing these services are fueled by the need for an intensive care level to address the increase and impact of mental disorders. Florida State has embraced a framework of directive principles of care as the foundation for providing mental health services to adults and children. However, this framework has been insufficient to effectively deal with mental disorders for children in Jacksonville, Florida. Based on recent statistics, over 20% of children and young people experience the signs and symptoms of these illnesses during the course of a year (Goldhagen, 2006). A comprehensive, integrated community mental health service program is a suitable community-based approach this problem in Jacksonville, Florida.

Description of the Population

Mental disorders have developed to become a major health problem…… [Read More]

References

Buchanan, D. (2007). Integrating Behavioral Health into Primary Care. Retrieved from University of Nebraska -- Medical Center website: http://webmedia.unmc.edu/Community/CityMatch/EMCH/062807/DCBHS%202007.ppt

Cohen et. al. (2011). Three Models of Community Mental Health Services in Low-income

Countries. International Journal of Mental Health Systems, 5(3), 1-10. Retrieved from  http://www.ijmhs.com/content/pdf/1752-4458-5-3.pdf 

Flannery, F., Adams, D. & O'Connor, N. (2011, February). A Community Mental Health Service
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Case Study on Mental Health

Words: 762 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 95643598

Mental Health

Presenting Problem

The patient is a 25-year-old male, single, unemployed, living with parents. The person seeking treatment in this case has been experiencing some extreme problems that have developed somewhat rapidly over the course of six months. The problem is very severe and has interfered with all of his personal relationships. He was recently fired from his janitorial job at a school for scaring the students with his words and actions. The patient has not sought treatment before but is now due to his parent's concern and him becoming much more violent and demonstrating strange and odd behavior. The patient claims to be hearing many voices in his head urging him to do strange acts. The patient has also recently taken up a hobby of collecting dead animals and placing them in mailboxes and other public places.

History of the Problem

The patient has described his life becoming…… [Read More]

Works Cited

National Institute of Mental Health. What are the symptoms' of schizophrenia? Veiwed on 22 Feb 2013. Retrieved from  http://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/publications /schizophrenia/what-are-the-symptoms-of- schizophrenia.shtml
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Prospects and Concerns of Mental Imagery

Words: 2455 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 73160574

Mental Imagery and Its Limitations

Sports coaches, just as the athletes they train are also viewed as performers. While the nature of their performance might differ from those of the athletes, their jobs do require meticulous planning in areas like training, competition as well as the execution of the training procedures. They must be flexible enough to adapt to different situations, as they present themselves, and be good at coping with stress arising from the nature of the competition and media intrusion and also the pressure on them to produce good results (Olosuga, Maynard, Butt & Hays, 2014).

It is apparent therefore that psychological factors have a part to play in getting results. A theoretical framework for athletes to self-regulate their emotional states made suggestions that psychological skills like relaxation, self-talk, imagery and goal setting are needed for the enhancement of psychological abilities like the ability to completely relax (Olosuga…… [Read More]

References

Beauchemin, J. (2014). College Student-Athlete Wellness: An Integrative Outreach Model. College Student Journal, 268-278.

Burke, A., Shanahan, C., & Herlambang, E. (2014). An Exploratory Study Comparing Goal-Oriented Mental Imagery with Daily To-Do Lists: Supporting College Student Success. CurrPsychol, 33, 20-34.

Klein, J., & Moritz, S. (2014). On the relevance of mental imagery beyond stress-related psychiatric disorders. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 5, 1-3.

Loft, M., & Cameron, L. (2013). Using Mental Imagery to Deliver Self-Regulation Techniques to Improve Sleep Behaviors. The Society of Behavioral Medicine 2013, 46, 260 -- 272.
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Critical Analysis Mental Illness

Words: 3769 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82859192

Mental illness appears in various forms. It is characterized by some serious disruptions in someone's thoughts or even demonstrated in their actions. The person presenting these symptoms is often unable to deal with the day-to-day activities and patterns of a normal life. Mental illness can take over 200 forms each having an effect on the patient's disposition, character, traits, and even the way they interact with others. Some of the common forms of mental illness are 'schizophrenia', 'depression,' 'bipolar disorders' and 'dementia'. Taylor and Brown (1988) state that mental illness can be presented in a psychological, emotional way and even in physical symptoms. A person under severe stress due to dealing with an incident or series of stressors' build-up over time is prone to mental illness. A person may also present symptoms of mental illness through a biochemical imbalance, a negative reaction to his environment, and the pressures accrued thereby,…… [Read More]

References

Bartlett, A., & McGauley, G. (2010). Forensic mental health: Concepts, systems, and practice. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Clinic, M. (2015, October 13). Mental illness. Retrieved December 7, 2015, from  http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/mental-illness/basics/definition/CON-20033813 

Corrigan, P. W., Morris, S., Larson, J., Rafacz, J., Wassel, A., Michaels, P., ... Rusch, N. (2010). SELF-STIGMA AND COMING OUT ABOUT ONE'S MENTAL ILLNESS. Journal of Community Psychology, 38(3), 259-275.  http://doi.org/10.1002/jcop.20363 

Dowrick. C., Dunn. G., Ayuso-Mateos.J et al. (2000). Problem-solving treatment and group psycho-education for depression: multicenter randomized controlled trial. British Medical Journal, 321, 1450-4
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Physical and Mental Disorders for

Words: 1325 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61490952

Usually, diagnosis is symptom driven, then combined with testing, forms an opinion, sometimes verified by lab tests, of a specific diagnosis. For instance, someone may have symptoms of nausea, pain, depression, anxiety, and their skin has a yellowish hue. The physician runs blood tests and finds that the liver is malfunctioning and there is likely a diagnosis of hepatitis. In this case, there are both physical and mental symptoms, but it is the physical nature that is diagnosed first. For mental diagnosis, symptoms are also important, but are based more on the functioning of the individual in social systems, or by observing the patient's behavior (How are Mental Illnesses Diagnosed? 2012). Thus, both use symptoms as a guide, but mental diagnosis is more empirical and uses observation, while physical diagnosis uses quantitative measurements.

Etiology- Etiology is the study of basic causation. We now know that there are a number of…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

American Psychiatric Association Practice Guidelines. (2006). PsychiatryOnline. Retrieved from:  http://psychiatryonline.org/guidelines.aspx 

How are Mental Illnesses Diagnosed? (2012). WebMD. Retrieved from:  http://www.webmd.com/anxiety-panic/guide/mental-health-making-diagnosis 

Curtis, a.J. et.al. (2000), Introduction to Health Psychology, New York: Routledge.

Dombeck, M. (2003). Blurring the Boundary Between Mental and Physical. Seven Counties Services, Inc. Retrieved from:  http://www.sevencounties.org  / poc/view_doc.php?type=doc&id=1855&cn=74
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Metal Health Mental Issue 2226 Mental Health

Words: 3481 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10485560

Metal Health

Mental Issue 2226

Mental Health

esearches indicate that poverty and mental illness are correlated with each other in a broader spectrum. This research paper is commissioned on the basis of two exhaustively researched hypotheses: H1 Poverty can cause mental illness and H2 Mental illness is subjected to poverty. Throughout this research paper, these two hypotheses have been investigated from scholarly academic resources. At the end of the proposed research it has been concluded that those, who are financially deprived, as exposed to severe mental illness due to their inability of fulfilling their basic needs, including house, education, food and employment. Likewise, evidences have also been explored on the fact that metal illness can cause extreme levels of poverty to the suffering beings. This signifies that both the research hypotheses are accepted by the research in the projected domain.

Introduction

For affirming the undertaken pinching social reality, a statement…… [Read More]

References

Alegria, M., Canino, G., Rios, R., Vera, M., Calderon, J., Rusch, D. & Ortega, A. (2002).

Inequalities in Use of Specialty Mental Health Services among Latinos, African-Americans, and Non-Latino Whites. Psychiatric Services 53(12): 1547-1555.

Battle, K., Mendelson, M. & Torjman, S. (2009). Towards a new architecture for Canada's adult benefits. Caledon Institute of Social Policy, June.

Burstein, M. (2005). Combating the social exclusion of at-risk groups. Policy Research
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Homelessness and Mental Illness Are Inextricably Intertwined

Words: 1514 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 12001131

homelessness and mental illness are inextricably intertwined. One way that mental illness impacts people's lives is that it oftentimes renders them unable to carry out the functions of daily life, such as keeping a job, paying their bills, and managing a household. In addition to disrupting the events of daily life, mental illness "may also prevent people from forming and maintaining stable relationships or cause people to misinterpret others' guidance and react irrationally" (National Coalition for the Homeless, 2009). What this means is that a population that is already vulnerable because of an inability to consistently manage self-care lacks the same safety net as much of the rest of society.

People with mental illnesses are at greater risk of homelessness. This is particularly true for people with serious mental illnesses, particularly those that might impact their reality testing, such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, or major depression (National Coalition for the…… [Read More]

References

Folsom, D.P., Hawthorne, W., Lindamer, L., Gilmer, T., Bailey, A., Golshan, S., Garcia, P.,

Unutzer, J., Hough, R., and Jeste, D.V. (2005). Prevalence and risk factors for homelessness and utilization of mental health services among 10,340 patients with serious mental illness in a large public mental health system." American Journal of Psychiatry, 162, 370-376.

National Coalition for the Homeless. (2009, July). Mental illness and homelessness.

Retrieved April 13, 2013 from National Coalition for the Homeless website:  http://www.nationalhomeless.org/factsheets/Mental_Illness.pdf
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Vha Mental Health Care Very Recently Beginning

Words: 1803 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41349320

VHA Mental Health Care

Very recently, beginning in 1995 the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) began a series of progressive reforms. The reform has included a substantive list of functional and fundamental changes, including everything from facility improvements to eligibility requirement expansion. The VHA has also adopted a list of changes that includes staffing and response time for mental health screenings for returning soldiers. These changes look good on paper as the VHA has stressed a rapid response time for initial screening that is a VHA policy standard, i.e. 14 days from the initial request for a mental health screening an individual is supposed to be evaluated. Given the nature of the last decade of war and the growing awareness of the mental health challenges that are being faced by countless returning soldiers this would seem a good thing, yet the actual reporting and records system is often delaying these initial…… [Read More]

References

Halliday, L. Assistant Inspector General Department of Veterans Affairs (April 25, 2012). VA mental health care. FDCH Congressional Testimony.

Katz, I. (2012). Lessons learned from mental health enhancement and suicide prevention activities in the Veterans Health Administration. American Journal Of Public Health, 102S14-6. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2011.300582

Katz, I.R., McCarthy, J.F., Ignacio, R.V., & Kemp, J. (2012). Suicide among veterans in 16 States, 2005 to 2008: Comparisons between utilizers and nonutilizers of Veterans Health Administration (VHA) services based on data from the National Death index, the National Violent Death Reporting System, and VHA.. American Journal Of Public Health, 102S105-10. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2011.300503

Knox, K.L., Kemp, J., McKeon, R., & Katz, I.R. (2012). Implementation and early utilization of a suicide hotline for veterans. American Journal Of Public Health, 102S29-32. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2011.300301
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Supervisory Procedures for Mental Health

Words: 1850 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 59097137

This is when there will be a focused approach that is seeking out the best tools for addressing a host of issues.

Conclusion

Clearly, the field of mental health is continually changing. Part of the reason for this, is because there is emphasis on identifying new techniques for effectively treating patients. This has created a transformation in what kind of tools that are being used to address these issues. At the same time, there has been a focus on implementing supervisory procedures that will have an impact on kinds of treatment options that are being provided. This is important, because these kinds of transformations mean that they are providing effective support to mental health professionals in dealing with these issues. Once this occurs, is when there will be an emphasis on how psychologists are interacting with: patients, colleagues and supervisors. As this approach, is based upon respect, understanding, compassion and…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Clinical Supervision. (2009). Health. Retrieved from:  http://www.health.qld.gov.au/qcmhl/src/superguide_2009.pdf 

Bernard, J.M., & Goodyear, R.K. (2009). Fundamentals of clinical supervision. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.

Brown, L. (2008). The New Handbook of Counseling Supervision. Mahwah, NJ: Taylor and Francis.

Campbell, J. (2006). Essentials of clinical supervision. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
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Obstruct Access to Mental Health

Words: 1638 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 35795316

17). Likewise, left untreated, mental health problems such as anxiety disorders can result in increased healthcare utilization over the lifespan, but access to effective and proven mental health treatments remains a problem across the country (Gauthier, 2004) .

Conclusion

The research showed that a wide range of efficacious treatments exist for mental health disorders that can help people regain control over their lives and avoid the long-term adverse consequences of untreated mental disorders. Unfortunately, the research also showed that just a tithe of those with mental health disorders receive treatment for them because a broad array of obstacles remain in place that inhibits or prevents access to timely and effective interventions. These obstacles were shown to include the fact that mental health care is costly, services are often fragmented, and insurance is frequently nonexistent or inadequate for the mental health services that are needed. In addition, other obstacles were shown…… [Read More]

References

Allen-Kelly, K. & Charikar, K. (2010, Autumn). Social workers and occupational therapists shut out of Medicare. Impact, 17-19.

Brindis, C.D., Morreale, M.C. & English, a. (2003). The unique health care needs of adolescents. The Future of Children, 13(1), 116-117

Conyne, R.K. (2004). Preventive counseling: Helping people to become empowered in systems and settings. New York: Brunner-Routledge.

Gauthier, J. (2004). The costs of anxiety disorders and their treatment: a commentary. Canadian Psychology, 45(3), 219-221.