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The criminalization of the mentally ill is one of law enforcement's greatest challenges and tragedies. As Stephey points out, prisons have become the de facto mental health provider in the United States. That means that criminal behavior is one of the primary means by which an individual is diagnosed with mental illness. One judge claims that, "mentally ill people end up in front of her instead of receiving the services that may prevent them from landing behind bars," (cited by Hefley). As many as a quarter of all persons using the public defender system are later diagnosed with mental illnesses (Hefley). If those illnesses were recognized and treated sooner, the eruption of criminal behavior might have been easily prevented. This is a proposal to federal lawmakers, requesting a revision of the mental health system. Mental health services, like services for physical health, are highly sophisticated in the United…
Hefley, Diana. "Mentally Ill Often Adrift in the Criminal Justice System." Herald.net. 13 Sept 2009. Retrieved online: http://www.heraldnet.com/article/20090913/NEWS01/709139880
Stephey, M.J. "De-Criminalizing Mental Illness." Time. 8 Aug, 2007. Retrieved online: http://www.time.com/time/health/article/0,8599,1651002,00.html
Mental Illness and Crime
Virginia Tech is a prestigious private university on the east coast of America that might forever be associated with the skewed actions of one man. Seung-Hui Cho was a fourth year student at Virginia Tech and was responsible for the deadliest rampage this university has ever seen. Born in South Korea in 1984, it was eight years later that Cho received permanent residency in the United States. In the wake of such extreme violence and tragedy, people can't help but ask themselves if something could have been done instead to prevent this act of violence or if these actions could have been predicted in some manner. This is particularly true given the fact that Cho was ordered by a judge to receive mental health care in 2005. This paper will take a look at the relationship between mental illness and serious crimes.
• How often are…
Apa.org, (2014, April 21) "Mental Illness Not Usually Linked to Crime, Research Finds."
Retrieved from: apa.org, http://www.apa.org/news/press/releases/2014/04/mental-illness-crime.aspx
special needs, mentally ill, and substance-abusing prisoners affect the jail and prison systems at state and federal levels?
The Federal ureau program functions inside the prison and is a drug abuse platform which has individual units in several prisons. It has programs, lengths of treatments, structure and staffing provided to work with addictions. The 500-hour program has to be attended by all the inmates and live in the treatment entity which is apart of the prison population. This particular program needs the inmates to accept accountability for their conduct and to settle on a conscious choice to abstain from taking part in drug abuse or criminal conduct (Washburn, 2012). Evidence has demonstrated that these sorts of projects are compelling in both decreasing recidivism and drug abuse. It assists them get positive fundamental skills as well as have physical health, and develop family relationships. It is additionally supplemented by different projects…
Seiter, R. (2011). Corrections: An Introduction (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Prentice Hall.
Smith, K. (2013). Special needs Prisoner: Specialized Prisons and Services. Prison J.
Washburn, K. (2012). Prisoners with Special Needs. CJA.
Police Mentally Ill
Policing and Mentally Ill Individuals
There is a significantly higher proportion of mentally ill individuals in the criminal justice system than compared to the same proportion of the United States in the society in general. It is estimated that a mentally ill individual is about eight times more likely to enter into the criminal justice system than they are a mental hospital. These individuals, as the video and the interview illustrates, have special challenges that make them difficult to deal with. Often they hear voices and are paranoid schizophrenics that require a host of special medications to allow them the possibility of being stable. However, many of these individuals face specific challenges that make it difficult for them to access and maintain an effective treatment regimen. This paper will provide a brief overview of how this situation arose and what implications it has for modern police forces.…
CIT International. (N.d.). Mephis Model. Retrieved from CIT International: http://www.citinternational.org/training-overview/163-memphis-model.html
Conan, N. (2012, April 2). A Patient's Perspective: Police and the Mentally Ill. Retrieved from NPR: http://www.npr.org/2012/04/02/149857042/a-patients-perspective-police-and-the-mentally-ill
PBS. (2009, April 28). The Released. Retrieved from Frontline: http://video.pbs.org/video/1114528522/
Torrey, E.E., Geller, J., Stanley, J., & Jaffe, D. (N.d.). The Shortage of Public Hospital Beds for Mentally Ill Persons. The Treatment Advocacy Center, 1-17.
Incarcerated Mentally Ill Patients
It may sound unbelievable, but on any given day, scholars estimate that almost 70,000 inmates in U.S. prisons are psychotic; and up to 300,000 suffer from mental disorders like depression, schizophrenia, and bipolar disorders. In fact, the U.S. penal system holds three times more people with mental illness than the nation's entire psychiatric hospitals (Kanapaux, 2004). Indeed one of the most telling trends, say some sociologists, is to incarcerate the mentally ill in order to remove them from society. This is sometimes the only alternative because public mental health hospitals have neither the space nor the funding to treat this special population. In fact, the very nature of incarceration tends to have a more traumatic effect on the individual, causing additional damage to their fragile psyche. omen, it appears, are especially vulnerable. These women have often been victimized during an abusive childhood and succession of relationships.…
Majority of Mentall Ill Inmates Don't Get Treatment. (2010, April 7). Retrieved October 2011, from Physorg.com: http://www.physorg.com/news189882907.html
ACLU. (2007, January 30). Solitary Confinment Called Inappropriate for Mentally Ill. Retrieved October 2011, from ACLU.org: http://www.aclu.org/prisoners-rights/solitary-confinement-called-inappropriate-mentally-ill-prisoners-indiana
American Psychatric Assocaition. (2000). Psychiatric Services in Jails and Prisons. Washington, DC: American Psychatric Press.
American Psychiatric Association. (2006, December). The Use of Restraint and Seculusion in Correctional Mental Health Care. Retrieved October 2011, from Pysch.org: http://www.psych.org/lib_archives/archives/200605.pdf
" (Finnerty, 2008) It is reported that those who suffer from co-occurring mental illness and substance abuse problems are also likely to be homeless. According to the Health Care for the Homeless Clinicians' Network (2000) "Co-occurring mental illness and substance abuse makes it more likely that people will be chronically homeless." (cited in Finnerty, 2008) Factors that are known to contribute to homelessness in those with co-occurring mental illness and substance abuse include factors such as: (1) Financial problems; (2) Loss of family support; (3) Severity of symptoms; and (4) Time spent in institutions such as jails or hospitals. (runette, Mueser and Drake, 2004 in: Finnerty, 2008) Padgett and Struening (1991) state that substance abuse and mental disorders "…increase the health care needs of homeless persons, whose primary source of care is often the emergency room.
The work of Padgett et al. (2006) reports having interviewed a group of women…
1. Brunette, Mary F., Kim T. Mueser, and Robert E. Drake. 2004. "A Review of Research on Residential Programs for People With Severe Mental Illness and Co-occurring Substance Abuse Disorders." Drug and Alcohol Review 23:471-81.
2. Creating Homes Initiative. (2010). TN Department of Mental Health and Developmental
Disabilities. Retrieved on June 23, 2010 from http://www.tennessee.gov/mental/recovery/CHIpage.html
3. Finnerty, Jacqueline (2008) Homelessness and Mental Illness Literature Review. 30 Apr 2008. Sociological Analysis. Online available at: http://www.unh.edu/sociology/media/pdfs-journal2008/Finnerty2EDITED.pdf
For example, they should be required to complete at least 20 hours of training on brain disorders. It is ideal if consumers and family members become part of the activity and process. It must also be emphasized that, in most cases, dangerous or violent acts committed by persons with these brain disorders are the consequence of neglect, inappropriate or inadequate treatment of their illness (NAMI).
The Alliance also contends that the unpopular insanity defense should be retained and should be tested according to both volitional and cognitive criteria or standards (National Alliance of Mental Illness 2006). At the same time, the Alliance opposes the adoption of laws or position on "guilty but mentally ill. Instead, it advocates systems, which will provide comprehensive, long-term care and supervision in hospitals and the community where such individuals are found who are "not guilty by reason of insanity," "guilty except for insanity," or similar…
1. Amnesty International. (2006). The Execution of Mentally Ill Offenders. Amnesty International Library. http://web.amnesty.org/library/index/ENGAMR5002206
2. Anynomous. (2006). Forensic Psychiatry - Criminal. http://www.stanford.edu/group/psylawseminar/blank%20Page%206.htm
3. Fellner, J. (2006). A Corrections Quandary: Mental Illness and Prison Rules. http://www.law.harvard.edu/students/orgs/crc/vol41_2/fellner.pdf
4. Human Rights Watch (2006). Difficulties Mentally Ill Prisoners Face Coping in Prison. Human Rights Watch.org. http://www.hrw.org/reports/2003/usa1003/7.htm
Thus, an individual suffering from mental illness should be given treatment. Perhaps most important of all, the community should first make clear how the treatment can help improve the individual's condition -- that is, allow the individual to accept the fact that s/he suffers from a mental illness. Removing the stigma from the patient himself/herself, as well as from the community, is the first step towards effective treatment for mentally ill patients, which is a healthcare service that they deserve and should be provided to them (LaFleur-Sayler, 2003).
Lastly, treatment for mentally ill individuals is mandatory because as members of the community, we want to avoid the decline of physical faculties that are directly affected when an individual is mentally incapable to commit the 'correct' behavior and action. Treatment often involves prevention programs that require the individual to undergo chemical therapy (i.e., intake of drugs that alleviate the occurrence of…
LaFleur-Sayler, S. (2003). "The Paul Wellstone Mental Health Equitable Treatment Act: Can he accomplish in death what he couldn't in life?" Available at http://www.usd.edu/elderlaw/student_papers_f2003/paul_wellstone_mental_health_equitable.htm .
Overview of Prevention." (2006). U.S. Public Health Service Web site. Available at http://www.surgeongeneral.gov/library/mentalhealth/chapter2/sec5.html .
Torrey, E. And M. Zdanowicz. (1998). "We need to ask again: Why do severely mentally ill go untreated?" Treatment Advocacy Center Web site. Available at http://www.psychlaws.org/GeneralResources/Article3.htm.
However, a spouse abuser who tried to kill his wife may not fall under that classification, even if he incidentally suffered from depression, unless that depression could be causally linked to the triggering incident.
The second consideration is that not all mental illnesses are associated with the same risk of violence. The American Psychiatric Association revises its mental illnesses with enough frequency to make it clear that they are only now just beginning to understand the complexity of mental illness. Therefore, while a century ago it may have been appropriate to lock away everyone suffering from mental illness as a means of protecting society, that approach is no longer warranted. Some mental illnesses are associated with a greater risk of harming others than other mental illnesses. For example, people suffering from depression pose a risk of harming themselves, but may also pose a greater risk of harming themselves. However, while…
Freeman's work, however, advanced the understanding of the human brain in ways that probably helped pharmaceutical companies develop pharmacological interventions for people suffering from mental illness.
Long past its mythological place in the history of mankind and medicine, epilepsy continued to be perceived by many in very medieval terms; as the possession of a person by the devil, demonic possession, and, by some, as a form of mental illness (Szasz 117). Sir John Russell Reynolds (1828-196) was one of the earliest physicians to observe and conclude that people suffering from epilepsy were not necessarily suffering from a mental disorder or even possession by demonic monsters (117-118). Many psychiatrists and mental health experts, however, continued to look at epilepsy as a mental impairment (117-119). From 1890 to 1940 people suffering from epilepsy were "colonized" into institutional settings for the mentally ill, and treated for their seizures with a variety of drugs…
11 Most Endangered: St. Elizabeths Hospital, National Trust for Historic Preservation,
found online at http://www.preservationnation.org/travel-and-sites/sites/southern-region/st-elizabeths-hospital.html , 2010. Retrieved February 2, 2010. Web.
Lawrence, Christopher and Weisz, George. Greater than the Parts: Holism in Biomedicine, New York, NY, Oxford University Press, 1998. Print.
Pressman, Jack D. Last Resort: Psychosurgery and the Limits of Medicine, Cambridge,
The best psychologists are familiar with all of the main, credible theories, and they understand how these theories work. Then, they use the theory that they believe will best help the patient. Sometimes, the theories are used in combination with one another, or parts of different theories are used to make up the whole of a treatment plan. In addition, a good psychologist should also see when conventional theories are not working, and be willing to go outside the box for a particular patient who needs help. When a psychologist is able (and willing) to use a lot of different approaches, he or she will have the best chance of actually treating - and possibly curing - a patient who would otherwise not be able to be helped based on only one type of theory or style of approach. People who need therapy or treatment may have similar problem, but…
Causes for Lack of Adequate Care: A Look at Mentally Ill Patients
The goal of this paper will be to examine the causes of inadequate care with regard to patients with mental illnesses, irrespective of the type of mental illness the patient has. Historically the care of patients with a mental illness has been minimal at best. Many patients with mental illnesses face inadequate care in today's society, particularly in the United States.
The primary causes for insufficient care of mentally ill patients include: (1) a lack of adequate healthcare coverage, (2) lack of access to sufficient and qualified healthcare professionals/providers and (3) social stigma that might prevent patients from seeking out care when needed (Mechanic, 2004; Hollingsworth, Hollingsworth & De Gruyter, 1994; Boulard, 2000). There are other reasons that patients might not receive adequate care, often associated with the primary reasons listed above. These will be described in greater…
Boulard, Garry. "Forgotten Patients the Mentally Ill." State Legislatures, 26.4: (April,
Boulard, Garry. "Watching Out for the Mentally Ill." State Legislatures, 26.10:
For most of U.S. history up to the time of the Community Mental Health Act of 1963, the mentally ill were generally warehoused in state and local mental institutions on a long-term basis. Most had been involuntarily committed by orders from courts or physicians, and the discharge rate was very low. Before the 1950s and 1960s, there were few effective treatments for mental illnesses like depression, anxiety disorders and schizophrenia, which were commonly considered incurable. Only with the psycho-pharmacological revolution in recent decades and new anti-depressant and anti-psychotic medications has it been possible for the severely mentally ill to be treated on an outpatient basis through community mental health centers. Of course, as the old state hospitals have emptied many of the mentally ill have ended up homeless, since they are unable to hold maintain regular employment or continue on a medication regimen without supervision. According to present-day…
Bacon. H. "Book Review: Jonathan Willows, Moving On after Childhood Sexual Abuse: Understanding the Effects and Preparing for Therapy in Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry. (15)1 January 2010, pp. 141-42.
Bartels, S.J., A.D. van Citters and T. Crenshaw (2010). "Older Adults" in Levin, B.L., J. Petrila and K. Hennessy Mental Health Services: A Public Health Perspective. Oxford University Presss: 261-82.
Behar, E.S. And T.D. Borkovec. (2003). "Psychotherapy Outcome Research" in I.B. Weiner et al., eds. Handbook of Psychology: Research Methods in Psychology. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Carron, V.G. And K. Hull. (2009). "Treatment Manual for Trauma-Exposed Youth: Case Studies." Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry 15(1) 13 November 2009, pp. 27-38.
The mentally ill: Mentally ill individuals often have trouble putting across their condition and fail to let others know that they actually have a mental problem. As a consequence, human services professionals need to collaborate with police officers with the purpose of making it possible for them to differentiate between individuals who are normal and individuals who are mentally ill. Similarly, professionals have the task of providing as many drugs as possible to people on the streets in order to prevent them from experiencing an unfortunate episode and actually hurt themselves or someone else.
xcitement addicts: These people fail to understand the full complexity of being homeless and think about this condition as if it were an adventure. Human services professionals thus need to intervene and instruct these people in regard to the risks that they are facing. Also, this group is vulnerable to abuse because its members are…
Excitement addicts are typically naive and can easily become attracted by joining gangs in their neighborhood. As a consequence, human services professionals need to instruct them concerning the risks that they are taking. Also, by cooperating with the authorities, human services professionals can also effectively combat problems that excitement addicts are predisposed to.
3. The Help the Homeless program is directed at assisting individuals in a series of places, including the Washington D.C. area. "Since 1988, Help the Homeless (HTH) has raised more than $90 million for nonprofit beneficiaries in the Washington metropolitan area that serve the homeless and those at risk of being homeless" (WASHINGTON METROPOLITAN AREA). Taking this into account, it would only be safe to assume that the institution has played an active role in assisting homeless individuals. In addition to assisting homeless people, the community also focuses on encouraging the masses to get involved in helping homeless people by adopting a series of attitudes.
4. Although human services professionals play an important role in solving social problems, they are often ignored and the masses know very little with regard to the actions that they perform with the purpose of helping homeless people and the social order as a whole. Through getting homeless people off the streets, providing them with the opportunity to eat a hot meal, or by simply helping the masses understand the desperate condition of homeless people, human services professionals practically make the world a better place. Society as a whole should look into their actions and try to reproduce them with the purpose of eventually eradicating homelessness.
Mental Illness Interview
SWK 354 Midterm Interview Assignment
Name Age DOB SS# Religion Sex Race
George Tirebiter 35 Oct 17, 1975 - Roman Catholic M. White
Current Address Phone Permanent Address
1445 Fleming Walloon Blvd. - West Roxbury, Mass.
Current Important Activities (school, community, etc.)
Wife and family; writing poetry
Important Medical Information
In Case of Emergency Notify: Relationship: Worker:
Wife: Ki-Sook Tirebiter
Diagnosed schizophrenic, April 2001
Treatment Plans (Do Not Complete)
35-year-old adult white male George Tirebiter (see face sheet)
Person, Family and Household, and Community Systems.
Person system. I observed that George is extremely overweight and has difficulty moving around: he ascribes the weight gain to the medications he has been on for the past decade. George describes himself as an "artist" which seems to be his emphatic way of coping with a sense of…
Specifically, Singleton's case was denied review by the U.S. Supreme Court in 2003, and he was executed in Arkansas on January 6, 2004. As noted in the lower court's dissent: "Treating the prisoner may provide short-term relief but ultimately result in his execution, whereas leaving him untreated will condemn him to a world such as Singleton's, filled with disturbing delusions and hallucinations." Simply put: The Court found it in the state of Arkansas' best interest for Singleton to be forcibly treated and executed rather than left untreated but alive."
The U.S. Supreme Court has been consistently clear since the decision in Gregg v. Georgia that the Constitution does not prohibit execution as long as procedural safeguards are established, but the Court's jurisprudence concerning the mentally ill as opposed to the mentally retarded has been less clear. In 2002, the Court ruled that it is unconstitutional to execute the mentally retarded…
RIGHTS-U.S.: DEATH PENALTY for MENTALLY ILL CALLED a RIGHTS ABUSE
Inter-Press Service English News Wire; 11/7/2003; Katherine Stapp
Inter-Press Service English News Wire
Killer's case stirs debate about death penalty for the mentally ill.
life of slaves in Harriet Jacobs' Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl and the lives of the mentally ill in Victor LaValle's Devil in Silver
The theme of freedom and escape was common in antebellum literature written by former slaves -- and is also common in narratives of the lives of the mentally ill today. Both Harriet Jacobs' Incidents in the Life of Slave Girl and Victor LaValle's Devil in Silver chronicle unjust imprisonments: in Jacob's case, the narrator's life as a slave; in LaValle's novel, the horrors perpetrated upon the mentally ill. These texts indicate that those who are marginalized in our society are selected in an arbitrary fashion based upon categories such as race or class rather than have intrinsic properties that make them uniquely different. Over the course of the narrative, both protagonists overcome the societies of fear and tyranny that are created by their…
Jacobs, Harriet. Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl. UNC Chapel Hill, 2003. 30 Apr 2014.
LaValle, Victor. Devil in Silver. Spiegel & Grau, 2012.
When Madness Comes HomeSecunda (1997) shows in When Madness Comes Home that tens of millions of people, if not more, are directly impacted by mental illness in the family. This means that there is an urgent need for people to understand what mental illness is, what it is not, and how to care for a person experiencing mental illness. Secunda (1997) addresses issues of trauma, stigma, and how relationships can best be fostered through support systems and networks. The main point of the book is that mental illness affects more than just the person who is diagnosed or experiencing it himself; it also affects those people who are family members of the individual or who are in a relationship with the person. They need care and support as well.Secunda (1997) spends time reinforcing the argument that family members of individuals with mental illness have to know that they are not…
ReferencesHack, S. M., Muralidharan, A., Brown, C. H., Drapalski, A. L., & Lucksted, A. A. (2020). Stigma and discrimination as correlates of mental health treatment engagement among adults with serious mental illness.Psychiatric rehabilitation journal,43(2), 106.Patterson, C., Perlman, D., Moxham, L., Sudhakar, C., Nayak, A. K., Velayudhan, B., ... & Tapsell, A. (2021). Australian and Indian nursing students skills and attitudes surrounding mental illness: Preparing for a transnational nursing education collaboration.Nurse Education in Practice,50, 102909.Secunda, V. (1997).When Madness Comes Home: Help and Hope for Families of the Mentally Ill. Hyperion.
Healthcare for Mentally Impaired Patients
Probing what information is available about the current status of placement or accommodation and level of personal healthcare available to mentally impaired and emotionally disturbed individuals, it is clear that the analysis is as diverse as there are different mental illnesses. While statistics on managed care treatment for people with severe and disabling mental illnesses are sparse, it is evident that the financial responsibility to care for and house these patients is enormous.
According to Dr. David Satcher, the Surgeon General (1999), approximately 20% of the U.S. adult population has a mental illness. He says, "These illnesses include anxiety disorders, mood disorders, anorexia nervosa, and severe cognitive impairment. More serious mental illnesses include ipolar disorder and schizophrenia. Mental illness accounts for 15% of overall burden of disease -- more than malignant cancer and respiratory diseases -- and as far back as 1996 the direct cost…
Boulard, G. (2000, April). Forgotten Patients the Mentally Ill. State Legislatures, 26, 12. Retrieved February 13, 2004, from Questia database, http://www.questia.com .
Callahan, D. (1993, October) Minds and hearts: priorities in mental health services.
The Hastings Center Report.
Fox, M. & Kim, K. (2004, January) Evaluating a Medicaid Home and Community-based Physical Disability Waiver. Family and Community Health. Vol 27: 37.
Thus, execution of the mentally retarded is not only illegal, but immoral as well. Sue Gunawardena-Vaughn of Amnesty International wants to expand this logic to include the mentally ill, stating, "Severely mentally ill people are not the worst of the worst" (eigl 2006).
Hansen, Liane; Siegel, Robert. (2002 June 20). Analysis: Supreme Court rules it unconstitutional to execute mentally retarded people who've committed crimes.
All Things Considered: National Public Radio. Retrieved December 10, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.
eigl, Andrea. (2006 November 12). Clemency sought for delusional murderer: The North Carolina inmate is part of a national debate on the executions of those with severe…
Hansen, Liane; Siegel, Robert. (2002 June 20). Analysis: Supreme Court rules it unconstitutional to execute mentally retarded people who've committed crimes.
All Things Considered: National Public Radio. Retrieved December 10, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.
Weigl, Andrea. (2006 November 12). Clemency sought for delusional murderer: The North Carolina inmate is part of a national debate on the executions of those with severe mental illness. News & Observer (Raleigh, NC). Retrieved December 10, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.
" Deborah learns from her fellow inmates on the ward and reacts to their vicissitudes as if they were her own. Basically she internalizes and analyzes everything in a warped way. The author presents the psychosis of schizophrenia not from a clinical perspective but from a subjective one.
Deborah's sister Suzy reacts negatively to the extra attention her sick sister receives. Adding tension to the family dynamic, Suzy is a key character in I Never Promised You a Rose Garden. Family tension and the dynamic between parents and children are a part of the illness. The parents do whatever is in their power to help Deborah but at the same time they feel a deep sense of shame and frequently blame themselves for what they perceive as personal failure. Greenberg shows how parents of mentally ill children might fall into the unfortunate trap of self-hatred.
Dr. Fried helps Deborah explore…
High ate of Incarceration of the Mentally Ill
Mental illnesses are among the most serious health concerns facing administrators and policymakers in America today. With the declining availability of both mental health community treatment programs and inpatient psychiatry beds in the few facilities available, more and more mentally ill persons are going without treatment and the essential services needed to enable them cope effectively with their conditions. Often times, police are the first responders whenever a mentally ill patient experiences a relapse and acts out due to symptoms of their mental condition; worryingly, however, rather than be taken to mental health facilities for treatment, most of these end up in jails and prisons. From the very onset, our prison and correctional systems had not been designed to respond to the needs of people with mental health problems, so when such people are housed here, they become more vulnerable to abuse,…
Aufderheide, D. (2014). Mental Illness in America's Jails and Prisons: towards a Public Safety/Public Health Model. Health Affairs. Retrieved 11 March 2015 from http://healthaffairs.org/blog/2014/04/01/mental-illness-in-americas-jails-and-prisons-toward-a-public-safetypublic-health-model/
Busfield, J. (2011). Mental Illness. Cambridge, UK: Polity Press
Mitchell, A. (2013). Medicaid Disproportionate Share Hospital Payments. The Congressional Research Service. Retrieved 11 March 2015 from https://fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/R42865.pdf
NAMI. (n.d.). Criminalization of People with Mental Illnesses is a Significant Problem. National Alliance on Mental Illnesses (NAMI). Retrieved 12 March 2015 from http://www2.nami.org/Template.cfm?Section=CIT&Template=/ContentManagement/ContentDisplay.cfm&ContentID=57465
Consistent with this, other findings propose that women are more likely than men to take part in violence in the home whereas men are more likely than women to take part in violence in public places.
Even though there is some evidence that mental illness is associated with violence, it appears that the bigger contributing factor is that of outside influences. Substance abuse appears to be the greatest contributing factor, but it can be something as insignificant as one's living arrangements or even just their gender. Overall people with mental health problems do not appear to be at an increased risk of violence.
Appelbaum, P.S., Robbins, P.C., Monahan, J. (2000). Violence and delusions: data from the MacArthur Violence Risk Assessment Study. American Journal of Psychiatry, 157,
Cottle, C. (2004). The role of social context in the prediction and management of violence among persons with mental illness. Dissertation…
They are also responsible of determining the involved events including the arrest, hospitalization or informal disposition.
m. The criminal justice department should provide the police agencies with in-service training so that it can help offers to identify the signs and symptoms of serious mental illness.
n. The criminal justice should consider implementing post booking by supporting the main objective of individuals with mental illness to be a diversion from the jail and reentry into the community.
o. The criminal should encourage jails to provide specific needs to the arrested mentally ill individuals.
p. The criminal justice system should be keen during the trial and sentencing period.
q. The judicial system should ensure that mentally ill individuals access timely counsel from experienced attorneys.
Baurick, T. (2012). Kitsap police officers get little training in dealing with the mentally ill. McClatchy - Tribune Business News, etrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/1034981524?accountid=45049
Baurick, T. (2012). Kitsap police officers get little training in dealing with the mentally ill. McClatchy - Tribune Business News, Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/1034981524?accountid=45049
Braswell, M.C., McCarthy, B.J., & McCarthy, B.R. (2011).Justice, Crime, and Ethics. Oxford: Elsevier.
Moore, S. (2009). Mentally Ill Offenders Strain Juvenile System .The New York Times. Retrieved August 6, 2012, from http://www.nytimes.com/2009/08/10/us/10juvenile.html?pagewanted=all
Nowak, L. (2007). Fixing a flawed system: Program geared to assist mentally ill in legal trouble. McClatchy - Tribune Business News, pp. 1-1. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/462879362?accountid=45049
By educating patients on early warning signs of hepatotoxicity, this rare but potentially fatal consequence could be detected early to allow appropriate intervention." (Wright and Vandenberg, 2007) it is extremely critical to understand the nature of psychiatric nursing in today's clinical environment.
IV. ROLE of NURSE PRACIIONER in RANSIION
Specifically stated in the work of Kathryn R. Puskar entitled; "he Nurse Practitioner Role in Psychiatric Nursing" published in the Online Journal of Issues in Nursing is: "Commercialization of psychiatric care is underway. Psychiatric inpatient admissions have decreased, admissions to general hospitals have decreased, while outpatient admissions are increasing. Academic centers are purchasing smaller hospitals as affiliates; satellite clinics and networks of services are being established. Physicians in solo practice are merging into group practices. New health care professional roles must be restructured and "cross trained" to maintain competitiveness by offering flexible, cost-saving effective care. his is the background environment in…
To improve participation in outpatient programs, social workers can identify and address client barriers to keeping appointments, such as inadequate transportation, non-cooperative employers or family members, limited financial or child care resources, or even poor client motivation. Pairing newly diagnosed patients with "diabetic sponsors" -- individuals who are experienced and successful at managing their diabetes -- also may enhance attendance. Rather than relying on clients to come to clinics, social workers may need to bring the clinics to clients by organizing diabetic health fairs, outreach, or training programs in work settings, church facilities, or community centers. It is related that: "For people with Type 2 diabetes, Medical Nutritional Therapy (MNT) is often the "first-line therapy of choice" (Lipkin, 1999). The goal of MNT is to maintain near-normal glucose levels by matching dietary consumption with actual caloric (energy) needs, necessitating that the right foods in correct proportions be eaten at prescribed times for many MNT may include a secondary goal -- weight loss. Nutritional self-management or compliance with a prescribed diet can be handicapped by many of the same factors that impede self-care knowledge and skill mastery. In MNT, food assumes an almost medicinal quality, and many may resist altering long-held consumption patterns, inasmuch as food plays a part in their cultural heritage or serves as a source of pleasure; therefore, dietary changes are interpreted as loss of either function. For some patients, making these lifestyle changes may require assistance with concrete resources. As resource brokers, social workers can assess needs and link clients with community agencies for nutritional assistance, fitness training, additional diabetic education (professionals or material), medical care, health insurance, insulin and glucose monitoring supplies, prescription assistance, transportation, and counseling or support groups" (Lipkin, 1999)
VII. RESOURCE-BROKERING and COLLABORATION AMONG PROFESSIONALS
The social worker is also experienced in 'resource brokering' and as related by Lipkins (1999): "As a therapist, the social worker may practice independently or in conjunction with other professionals (such as psychiatrists and psychologists) to treat more serious mental health issues inhibiting the management of diabetes. In this role a social work practitioner may screen and treat illnesses with high rates of comorbidity among diabetes patients, such as major depression or eating and anxiety disorders. The social worker also may ensure the management of preexisting chronic mental illnesses like schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and alcohol or substance abuse." (Lipkin, 1999) the social worker also has the capacity to: "...coordinate a comprehensive assessment, treatment plan, and intervention, striving for an optimal level of collaboration among professionals, patients, and families. Financially, social work case management can effectively and efficiently use community resources, creating an optimal environment that promotes glycemic control to delay complications and reduce hospitalizations."
Deinstitutionalization refers to releasing a mentally handicapped person from an institution whose main purpose was to provide treatment into a community with the intent of providing services through the community under the supervision of health-care professionals. There have been some positive outcomes from deinstitutionalization trend for society but there have also have been a wide array of drawbacks limiting care provided to these individuals. Among other things, crime, violent crime, and homeless are among the major consequences of releasing some of these patients to the public. Much of the trend began in the 1950s and the 1960s and the deinstitutionalization of institutional patients has been a trend that has impacted society on many levels and continues to this day.
There were a number of factors that were responsible for the reversal of the institutional framework that was built nationally to house the mentally damaged. After the Second…
Torrey, E.E., Geller, J., Stanley, J., & Jaffe, D. (N.d.). The Shortage of Public Hospital Beds for Mentally Ill Persons. The Treatment Advocacy Center, 1-17.
mental health prisoners usa. I've included outline main idea, I apply ideas questions. contact clarifications. I. Introduce define global health issue connection nursing. For, .
Mental Health in the American Prison System
There has always been much controversy regarding prisoners and their mental health, but as civilization has experienced much progress throughout this century people have become more and more concerned about making sure that prisons are able to differentiate between individuals who are mentally ill and persons who are not. Even with the fact that prisons were never design to accommodate the mentally ill, conditions are critical today as a great deal of men and women who are unable to get mental health treatment in the communities they live in are incarcerated consequent to committing an illegality. There are a great deal of people suffering from schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, or depression in U.S., thus meaning that society needs to…
Austin, W. And Boyd, M.A. (2010). Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing for Canadian Practice. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Cornwell, D.J. (2009). The Penal Crisis and the Clapham Omnibus: Questions and Answers in Restorative Justice. Waterside Press.
Finkel, M.L. (2010). Public Health in the 21st Century: [Three Volumes]. ABC-CLIO.
Videbeck, S.L. (2010). Psychiatric-Mental Health Nursing. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
d., p. 3). Interestingly, lower-conflict incidents where mental illness is indicated in the presence of a weapon generates higher referral than without (Watson, Ottati, Morabito, Draine, Kerr & Angell, 2010, p.305), although the status of these events as less-serious implies the weapon was not used in resistance or the crime would be serious and result in arrest.
Other situational factors outside particular incidents also affect the rate of arrest for all officers. Officer workload itself pushes down on the rate of arrest, where busier districts report higher rates of 'no action' on minor crimes, and referral where mental health is a factor, which allows more officer time on the street pursuing serious crime and regular duties (Morabito, 2007, p. 1584). Finally, officer characteristics generate different responses in similar scenarios, where officer comfort with or stigma against mental illness affects rates of arrest or diversion to mental health intervention (Watson, Ottati,…
Colins, O., Vermeiren, R., Vahl, P., Markus, M., Broekaert, E. & Doreleijers, T. (2011).
Psychiatric disorder in detained male adolescents as risk factor for serious recidivism. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 56 (1):44 -- 50. Retrieved from findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_7486/is_20110101/ai_n56982687
Fisher, W.H., Banks, S.M., Roy-Bujnowski, K., Grudzinskas, Jr., A.J., Simon, L.J., & Wolff, N. (2010, October). Categorizing temporal patterns of arrest in a cohort of adults with serious mental illness. Journal of Behavioral Health Services & Research, 37(4), 477-490.
Hanafi, S., Bahora, M., Demir, B.N. & Compton, M.T. (2008). Incorporating crisis intervention team (CIT) knowledge and skills into the daily work of police officers: a focus group study. Community Mental Health Journal 44: 427 -- 432. doi 10.1007/s10597-008-9145-8
United States, it is estimated that up to 350,000 inmates in prisons suffer from some sort of mental illness. In fact, the U.S. penal system holds three times more people with mental illness than the nation's entire psychiatric hospitals. Some have seen a trend that tends to incarcerate the mentally ill in order to keep them locked away from society; often the only alternative because of the dwindling funding for mental hospitals and clinics. Indeed, incarceration may actually increase the trauma of mental illness causing even more damage to their psyches. In addition, what happens to these incarcerated individuals when their service time is up? Simply, they are released into society and often become homeless because of their illness, and thus often victimized by police and other law enforcement agencies (National Public Radio, 2012).
According to a recent study by the United States Department of Justice, 56 per cent of…
National Public Radio. (2012, April 2). A Pateint's Perspective: Police and the Mentally Ill. Retrieved from npr.org: http://www.npr.org/2012/04/02/149857042/a-patients-perspective-police-and-the-mentally-ill
Public Broadcasting System -Frontline. (2009, April 28). The Released. Retrieved from pbs.org: http://video.pbs.org/video/1114528522/
homelessness and mental illness are inextricably intertwined. One way that mental illness impacts people's lives is that it oftentimes renders them unable to carry out the functions of daily life, such as keeping a job, paying their bills, and managing a household. In addition to disrupting the events of daily life, mental illness "may also prevent people from forming and maintaining stable relationships or cause people to misinterpret others' guidance and react irrationally" (National Coalition for the Homeless, 2009). What this means is that a population that is already vulnerable because of an inability to consistently manage self-care lacks the same safety net as much of the rest of society.
People with mental illnesses are at greater risk of homelessness. This is particularly true for people with serious mental illnesses, particularly those that might impact their reality testing, such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, or major depression (National Coalition for the…
Folsom, D.P., Hawthorne, W., Lindamer, L., Gilmer, T., Bailey, A., Golshan, S., Garcia, P.,
Unutzer, J., Hough, R., and Jeste, D.V. (2005). Prevalence and risk factors for homelessness and utilization of mental health services among 10,340 patients with serious mental illness in a large public mental health system." American Journal of Psychiatry, 162, 370-376.
National Coalition for the Homeless. (2009, July). Mental illness and homelessness.
Retrieved April 13, 2013 from National Coalition for the Homeless website: http://www.nationalhomeless.org/factsheets/Mental_Illness.pdf
The deinstitutionalization trend that began during the 1960s was based on the notion that people suffering from mental illness would be able to receive better treatment for their disorder in community-based facilities while also saving the state and federal governmental tens of millions of dollars in the process (Lamb & Weinberger, 2019). This movement, however, ultimately backfired and the incidence of individuals with mental illness that become involved with the criminal justice system remains a serious problem for American policymakers and citizens alike today. The purpose of this paper is to review the relevant literature to determine the types of problems that are typically experienced by the criminal justice system in the provision of timely and effective treatment for incarcerated mentally ill offenders and what moral dilemmas arise as a result. In addition, an analysis concerning the costs that are associated with treating mentally ill prisoners is followed by a…
Addressing mental illness in the criminal justice system. (2009). U.S. Department of Justice. Retrieved from https://www.justice.gov/archives/opa/blog/addressing-mental-illness-criminal-justice-system .
Gilbert, M. (2015, May 5). Treatment, not jail: It’s time to step up. National Alliance on Mental Illness. Retrieved from https://www.nami.org/ .
Interventions for adults with serious mental illness who are involved with the criminal justice system. (2012, September 13). U.S. Department of Health & Human Services. Retrieved from https://effectivehealthcare.ahrq.gov/products/mental-illness-adults-prisons/research-protocol .
Ireland, J. L. & Ireland, C. A. (2011). Personality structure among prisoners: How valid is the five-factor model, and can it offer support for Eysenck’s theory of criminality? Criminal Behavior and Mental Health, 21, 35–50.
Lamb, R. & Weinberger, L. E. (2019, October 10). Deinstitutionalization and other factors in the criminalization of persons with serious mental illness and how it is being addressed. CNS Spectrums, 25(2), 173-180.
Unfortunately, without law enforcement petty crimes by the criminally insane can get way out of hand, such as the man who burned down his girlfriend's house during a fit of paranoia.
It is also difficult because the men who are incarcerated obviously require intensive treatment. Unfortunately, intensive, dedicated treatment is not always available in the prison system, although they do the best they can.
3. Are financial and/or policy related issues were identified or should have been identified in the video?
They didn't really go into great depth on the financial and policy issues on this video, but they should have. The fact that mental health facilities are closing down all around the United States and that there are ten times the number of mental health patients on the streets and in prison as there are currently being treated in a mental health facility is a financial and policy issue…
The career criminal
A career criminal is a person who repeatedly participates in criminal acts for both a constant and central source of income DeLisi, 2005.
A career criminal uses crime as their only source of income, and they will commit offenses on a regular basis even after they have been released from prison. No form of rehabilitation can help a career criminal because they have antisocial behaviors and they refuse any form of rehabilitation. The career criminal continuously commits offenses and even with the best criminal justice system, they are never rehabilitated. This causes a major problem to the correctional facilities because career criminals lead to overcrowding of prisons.
Since these criminals have amassed many sentences, the judicial system is forced to sentence them to life imprisonment. The main reason been the short prison terms the offenders have been given before have had no effect, and giving them…
DeLisi, M. (2005). Career Criminals in Society. 1 Oliver's Yard: SAGE Publications.
Howitt, D., & Sheldon, K. (2009). Sex Offenders and the Internet. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
Z Test in Psychology
Stating the research question
The z test is being used to test whether watching a film about the conditions of institutionalized mentally ill patients will influence viewers' attitude towards the mentally ill. Evaluations are accomplished using a questionnaire and the scores for viewers and non-viewers will be compared using the z test.
The test subjects are students. The variable being tested by the z test is the mean scores obtained by the two groups on the survey instrument. The scores represent discrete numerical data. The z test will compare the survey score distributions between the two groups: viewers and non-viewers.
Specifying the null and alternative hypotheses
The null hypothesis (H0) for this experiment is that the mean survey scores of the two groups, viewers and non-viewers, will not be significantly different using the probability cutoff value of 0.05 (alpha). The alternative hypothesis (HA) is that the…
Lobotomy is a popular medical procedure introduced in curing mentally ill individuals, which requires the removal of the prefrontal lobes of the cortex of the brain, the part of the brain wherein aggressive and violent behavior is triggered. However, in the movie, lobotomy is shown to have disastrous results: McMurphy's violent behavior is indeed abated, but as illustrated in the movie, the lobotomy had turned him into a 'vegetable' neither responding to his ward mates' call for attention nor displaying his usual rowdy, obnoxious, McMurphy self.
This instance in the movie is considered as patterned after the medical model of abnormal psychology, wherein "mental disorders are described as medical diseases with a biological origin" (450). ecause this is the prevalent thinking in medical science during the time the movie (and novel) was made, Nurse Ratched decided, in order to "treat" McMurphy, to let him undergo lobotomy. Subsistence to the medical…
Santorck, J. (2001). Psychology. NY: McGraw-Hill Book Co.
Just as in the U.S. economy, where individuals have been economically left behind, such will be, and is, the case in the emerging global economy (p. 10). Ayres says that the impression, or the turning of society's blind eye towards the chaos of the economically disenfranchised, tends to cause the more affluent amongst us to believe that the term "global" means everybody will be a part of the emerging global economics, and this will produce an economic benefit that will be enjoyed by everyone (p. 10). That is not accurate, and, moreover, those people who presume to take a comfort in the economic globalization are not just turning a blind eye to the disenfranchised, but may find their selves vulnerable in a way that serves to be their light, much like Hank's in Monster's Ball. On this point Ayres says:
There is a popular impression, among the affluent and…
Sexual assault is an assault which is of a sexual nature done on another person either of the same of different sex. It also includes any form of sexual act that is committed without the consent of the person. Although in most cases, sexual assault is done by a man on a woman but in some cases, it has been documented to also be done by several men, women or children on men and children also Openshaw et al., 1993()
In the U.S. alone, about 300,000 cases of rape of women are reported every year. Additionally, 3.7 million women are usually subjected to other forms of unwilling sexual activity. There are also another 80,000 children in America who are abused sexually every year. Estimates by help agencies say that about one in every six American women has experienced sexual assault or will experience sexual assault at least…
Bibliography of Scholarly References, 1970-1992. Family Relations, 42(2), 222-226.
Mobile Crisis Program:
Effectiveness, Efficiency and Consumer Satisfaction, Questions
What are the goals of the Mobile Crisis Program?
The mobile crisis program of DeKalb County, Georgia is a component of the DeKalb Community Service Board, a comprehensive mental health service agency aimed at treating and reducing the threat of lash-outs from mentally ill persons throughout the county. The goals of the program are to provide community-based psychiatric services to stabilize persons experiencing psychiatric emergencies in the least restrictive environment, to decrease arrests of mentally ill people in crisis, and to reduce police officers' time handling psychiatric emergency situations throughout the county, thus freeing them to return to their regular duty serving and protecting their respective communities.
In allowing for this type of program within its communities, DeKalb county's overarching goal of achieving stability within its borders has the ability to come to fruition. Additionally, as the mobile crisis program's goal…
It was this same concept which began to impose harsh discriminatory
tactics against homosexuals. In fact, in a most ironic twist referent to
Nazi sadism, the treatment of homosexuals was often documented to exceed in
its abuse but also in its sexual manipulation, this group. Specially
recipient of abuse in the concentration camps, homosexuals were guilty of a
crime against Germany in their simple state of being, even as this
discrimination was not passed along to German SS guards and other Nazis
notoriously documented as having sodomized and sexually abused homosexual
inmates. In addition to their relegation to concentration and death camps,
homosexuals were subjected to the abuse of German's Nazified medical
community. To this end, "in 1935, a new law legalized the 'compulsory
sterilization (often in fact castration) of homosexuals.' A special
section of the Gestapo dealt with them.Along with epileptics,
schizophrenics and other 'degenerates', they were being eliminated."…
Laska, V. (1983). Women in the Resistance and in the Holocaust.
Speigel Online. (2007). New exhibition documents forced prostitution in
concentration camps. Speigel.de.
Traditional Values Coalition (TVC). (2005). Hitler targeted the
It appears that they were not aware of the situation with illiams when it came to the mental illness and the child abuse, but it is also possible that they kept silent about the issue against an attorney that they knew to be incompetent in order to get a conviction. Speculation is all that is available on that issue where the prosecution is concerned since accounts of what happened to Alexander illiams do not indicate whether the prosecution had knowledge of the mental health problems that illiams had and/or the abusive home that he came from.
THE ATTORNEY'S INVESTIGATION
Perhaps this section should be more appropriately called 'the attorney's lack of investigation,' as that is largely what took place. There were many mitigating circumstances that surrounded Alexander illiams and the murder that he committed, but the incompetent attorney that was assigned to him failed to investigate any of them (Juvenile,…
Death penalty and people with mental illness. (2005). National Mental Health Association. Retrieved 24 February 2005 from http://www.nmha.org/position/deathpenalty / juvcasestudy.cfm
Executing Alexander Williams (2002, February 19). Chicago Tribune. CrimeLynx. Retrieved 24 February 2005 from http://www.crimelynx.com/alexw.html
Georgia Moratorium Campaign. (n.d.) Alexander Williams: A case for moratorium. Retrieved 24 February 2005 from http://www.georgiamoratorium.org/alexwilliams.html
Juvenile death penalty Alex Williams (2002). American Bar Association, reprinted with permission from Amnesty International. Retrieved 24 February 2005 from http://www. abanet.org/crimjust/juvjus/williamsua02.html
One weakness of obert G.L. Waite's classic work of psychobiography and psychohistory, The Psychopathic God: Adolf Hitler (1993) is that no written evidence exists today from any psychologist or psychiatrist who actually examined Hitler, although his political opponents in Germany allegedly had reports from military psychiatrists in the First World War that Hitler was no promoted above private first class because of mental and emotional instability. In spite of the lacunae of evidence, Waite offered a convincing medical and psychological portrait of Hitler, and he has gathered considerable evidence to demonstrate the irrationality of his subject, who he diagnosed as a borderline psychotic. George Victor asserted in Hitler: The Pathology of Evil (2007) claimed that he had a depressive nervous breakdown in 1909 and a schizophrenic breakdown in 1918, when he was in the Pasewalk military hospital in Berlin. In A First-ate Madness, Nassir Ghaemi found that Hitler…
Ghaemi, N. (2011). A First-Rate Madness: Uncovering the Links between Leadership and Mental Illness. Penguin Press.
Housden, M. (2000). Hitler: Study of a Revolutionary? Routledge.
Kershaw, I. (2008). Hitler: A Biography. NY: Norton.
Rosenbaum, R. (1998). Explaining Hitler: The Search for the Origins of His Evil. NY: HarperCollins.
Joan of Arc
Thanks to the many media representations of her, Joan of Arc has become somewhat of a household name. Also known as Jeanne or Jehanne D'Arc, this extraordinary young woman fearlessly led the French Army to victory at a time when it became obvious to all but her that they would lose. In addition to devising military strategies that would ultimately lead them to victory, Joan of Arc also boosted the morale of her soldiers to such an extent that they rapidly came from a deep depression about their possibilities as an army towards a unified front that few could defeat. In the end, however, and perhaps this is the most well-known part of her story, Joan of Arc came to her tragic end by being burned at the stake as a heretic at best or a witch at worst. Today, this story has culminated in many speculations.…
Graham, G. (2010). The disordered mind: An introduction to philosophy of mind and mental illness. New York: Routledge.
Keko, D. (2011, May 29). Joan of Arc: The Visions. Examiner.com. Retrieved from: http://www.examiner.com/article/joan-of-arc-the-visions
National Post (2014). Joan of Arc's Secret. Retrieved from: http://www.nationalpost.com/news/story.html?id=18ce2b05-67d7-402a-833e-f0618da5c4e6
Forensic Mental Health Legislation and Policies
The current position on forensic mental health issues when it comes to legislation and policies is a strong one, but there are some difficulties that do not translate well into the probation and parole policies that are currently offered. In other words, there are issues that are not being addressed, and that are allowing individuals with mental health problems who on are probation and parole to slip through the cracks and struggle with their issues on their own (Wang, et al., 2005). Not only are they not getting the help they need in order to live productive lives, they are also more likely to reoffend, violate their probation or parole, become homeless, drink to excess, do drugs, and get involved in other unsavory behavior (Patel & Prince, 2002). The high proportion of indigenous offenders is one of the biggest issues that indicates mental health…
Australian Government (2012). Mental health services in Australia. Retrieved from https://mhsa.aihw.gov.au/home/
Demyttenaere, K., Bruffaerts, R., Posada-Villa, J., Gasquet, I., Kovess, V., Lepine, JP., Angermeyer, MC., Bernert, S., et al. (2004). WHO World Mental Health Survey Consortium. Prevalence, severity, and unmet need for treatment of mental disorders in the World Health Organization World Mental Health Survey. Journal of the American Medical Association, 291(21): 2581 -- 2590.
Keyes, C. (2002). The mental health continuum: From languishing to flourishing in life. Journal of Health and Social Behaviour, 43(2): 207 -- 222.
Munce, S.E., Stansfeld, S.A., Blackmore, E.R., & Stewart, D.E. (2007). The role of depression and chronic pain conditions in absenteeism: Results from a national epidemiologic survey. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 49(11): 1206 -- 1211.
Psychiatric and Psychotherapeutic Treatment
The effectiveness of psychiatry and psychotherapy has made the word treatment become a buzz word among those in the health care industry. Clinical researchers study outcome to determine treatment effectiveness. Health care payers and Behavioral Managed Care Organizations (BMCOs) are interested in outcome research in order to establish an accountable basis for making decisions about resource allocation. (Wiens, 1994, p. 46) And not only that, the general public has become more educated about treatment options and they want to see evidence that treatment is working and is appropriate for their individual circumstances. In addition, large companies want to see evidence that treatments for psychiatric and substance abuse problems work. In short, there are a lot of people interested in knowing which therapy works and why.
esearch over the past forty years has established that psychotherapy works; indeed "it seems that psychotherapy is one of the best…
1. American Psychiatric Association (1995). Practice guidelines for the treatment of patients with severe depression, 152 (supplement), 1-59.
2. Barlow, DH (1996). Health care policy, psychotherapy, research and the future of psychotherapy. American Psychologist, 51, 1050-1058.
3. Henggeler, S.W., Schoenwald, S.K., & Pickrel, S.G. (1995). Multi-systemic therapy: Bridging the gap between university and community-based treatment. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 63, 709-717.
4. Inglehart, J.F. (1996). Health policy report: Managed care and mental health. New England Journal of Medicine, 334, 131-135.
The garden was located at the back of the unit, and instead of watching television or aimlessly wandering the halls, I witnessed the residents spend hours tilling the soil, planting seeds, tending the young shoots, harvesting the fruits of their labor, and finally cooking and serving their creations. What can be more inspiring than knowing you can feed yourself and your friends? The change in their appearance was remarkable. Gardening and cooking was not just a hobby, it was a metaphor for their ability to regenerate themselves in mind and body.
My dream is to own my own restaurant, a place where all of the food on the menu is grown and raised on-premises. I would also like to employ members of the community along with professional hospitality staff to serve in the restaurant and tend the garden. My hero is Dan Barber, a man who has successfully united his…
As Nick grows older, his symptoms grow worse, and he becomes more and more depressed, even when times are "good." This is also common with the disease. Nick's brain did not see things the way others do, and he was like a confused child in many ways. Lithium helped the disease, which is also common, but it constantly has to be controlled, and so Nick endured highs and lows as the medication altered. He simply could not contend with the lows. The book very accurately portrays the life of a manic-depressive. It is clear to see how difficult it was for Nick, in the middle of it. It is also an accurate depiction of the progression of the disease, and how it affects everyone, from friends to family, and how difficult a disease it is to successfully treat.
Steel clearly indicates how difficult it is to live with this illness,…
Steel, Danielle. (1998). His bright light: the Nick Traina story. New York: Delacorte Press.
Powell (2008) is discussing the utilization of mixed method research. What actuaries found is that the majority of actuaries used this kind of approach sparingly (with only 13.7% of the studies classified in these categories). This is providing a basic foundation for understanding the methods that are embraced by psychologists. (Powell, 2008, pp. 291 -- 311)
How many are included in this study? Is this sample size appropriate for this study?
The sample size of the study is 873 articles. This was subdivided into a several different demographics to include: the Journal of School Psychology (157), Psychology in the Schools (365), School Psychology eview (145) and School Psychology Quarterly (206). This size is considered to be appropriate from: the different categories and the large number of articles that were reviewed. (Powell, 2008, pp. 291 -- 311)
Demographics: Explain the demographic variables (age, gender, ethnicity, education etc. And how these related…
Pituch, K. (2006). A Comparison of a Single Sample. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 41 (3), 367 -- 400.
Powell, H. (2008). Mixed Methods Research. Psychology in the Schools, 45 (4), 291 -- 311
The field of clinical psychology emerged as a viable method through which the theoretical foundations of cognitive studies could be effectively applied within the clinical setting to prevent and treat psychological syndromes. Derived from the first clinical psychology work conducted by Lightner Witmer in the late 19th century, and expanding throughout the 20th century as diagnostic tools were refined and classification systems for mental disorders were standardized, modern clinical psychology has been adapted to fulfill a niche within a whole host of divergent fields, including criminal justice, the social sciences and gender relations. Clinical psychologists premise their work on the use of empirical analysis to accurately investigate matters of cognitive processing, psychological assessment and mental illness, with the administration of personality tests, neurological scans and clinical interviews the most frequently utilized diagnostic resources. As clinical psychology expanded the base of knowledge pertaining to the human brain's highly refined…
Blackburn, R. (1993). The psychology of criminal conduct: Theory, research and practice. John Wiley & Sons.
Donohue, J., & Levitt, S. (2001). The impact of race on policing and arrests. Journal of Law and Economics, 44, 367-394. Retrieved from http://pricetheory.uchicago.edu/levitt/Papers/LevittDonohueTheImpactOfRace2001.pdf
Fite, P.J., Wynn, P., & Pardini, D.A. (2009). Explaining discrepancies in arrest rates between
Black and White male juveniles. Journal of consulting and clinical psychology, 77(5), 916. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2981137/ >.
slippery slope argument is an argument that explains why it is best to err on the side of caution when an issue can become volatile if allowed to expand. The slippery slope argument is used to describe what can happen if the ball is allowed to roll on any controversial issue.
To understand how it would work in the Euthanasia debate one must first understand how the term came about. When one stands at the top of a hill, and begins to go down a slippery slope there is a chance that the person will lose their footing. Once that happens the person begins to gain momentum and often times bypasses the originally desired stopping point and ends up at the bottom of the hill and not commonly on their feet.
This argument can be applied to the Euthanasia argument that is such a hot topic in today's debates.
The two SMART goals chosen for this assignment are Ethical Leadership in nursing and Nurse Mentoring. These SMART goals are both vitally important to the nurse in any context, because healthcare situations demand ethical approaches and mentoring is always a valuable component of nursing practice. As to Nurse Mentoring, this is a process that should not be limited to recent graduates of nursing schools but in fact should be conducted throughout a nurse's career as new procedures and technologies are introduced to the field of nurse care.
Ethics is a term that is used often in business and other genres. It is used so often that perhaps in some cases it becomes watered down. But in any healthcare environment the need for wholly ethical practices by nurses -- and all healthcare professionals -- is absolutely vital. This society is weary from news of ethical breakdowns in…
Cottingham, S., DiBartolo, M.C., Battistoni, S., and Brown, T. (2011). Partners in Nursing: A
Mentoring Initiative to Enhance Nurse Retention. Nursing Education Perspectives, 32(4),
Eileen. (2013). "Ethical leadership and mentoring are an important part of nurses in the psychiatric facility where I work."
The autho of this esponse has been asked to descibe a taget agency within which the autho will wok and how pecisely that wok will commence and be executed. Included in that summay will be what the autho of this epot bings to the theapeutic encounte, the oveall helping/theapeutic encounte and the initial fomulations that will be employed in used. Befoe that, the autho will descibe the agency that will be woked at and what they do. While some may focus deision and disdain on the mentally ill and ambivalent, any peson that wants to become o estoe themselves as an active membe of society should be given the tools and esouces to do so.
The agency that will be in question within this epot is known as the Cente fo Uban and Community Sevices, o CUCS fo shot. CUCS is a non-pofit goup that sevices the poo, the…
references and experience is lacking or flat-out wrong. However, it is important to note that research shows that needs/supplies fit and demands/abilities fit are not the same thing and should be measured and assessed differently (Hardin & Donaldson, 2014).
Regarding the initial formulations, there are going to be some patterns and usual outcomes that will become obvious. First, the client will need to have their expectations managed and assessed so that they align with reality and common practice. The key is to get the patient riled up and proactive while at the same time not setting up their hopes to be tackled. The client should not have difficulty working with the author of this response but the author of this response has a duty to be honest and open about the process and the challenges that will be faced. The message should be positive but it should be based on prior results and the facts as they exist. So long as the client is on board with being honest and proactive about the process, then there should be no discord or disagreement between the two. However, if the client is down in the dumps and very pessimistic about the outcome, then there might be some challenges. However, the fact that they came forward to use the services of CUCS proves that they are at least willing to try and that should be seized on and taken advantage of.
The potential or even like difficulty in getting the client engaged and keeping them involved stems from prior patterns of desperation, negative outcomes and the general perception that all of the above will likely persist as there is little to no reason to expect otherwise based on what is observed and experienced. This is not dissimilar to what can happen with social work professionals who end up experiencing "compassion fatigue" (Bride, Radey & Figley, 2007). That being said, there are some societal or cultural constructs and trends that can influence the path the therapies do or do not take. Examples of this would include race or the patient/client having a partner that is abusive or is himself/herself being abused (Addison,1977; Aymer, 2008; Mattei, 1999; Salvendy, 1999). Any sort of inflated (or deflated) ego or any artificial influence that is not based on reality and/or is coming from an external source can heavily sway the patient's mindset and, by extension, the results of the therapy (Gitterman & Germain, 2008; Goldstein, 1995) However, all it takes to change that pattern is a change in tactics and attitude as people can overcome a negative pattern of outcomes and expectations through actions and behaviors that are proactive, positive and moving consistently in the right direction rather than being uneven or negative in terms of the overall approach.
To maintain and strengthen the treatment relationship, the author of this report will empathize with the prior challenges and struggles but the author will also make it clear that these challenges will eventually
Moreover, in Perry v. Louisiana, 498 U.S. 38 (1990), the Court used that decision to bolster Louisiana's attempts to forcibly medicate a prisoner in order to make him death-eligible. If one agrees that the death penalty is a just penalty for one who has committed a capital crime, and that the reason that mentally ill defendants should not be executed is because they lack competence, then it does not seem unethical to allow them to be forcibly medicated in order to be competent. After all, in that scenario, avoiding medication could be likened to any other attempt to avoid punishment. Moreover, an organic physical disorder that arose after conviction, but that would have prevented a defendant from committing a crime, would not be sufficient reason not to execute a person on death row.
However, forced medication, especially for court appearances, may violate a defendant's Fifth Amendment right to present a…
Bonnie, R. (2007). Panetti v. Quarterman: mental illness, the death penalty, and human dignity. Ohio State Journal of Criminal Law, 5, 257-283.
Fentiman, L. (1986). Whose right is it anyway? Rethinking competency to stand trial in light of the synthetically sane insanity defense. University of Miami Law Review, 40, 1109-1127.
Ford v. Wainwright, 477 U.S. 399 (1986).
Panetti v. Quarterman, 127 S. Ct. 2842 (2007).
Homeless Mental Health
Mental health is an issue that is deemed to be very under-treated and very under-diagnosed within the United States. Beyond that, there are populations that are much more at risk than others. A good example would be the prison population where drug use and mental health issues are both rampant. However, there is another group that is highly stricken and very vexing and difficult to treat and that would be the homeless. Indeed, many people that are homeless are in that position due to mental health issues. Mental health is often not the only issue involved as comorbidity can exist with substance abuse. However, mental health will be the focus of this report. Facets of the homeless with mental health that will be focused upon within this report will include issues like diversity, ethics, values, social justice, diagnosing of patients, initiation/termination of care, aftercare, and the broader…
Belcher, J. R. (1988). Rights vs. Needs of Homeless Mentally Ill Persons. Social Work, 33(5), 398.
Chambers, C., Chiu, S., Scott, A., Tolomiczenko, G., Redelmeier, D., Levinson, W., & Hwang,
S. (2014). Factors Associated with Poor Mental Health Status Among Homeless Women
With and Without Dependent Children. Community Mental Health Journal, 50(5), 553-
Establishing an NP Led Wellness and Recovery Center for Deinstitutionalized Individuals
Historically, nursing, and medicine professions have been loath to utilize tools commonly linked with mercenary aspects of business, such as market research and decision analysis. In the contemporary health care setting, however, consumers hold numerous options for care providers. The division of the market or market segmentation into different subgroups allows the determination of target markets and the buildup of marketing policies specific to the needs and interests of the selected subgroups. Market analysis allows the identification of policies for nurse practitioners to enhance their practice in a way that centers on the interests and needs of the selected market. While scores of the nurse practitioner's dream of operating their own businesses, those that have set up their own practice understand that it requires a compelling passion for owning a business, and for the profession.
A nurse practitioner is…
Both interviewees and quantitative data indicators point to a criminal justice system in that has been positively impacted by a new ecological presence, the MHC. (Trupin, and Richards 52).
To sum up, while information is not completely conclusive, it is likely that the movement of deinstitutionalization has a direct relationship with the increase in the population of the mentally ill populations in jails and prisons. Many mental hospitals have been closed altogether. These hapless patients have been transferred to overworked community-based mental health clinics. This results in the dissipation of these patients over a wide variety of health care institutions. However, there is a great increase in the amount of mentally handicapped individuals amongst the jail and prison population. For this reason, there is a need for the expansion of mental-health services among the prison population. Also, mental health courts promise to provide relief.
"BJA Programs Mental…
"BJA Programs Mental Health Courts Program." Bureau of Justice Assistance. Office of Justice Programs, 2011. Web. 29 Nov 2011. .
"Deinstitutionalization: A Psychiatric Titanic." PBS.org. PBS, 2005. Web. 28 Nov 2011. .
Deas-Nesmith, D., and S. McLeod-Bryant. "Psychiatric Deinstitutionalization and Its Cultural Insensitivity." Journal of the National Medical Association. 84.12 (1992): 1036-1040. Print.
Lamb, H. Richard, Weinberger,, and Bruce H. Gross. "Mentally Ill Persons in the Criminal Justice System: Some Perspectives." Psychiatric Quarterly. 75.2 (2004): 107-126. Print.
In addition to having to wear civilian clothes and having to get information regarding the background of the person attempting to commit suicide, the police officer in charge of the situation has to pay special attention to the feelings he conveys to his interlocutor. Authorities often find themselves giving wrong verdicts in regard to a person displaying suicidal behavior. Suicide is frequently associated with mental illnesses, as people are inclined to ignore the fact that society offers numerous other reasons for which one would feel like they have to end their lives, delusions being just one of the motives.
Communication is not new to the sphere of influence relating to schizophrenia, as people have discovered its importance during the first half of the twentieth century. At that time, communication was believed to be essential to the behavior of individuals. Certain psychoanalysts went as far as claiming that schizophrenia was caused…
1. Pardy James. Conflict Management in Law Enforcement. (Emond Montgomery Publication, 2005).
2. Platt Stephen David, and Kreitman Norman, eds., Current Research on Suicide and Parasuicide: Selected Proceedings of the Second European Symposium on Suicidal Behaviour, Edinburgh, June 1988 (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1989).
3. Warner, Richard. The Environment of Schizophrenia: Innovations in Practice, Policy, and Communications (London: Brunner-Routledge, 2000).
Richard Warner, the Environment of Schizophrenia: Innovations in Practice, Policy, and Communications (London: Brunner-Routledge, 2000).
history of mental health in the United States has not always been a pleasant one. Prior to the mid-20th century those unfortunate numbers of Americans who were considered mentally ill were either ignored or placed in asylums (Philo, 1997). The asylum approach was considered to be a logical one. It protected the community for potentially dangerous or unwanted individuals; it provided families relief from the burden of having to care for a mentally ill family member; and, at least theoretically, they offered humane custodial care. The asylum system operated without question for many years in the United States. Society, as a whole, paid little attention to the concerns of the mentally ill and there was a general attitude that the mentally ill were largely undesirable.
Subsequent to the Second World War societal attitudes began to transform as the warehousing of the mentally ill in asylum was beginning to be considered…
Iglehart, J.K. (1996). Managed Care and Mental Health. New England Journal of Medicine, 131-136.
Institute of Medicine. (2005, November 1). Improviing the Quality of Health Care for Mental and Substance -Use Conditions: Quality Chasm Series. Retrieved October 30, 2011, from Institute of Medicine of the National Academies: http://www.iom.edu/Reports/2005/Improving-the-Quality-of-Health-Care-for-Mental-and-Substance-Use-Conditions-Quality-Chasm-Series.aspx
National Mental Health Act. Public Law 79-487, 79th Congress (1946).
New Freedom Commission on Mental Health. (2003). Achieving the Promise: Transforming Mental Health Care in America. Washington, D.C.: Government Publishing Office.
He believed asylums should be planned to encourage work, both physical and mental. To get away from the stress and turmoil of the city, an asylum should be erected out in the country where there was space for patients "to work, walk, and congregate. He called for plenty of large windows, one central building, separate buildings for the genders, and separate wings for wards" (Haller & Larsen, 2005, p. 262).
The Kirkbride asylum had a central administration building with a dome that was flanked by two wings of tiered wards. esidents were separated according to sex and the symptoms of their illnesses, with "excited patients" on the lower floors farther away from the administrative center. Well-behaved, more rational patients were placed on uppers floors closer to the administrative section. Fresh air, natural light, and scenic views of the park-like grounds were available to all wards.
Kirkbride asylums were designed to…
Curran, J. (2006). Psychiatric wards as permeable institutions. Mental Health Practice, 10 (2), 29-30.
Dowbiggin, I. (1997). The most solitary of afflictions: Madness and society in Britain, 1700-1900. Victorian Studies, 40 (2), 360-363.
Haller, B. And Larsen, R. (2005). Persuading sanity: Magic lantern images and the nineteenth-century moral treatment in America. Journal of American Culture, 28 (3), 259-272.
Hughes, W. (2002). "Cure, Comfort and Safe Custody:" Public lunatic asylums in early nineteenth-century England. Victorian Studies, 44 (2), 328-332.
mental illness on the individual, family, and community, and identify mental health resources for individuals experiencing mental illness. Mental illness does not just affect the patient, it affects the entire patient's family and friends, and it can affect them throughout their life. Unfortunately, mental illness still invokes a stigma in this country, which has a negative affect on patients suffering from mental illness.
Even when people attempt to be open minded, there is still a stigma that revolves around people who suffer from mental health issues. Two authors note, "People suffering from mental illness and other mental health problems are among the most stigmatized, discriminated against, marginalized, disadvantaged and vulnerable members of our society" (Overton & Medina, 2008). This is just one of the negative affects of suffering from mental illness, and it can be as debilitating as the disease itself. In the past, (such as the middle ages, people…
Corrigan, P.W., Watson, A.C., Byrne, P., & Davis, K.E. (2005). Mental illness stigma: Problem of public health or social justice?. Social Work, 50(4), 363+.
Neugeboren, J. (2006, October 6). Side effects. Commonweal, 133, 38.
Overton, S.L., & Medina, S.L. (2008). The stigma of mental illness. Journal of Counseling and Development, 86(2), 143+.
A good example is the 1985 murder of convenience store clerk Cynthia Barlieb, whose murder was prosecuted by a district attorney bent on securing execution for Barlieb's killer (Pompeilo 2005). The original trial and all the subsequent appeals forced Barlieb's family, including four young daughters, to spend 17 years in the legal process - her oldest daughter was 8 years old when Cynthia was first shot, and 25 when the process ended without a death sentence (Pompelio 2005). During those 17 years, Cynthia Barlieb's family was forced to repeatedly relive her murder.
hen a person is murdered, it is understandable that American society demands justice, particularly on behalf of the victim's family and loved ones. But we can not advocate capital punishment under the guise of protecting the interests of victims' families, and then cut those members out of the process when they do not support the death penalty. and,…
American Civil Liberties Union (2002). "ACLU Praises Supreme Court Refusal of 'Sleeping Lawyer' Case as 'Acknowledgment and Reminder' of Death Penalty Problems." Retrieved Sept. 30, 2006 at http://www.aclu.org/capital/unequal/10466prs20020603.html .
American Civil Liberties Union (2002). "DNA testing and the death penalty." Retrieved Oct. 1, 2006 at http://www.aclu.org/capital/innocence/10392pub20020626.html .
Amnesty International (2006). "Death penalty." Retrieved Sept. 30, 2006 at http://www.amnestyusa.org/abolish/index.do .
Antonio, Michael E. (2006). "Arbitrariness and the death penalty: how the defendant's appearance during trial influences capital jurors' punishment decision." Behavioral Sciences & the Law. March 2006.Vol.24, Iss. 2.