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On the other hand, merit pay systems may inspire unhealthy competition among coworkers or excessive peer pressure among teams of workers whose individual performance are measured together.
In the worst case scenario, merit pay can result in unscrupulous conduct and undermine the camaraderie in the work environment to a degree that actually affects overall output negatively instead of positively. Certain vocational environments are more likely to benefit from merit pay than others, but in all cases, effective management oversight is necessary to ensure the positive outcome envisioned by merit pay system proponents.
Daft, . (2005) Management 7th Edition. Mason: Thomson South Western.
Dillon, S. Long eviled, Merit Pay Gains Among Teachers; the New York Times. (June 18, 2007). etrieved August 2, 2008 at http://www.nytimes.com/2007/06/18/education/18pay.html?_r=1&pagewanted=2&oref=slogin
Gerrig, , Zimbardo, P. (2005) Psychology and Life. 17th Edition.
New York: Allyn & Bacon.
Gray, I. (1987) General and Industrial Management. (evised from Fayol's…
Daft, R. (2005) Management 7th Edition. Mason: Thomson South Western.
Dillon, S. Long Reviled, Merit Pay Gains Among Teachers; the New York Times. (June 18, 2007). Retrieved August 2, 2008 at http://www.nytimes.com/ 2007/06/18/education/18pay.html?_r=1&pagewanted=2&oref=slogin
Gerrig, R, Zimbardo, P. (2005) Psychology and Life. 17th Edition.
New York: Allyn & Bacon.
This involves "changing the role of school personnel in such a way that the resulting organization is capable of adapting the program of a given school to meet the needs of the child" (Conte, 1972) (finally, someone remembers that schools are about students not teachers). If the "objective of any reform measure is to increase the potential of the learning environment and facilitate the learning process" then creative ideas that involve changing the configuration and responsibilities of staff members to target their strengths must also be considered -- and should probably be implemented before any conversation about offering teachers more pay to do their jobs.
Other alternatives to merit pay
Alternatives to a merit pay system as a means of stoking educational improvement are not easy to find. Tenure and years of teaching experience are the normal and expected measures used to determine a teacher's salary and it would not…
Conte, a. (1972). Merit pay, problems and alternatives. New Jersey State dept of education.
Cramer, Jerome. (1983). Yes -- merit pay can be a horror, but a few school systems have done it right. American School Board, 170: 28, 33-34.
Drevitch, G. (2006). Merit Pay, Good for Teachers? Scholastic.
Gross, S. (1993). The new variable pay programs: How some succeed, why some don't. Compensation and Benefits Review. 51-62.
Value of Merit-Based Plans, Incentive-Based Plans, and Profit Sharing Plans
Merit-based payment plans, incentive-based payment plans, and company profit sharing plans all can be classified as organizational attempts to foster employee loyalty, increase employee productivity, and make the company a more attractive place to work. Their aim is to increase the motivation of employees to do quality work, above and beyond the expected minimum of the 'job description.' However, the plans operate on slightly different psychological principles and thus aim for slightly different motivational results.
Merit-based plans attempt to allocate pay to employees based on the employee's assessed merit to the company. If employees show the level of merit expected according to the plan, they are rewarded. By setting a certain concrete standard for employee performance, usually determined by human resource staff and assessed on a case-by-case basis through the use of regular performance reviews, employee quality is continually monitored.…
"Profit Sharing." (2005) HR Guide. Retrieved 28 Sept 2005 at http://www.hr-guide.com/data/G444.htm
'Variable Payment Plans: People Management." (2005) The Vault. Retrieved 28 Sept 2005 at http://www.vault.com/nr/newsmain.jsp?nr_page=3& ; ch_id=402& article_id=13561596& cat_id=2091
This sentiment is echoed by a lot of supporters of merit pay who believe the way teachers are paid and how much they are paid must differ if districts are to attract a new cohort of teachers" (Drevitch, 2006).
Some of the biggest disputes against merit pay have all been disputed previously, in the 1980's. In the 1980's, global rivalry was undermining U.S. businesses and corporations, and in an attempt to stay viable, the merit pay system was put into place. The new system included awarding workers-based costumer service reviews, supervisor assessments and group achievements, things that may appear subjective or hard to gauge, the same condemnations thrown at merit system today. Barraged by disapproval and battered by the unions, the system nonetheless proved to be victorious. "After trial and error, half of all major American companies utilized similar merit pay incentives by the mid-1990s. The fact is, these incentive…
Brown, R. (2009). Why Pay-for-Performance Merits Your Attention. Rural Telecom, 28(5), 32-
Colter, Carolee. (2003). Does Merit Pay Really Work? Retrieved from http://www.cooperativegrocer.coop/articles/2008-12-27/does-merit-pay-really-work
Devera, John. (2008). What is merit-based pay? Retrieved from http://www.helium.com/items/1140967-what-is-merit-based-pay
Pay structure reflects four general architectural principles. The first is the minimum and maximum levels of pay within the organization, and to whom those levels go. The second is the general relationship between the levels of pay. In this, the organization must understand the different types of employees that it has, and what the relationship is between those types. The third factor is whether the pay structure should lead the market, meet the market or lag the market. This can be broken down by pay class as well, so that some positions lag the market while others lead the market, depending on the importance of the position to the company. The fourth architectural component of pay structure, which is the division of the total compensation dollar between base pay, merit pay and pay-for-performance programs (Henderson, 2006).
A pay policy line is best described as a trend line that reflects the…
Henderson, R. (2006). Compensation management in a knowledge-based world (10th ed). Chapter 11. Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall.
A detailed description and origins of pay for performance
Pay-for-performance initiatives are designed to improve the efficiency, quality and general value of health care. Other terms used to refer to pay-for-performance include pay-for-quality, alternative payment, valued-based payment, among others. No matter the nomenclature, the main objective of pay-for-performance is to improve efficiency for optimal outcomes. (Rosenthal et al., 2005)
During the early 1990s, many consumers opted for managed care by paying some cash to the providers for a particular set of services. Such arrangement led to compromised quality and put some strain on patients.
Come 2000, the US was experiencing serious deficiency in health care quality. The Institute of Medicine wrote a detailed report on this. Thus pay-for-performance became a valid option for quality health care. (Vogenberg & Smart, 2018)
Who is affected by pay-for-performance?
A number of studies have been conducted to evaluate adherence to medication versus medication subsidies,…
The principle underlying the merit system is that recruitment and promotion should be based on ability rather than an affiliation. However, in both public and private organizations this has not always been the case. Instead, nepotism to obtain good jobs for members of one's family and rewards for friendship and political loyalty have been common. ut, as political pressures and human resources have come to influence decision making in organizations, the merit system has become the norm rather than the exception in recent years.
Most of the 19th century federal government roles were filled by what was referred to as the spoils system (Pfiffner). Staffing by presidential administrations rewarded political loyalty. At that time, government work was less complex than today and there was great concern that laws would be faithfully executed. Later, as political reform movements took hold, the Pendleton Act was passed in 1883 to replace…
Merit system principles. Retrieved February 28, 2005 from Web site: http://www.afpc.randolph.af.mil/permiss/civilian/c_12a.htm
Pfiffner, J.P. Government legitimacy and the role of the civil service. Retrieved February 28, 2005 from Web site: http://mason.gmu.edu/~pubp502/pfiffner-readings-legitimacy.htm
In other fields, going the extra mile, investing extra weekend or evening time, or providing exemplary presentations and materials usually results in some form of bonus. In teaching, however, much of this is expected -- before and after school tutoring, evening performances, weekend events, out-of-pocket expenses for supplies and materials not covered in the budget (See: Johnson, 2004).
Thus, while still presenting the overall debate from the public administration, governmental, and even sociological (parental, community) views, the proposed study will focus on specific views and attitudes that teachers' hold towards a pay for performance concept. The study will examine current and proposed legislation adopting such a compensation package, as well as a qualitative evaluation of the efficacy of such programs within the 21st century educational climate. The study will quantitatively analyze the data based on demographic and psychographic indicators such as age, gender, ethnicity, teaching level, education level, length of…
Special Ed Groups Try to Shape Pay-for-Performance Movement. (June 2010). Special
Education Report. 36 (2): 2.
Adams, S., Heywood, J., and Rothstein, R. (2009). Teachers, Performance Pay, and Accountability. EPI Books. Cited in:
compensation and traditional bases for pay.
Background- Mary is what you could call a perfect employee. She holds the post of a supervisor in a construction company. She has been with the construction company for over 15 years. Mary is one of the few females in the male-dominated company and also the only female supervisor. All her male colleagues joined the company at least five years after her, but got promoted ahead of her. She is the only one among them with an advanced degree. Mary is in love with her job and has no complaints about the treatment she gets. One day, after a long and rough day at work, she decided to go out with some of her colleagues for dinner. While dining with her colleagues, some of her male colleagues got into a discussion about their salaries and other job openings that offer better paychecks.…
(n.d.). DeGarmo -- Innovative talent acquisition and development solutions. Seniority vs. Performance-Based Pay Systems -- DeGarmo. Retrieved February 3, 2016, from http://www.degarmo.com/seniority-versus-performance-based-pay-systems
(n.d.). EEOC Home Page. Notice Concerning the Lilly Ledbetter Fair Pay Act of 2009. Retrieved February 3, 2016, from http://www.eeoc.gov/laws/statutes/epa_ledbetter.cfm
(2000). HR.com - The Human Resources Social Network. Importance of External Factors in Wage Determination - The Human Resources Social Network. Retrieved February 3, 2016, from http://www.hr.com/SITEFORUM?&t=/Default/gateway&i=1116423256281&application=story&active=no&ParentID=1119278025992&StoryID=1119642248468&xref=http%3A//www.bing.com/search%3Fq%3Dexternal+compensation+forces+%26form%3DPRUSEN%26pc%3DmsnHomeST%26mkt%3Den-us%26refig%3Ddd0c59e151db4075a5e5ef33af7da250%26pq%3Dexternal+compensation+forces+%26sc%3D1-29%26sp%3D-1%26qs%3Dn%26sk%3D%26cvid%3Ddd0c59e151db4075a5e5ef33af7da250
(2007). Justia U.S. Supreme Court Center. Ledbetter v. Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co: 550 U.S. 618 (2007): Justia U.S. Supreme Court Center. Retrieved February 3, 2016, from http://supreme.justia.com/cases/federal/us/550/618/
Often employees also receive an end-of-year lump sum bonus that is not included in their base pay (Employee Compensation, 2010).
Perkins and Balkin can choose to do any types of compensation plans that they want to. They can have plans for different areas within the organization. For example, everyone in the company could be on an hourly compensation plan while say the sales department could be on a pay for performance plan. The key is to make sure that everyone that is within a department is on the say type of plan so that everything is kept fair and ethical.
A high performance work system has many benefits for both employees and organizations. If employees feel that they are part of a high performance system then they will be happier employees and thus more productive. There are seven steps that a company must go through in order to establish a…
Employee Compensation. (2010). Retrieved May 23, 2010, from Novelguide Web site:
Fogleman, Sarah L. (2004). Creative Compensation. Retrieved May 23, 2010, from Web site:
H Pay Model
The author of this report has been asked to assess the chapter titles for the class text and then compare them to the pay model shown in figure two of the assignment. The aim of the assignment is to align each chapter title with the corresponding part of the pay model. There are sixteen chapters in total and four overall parts to the pay model, with the latter being alignment, competitiveness, contributors and management. The class text in question is Strategic Compensation by Martocchio. While some of the chapters in the book could technically be assigned to more than one part of the pay model, the fit between chapter and one particular part of the pay model is usually pretty clear.
The first chapter in the book is called strategic compensation. One could really assign that to contributors, competitiveness or alignment in one form or another.…
Martocchio, J. (2015). Strategic compensation (8th ed.). New York, NY: Prentice Hall.
Lawler and Ledford (1987) argued twenty-six years ago that skill-based pay was going to become an increasingly popular concept in compensation management. Ledford and Heneman (2011) define skill-based pay as "a compensation system that rewards employees with additional pay in exchange for formal certification of the employee's mastery of skills, knowledge and/or competencies." The authors juxtapose this against a "job-based pay system," defined as a system where employees are entitled to receive their pay even if they are not proficient in their position.
There are two issues with the concept from the outset. The first is that employees should be proficient in their position, since they have been given that position. It makes little sense for an employee to remain in a position with no skills. Trotter (2013) notes that a person's skills and competencies contribute to them receiving the position, at least in any company where merit…
Giancola, F. (2011). Skill-based pay: Fad or classic? Compensation Benefits Review. Vol. 43 (4) 220-226.
Lawler, Edward E., III, & Ledford, Gerald E., Jr. (1987). Skill-based pay: A concept that's catching on. Management Review, 76(2), 46-46. Retrieved May 30, 2013
Ledford, G. & Heneman, H. (2011). Skill-based pay. Society for Human Resource Management. Retrieved December 6, 2013 from http://www.siop.org/userfiles/image/SIOP_SHRM_Skill_Based_Pay.pdf
Trotter. R. (2013). Skills-based pay structures vs. job-based pay structures. Rory Trotter.com. Retrieved December 6, 2013 from http://rorytrotter.com/2013/04/10/skill-based-pay-structures-versus-job-based-pay-structures/
Merit Pay Grids
The author of this brief report has been asked to react to the statement "merit pay grids have the potential to undermine employee motivation." The author will use outside sources to agree or disagree with that statement. The author of this response will also include personal analysis about the question and perhaps a bit of personal experience as well. While "pay for performance" is deemed to be one of the best (if not the best) way of paying employees, it is not a fix-all and it can come with some downsides as money is not the main or sole motivator for a lot of employees.
The author of this report would generally agree with the statement being posed but the word "undermines" is perhaps not the best word. If anything, a merit-based system that is step-based is really the best way to go. Indeed, giving the same…
Peck, E. (2015). 3 Ways To Spend More Time With Your Family Without Quitting Your Job. The Huffington Post. Retrieved 7 October 2015, from http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2015/03/20/google-cfo-quit-spend-tim_n_6909526.html
Quast, L. (2013). Forbes Welcome. Forbes.com. Retrieved 7 October 2015, from http://www.forbes.com/sites/lisaquast/2013/01/21/how-to-make-performance-reviews-relevant/
Richman, T. (2010). Merit pay does not always motivate employees. AccountingWEB. Retrieved 7 October 2015, from http://www.accountingweb.com/practice/team/merit-pay-does-not-always-motivate-employees
Representative Rosa DeLauro first introduced an identical bill in the House of Representatives on the same day. These Congresswomen have introduced identical legislation in their respective chambers annually since 2005. The Act was most recently introduced on March 6, 2007. (Absoluteastronomy.com, n.d.)
The Congress did not ignore the EPA's economic consequences on the salaries and employment opportunities for both men and women. First, as an amendment of the FLSA, the EPA is part of the same legislative structure that houses the federal minimum wage laws. The EPA acts as a wage equalizer between men and women for equal jobs, and has the potential of acting as a price floor on the salaries of men or women for particular jobs. As such, the EPA had the potential of causing some of the same problems observed by minimum wage laws: unemployment, and additional discrimination. (Absoluteastronomy.com, n.d.)
From the EEOC's initial enforcement…
Absoluteastronomy.com. (n.d.). Equal Pay Act of 1963. Retrieved February 10, 2009, from Absolute Astronomy: http://www.absoluteastronomy.com/topics/Equal_Pay_Act_of_1963
Brunner, B. (n.d.). The Wage Gap. Retrieved February 10, 2009, from Infoplease:
EEOC. (n.d.). Equal Pay and Discrimination. Retrieved February 10, 2009, from U.S. Equal
Goodyear which effectively denied employees the right to sue for wage discrimination after the passing of 180 days that "Justice Ruth ader Ginsberg was so incensed she read her scathing dissent aloud from the bench. She defended Lilly Ledbetter's right to sue her employer, Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co., Inc. For pay discrimination on the basis of sex, giving a not-so-gentle reminder of the realities of the American workplace." (Steiger, 2007) Specifically written by Justice Ginsburg is that as follows:
worker knows immediately if she is denied a promotion or transfer, if she is fired or refused employment. And promotions, transfers, hirings, and firings are generally public events, known to co-workers. When an employer makes a decision of such open and definitive character, an employee can immediately seek out an explanation and evaluate it for pretext. Compensation disparities, in contrast, are often hidden from sight." (Steiger, 2007)
Steiger reports that…
Abrams, Jim (2009) House Approves Bill to Fight Wage Discrimination. Yahoo News. 9 Jan 2009. Online available at http://news.yahoo.com/s/ap/20090109/ap_on_go_co/pay_equity
Barko, N. (2000. June 19). The Other Gender Gap. (Online) Available http://www.prospect.org/archives/V11-15/barko-n.html .
Bland, T.S. (1999, July). Equal Pay Enforcement Heats Up. HR Magazine, p. 138-145.
Bland, T.S., Nail, T.N., Knox, D.P. (2000, May). OFCCP, White House push comparable worth. HR News, p. 22-24.
A man's ethical behavior should be based effectually on sympathy, education and social ties, and needs. No religious basis is necessary."
Einstein, 1954 [emphasis supplied]
Alternate Suggested Application of Pojman's Thesis
From many ethical perspectives, the implications of Pojman's analysis with respect to punishment (i.e. "just deserts"), is more problematic than his suggestions about rewarding positive human behavior at the other end of the spectrum. In fact, there is no reason that Pojman's entire thesis need be discarded just to purify it of its most problematic implications. For example, the following description of a human community would resolve many of the most serious ethical criticisms of Pojman's approach while still allowing some of his more beneficial aspects of his merit-and-just deserts-based analysis: The envisioned society would de-emphasize penal law to the extent it is designed for the purpose of retributive punishment of wrongdoers. On the other hand, it would sanction…
Einstein, A. (1954). Ideas and Opinions. New York: Crown.
Pojman, L. "Merit: Why Do We Value It?" Journal of Social Philosophy, Vol. 30, No. 1;
These figures dwarfed what other big businesses paid for discriminatory practices. These businesses included Texaco, Inc.; Shoney's, Inc., Winn-Dixie, Stores, Inc.; and CSX Transportation, Inc. Critics saw Coca-Cola's settlement as signaling a major breakthrough among big businesses as coming to terms with diversity in the workplace (King). ecause the company has been a leader in many areas, these critics regarded it as setting an example of greater openness to promotions across races of employees (King).
Settlement terms included $23.7 million as back pay; $58.7 million as compensatory damages; and $10 million as promotional achievement award fund distributed to the complainants. A remaining $20 million went to attorney's fees and $36 million to the implementation of internal program reforms. Coca-Cola would also create an external, seven-member task force to insure that the terms were complied with and to oversee the company's diversity efforts (King).
According to Social Networks. - Connections in…
Bland, T. (1999). Equal pay enforcement heats up. 4 pages. HR Magazine: Society for Human
Bronstad, a. (2001). EEOC alleges Beverley Hilton discrimination. 2 pages. Los Angeles
Business Journal: CBJ, LP
Job Evaluation, Market Pricing & Pay Structures
Job evaluation is a division of the salary management practice. It is a methodical examination of the relative demands that work places on a worker. Job evaluation results in a relative ranking of positions. This position, frequently expressed in terms of salary grades, is the foundation for the classification of salary ranges (Hilling, 2003). Market pricing is an organization of gathering data on the pay rates for comparable jobs in other companies to set up their market rate or price and track movements in those rates. The objective of the process is to help set the organization's own pay rates at the suitable level in order to employ and retain the personnel it desires (Graebner & Seaweard, 2004). While market pricing has forever been the foremost way that companies establish their pay levels, the lack of valuable survey data has been…
Dufetel, L. (1991). Job evaluation: Still at the frontier. (cover story). Compensation & Benefits Review, 23(4), 53.
Graebner, D.R., & Seaweard, K.A. (2004). Bringing it all inside: Job evaluation and market pricing at JCPenney. Workspan, 47(8), 30-30-35.
Hilling, F. (2003). Job evaluation is here to stay. World at Work Journal, 12(3), 14-21.
Job Evaluation: Understanding the Issues. (n.d.). Retreived from http://www.effectivecompensation.com/PDF/CareerPathJobEvaluation.pdf
The author of this report is asked to review a situation, both in general and in particular, as it relates to gender pay equity in Australia and how decentralization has led to a lower performance threshold as far as that goes. The questions that will be answered are what the fundamental problems are for women in the workplace as part of remuneration goes, how the author would prepare for negotiations given the state of affairs that exist and to define an interest (two of them) and the positions that will underpin them. While women have traditionally been the homemakers and second chair in the workplace over the course of history, those women that wish to be career minded should not encounter a glass ceiling and they should be paid equally.
The barriers that exist are not hard to miss. In Australia as well as around the…
ACTU. (2015, March 10). Equal pay for work of equal value - ACTU Worksite for Schools. Retrieved March 10, 2015, from http://worksite.actu.org.au/equal -
Shachar, M. (2011) Conflict Resolution Management (CRM). Text Book. Chapter 4.
Wanrooy, B. (2009). Women at Work in Australia: Bargaining a Better Position?
WOMEN'S IGHTS: EQUALITY IN THE WOKFOCE, EQUAL PAY
Women's ights: Equality in the Workplace, Equal Pay
Legislative background. The word "sex" is always an attention-getter, and when used in legislation, it can be polarizing. Public Law 82-352 (78 Stat. 241) was passed by Congress in 1964 as a civil rights statute. The Law made it a crime to discriminate in all aspects of employment on the basis of race and sex. epresentative Howard W. Smith (D-VA) added the word "sex" at the eleventh hour (O'Neill, 2011), reported to keep the bill from being passed. As a conservative Southerner, Smith was seen as an opponent of federal civil rights legislation. But Smith defended his action, explaining that he had amended the bill because of his work with the National Women's Party and his efforts to support Alice Paul. The effort to retain the word "sex" in the bill was led by…
About NOW, National Organization of Women. Retrieved http://www.now.org / organization/info.html
About Us, Women's International Forum. Retrieved http://www.iwf.org/
About Us, WorkLife Law. 2011. A Center of UC Hastings College of the Law. Retrieved http://www.worklifelaw.org/ProveitAgain.html
Thomas, M. 2011. Another equal pay day. Really? Ms. Foundation for Women. Retrieved http://ms.foundation.org/
Marijuana Legalization and Public Health
Issues associated with the Public Health Implications of Marijuana Legalization
The legalization of marijuana use in various states in the U.S. has contributed to a surge in of a public health problem associated with marijuana use. A significant increase in the use over the past two decades points to an estimated quarter of the American population that has used the drug. Marijuana use amongst senior high school students has surpassed cigarette-smoking cases. Consequences of marijuana use emanate from a comprehensive and scientific research by the World Health Organization (WHO) and other health organizations on this subject (Department of Health and Human Services, 1982).
Findings on the health hazards caused by marijuana use include interference of mental functioning by marijuana due to the acute intoxication of the drug. The use has curtailed coordination of tasks, a skilled performance of activities such as driving, and complex tasks…
Basharat, P., Sussman, G., Beezhold, D. & Leader N. (2011). Hypersensitivity Reactions To Marijuana. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2011 Feb; 127(2)(Suppl. 1): AB178. From http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaci.2010.12.707
CDC. (2013). Notes from the Field: Severe Illness Associated with Reported Use of Synthetic Marijuana -- Colorado, August -- September 2013. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm6249a7.htm?s_cid=mm6249a7_w
Department of Health and Human Services (13 August 1982). "The Surgeon General's Warning on Marijuana." MMWR Weekly, 31(31);428-9. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/00001143.htm
Frizell, S. (2014). Obama on Marijuana Legalization: 'It's Important for It to Go Forward. Time. Retrieved from http://swampland.time.com/2014/01/19/obama-on-marijuana-legalization-its-important-for-it-to-go-forward/#ixzz2qzPk6zX1
Pay is generally the most important part of the contents of a psychological contract. In a UK study conducted by Herriot et al. (1996), it was found that employees used fairness and pay most frequently when work environment was discussed. It was the two things that topped the list of things that employees paid attention to when discussion of work environment came up.
Pay for performance is the third most commonly discussed concept in development of Merit pay system. ecent developments in the field of management and performance-based evaluation systems provide conclusive evidence of the fact that the understanding of the urgent need to motivate and reward employees based on their performance is augmenting over time.
That is why "analysts are predicting that performance-based deals will become increasingly prevalent, with some estimates showing pay-for-performance rising to 30% of all online ad revenues by 2006" (iolo, 2002)
Adams, J.S. (1965). 'Inequality in social exchange.' In L. Berkowitz (ed.) Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, Vol. 2. New York: Academic Press.
Herriot, P., Manning, W.E.G. And Kidd, J.M. (1996). ' the content of the psychological contract', Working paper: Department of Organisational Psychology, Birbeck College.
Riolo (2002). Argue for pay for performance. Commentary.
Rousseau, D.M. And Parks, J.M. (1993). 'The contracts of individuals and organisations'. in: Cummings, L.L. And Schein, E.H. (1980). 'Organisational psychology', Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ.
Create a job description for a retail sales associate. Create an organizational behavior modification (OBM) plan to define a set of three (3) key behaviors that are necessary for job performance.
Job Description for etail Sales Associate
• Greet customers and determine their needs and wants
• Discuss potential merchandise purchase of customers
• ecommend merchandise based on discussion with customer
• Advise customers on utilization and care of merchandise
• Upsell related products or services
• Answer customer questions
• Explained return policies and discounts
• Keep merchandise displays in order
Organizational Behavior Modification Plan (OBM)
Key Performance Behaviors
Greet customers within 5 minutes of entry into sales area (allow time for browsing before contact).
a. Sales associate make mental note of customer response and encourages survey feedback for all completed sales with customers given assistance. Measurement: An on-your-honor system with sales associate fine-tuning approach to customer…
Lindberg, E. (2011). Effects of Management by Objectives: Studies of Swedish Upper Secondary Schools and the Influence of Role Stress and Self-efficacy on School Leaders. Journal of Educational Administration, 49, (1), 62-74. Retrieved
Perry, J.L., Engbers, T. A, and Jun, S.Y. (2009). Back to the future? Performance-related pay, empirical research, and the perils of persistence. Public Administration Review • January | February. Retrieved http://sites.duke.edu/niou/files/2011/05/Perry-Engbers-and-Jun-Back-to-the-Future.pdf
Zaccaro, S.J., Rittman, A.L., and Marks, M.A. (2001). Team leadership. The Leadership Quarterly, 12, 451 -- 483. Fairfax, VA: Psychology Department, George Mason University. Retrieved http://www.qub.ac.uk/elearning/media/Media,264498,en.pdf
Concerning employment practices in general, the order not only strictly prohibited discrimination in hiring, but it also entered into the lexicon the now commonplace idea of Equal Opportunity Employment and established the premise of Affirmative Action. In doing so, this order would also explicit the prohibition of discriminatory treatment of employees once hired, seeming to build a legal case for those who would argue that a compensation system demonstrates elements of individual discrimination.
6. Explain the sorts of errors that can arise in the performance appraisal process.
The quality of an organization's project will only be as good as the performances which are dedicated to its completion. Thus, it is central that proper oversight and leadership acknowledge individual and group performance markers in order to properly interpret the ongoing effectiveness of meeting a project's goals.
A crucial and preemptive approach to ensuring that project contributors are meeting expectations is to…
Chingos, P.T. (2002). Paying for Performance. John Wiley and Sons.
Harris, M. & Raviv, a. (1979). Optimal Incentive Contracts With Imperfect Information. Journal of Economic Theory, 20(2), 231-259.
Henderson, J. (2005). Compensation Management in a Knowledge-Based World. Prentice Hall.
Herbig, P. & Genestre, a. (1997). International Motivational Differences. Texas a&M International University: Department of Management and Marketing.
components we need to analyze and discuss here. First of all, there is the compensative/remunerative component. enefits and compensations represent a way of increasing personal revenue and partially represent the compensation for a cost of opportunity. For example, in some cases, compensations are paid for extra hours spent at work. These are a way to remunerate the time you have spent working for the company, time you could have used to produce the same amount of money otherwise.
As an individual, however, the reward component is even more important in the case of compensations and benefits. It is the most practical way by which the upper management can show an employee that the work he or she is performing within the company is important and boosts overall profits for the entire company. It is also a way to show how important the role of the respective employee is within the…
1. HR Guide to the Internet. 1998. On the Internet at http://www.hr-guide.com/data/G442.htm
HR Guide to the Internet. 1998. On the Internet at
Human Resource Management
Problems with the Form
First of all, the Employee Evaluation Form offers no explanation for what "Low," "Average," and "High" really mean in terms of performance. There should be a thorough explanation as to what those categories reflect. Moreover, the area for comments is very limited, just enough for a few scribbled notes. That's wholly inadequate for a good review of an employee's progress and work ethic.
Secondly, there should be explanations under each category. In the category "Decision Making," for example, what kinds of decisions are expected of a rank and file employee? If the employee is only being evaluated once a year, but his or her supervisor (with no other input), how will that supervisor know what kinds of decisions (quality or otherwise) the employee has made? All in all it seems like a very cursory and vague kind of evaluation.
Question TO: Suggested Changes…
ABC Power. 2012. Performance Appraisal at ABC Power / Employee Evaluation Form.
Employment Discrimination at Wal-Mart
Foundation of the Study
This study examines the legislative and judicial climate that enables corporations like Wal-Mart to engage in practices that violate workers' rights. The popular consensus is that Wal-Mart, the largest retail store in the United States, displays an inordinate disregard for the human dignity and morale of its employees and, despite continual litigation, continues to blatantly violate the legal rights of its employees. Wal-Mart faces charges of violating The Federal Fair Labor Standards Act (2011) by asking management to adjust time sheets so that overtime will not need to be paid, and so that all employees will work under the hourly limit required by the union in order to obtain membership. Employees were insured, without their knowledge, against their death by Wal-Mart. The company was named beneficiary; following death of an employee, the entire benefit amount was retained by the corporation. Not a…
Business Day, Companies. (2011) The New York Times. Retrieved http://www.nytimes.com/
Byrne, T.P. (2009). False profits: Reviving the corporation's public purpose. Discourse, 57 UCLA L. Rev. Disc. 25, UCLA School of Law, UC Berkeley, (Associate, Chadbourne & Parke, LLP). Retrieved http://uclalawreview.org/?p=1056
Clifford, S. (2011, March 29). Where Wal-Mart failed, Aldi succeeds. The New York Times. Retrieved
From the standpoint of the labor market, the lack of equity in the public system would continue to exist until the market force becomes united and demands a better protection of its rights. For now however, when the people fear the loss of their jobs and when the market place is saturated, the public employers are not pressured to implement equity. At the level of personal evaluation and job contributions, these are only able to reveal the cases of lack of equity through a comparative analysis of contributions, evaluations and compensations of several public sector employees. Individually however, a person who is inequitably rewarded will not be able to make a difference in the system.
In the hypothetical context of a perfect compensation system, several elements would sit at the basis of its evaluation. All these elements would be constructed on complex analyses of past trends, future estimations, equity theory…
Adams, J.S., Berkowitz, L., 1976, Equity theory: toward a general theory of social interaction, Academic Press
Berman, E.M., Bowman, J.S., West, P., Van Mart, M., Human resources management in public service -- paradoxes, processes and problems, 2nd edition
Mann, G.A., 2006, a motive to serve: public service motivation in human resource management and the role of PSM in the non-profit sector, Entrepreneur, http://www.entrepreneur.com/tradejournals/article/160542365_2.html last accessed on November 9, 2010
2009, the end of pay equity for women in the federal public service, Public Service Alliance of Canada, http://psac.com/news/2009/issues/200902pseact-e.shtml last accessed on November 9, 2010
As the company's Web site points out, "We recognize our continued success depends on our ability to attract, develop and retain a highly competent workforce and on the creative, effective and productive use of human resources. Therefore, Continental is committed to a work environment that provides equal employment opportunity" (Diversity and inclusion, 2010, para. 30). The company's stated diversity policy is as follows:
1. Continental affords equal opportunity for employment to all qualified individuals, regardless of age, citizenship, color, disability, gender, national origin, race, religion, sexual orientation, gender identity, genetic information, or veteran status.
2. Continental makes all personnel decisions, such as compensation, benefits, transfers, layoffs, returns from layoff, opportunities for company-sponsored training, education, and other programs without regard to age, citizenship, color, disability, gender, national origin, race, religion, sexual orientation, gender identity, genetic information, or veteran status.
3. As part of its continued commitment to equal employment opportunity, Continental…
Burke, R.J. & Cooper, C.L. (2005). Reinventing human resources management: Challenges and new directions. London: Routledge.
Authors provide an overview of the recent HR initiatives that have been shown to improve organizational performance and examine how practitioners need to reevaluate their approaches in order to satisfy future demands. Of particular interest was the guidance concerning the need to ensure that diversity management practices are in place and that these initiatives are not simply relabeled affirmative action programs but are rather specifically targeted at recruiting and retaining qualified minority candidates.
Career opportunities. (2010). Continental Airlines. Retrieved from http://www.continental.
In high school students must pass regents examines before they are able to graduate.
If a Title I school does not show annual progress for two consecutive years, that school will be identified as a "needs improvement school." The district is mandates bylaw to take whatever actions are needed to correct the situation by the following year.
The NCLB laws place reading at the top of the priority list in academic subjects.
North Carolina schools comply with all federal and state laws with regard to its school system.
The schools are funded by federal, state and county taxes which are earmarked not only for education but for specific segments of the public school system.
Legislators in North Carolina have to walk a line between making sure mandates are being met while at the same time being sure they are properly educating the children in their districts.
Often times the two…
Employees need feedback on poor performance so they are able to improve from a productivity standpoint. Without critical evaluation, most people would not be afforded any opportunity to improve. Many times an employee is not aware they are performing poorly, and need assistance identifying potential areas for growth and learning.
Several different employees should be included when collecting 360 degree feedback. At minimum 1-2 co-workers should be asked to provide feedback. In addition, superiors or managers that work with the employee, but do not directly supervise the employee should be asked for feedback. Anyone that the employees work directly affects are also candidates for 360 feedback.
The most important rewards are a sense of accomplishment and contribution. For me understanding that I have made an impact on the organization is essential.
Continuous reinforcement may be impossible in a large corporate setting where there are hundreds of employees to oversea. The…
eward System Design for our organization
A fair financial reward system is immensely important for any organization and we are thus planning to not only adopt a reward system which is based on merit and performance but which is also inherently fair. After discussing the five important components of the new design, we shall discuss how a reward system can be fair as well.
Following are five important components of the 'eward System' which we need to consider for designing a new reward system for our company.
Direct Compensation: Direct compensation is generally considered the basic pay that employees get in return to their service. These may include direct wages, overtime, penalty rates, holiday and long service leave, training, meals, pay-roll tax etc. This is indeed the basic component of the reward system and can be considered a foundation for all other incentives. Whatever the wage system is, it should…
Risher, H. (July-August 1999). Merit Pay Can Be a Hard Sell. Public Management. Volume: 81. Issue: 7.
Taylor, C. (2002). Focus on Talent; Zoom In: Transferring Part of the Responsibility for Talent Retention from HR to Operations, to Leaders, Is a Cultural Shift. It's Likely That HR Will Gladly Share Ownership. Here's How Sprint Did It, T&D, Vol.56, Issue.12.
Nourayi, Mahmoud M.; Daroca, Frank P., Performance evaluation and measurement issues.. Vol. 8, Journal of Managerial Issues, 06-22-1996, pp 206(12)
Teacher Quality: The Effect of Compensation
The objective of this study is to report the importance of teacher quality in achieving good educational outcomes for children and to discuss the potential for a well-designed compensation contract to improve the performance of teachers.
All too often, those in charge of teaching children and essentially in forming the world's future leaders and business executives are compensated very poorly when compared to other working roles in society. Compensation for teachers whose work is so essential in securing the future of the economy and society-at-large is incredibly poor as compared to the compensation of business executives and even blue-collar workers. This is a significant problem in attracting and retaining top talent in the field of teaching.
The work of Hightower, et al. (2011) states that the relationship between teacher quality and student achievement is little understood however what is known is "compensation…
Biggs, A. (2012) The Compensation Question. EducationNext. Fall 2012, Vol. 12, No. 4. Retrieved from: http://educationnext.org/the-compensation-question/ . [Accessed 7 Oct 2013]
Hightower, AM, et al. (2011) Improving Student Learning by Supporting Quality Teaching: Key Issues, Effective Strategies. Retrieved from: http://www.edweek.org/media/eperc_qualityteaching_12.11.pdf . [Accessed 7 Oct 2013]
Johnson, SM and Papay, JP (2009) Redesigning the Teacher Pay: A System for the Next Generation of Educators. EPI Series on Alternative Teacher Compensation Systems • No. 2. Economic Policy Institute. Retrieved from: http://www.epi.org/publication/book-redesigning_teacher_pay/ . [Accessed 7 Oct 2013]
Lazear, EP (2003) Teacher Incentives. Swedish Economic Policy Review 10. Retrieved from: http://www.ppge.ufrgs.br/GIACOMO/arquivos/ecop137/lazear-2003.pdf. [Accessed 7 Oct 2013]
The future that is fast heading our way is often thought to be associated with creative technologies and businesses that do online services. But this is definitely not the full picture. Many traditional businesses are also being impacted in regard to what will be expected about some of their core operations, including in regard to how they treat and motivate their employees. Basic manufacturing is no different. In order for companies like ours to be ready for the future, we have to look seriously at the ways in which we recruit employees and keep them here once they sign on. With 120 employees whose skills encompass a broad range of talents -- some basic skills others tied to quite sophisticated technological abilities -- we have the chance to position ourselves to be ahead of the curve as the entire field of payment, rewards and recognitions is examined yet…
Barton, H. And Laux, J. (2010). Executive pay inefficiencies in the financial sector. The Journal of Applied Business Research. Vol. 26, No. 4.
Carpenter, S. (2007). Design the right compensation plan for your business. Entrepreneur. Retrievable from http://www.entrepreneurship.org/en/resource-center/design-the-right-compensation-plan-for-your-business.aspx .
CompuData Surveys (2009). The real effects of today's economy on the manufacturing industry. Retrievable from http://www.compdatasurveys.com/Files/News/Manufacturing%20Whitepaper.pdf .
Scott, D. And McMullan, D. (2010). The impact of rewards programs on employee engagement. WorldatWork. Retrievable from http://www.worldatwork.org/waw/adimLink?id=39032 .
Teachers want students to prove that they are ready to move to the next grade level in a quantifiable fashion, yet they are uncertain if they -- or test administrators -- really know how to measure student achievement, although most were confident that they could spot a student who was not able to function at grade level.
The supposed solution of merit pay was perhaps the least controversial aspect of the study: 70% of respondents said that teachers who work in 'tough' neighborhoods in low-performing schools deserved what they called 'combat pay.' 63% said that teachers deserved extra pay for teaching difficult, hard to reach students. Yet only 38% supported the type of merit or performance-based pay now proposed as a solution to deficits in teaching ability by many politicians. Indeed, these two techniques seem contradictory -- rewarding teachers based upon student performance on tests could mean penalizing teachers who…
Stand by me: What teachers really think about unions, merit pay and other professional matters.
(2003). Public Agenda. Retrieved February 28, 2010 at http://www.publicagenda.org/files/pdf/stand_by_me.pdf
Bonus Plan Consequences
Employers are constantly looking for ways to attract qualified employees; bonus plans have been a driving force in the business world. The implementation of bonus plans is often used by employers in an effort to attract and keep qualified employees. In recent years the consequences of such plans has been carefully scrutinized. The purpose of this discussion is to examine some of the consequences that companies face when they make a decision to implement bonus plans. The discussion will also focus on steps that can be taken to avoid the negative consequences of bonus plans. The paper will begin by discussing what bonus plans are and why they are needed.
hat are Bonus plans and why are they needed
Bonus plans are simply reward systems that are given to employees to encourage loyalty and ensure good performance. (Amsler et al. 2002) According to an article in the…
Amsler Gordon M., Beadles N.A. Ii, Lowery Christopher M., Petty M.M., Thompson, James W. (2002). An empirical examination of a merit bonus plan. Journal of Managerial Issues. Volume: 14. Issue: 1. Page Number: 100+.
Bowers, Toni. (April 15, 2003) Members describe bonus plans that actually work
Tech Republic. http://techrepublic.com.com/5100-6331-5034644.html
Dalik and Goldman. 2003.
E-Compensation: Benefits and Challenges
Compensation is one of the basic roles of the Human esource department. This refers to the process of rewarding effort of the employees by assigning salaries and wages for work done. Compensation serves as an appreciation for good work done and as a motivation for more work to be done. E-compensation is the art of making these said payments through the online platform. This is where the human resource managers issue payments for the work done through the online channels available over the Internet. This mode of payment does not involve the handling of cash in any way. All payments are made using the electronic means that the online platform provides. The following study identifies the merits and demerits web-based compensation systems compared to the usual stand-alone or a PC-based method.
This method of compensation involves the use of a fixed method where spreadsheets…
Bondarouk, T. (2014). Human Resource Management, Social Innovation, and Technology. Bradford: Emerald Group Publishing Limited.
Gueutal, H. (2011). The Brave New World of EHR Human Resources Management in the Digital Age. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass
Kleingartner, A., & California, L. (2013). Human Resource Management in High Technology Firms. Lexington, Mass.: Lexington Books.
Martocchio, J. (2009). Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management. Amsterdam: Elsevier JAI
As organizations become larger in both scope and scale, the need for both management and leadership compounds. Many organization problems today, correlate heavily to a lack of true management. Aspects such as fraud, high employee turnover, product recalls, and strikes, all have origins with management. To better combat many of these negative influences, companies must hire, attract and retain talented management. In order to do so, many companies use the administrative management theory of management. This theory emphasizes the use of planned procedures, job specialization, and merit pay to help facilitate business objectives. I believe this theory to be the most useful in regards to managing an organization. For one, specialization of labor helps increase operational efficiencies with a business. In addition, planned procedures allow both employees and management to have clearly defined goals and job expectations. Finally pay based on merit provides incentive for employee and management to…
1) Manfred F.R. Kets de Vries The Dark Side of Leadership - Business Strategy Review 14(3), Autumn Page 26 (2003).
2) Stroh, L.K., Northcraft, G.B., & Neale, M.A. (2002). Organizational behavior: A management challenge. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
3) Paul C. Dinsmore et al. (2005) The right projects done right! John Wiley and Sons, 2005. ISBN 0-7879-7113-8. p.35-42
4) Lewis R. Ireland (2006) Project Management. McGraw-Hill Professional, 2006. ISBN 0-07-147160-X p.110- 116
Hyde reported, however, that part-time professionals tend to accept negative perceptions as part of the territory; they are often willing to accept their marginalised status when they are voluntary part-timers. It is a trade-off they are willing to make for the reduced schedules they choose for whatever reason.
Unfortunately, flexibility for the part-time employee may not always be viewed as flexibility from the viewpoint of the employer. With respect to part-time employees on the police force in the UK, for example, Hyde (2008) found that managers had considered working with part-timers to be an inflexible arrangement, citing difficulties with communication, continuity, and scheduling. Hakim (cited in Hyde 2008) argues that women who choose to work part-time have limited career aspirations and low work-commitment. Although Hakim interviewed women for whom this was the case, pursuing part-time careers with the police force but as a lower priority than home and family, Hyde…
Baillie-Ruder S. 2004, 'Sweet devotion', Profit 23, pp. 44-51.
Benson GS 2003, 'Examining employability: effects of employee development on commitment
commitment and intention to turn over', Academy of Management Proceedings, pp. C1-
Total Compensation Methods
Compensation is widely considered as a primary source of motivation for the employees within an organization.in most scenarios people look for jobs which not only suite their creativity and talents but those which compensate them in terms of salary and benefits. Compensation is one of the fastest changing fields when it comes to Human esource as companies are going ahead with investigations of various ways that can be used for rewarding employees commensurate to their performance. Within any organization there is need to ensuring that the turnover ratio is well maintained while at the same time retaining the best employees. Compensation and benefits are two sure ways that a company can use to achieve such things. This paper therefore looks at some of the common compensation strategies that are found within organizations, analyses the impact of various compensation methods used and also highlight how the salaries and…
Abel, M.(2012).Salary & Benefit Administration strategies to organizational culture and performance. Retrieved February 4, 2014 from http://www.ehow.com/info_8557824_salary-strategies-organizational-culture-performance.html
Payscale. Inc.(2009.). The Impact of Compensation Methods and Decisions. Retrieved February 4, 2014 from http://www.payscale.com/compensation-today/2009/10/impact-of-compensation-methods-on-employees-and-organizations
Answers Corporation, (2014).Employee compensation. Retrieved February 4,2014 from http://www.answers.com/topic/employee-compensation
Purpose of the discussion ics that will be discussed
Definition of Reward Systems and expectancy theory
Reward Systems that are Effective in business
Internal and External Rewards
Reward Systems for teams
Reward Systems and Organizational Performance
Reward systems that are Effective in education.
Reward systems for teachers and administrators
Reward systems for students
Reward Systems play a pivotal role in the world that we live in. Reward systems are used in many different facets including; the business world, the educational system and in the disciplining of children. The purpose of this discussion is to explain what makes rewards systems effective. Our discussion will examine effective reward systems in business, and the educational system. Let's begin by defining reward systems and the expectancy theory.
Definition of Reward Systems and Expectancy Theory
The use of reward systems is directly correlated to the expectancy theory. The expectancy theory asserts…
Allen, R.S., & Helms, M.M. (2002). Employee Perceptions of the Relationship between Strategy, Rewards and Organizational Performance. Journal of Business Strategies, 19(2), 115+..
This journal article contains empirical research pertaining to the impact of reward systems in the workplace.
The author provide readers with a glimpse into the human resources and f=how reward systems are used to motivate employees. This article was instrumental in understanding which reward systems are effective in business.
Bafile, Cara (2003) Reward Systems That Work: What to Give and When to Give It!
Internet has now become a new frontier in regards to economic development. With the advent of the internet, new and seemingly boundless technologies have arisen. Aspects such as routine transactions at financial institutions to online dating sites have now entered into the forefront. Technology overall has enhanced the overall quality of life for civilization while also providing economic growth. It is during this expansionary period that many innovative and profitable technologies arise. CliqUp is no different in this regard. With the advent of the internet, the need for synthesis and analytics becomes very profound. As such, CliqUp has very unique value proposition for both businesses and consumers as the technology frontier continues to evolve. Using analytical data, CliqUp can provide enhanced value to businesses in terms of targets ads, customer demographics, and other analytical tools. All of which, adds value to the institution of firm who properly utilizes the…
1) "Business." How To Analyze A Company's Financial Position. 14 June 2011. Web. 26 Feb. 2012. .
2) Scott, D. (2008, October). The Ethics of Risk and the Economic Crisis. Retrieved July 31, 2011, from Center for Ethics: http://www.umt.edu/ethics/imx/radioessays/comment_RiskEthicsEconomicCrisis.pdf
3) Kaplan, Stephen. "Capital Ideas - The Evolution of U.S. Corporate Governance." The University of Chicago Booth School of Business - Business School, Full-time, Part-time, Executive MBA Programs. Web. 13 Jan. 2012. .
eward System and Employee Needs Assessment
Employee values and expectations vary from individual to individual, though there are some universal values and expectations that might be generalized to employees across most industries. Among these more generalized expectations include the desire for good pay and benefits, job security and work life balance opportunities.
When developing a reward system it is vital that the organization incorporate these universal employee values and expectations into the reward system so that the outcome of the system is beneficial for the employees involved. It is also in the best interests of organizational planners to assess individual employee values and motivations in order to devise a reward and recognition program that focuses on independent employee needs rather than lumping all employees into the same category. These ideas and more are explored in greater detail below.
Good employee relations and subsequent reward systems are contingent on the ability…
Champion-Hughes, R. "Totally integrated employee benefits." Public Personnel
Management, 30(3), 2001: 287.
Denton, K. "Recruitment, retention and employee relations: Field tested strategies for the 90's." Westport: Quorum Books: 1992
Moses, B. "6 degrees of motivation." Black Enterprise, 31(4), 2001: 155
At the same time, one does not know whether they offer the workers any benefit or perk as is provided by Korean employers.
This matter has to be sorted out by the Korean partner as the workers are more likely to trust him than Australians. He may also find it possible to offer the workers the same perks that are offered to his employees in other concerns. The hours of working and such details may also be fixed up early so that future conflicts of this are avoided in the future. The difficulties in culture will be very high for any Australian to come and work here, so the responsibility of recruiting the workers may be left to the South Korean partner. The only aspect that one can check is that he does not end up employing only his relatives and friends. This had cost many banks a lot of…
Deep Inside China, Expats Struggle to Cope. Far Eastern Economic Review. Retrieved August 17, 2005, from the World Wide Web: http://www.careerjournaleurope.com/myc/workabroad/20050803-areddy.html
Gilley, Bruce. Asia's Top Employers Value Happy Workers. Far Eastern Economic Review. Retrieved August 17, 2005, from the World Wide Web: http://www.careerjournaleurope.com/specialreports/bestasia/20010910-gilley.html
Kerman, Faiz. 2004. South Korea set to surprise? Chiltern International. 1 October. Retrieved August 17, 2005, from the World Wide Web: http://www.inpharm.com/External/InpH/1,2580,1-3-0-0-inp_intelligence_art-0-248799,00.html
Knowledgeable employees -- the key to a new labor relations structure. Retrieved August 17, 2005, from the World Wide Web: http://22.214.171.124:8787/board/issue_view.jsp?idx=104&code=C&bcategory=&pageNum=0&searchWord=&searchType=null
' Standardized test preparation also takes time away from creative activities that can really engage students with learning, and may even better reinforce skills needed in business, like critical thinking, writing, and working with others. Often teachers know better than administrators or managerial professionals what is needed in their classroom. One of the problems with education is that although schools superficially seem to be structured on a hierarchy similar to a corporation with a board of directors, not all managerial principles apply to schools. Schools are not factories and students are not end products. A teacher may know better what a classroom needs than a principal, a principal may know better the challenges of his or her school than someone comparing the school's results to a very different institution in another county. Finally, slashing costs is not the ultimate goal of the Board of Directors, as it is in a…
Placing the performance appraisal system on the Internet should save Otis Elevator time and money by reducing the number of staff required to process appraisals. For example, it eliminates the creation, distribution and collection of forms and should automatically tabulate and aggregate results. Required information is more readily updatable as evaluation needs change because the appraisal is in a centralized electronic format and data can more easily be integrated with other HR systems as necessary. Further, it should now be easier to compare results across managers for corporate-wide improvement strategies and to create a history of the evaluations that will facilitate tracking ongoing progress. Otis Elevator could also take advantage of the new online system to increase the frequency of performance appraisals and the number of participants in the performance appraisal process. Increased employee access might have the indirect benefit of increasing morale if employees feel more valued because…
Koebelin, G. (1999, Spring). Are you ready for 360. Retrieved June 26, 2005 from Web site: http://www.work911.com/performance/particles/360.htm
Linman, T. 360-degree feedback: Weighing the pros and sons. Retrieved June 26, 2005 from Web site: http://edweb.sdsu.edu/people/ARossett/pie/Interventions/360_1.htm
American Education System in Trouble?
In an enlightening article by writer April Shenandoah, on March 20, 2002, the reality that Americas' education system is in real trouble becomes clearly evident. The writer feels that when a child in America attends school, he is, in fact, more at risk than if he did not attempt to attend. This is because, of late, it has become obvious that most negative influences that children are faced with are being increasingly found in the public schools that they attend, and it is during the past few decades that the situation has worsened even further. In a simple comparison between the situation in public schools today and that during the 1940's, it is indeed amazing that punishments were given for 'offences' such as, for example, running in the corridor, chewing gum, talking in the class, and at times, unfinished homework, whereas today the top offences…
"American Education in Trouble" January 23, 1990. Retrieved From
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Berger, Michael. L; Darilek, Richard. (1977) "The Public Education System"
HM as Intermediaries Between Management and Unions
Unions & HM
HM as Intermediary between Management and Unions
Centuries ago employees had little or no power when it came to negotiating wages, hours, and work conditions with their employers and often suffered great hardship as a result (Brown and Warren, 2011, p. 97). Eventually employees formed labor unions to take advantage of their collective power, thus forcing employers to improve compensation and work conditions, a practice that continues to play an important role in many economies globally.
The ole of Unions in the United States
The United States has experienced a greater than 50% decline in the prevalence of labor unions since the 1960s (Brown and Warren, 2011, p. 96) and on a global scale is one of the least unionized economies today (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development [OECD], 2011). Yet, the U.S. ranks as one of the most productive…
Abramson, Larry. (2011, Nov. 12). Teachers unions mobilize in a fight for their lives. National Public Radio. Retrieved from http://www.npr.org/2011/11/12/142270037/teachers-unions-mobilize-to-survive-in-ohio
Brown, Travor C. And Warren, Amy A. (2011). Performance management in unionized settings. Human Resource Management Review, 21, 96-106.
Leonhardt, David. (2011a, Jan. 19). In wreckage of lost jobs, lost power. New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/ 2011/01/19/business/economy/19leonhardt.html?_r=2&partner=rssnyt&emc=rss
Leonhardt, David. (2011b, Jan. 26). Even more productive than Americans. New York Times. Retrieved from http://economix.blogs.nytimes.com/2011/01/26/even-more-productive-than-americans/
The author of this brief report has been asked to answer to the question of what is thought about of unions. Unions certainly have their time and place and they should go the way of the dinosaur. At the same time, people should not be coerced or intimidated to join unions as they are not for everyone. Beyond that, there are some kinds of workers that need to realize who they work for and who ultimately funds their check as they seem to forget that. Lastly, some people like to be judged based on merit rather than just time served and there is absolutely some credence to that idea. While unions allow for employees to be on the same level of power as employers in many ways, proving one's own worth and mettle can get people far as well and unions have accumulated too much power in today's America.…
Advice is given to supervisors on how to correct poor appearance and employee misconduct. In these instances, progressive guidelines and other requirements must be taken into account the completing disciplinary actions and in resolving employee grievances and appeals. Information is given to employees to encourage a better understanding of management's goals and policies. Information is also given to employees in order to assist them in improving poor performance, on or off duty misconduct, and/or to address personal issues that influence them in the workplace. Employees are told about appropriate policies, legislation, and bargaining agreements. Employees are also directed about their complaint and appeal rights and discrimination and whistleblower safeguards (Employee elations, 2009).
Preserving a positive, productive work environment is significant for all managers. This is often accomplished by engaging in: mentoring and coaching your staff, regular feedback, including annual performance reviews, open and honest communication regarding group, unit and university…
Compensation and Benefits. (n.d.). Retrieved August 18, 2010, from Auxillium West Web site:
Employee Health and Safety. (2009). Retrieved August 19, 2010, from Small Business Notes
Web site: http://www.smallbusinessnotes.com/operating/hr/safety.html
Total ewards Program Evaluation: Case Study of Geico
Total rewards are all available tools that employers can use to motivate, attract and retain employees. In other words, rewards are the compensations that organizations provide to employees for the services rendered to the company. However, rewards are not simply to offer payments or direct currencies for employees; however, rewards are the other form of non-financial benefits that can be converted to currencies, which include comfortable offices and favorable interpersonal relationships for employees. Typically, rewards are the compensatory benefits to exchange for the services that employees offer an organization. Total rewards are also defined as everything that an employee perceives as a great value. In a contemporary competitive business environment, organizations are increasingly attracting best talents to achieve business success. Implementation of total rewards for employees is one of the critical business strategies that can enhance competitive market advantages.
Objective of this…
Resources Management Strategy Going with the Trend of the Times. International Journal of Business and Management.4(11): 177-183.
San, O.T. Theen, Y.M. & Heng, T.B. (2012). The Reward Strategy and Performance Measurement (Evidence from Malaysian Insurance Companies). International Journal of Business, Humanities and Technology. 2(1):211-223.
All these will lead to organizational development which has been defined by Bartol and his colleagues as "a change management tool capable of being utilized with an innovative implementation." According to professor Waddell it focuses on "building an organization's ability to assess current functioning and to achieve goals, being 'process-oriented not outcome oriented', and on improving the total system."
The first thing on Icandobeta's order of business is to gain the trust and respect of the employees of Little-bit, now that they have been disappointed by the former leader. He has to prove to them that he has been because he is indeed the best man for the job. He is better prepared, from an educational point-of-view and has more experience of this level. He has to go about doing this by being in contact with the key figures of the employees, their representatives and the ones amongst them that…
Dowling, G. And Richardson, R, June 1997, Evaluating performance pay for managers in the National Health Service; International Journal of Human Resource Management, Volume 8, No. 3
Marsden and Richardson (1994) 'Performing for Pay? The effect of 'merit pay' on motivation in a public service', British Journal of Industrial Relations, vol.32 no.2, June, pp.243-62
Dowling and Richardson (1997) 'Evaluating Performance-Related Pay for Managers in the NHS' International Journal of HRM, vol 8, no. 3, pp 348-66.
Kruse, D.L. (1992). 'Profit-sharing and Productivity: Microeconomic Evidence from the United States' Economic Journal, 102: 24-36.
People Management, The Mantra for Success: The Case of Singhania and Partner
ecruitment and Selection
People form an essential part of the organization. The efficiency and quality of its people determines the outcome of the organization. Therefore choice of right people and placing them at right place becomes necessary. Hiring comes at this point of time in the picture. Hiring is a strategic function for H department. ecruitment and selection shape the process of hiring the employees. ecruitment is the methodical process of generating a pool of qualified applicants for jobs within an organization (A Project Study on ecruitment and Selection, n.d.).
The recruitment and selection process that is currently used at Singhania and Partners is one that they take very seriously. They had adopted the notion of matching the needs of the organization to the needs of the applicants in order to enhance the effectiveness of their recruitment process.…
A Project Study on Recruitment and Selection. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.slideshare.net/harshalsk/recruitment-and-selection
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Psychological contracts are a good way of thinking when it comes to the exchange or relationship between an organization and employees. Psychological contracts refer to the perception an employee has when it comes to his or her exchange relationship with the organization; the outcomes promised by the organization and the contribution an employee is obliged to make (Pp 4)
Organizations can play an active and important role in shaping their members' Psychological Contracts. This is because there are outcomes that are part and parcel of employees' psychological contracts and thus central when it comes to the exchange of relationships with their employees.one such outcome is career opportunities not only to the job an individual holds currently but the job one expects to advance into over the course of their career. Career opportunities include getting promotions, having the opportunity of working in the kind of work one wants to do, receiving…
College of the Redwoods, (2013). Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs. Retrieved September 11, 2013 from http://redwoods.edu/Departments/Distance/Tutorials/MaslowsHierarchyPDF/maslows_hierarchy.pdf
At this point we can conclusively deduce that the workforce at Telstra lacks intrinsic rewards as well as extrinsic rewards. The link between reward and performance is not clearly defined. However a certain amount of literature has indicated that a certain level of motivation is necessary in order to achieve certain desired results from the workforce.
Link between organizational strategy and the management of reward & performance
The Telstra management is strongly motivated towards the attainment of the various levels of superb performance by their employees towards their customers. There are however certain areas that are not consistent with the norm at the company. The organization strategy at Telstra is geared towards the attainment of unparalleled customer satisfaction .The reality on the ground however is that this is achieved via a series of moves such as the implementation of the Performance Improvement and Conduct Management (PICM), a system that has…
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Read more: http://ivythesis.typepad.com/term_paper_topics/2010/05/strategic-analysis-of-the-telstra-corporation-australia.html#ixzz15rgRkhoj
HM Challenges in Today's Organizations
All organizations require employees to make them a success and this function is considered as important as finance, machinery and land for running the organization successfully. The important point to note here is that individuals all have different temperaments and working methods, and some people in the organization are responsible for making them all work together. This is the job of the human resources department which is otherwise known as the personnel department. If an organization is not staffed correctly then it ends up loosing the economy of scale that it should have got also the maximum possible customers and profits.
On the other hand, if there are too many people then there is a lot of financial liability if they are retained, and when they are laid off, there are financial implications from redundancy payments. If the organization cannot do manage its own staff…
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ABC power when doing their performance evaluations. The first problem is they are attempting to use one form for both exempt and non-exempt employees. In the performance appraisal arena one size just doesn't fit all. "The best approach is to have separate forms designed for the four key job families: Managerial/Supervisory, Professional/Technical, Administrative / Operations, and Sales. Appraisal forms should assess only two areas: behaviors and results" (Grote, 2001).
In other words they should focus on the how and the what of job performance.
The first part of the appraisal form should be dedicated to evaluating the individual's performance against the competencies that an organization has determined as vital to success. Competencies is the encompassing term that is used to portray those abilities, talents, proficiencies, qualities, attributes and aptitudes that associate with superior job performance and predict success in organizational life. The best way to assess any person's performance in…
Berg, S. (n.d.). Should pay raises be tied to performance? Retrieved from http://www.courtsideconsulting.com/Documents/Perf%20reviews%20and%20pay%2
Grote, D. (2001). Is there a perfect appraisal form? Retrieved from http://www.groteconsulting.com/resources/pdfs/HR_Briefing -
Fifteen questions used to measure willingness to AC were assembled into a questionnaire designed to examine the personality measures and items regarding employee response to various safety issues, adequacy of safety training, and attitudes toward other safety related issues. The most pertinent questions relating to AC were:
If I know a coworker is going to do a hazardous job, I am willing to remind him/her of the hazards (even if the employee is familiar with the job),
I am willing to warn my peers about working unsafely am willing to do whatever I can to improve safety, even confronting my peers about their unsafe acts.
The responses to these questions, measured on a 5-point Likert scale, were added to attain an AC score. The Likert technique presents a set of attitude statements. Subjects are asked to express agreement or disagreement of a five-point scale. Each degree of agreement is given…
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Aside the attraction of customers, the money invested in marketing have created the desired outcome of a strong and reputable brand. Another pivotal element in the financial strategies has been that of maximizing the efficiency of managing inventories. This was necessary in order to continually strengthen the brand as well as achieve the profitability goals. Alongside with operating principles, supply-chain renovation and inventory management, financial management represents the pillar of the Nike business model (Filbeck, Krueger and Preece, 2007).
It is extremely difficult to generalize the approaches of multinational organizations to financial management as each individual entity will employ those courses of action which best suit its needs as well as its characteristics. Whilst Ford continued to invest its resources in the manufacturing of large and luxurious vehicles in an attempt to drive the market, McDonald's has recognized the necessity in satisfying customer needs and has as such…
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All these issues point out to the indubitable fact that the human resource in Taiwan is coming closer to the labor force in the highly developed western economies and that additional efforts will have to be made in order to succeed in the island.
Another human resource issue that is important to be mentioned is given by the different cultural values of Taiwan and the American multinational. Divided by language, religion and customs barriers, Taiwan is closer to the Japanese culture than the American one. This will unavoidably mean that our organization has to hire several human resource specialists to make a transition from the Japanese H issues to the U.S. implementation of human resource policies. Some other issues that have to be understood by our company refer to the decision making process, which is generally done in groups; a decision once made is supported by all individuals, regardless of…
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