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Slaves did, however, hold a few rights such as being able to own property, engage in trade, or buy their freedom. Law was highly developed as is evident from the elaborate laws of Hummarabi, which covered almost every aspect of the Mesopotamian life. (Love)
The Mesopotamian society was highly patriarchal in nature with the wife's position being firmly below that of the husband in the household. omen's position in the society, however, varied between city-states and changed over time. In the early periods, particularly the Sumerian period women enjoyed greater freedom, could own their own property, and engage in business for themselves. Female freedom sharply diminished during the Assyrian era. There was also a great difference between the rights and condition of high status women, such as priestesses and members of royal families, compared to women of lower classes. ("Ancient Tablets...")
Ancient Tablets, Ancient Graves: Accessing…
Ancient Tablets, Ancient Graves: Accessing Women's Lives in Mesopotamia." Women in World History Curriculum. 1996. December 10, 2004. http://www.womeninworldhistory.com/lesson2.html
Jacobsen, Thorkild. "Mesopotamian Religion" Article in Encyclopedia Britannica, 2004 CD-Rom Version
Love, Anthony Michael. "Sumerian Society." Sarrisa.org. n.d. December 10, 2004 http://www.sarissa.org/sumer/sumer_s.php
Summerian Deities." Meta Religion. n.d. December 10, 2004. http://www.meta-religion.com/World_Religions/Ancient_religions/Mesopotamia/Summerian/summerian_deities.htm
Parents who could not afford to send their children to school are left to teach their children everything they knew. Roman forums are described as the business center where people do their banking, trading, shopping and marketing. It is also the place where public speaking, festivals and religious ceremonies are held. It is also the center where people can express public opinion and elicit support for a particular issue of interest (Flower).
At its zenith, the Roman Empire stretched from modern day England, through much of Central Europe, all of Northern Africa, and all the way to the Euphrates River. Still, culturally and politically, life revolved around Rome, which was the largest megalopolis in the Ancient World, estimated between 1 and 3.5 million people. This was the central commercial hub for the empire, and relied on a strong logistical technology for acquiring, transporting, storing, and distributing food for a large…
MESOPOTAMIA & EGYPT:
One of the major events that marked the beginning of civilization was the development of agriculture which was made possible by the presence of three important rivers -- the Tigris and Euphrates in Mesopotamia, the so-called "Cradle of Civilization," and the great Nile River in Egypt, where one of the greatest civilizations first appeared some five thousand years ago. As pointed out by Wolfram Von Soden, the area now known as the Near East, comprised of Egypt, Israel, Syria, Iraq, Iran and Turkey, "dried out into desert and semi-desert regions after the last retreat of the glaciers which compelled the inhabitants to move to the fertile valleys" bounded by the Tigris, Euphrates and Nile Rivers (67). One reason for this exodus to the "Cradle of Civilization" was the presence of native plants, such as wild wheat and barley, and herds of animals that could be domesticated for…
Braidwood, Robert J. The Near East and the Foundations for Civilization. New York: Collier Publishing, 1952.
Sasson, Jack, ed. Civilizations of the Ancient Near East. UK: Hendrickson Publishers, 2000.
Trigger, Bruce. Ancient Egypt: A Social History. UK: Cambridge University Press, 1983.
Von Soden, Wolfram. The Ancient Orient: An Introduction to the Study of the Ancient Near East. Berlin: William B. Eerdman Publishing Company, 1994.
In Mesopotamia, the gods were actively involved in the doings of this world, but not in a way that was just or equitable -- the gods had no special moral attributes, merely greater power than humans.
The lack of harmony in the natural world of Mesopotamia was also reflected in the disparate nature of Mesopotamian government, which was full of small city-states, with no cohesive national ruler. Egypt's pharaohs reigned for thousands of years, and most historians consider Egypt the first real nation-state in recorded history. The steady supply of food, climate, and the Egyptian's mastery over the arid but predictable terrain undeniably facilitated this governmental stability. Egypt was also far easier to defend from attacks by outsiders ("Mesopotamia," PowerPoint, 2007).
However, despite their great differences, both of these early civilizations made profound contributions to the world, such as the Egyptian's architectural gift of the pyramids, and the Mesopotamian saga…
Burton, Dan. "Mesopotamia & Egypt." History Home Page: University of North
Alabama. 2007. 5 Oct 2007. http://www2.una.edu/dburton/MesEgypt.htm
Mesopotamia." PowerPoint.. 5 Oct 2007. http://www.nipissingu.ca/faculty/lisas/CLAS3095/WomSept11.ppt#305,8,Egypt
Burial in Ur
What were death rituals like in Biblical times? tudying archaeological sites from ancient Mesopotamia offers some answers, as well as raises more questions. Mesopotamia or the "the Land between the Rivers" or "House of Two Rivers" is a region of outhwest Asia between the Trigris and Euphrates rivers, near Iraq ande yria. Writings from this area are some of the earliest known in human culture, so it is believed that this may indeed be the cradle of civilization.
The umerians lived in this area of Mesopotamia about 2800 BC in cities such as Adab, Eridu, Isin, Kish, Kullab, Lagash, Larsa, Nippur, and Ur. Around the city of Ur, which was established around 2100 BC, grew rich agricultural lands. Inside the city proper, stood homes and temples that later became very huge and elaborate buildings.
The city of Ur includes one of the most interesting archaelogical finds of…
Some archaeologists believe instead that the burials were for priests or priestesses, who were killed as part of a sacred marriage ceremony, a ritual offering to the god and goddess of Ur to ensure fertile land and a bountiful harvest. Opponents state that one would expect a fertility rite to be performed annually, and this does not correspond to the number of graves. Also if the sacrifice was based on a sacred marriage, the couple would most likely be buried together, Yet, each tomb only contains one individual.
Since most of the graves were robbed over the years, it is difficult to know for sure. The remains were excavated in the 1920's by Sir Leonard Woolley in a joint expedition between the British Museum and the University of Pennnyslvania.
Unless additional information is someday found about the individuals who were buried in these tombs, the individuals will have taken the answer to this mystery with them to their graves.
Scribes in Mesopotamia have an obligation to record essential facts, to leave in writing a legacy by which posterity will remember and respect the culture. The political organization, economic and trade system, rules, laws, foreign relations and social codes would all make for interesting reading centuries or millennia into the future. Additionally, scribes should record key aspects of our social lives: including the demographics of our civilization as well as gender roles and relations. Scribes should make sure to describe a typical day in the life of different members of the society. For example, a typical day of a peasant farmer should be recorded alongside that of a religious priest. Mundane details such as food and eating habits should be recorded too. This way, future archaeologists will have a clear idea of what life was like in Mesopotamia instead of having to made guesses. Religious beliefs, practices, and rituals…
Prior to the solidification of society in the major cities of Greece, the period called the Greek Dark Ages (c. 1100-750 BC) shows that there was a great deal of trade and cultural influence between Greece, Egypt, and the Assyrian/Babylonian cultures, This was a time in which the alphabetic script was brought to Greece, and the basis of culture and technology developed. Because of the influences of the other major civilizations of the time, Greece was able to jump start its own civilization and take what they learned and rather quickly advance into a Classical period of development (Hall, 2007).
Contribution(s) to Western Civilization -- Ancient Greece is still considered the basic foundation for modern European culture. Contrary to popular belief, there was really no one "Greek culture" in ancient times. nstead, Greece consisted of several hundred City States (Poleis)- mostly engendered by the geography of the country. There were…
ISLAMIC GOLDEN AGE
Historical and Geographic Background -- The Islamic Golden Age is also known as the Caliphate of Islam or the Islamic Renaissance and refers to a system of government and political, cultural and religious authority derived from the teachings of the Prophet Mohammed, roughly in the early 5th century A.D. The high point of this revival of art and culture is somewhat of a sliding scale, varying between the 8th-13, or even15th centuries (Kraemer, 1992). The geographic area was centered around the Saudi Arabian peninsula, with the first capital in Media, a city in west central Saudi Arabia. At the height of their power, the Caliphate controlled all of the present day Middle East, all of northern Africa and into Spain, and as far East as the Indus Valley, making it one of the largest unitary states in history, and most notably one of the few states to ever extend direct rule over three continents (Kennedy, 2001).
Relationship to Previous Periods -- From the time of the disintegration of the great Middle Eastern Empires (Babylonia, Assyria, Egypt, etc.), the Arab world was not unified and remained a series of nomadic tribes under the nominal control of various warlords. Part of the Mohammidian tradition was the understanding that real incentives were needed to increase agricultural production. As a result, Islam is more than a religion -- it is a social transformation that allowed for a greater degree of economic stability, thus allowing various tribes to coalesce into a nation, united under religion. For example, one religious leader expressed it as "All Muslims are partners in three things: water, herbage, and fire" (Chaudry, 2003). The Golden Age was a period in which the Roman Empire had transferred most of its political power to Constantinople and the population of Europe
Interpersonal Skill of Islamic Golden Age
A prime instance of Islamic leadership skills includes their medical services. The hospital and its peer review, were both innovations that enabled the Islamic culture to lead the est (and East) in to a better world. Arab philosophers also introduced the ancient teachings from India and China to the est. It also believed by some historians that Islamic legal tradition has laid the groundwork for the estern legal tradition.
Islamic communication included the introduction of paper, the library, universities, research institutes and diplomas into the est. Another significant contribution is the Islamic globalization of its economy, probably a function of the fact that it lies between the East and est and relatively easy access to and friendly markets in both.
The Golden Age of Islam appears to have been an eclectic and dominant era, wherein the Muslim world of the Middle East excelled in…
Abbott, Frank Frost. A History and Description of Roman Political
Institutions. Boston: Ginn & Company, Publishers, 1901. Print.
Bala, Arun. The Dialogue of Civilizations in the Birth of Modern
Science. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2006. Print.
isolated life of the Old Testament Mesopotamians was strictly tied to the fertile plateau the varied civilizations occupied. The groups were largely divided into Sumerian, Babylonian, and Assyrian; under the unifying leadership of Ur, the people were divided into three legal categories that defined their daily lives: aristocracy, commoners, and slaves. While documentation of the cultures are based most commonly in religious texts, further excavation by Sir Leonard Woolley in the Twentieth Century elaborated greatly among the lists of kings, artifact preservations, and spheres of influence among the united cultures.
The daily life of the families was inevitably tied to their life source, the rivers. Marriage, with institutional roots dating back to the Mesopotamians, was more than just alliance among two people, but extended into the larger connections between family clans, exchanges of power, and utility in tilling the land. Overall, marriage served the purpose of being an economic, political,…
City-dwellers were dependent upon rural residents for buying surplus crops for their food. Trade was mutual, as residents of cities were often specialized artisans that could offer their skills. "Mesopotamian cities controlled the agricultural land and collected crop surpluses from villages in their vicinity. In return, the city provided rural districts with military protection against bandits and raiders and a market where villagers could acquire manufactured goods produced by urban specialists (16). But society was highly stratified because of this rural-city divide. Class divisions were sharply evident in Mesopotamian society -- the infamous law code of Hammurabi meted out different punishments according to class.
Even within religious structures, this inequality was tolerated by the Babylonians. The gods were conceptualized as anthropomorphic and not necessarily beneficent. The gods showed favor to some but not to all. Although all members of the society seemed to participate in some sort of religious rituals…
Anu was considered to be the supreme God of the sky, and also the Lord of the Heavens, as mentioned earlier, and the 'Supreme Manager' of all the other Mesopotamian Gods. Inanna was the beautiful Goddess of words, language, syntax and meaning. Inanna was probably the daughter of Anu. Humbaba was the monster of the cedar forests, and he was taken on by many Gods, and would get into many a fight with them, in a demonstration of superior strength and power on both the sides. Ereshkigal, the final God on the pantheon of the most import Mesopotamian Gods and Goddesses, was the underworld Goddess of darkness and death. (the Gods of Mesopotamian mythology)
It is important to remember that Mesopotamian life and religion and knowledge of Gods, Goddesses and Demons is as modern man knows about it today, but one must keep in mind the fact that the Mesopotamian…
Gill, N.S. Ancient Mesopotamia, early religion. 2007 http://ancienthistory.about.com/cs/nemythology/a/mesopotamiarel.htm
Miller, Patrick D. Israelite religion and Biblical theology, collected essays. Continuum International Publishing Group. 2000.
N.A. Gods, Goddesses, Demons and Monsters. http://www.mesopotamia.co.uk/gods/home_set.html
N.A. Lecture 3, ancient Mesopotamia. http://ccat.sas.upenn.edu/rels/2/lectures/lecture3.html
However, in Mesopotamia, Ishtar was considered the primary god, and Ishtar was a woman. It is interesting to note that in Mesopotamia war is considered a feminine pursuit, and Ishtar is the god of war, while in Greece it is primarily a male pursuit and, though there are specific gods of war, Zeus is seen as the ultimate leader in times of war.
Despite these differences there are strong similarities between these two cultures as well. Slavery, for instance, was practiced in both cultures. The abundance of slaves was an indication of social rank and prosperity in both the Mesopotamian and ancient Greek cultures. Slaves account for the bulk of the workforce in both countries as well.
Also, even though the treatment of women was very different, marriages were still arranged in both cultures. Of course, in Mesopotamia the groom pays the bride's family a dowry, and in Greece the…
Egyptian/Mesopotamian/Hebrew eligious Beliefs
The religious views of the Mesopotamians, Egyptians and Hebrews all have important implications on each cultures unique view of life and death, including the afterlife. Mesopotamia was known as the land between the rivers. Each religion developed according to the history and reality of the people living during their time. The Egyptians and Mesopotamians developed a polytheistic religious outlook, while the Hebrew people developed a monotheistic culture. However the Hebrew religion is much more similar to the Egyptian religion considering it's positive outlook and affiliation with a God or gods, unlike the Mesopotamian belief system which may be considered very negative. Ultimately, though each of these religions are different, they developed as a result of the physical and cultural influences of the people living during ancient times.
The religion of the people of Mesopotamia was all encompassing, the center of daily life (fortunecity, 2003). The Mesopotamian views…
Egyptian Religion. Old Kingdom and Middle Kingdoms"
Retrieved February 12, 2003, at http://www.religion.ucsb.edu/faculty/thomas/classes/rgst80a/lectures/lec3.html
Egyptian Religion. Mesopotamian Religion. Hebrew Religion"
Retrieved February 12, 2003, at http://historylink101.com/pop1.htm
Mesopotamian vs. Egyptian civilizations
This paper will compare and contrast the Mesopotamian and the Egyptian civilizations, in particular the political, social, economical and religious differences. The paper also discusses the role Nature played in each civilization.
The Mesopotamian and Egyptian civilizations were similar in many respects, in that they were both at a similar level of 'advancement', in terms of the development of tools, and cultural and scientific thought (such as language, writing, the use of mathematics) but they differed in some fundamental respects, such as in the place of origin of the civilization (for Mesopotamia in modern-day Iraq, and for Egypt, in modern-day Egypt), and the time period during which the civilization ruled (for the oldest Mesopotamian civilization, the Sumerians, from 5000 BC, and for Egypt for the Old Kingdom, from 2770-2200 BC, to the New Kingdom, from 1560-1087 BC).
In terms of the political structure of the civilizations,…
Ancient Mesopotamian Artifact
She comes up from the swamp
Is fierce, terrible, forceful, destructive, powerful:
and still) she is a goddess, is awe-inspiring.
Her feet are those of an eagle, her hands mean decay.
Her fingernails are long, her armpits unshaven..."
The High Priest raised his long arms, palms facing upwards. Twelve lamentation priests surrounded him in a circle, their heads bowed, droning the chant. Surrounded by the temple musicians, the circle of lamentation priests swayed to and fro, gently holding each others' hands and reciting the incantation against Lamashtu. One of Uruk's most prosperous merchants, Asshurk, commissioned the rite of protection; his wife was pregnant for the first time and he wanted to ensure the birth of a healthy child. Lamashtu had taken not only his first-born son but also his first wife, who died soon after the child was born. Asshurk wanted no complications with the pregnancy this…
Caubet, Annie and Pouyssegur. The Ancient Near East. Paris: Terrail, 1998.
Gods, Goddesses, Demons, and Monsters." Article from The British Museum. Retrieved 20 April 2004. Online at http://www.mesopotamia.co.uk/gods/home_set.html .
Jastrow, Morris. The Religion of Babylonia and Assyria. Boston: Ginn, 1898. Retrieved 20 April 2004. Published online at http://www.cwru.edu/UL/preserve/Etana/JAST.REL/JAST.REL.html .
Nemet-Nejat, Karen Rhea. Daily Life in Ancient Mesopotamia. Westport, CN: Greenwood, 1998.
Geography on Political, Cultural, and Economic Development of Early Civilization in Mesopotamia, Egypt and the Indus Valley
The focus of this study is the effect of geography on the political, cultural, and economic development of early civilization in Mesopotamia, Egypt and the Indus Valley. The characteristic that Mesopotamia, Egypt, and the Indus Valley all have in common is that they were all river valleys. Therefore, the geography of these locations was very much alike and likewise their culture, political landscape, and economic development were all very much the same.
Statement of Thesis
The civilization of Mesopotamia, Egypt and the Indus Valley were highly affected by the geography of these regions, which resulted in rapid expansion, and growth of these civilizations and which affected the cultural, political, and economic environment of these areas of the world.
Mesopotamia & Egypt
What is known as the Urban revolution occurred in Mesopotamia and Egypt…
Ancient Civilizations to 300 BC Introduction: The Invention and Diffusion of Civilization (2006) The University of North Carolina at Pembroke. Retrieved from: http://www.uncp.edu/home/rwb/lecture_ancient_civ.htm
Guisepi, R.A. (nd) The Indus Valley and the Genesis of South Asian Civilization. Retrieved from: http://history-world.org/indus_valley.htm
One god unites the nation, strengthens rulers authority much more than many different small gods who are popular in some local territories but not in the whole country.
Though religion was an important kind of rulers support, but it was not that important as strong army which was the main fulcrum of king's power in the country. Ruler was a commander in chief of all armed forces of a state and hardly ever allowed very close and reliable people to head the army.
To sum up the written essay I'd like to admit that Mesopotamia was a very developed and progressive country of the Close East and whole world. Its achievements were assimilated by many nations and even now we use those sciences which had appeared and developed in Mesopotamia. Mesopotamian civilization influenced all nations of ancient world, especially Persians, Egyptians, Jews, Greeks and even Arabic state of 8th century…
Moore, C. Balit, C. Ishtar and Tammuz: A Legend of Ancient Babylon Frances Lincoln Ltd.; (October 3, 1996)
Woodrow, R. Babylon Mystery Religion: Ancient & Modern Ralph Woodrow; (June 1, 1981)
Luckenbill, D.D. Ancient Records of Assyria and Babylon (Ancient Records) Histories & Mysteries of Man; Reprint edition (June 1, 1989)
People think of the Middle East and mistakenly think that the area is all the same. Most people think about the dry sand and the hot sun. People who do not know much about the area assume that all of the countries have the same land types and the same climates. These people make their assumptions because of what they see on television and in movies about these places in the world. They think of deserts and maybe the Nile River but they assume that the whole place looks the same and has many of the same things. The areas of Egypt, Mesopotamia, the Yellow River area, and the Indus River region are very different but they also have some things in common.
Ancient Egypt is known for being a desert region but it also has water ways which allow for plants to grow there. However, the area is…
Architecture through the Ages
Construction in ancient times is second only to agriculture-it reaches back as far as the Stone Age and possibly further (Jackson 4). Before the existence of master builders in design and construction the Code of Hammurabi (1795-1750 B.C.) referred to design and construction as a simple process (Beard, Loulakis and undrum (13). Hammurabi was the ruler of Babylon, the world's first metropolis and he codified his code of laws (Beard 13). This is the earliest example of a ruler introducing his laws publicly. The code regulated the organization of society including the extreme punishments for violating the law. The builder's work is addressed in the code, however faulty design and improper construction were viewed as one (13). Six specific laws address the builder. These laws are;
228. If a builder build a house for some one, and does not construct it properly, and the house…
"Albert the Great." The Masonic Trowel. Web. 26 Mar. 2010. .
"Architecture and the Medieval Builder." Wikipedia The Free Encyclopedia. Web. 26 Mar. 2010. .
"Basilica of Santa Maria Novella." Wikipedia The Free Encyclopedia. Web. .
Beard, Jeffrey, Michael Loulakis, and Edward Wundrum. Design-Build:planning through Development. McGraw-Hill, 2001. Print.
perceived superiority of modern Western civilization is unfounded. There is little evidence to suggest that our cultures are any more advanced than the ancient cultures of the Fertile Crescent, Greece, or Rome. The argument for a linear progression or an evolution of civilization can be countered by evidence to the contrary in areas as diverse as science, politics, philosophy, art, and architecture. Although definite improvements have been made in women's rights, forced labor, and governmental systems, for instance, the accomplishments of ancient cultures rival our own. They may not have possessed microchips or jet engines in ancient Athens, but they did create the structures upon which we base our society today. We are still reaping the rewards that ancient civilizations sowed millennia ago. In fact, Mesopotamia, Sumeria, Babylon, Egypt, Assyria, Israel, Greece, and Rome comprise the beginnings of Western civilization.
Ancient civilizations possessed a remarkable understanding of nature and the…
Men are the focal point in the sculpture, Darius and Xerxes Receiving Tribute. Darius is raised on a higher level than his subjects are. He appears taller than the others, even while sitting. There is a direct order in the status of the men who are coming to pay tribute to him. His most important guests are in front of the line. The least important guests are at the rear. He is holding his staff in his right hand, the sign of a ruler. Darius felt that he was all power and "...king of the earth" (Ancient Mesopotamia).
The Persians ordered men from conquered cities to bring gifts to the Persian ruler, the theme of the sculpture. This sculpture was found in the Apadana, one of the most impressive buildings in the area. The building is decorated with several depictions of nobles and others carrying gifts to the king. The…
Ancient Mesopotamia. Retrieved from the World Wide Web on October 3, 2002. http://www.bullis.org/edprograms/socialstudies/Mesopotamia/meso.htm#P
Art 101. Retrieved from the World Wide Web on October 3, 2002. http://webed.vw.cc.va.us/vwbaile/pages_art101/101distance/lectures_distance/101dmesp.html#Persians
Persepolis and Ancient Iran, the Apadana. Retrieved from the World Wide Web on October 3, 2002. http://www-oi.uchicago.edu/OI/MUS/PA/IRAN/PAAI/PAAI_Apadana.html
Over the course of the semester, there were many things that surprised and intrigued me and unfortunately, sometimes confused me; but, upon reflection there are three specific instances that rise to the top in terms of classifying it as surprising, intriguing and confusing
Foremost, over the course of the semester I was most intrigued by the masters of the Venetian renaissance, Giorgione and Titan. The images that both captured in their art work are interesting and mysterious and leaves more to the viewer's imagination and thoughts than one may think upon first glance. oth artists painted religious symbols, mythological figures and while also capturing more human figures and scenes leaves much to be desired. The way in which Giorgine and Titan worked in the same way and were able to construct such beautiful yet mysterious works of arts is truly intriguing. The colors are vibrant and their attention to…
Kren, E., & Marx, D. (2010). Giorgione. Retrieved from http://www.wga.hu/frames-e.html?/html/g/giorgion/various/threephi.html
Judaism, Christianity, and Islam
Hebrew history, as told by the Hebrews, begins in Mesopotamia, in the cities of Ur in the south and Haran in the north. With Abraham, the story of the Hebrews begins, and it is clearly stated that Hebrew origins lay outside Canaan. The command to leave his ancestral home and journey to Canaan was accompanied by a promise (Gen. 12:2) The exact location of the nation-to-be is not specified but was, of course, known to those hearing or reading the account, Abraham journeyed to Canaan, Egypt, the Negeb, Hebron, Gezer, Beer-sheba and back to Hebron where he and his wife Sarah died.
The journey itself was more than a pilgrimage, for it represented the starting point of a continuing adventure in nationhood. Nor are the travelers without vicissitudes, but throughout famine, earthquake, fire and war, god protected them.
The close relationship between the Hebrews and…
For example, the Chinese had no need for European foodstuffs but they did want European silver ("Early Global Commodities" 2010). Trade between China and Europe was not as robust as it was between the Arab world and Europe because of the lack of demand in China for European products other than silver. As a result, a diffusion of culture from China to Europe did not take place as did the diffusion of culture from Arabia and medieval Muslim societies to Europe.
Moreover, much European silver came from the territories conquered in the New World. In addition to plundering South America for silver, European societies also imported South American foods such as tomato, chili, chocolate, and sugar. These commodities eventually transformed the European diet ("Food, Demographics, and Culture" 2010). Thus, economic imperatives cause the development and diffusion of ancient South American societies. On the other hand, Yellow iver Valley culture in…
"Early Global Commodities," (2010). Retrieved online: http://history.webtexts.com/browse/tocs/296943/contents/247550
"Food, Demographics, and Culture" (2010). Retrieved online: http://history.webtexts.com/browse/tocs/296943/contents/247553
"Migrations of America" (2010). Retrieved online: http://history.webtexts.com/browse/tocs/296943/contents/260105
"River Valley Civilizations." (n.d.) Retrieved online: http://www.historyhaven.com/APWH/the%20River%20Valley.htm
Yaxuna, a city founded during the Middle Preclassic period, around 500 B.C., was a subordinate city. Just because it was a subordinate, however, it was strategically important. Linking the large central cities with the Northern metropolises, in addition to occupying an important position along a central trade route, Yaxuna quickly became pulled back and forth by the struggling major powers (Shuler and Freidel, 1998: 29). Although less powerful than some of its geographically distant peers, Yaxuna was the largest city in the central northern lowlands (Shuler and Freidel, 1998: 30). The city was torn apart at least twice due to trans-peninsula warfare. Although Yazuna did not have diplomatic relations with Chichen Itxa, its powerful neighbor to the far north, it did share diplomatic relationships with several other northernmost cities. Its place in the Mayan world, however, seemed to be dictated by power struggles and warfare, a pawn in the struggle…
Each of these "divine lords" appeared to share the same rank over their kingdoms, but evidence suggests that some cities, those with larger populations, held significant sway over other cities. This information is supported both by the vast degree of centralized projects, such as pyramids and roads, as well as the Mayan language, which clearly makes room for a superior-subordinate type relationship (Martin and Grube, 1995: 42). Large cities were dominating forces in Mayan regional centers, while smaller cities made ties with these forces to create alliances that shared similar enemies. Patterns of warfare in Mayan cities followed these conglomerations of alliances and enemies (Martin and Grube, 1995: 42).
Yaxuna, a city founded during the Middle Preclassic period, around 500 B.C., was a subordinate city. Just because it was a subordinate, however, it was strategically important. Linking the large central cities with the Northern metropolises, in addition to occupying an important position along a central trade route, Yaxuna quickly became pulled back and forth by the struggling major powers (Shuler and Freidel, 1998: 29). Although less powerful than some of its geographically distant peers, Yaxuna was the largest city in the central northern lowlands (Shuler and Freidel, 1998: 30). The city was torn apart at least twice due to trans-peninsula warfare. Although Yazuna did not have diplomatic relations with Chichen Itxa, its powerful neighbor to the far north, it did share diplomatic relationships with several other northernmost cities. Its place in the Mayan world, however, seemed to be dictated by power struggles and warfare, a pawn in the struggle between larger powers (Shuler and Freidel, 1998: 29-30).
While Yaxuna's role in the Mayan world certainly suggested its importance, as well as shedding light on a complex political system, it was, by no means, unique. In Mesopotamia, the city of Mashkan-shapir shared a role similar to Yaxuna's. Like Yaxuna, Mashkan-shapir was politically and geographically in the middle of two warning cities, Isin and Larsa. Although Mashkan-shapir was founded near the third millennium B.C., it was not until 2000, when these power struggles began, that the city gained much importance. Also like Yaxuna, Mashkan-shapir was an important economic center. In fact, after Larsa's victory, Mashkan-shapir kept its position of importance, eventually gaining the status of a second capital city for the region (Stone and Zimansky, 1995: 120). Thus, Yaxuna teaches archeologists and students of history much about power in ancient civilizations. The Mayan power struggles remind students of history that polarity issues between viable hegemons have always existed, even before modern statehood. The existence of areas of Yaxuna and Mashkan-shapir teach students that minor cities and alliances have always been important in these struggles for power.
According to Bachhuber, the Myceaen Agean presence on the Uluburun ship pointed out an important connection between the Semetic and Aegean civilizations (Bachhuber). In addition to the Agean-Semetic connection, materials on the ship also came from Africa, including African woods like Ebony, Elephant tusks, and hippopotamus teeth, which were counted among the rarer items in the findings. Finally, tests of the raw copper found on the ship suggested that some of the material came from as far as Europe, especially Spain (University of Texas). This confirms that the trade routes in the Levant were not only as extensive as previously assumed, but a considerable degree further.
The implications about trade that can be drawn from the artifacts found on the Ulburun are not restricted to simple economics. Instead, the artifacts also allow for important social implications. According to the University of Texas, the wreck's anchors allowed scholars to assume that…
Bachhuber, Christoph Stephen. 2004. Aspects of Late Helladic Sea Trade. Texas a&M.
University of Texas. http://www.utexas.edu/courses/clubmed/artifact.html .
Pulak, Cemal. Dendrochronological Dating of the Uluburun. n.d. Bodrum.
Unknown. Major Trade Routs. 2007. http://www.bibarch.com/
Changing ole of Libraries
Changing ole of Libraries in Today's Society
Changing ole of Libraries in Today's Society
Changing ole of Libraries in Today's Society
From the time when the recorded history began, all kinds of artifacts of symbolic, religious, social, and educational have been assembled together and protected in the libraries in the form of books and documents. Sumerians were the one who developed and brought into actual formation of a library. People of Mesopotamia, several millennia before, revolutionized the means of communication by using symbols and pictures which represented specific units of speech. According to Derrida (1996), the humans have undergone an "archive fever" which means the urge to preserve all kinds of information regarding the history, facts, experiences of people, etc. This impulse gave rise to libraries like temple libraries which contained organized and arranged books and this was done by trained personnel. Libraries in the…
Barr, RB., and J. Tagg. 1995. From teaching to learning -- A new paradigm for undergraduate education. Change 27(6): 13 -- 25.
Bazillion, RJ. 2001. Academic libraries in the digital revolution. Educause Quarterly 24(1): 51 -- 55.
Bazillion, RJ., and C. Braun. 2001. Academic libraries as high-tech gateways: A guide to design and space decisions. Chicago: American Library Association.
Beagle, D. 1999. Conceptualizing an information commons. Journal of Academic Librarianship 25(2): 82 -- 89.
Staircase ramps which are comprised of steep and narrow steps that lead up one face of the pyramid were more in use at that time with evidence found at the Sinki, Meidum, Giza, Abu Ghurob, and Lisht pyramids respectively (Heizer).
A third ramp variation was the spiral ramp, found in use during the nineteenth dynasty and was, as its name suggests, comprised of a ramp covering all faces of the pyramids leading towards the top. Reversing ramps zigzag up one face of a pyramid at a time and would not be used in the construction of step pyramids, while lastly interior ramps that have been found within the pyramids of Sahura, Nyuserra, Neferifijata, Abusir, and Pepi II (Heizer, Shaw).
Ancient Greek architecture exists mainly in surviving temples that survive in large numbers even today and is tied into Roman and Hellenistic periods which borrowed heavily from the Greeks.…
Ackerman, J.S. "Architectural Practice in the Italian Renaissance." Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians (1954): 3-11.
Alchermes, Joseph. "Spolia in Roman Cities of the Late Empire: Legislative Rationales and Architectural Reuse." Dumbarton Oaks Paper (1994): 167-178.
Allen, Rob. "Variations of the Arch: Post -- and lintel, Corbelled Arch, Arch, Vault, Cross-Vault Module." 11 August 2009. Civilization Collection. 5 April 2010 .
Anderson, James. "Anachronism in the Roman Architecture of Gaul: The Date of the Maison Carree at Nimes." Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians (2001): 68-79.
Houses permitted the people to move from a nomadic existence to a settled and more organized way of life. The majority of the houses were square with other rooms built on. The palaces of the early Sumerian culture were the political, economic and religious focal points of the city; large-scale, lavishly decorated, and consisted of rooms used to house craftsmen and such. Archaeological finds have also revealed them to be temples and burial chambers for the elite, as well as library complexes, armories, and entertainment halls decorated with pictorial and mythological figures.
It was during the time of the Sumerian civilisation transitioning from nomadic hunting to agriculture, that many changes occurred as the population grew and more force was exerted on the local food supply. This necessitated more organization and administration that led to non-tribal leadership with its own political, economic and religious arrangement. Mesopotamia's expansion led to a wide…
Ancient Culture Development (AC)
Ancient Culture Development
As ancient man developed, they were faced with various challenges that were as well confronted in particular ways, in order to survive in the environment that was full of challenges. There was the use of stones shaped like chisels, flaked at the tip to provide a sharp edge to cut meat. This is one of the earliest documented tools that are estimated back to around 2.5 million years ago (Anne Pyburn, 2003). These were tools that were discovered in East Africa at Olduvai Gorge as one of the ancient man's abode.
There was division of labor apparently, and men who were faster were commissioned to hunting while women did the gathering of plant products and caring for children. This was a simple governance structure that had to do mainly with domestic labor structure. This was during the lower Paleolithic.
During the upper Paleolithic…
Anne Pyburn, (2003). The First People and Culture. Retrieved January 24, 2012 from http://www.indiana.edu/~arch/saa/matrix/ia/ia03_mod_10.html
Anne Pyburn, (2004). Middle and Upper Paleolithic Hunter-Gatherers The Emergence of Modern Humans, The Mesolithic. Retrieved January 24, 2012 from http://www.indiana.edu/~arch/saa/matrix/ia/ia03_mod_11.html
The Oriental Institute at the University of Chicago, (2010a). The 'Neolitic Revolution'. Retrieved January 24, 2012 from http://teachmiddleeast.lib.uchicago.edu/foundations/origins-of-civilization/essay/essay-02.html
The Oriental Institute at the University of Chicago, (2010b). Life in Mesopotamia: Law and Governance. Retrieved January 24, 2012 from http://mesopotamia.lib.uchicago.edu/mesopotamialife/article.php?theme=Law%20and%20Government
Specifically, Caesar masterfully showed how through building alliances one may achieve power and rise to the top of the leadership tier even in a group or society as vast as the Ancient Roman Empire (Abbott, 1901, p.385).
The Roman Empire also provides an example of organizational systems within the public domain through the Republican system. In the Roman Republican system of government, one man did not have the power to make law. Instead, power was balanced amongst three different branches of government: the executive, the legislative, and the judicial ("The Roman Empire"). In fact, this form of government introduced the concept of a senatorial body to the public. In Rome, the Senate was designed as a separate body of government from that of the Emperor so as to avoid the tyranny of one leader. Through the advent of the Senate, the Romans laid the groundwork for leadership structure of Britain…
New scholarship suggests that Byzantine Empire was as successful as was ome in shaping modern Europe (Angelov, 2001).
Islamic Golden Age
The Islamic Golden Age (also called the Caliphate of Islam or the Islamic enaissance) was a center of government and political, cultural and religious traditions that arose in the early 6th century AD from the teachings of the Prophet Mohammed and reached its height between the 8th to 13th centuries (Kraemer, 1992). The Golden Age was centered around the Saudi Arabian peninsula. Its first capital was Media; at its greatest extent, the Caliphate controlled all of the present day Middle East, northern Africa and parts of Spain, and extending to the Indus Valley. It was thus one of the few empires that rules over three continents (Kennedy, 2001).
After the end of the classical empires of the Middle East (such as Egypt and Assyria) the region was politically and…
thinkquest.org. (1999). Retrieved March 27, 2010, from SPQR Online: http://library.thinkquest.org/26602/government.htm
Islam and Islamic History in Arabia and the Middle East. (2001). Retrieved March 28, 2010, from islamcity.com: http://www.islamicity.com/mosque/ihame/Sec12.htm
The European Voyages of Exploration. (2001). Retrieved April 5, 2010, from the Applied History Research Group: http://www.ucalgary.ca/applied_history/tutor/eurvoya/index.html
Mummies and Mummification. (2003). Retrieved March 30, 2010, from Digital Egypt: http://www.digitalegypt.ucl.ac.uk/mummy/ok.html
One exception to this is Pausanias, a Greek writer. He recorded the quarrying done in Greece but he lived in the second century a.D. For other details, the information related to their architecture is limited to the writings of Vitruvius, an architect in ome, also a military engineer and a writer who lived during the rule of Augustus (Masrgary, 1957; Derry and Williams, 1961).
The Greek construction inherits its glory from the timber-framed European houses that revolved around three chambers and hearths and not from the buildings in the Near East or even the Mycenean tombs. The temples that appeared earlier in Greece were built of mud bricks with a timber roof that was thatched to facilitate a wider construction, the transverse beams were held by a row of posts that were kept in the middle and the posts were also kept in the mud brick walls for the same…
Derry, T.K. And Williams, T.I. A Short History of Technology from the Earliest Times to a.D. 1900. Oxford University Press. New York. 1961. Chapter 5.
Sttraub H. A History of Civil Engineering. (Eng. trans. By E. Rockwell). Hill, London, 1952.
Edwards I.E.S the Pyramids of Egypt. Penguin Books, Harmondsworth, 1950.
Toy, S. A History of Fortification from 3000 B.C. To a.D. 1700. Heinemann, London, 1955.
He stated that, "I mean printed works produced ostensibly to give children spontaneous pleasure and not primarily to teach them, nor solely to make them good, nor to keep them profitably quiet." (Darton 1932/1982:1) So here the quest is for the capture and promotion of children's imagination through stories and fables that please as well as enlighten. There is always the fallout that once a child learns to love to read he or she will read many more things with greater enthusiasm than before.
The children's literature genres developed in Mesopotamia and in Egypt over a roughly 1,500-year period - proverbs, fables, animal stories, debates, myths, instructions (wisdom literature), adventure and magic tales, school stories, hymns and poems - pass down to the Hebrews and the Greeks. The Old Testament owes much to both Mesopotamian and Egyptian literature (Adams 2004:230)
One can see that, as stated previously, children's literature is…
Adams, Gillian. 2004. "16 Ancient and Medieval Children's Texts." pp. 225-238 in International Companion Encyclopedia of Children's Literature, vol. 1, edited by Hunt, Peter. London: Routledge.
Ancient Babylonia - Gilgamesh Tablet. 2009. Bible History. Retrieved 2 August 2010 ( http://www.bible-history.com/babylonia/BabyloniaGilgamesh_Tablet.htm .).
Bell, Robert H. 2005. "Inside the Wardrobe: Is 'Narnia' a Christian Allegory?." Commonweal, December 16, pp. 12-15
Bible Maps. 2009. Genisis Files. Retrieved on 6 August 2010 ( http://www.genesisfiles.com/Mtararat.htm )
It consists a series of successively smaller platforms which lifted to a height of about 64 feet, and was constructed with a solid core of mud-brick covered by a thick skin of burnt-brick to guard it from the forces of nature (Burney). The Ziggurat's corners are oriented to the compass points, with walls sloping slightly inwards (Molleson and Hodgson) .
The Ziggurat of Ur was a component of a temple building complex that serviced the urban center as an administrative hub. Additionally, in terms of spirituality, it was believed to be the site on earth that the moon god Nanna (the patron deity of Ur) had selected to inhabit. Nanna was shown as a wise and unfathomable old man, complete with a flowing beard and four horns in number. A single shrine crowned the summit of the ziggurat (Faiella). This was purportedly the bedchamber of the god, and was occupied…
Economics in Ancient Civilization
It is said that "Rome was not built in a day." Indeed, the Roman Empire was the last of a series of civilizations to emerge in the Mediterranean by the First Millennium, B.C. Precursors to the culture most identified as the seat of estern political economy, the Ancient Egyptians, Etruscans, Greeks, Syrians, Carthaginians and Phoenicians all had contact with the Romans, and eventually were incorporated through territorial expansion of the Empire in Asia Minor, Cyrenaica, Europe, and North Africa. Prior to the Roman period, Europe was primarily occupied by Barbarian tribes; societies where no written language, legal system or alternative mechanism of governance was in place. hen we discuss the advancement of Ancient civilizations, then, it is through the transmission of law, literacy and polity that we find source to retrospect on early economic forms. In Feinman and Nicholas (2004), Perspectives on Political Economies, the difficulties…
Buck-Norss, S. The Dialectics of Seeing: Walter Benjamin and the Arcades Project. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 1991.
Benjamin, W.(1927). Das Passagen Werken. Notebooks.
Bitros, George C., and Anastassios D. Karayiannis. "Morality, institutions and the wealth of nations: Some lessons from ancient Greece." European Journal of Political Economy 26.1 (2010): 68-81.
Boyazoglu, J., I. Hatziminaoglou, and P. Morand-Fehr. "The role of the goat in society: Past, present and perspectives for the future." Small Ruminant Research 60.1/2 (2005): 13-23.
It involves the replacement of rule of thumb gradually with science for the mechanical arts.
The existence of the two rivers i.e. Euphrates and Tigris gave this name Mesopotamia which means the land between rivers to the region. Agricultural revolution was begun by the people of this region in about ten thousand years ago. They domesticated animals and plants instead of hunting and gathering as was common in the time. Their crops were tended in houses built of mud-brick or reeds and clustered in villages (Hyman 138). Their grains were stored in the granaries that they built and their trade and account were recorded in a token system that they developed. There was a sudden change and growth in the civilization of the southern Mesopotamia between 3000 and 3500, with the main focus being in the cities of Ur and Uruk. Rendering of the old ways of agriculture less…
Badiru, Adedeji, Triple C. Model of Project Management: Communication, Cooperation, and Coordination. Oxon: CRC Press, 2008.
"History of Greece." History World. 5 Jun. 2000. 22 March. 2010.
Hyman, Kavett. "Mesopotamia, A Difficult but Interesting Topic." Social studies 70.3 (1979):
From his authority in Cairo, Saladin worked hard to preserve unity between many of the Muslim kingdoms that comprised the Middle East region. Accordingly, Lane-Poole reports that as dynasties rolled over into new families of leadership in places such as Syria and Mesopotamia, "to these transactions Saladin offered no opposition. He was bound by his treaty to respect his ally of Mosul, and he never broke a treaty in his life." (Lane-Poole, Ch. XI) hile Saladin postured as a warrior-ruler, he also remained loyal to the legal terms of regional agreements and in an important regard would parlay this good-will into a unity in repelling the English crusaders who sought to eliminate religious divergence from the Christian faith.
Not only can we begin to see the picture of a balanced and fair leader, we can also begin to view the origins of the Islamic faith as a cultural other in…
Lane-Poole, S. (2007). The Life of Saladin: AD 1138-1193. Third Millennium Library.
Walker, P.E. (2010). Saladin. History-World.org.
Ancient Greek urban planning dates its glory to Pericles. Temple architecture sourced in a precedent civilization, the Minoan of Crete, is actually reflective of palace architecture from that society's maritime city-state, Knossos (de la Croix, H. And Tansey).
The Greek civis was largely informed by astronomy; influencing everything from temple design to the order of the public City-State. 'Archaeoastronomical' patterns beginning with the Geometric through the final Hellenistic period in Greece reveal sophistication in calculation synonymous to solar alignment. This perspective fits with what is known about the star gazing cult practices found in the archaeological record (Belmonte). Sacred objects further this theory, and there remain a significant number of votive statuary stored at temple sites. Votive offerings were left by devotees of that particular cult, including weapons, helmets, and even statues. The interior of the temple, known as the cella, was often decorated with columns and most used for…
Belmonte, Juan Antonio. From the Atlas to the Caucasus: The Other Side of the Mediterranean Before Islam. Archaeoastronomy 15.(2000): 78.
de la Croix, H. And Tansey, R.G. Gardner's: Art Through the Ages. New York, NY: Harcourt and Brace, 1980.
Dimock, Wai Chee. The Egyptian Pronoun: Lyric, Novel, the Book of the Dead. New Literary History 39.3 (2008): 619-643.
Maddison, Angus. The Contours of World Development. The World Economy, OECD, 2010.. Web.
(Hall, 1974) Wings are additionally attributed to "Father Time, the winds and Opportunity, who all pass swiftly." (Hall, 1974) It is clear that wings when used in religious art are used in symbolic representations of beings that are divine, heavenly, or directly connected to the heavens and its creator. Wings are representative of heavenly beings, gods, or messengers of gods, or beings that are endowed with powers not of the realm of the earth. Wings also are symbols of protection and sheltering and this is particularly true in Egyptian art. While few studies exist in relation to wings and winged beings in ancient Peru, it is very likely that the representation of these in art symbolism is much akin to artistic representations in other cultures and since ancient Peruvians have been found to be buried with feathered garments it is likely that these individuals viewed wings and winged beings to…
Hall, James (1974) Dictionary of Subjects and Symbols in Art. Westview Press 1974.
Curtis, J., Tallis, N. And Andre-Salvini, B. (2005) Forgotten Empire: The World of Ancient Persia. University of California Press, 2005.
MacKenzie, Donald A. (2003) Migration of Symbols. Kessinger Publishing 2003.
Perrot, G. And Chipiez, C. (1892) History of Art in Persia: from the French of Georges Perrot and Charles Chipiez. Chapman and Hall, limited 1892 University of Michigan digitized 12 Dec 2007.
Standard of Ur, Scenes of War/Peace, 2700 bce
The Standard of Ur is an artifact, which Charles Leonard Woolley discovered in the late 1920. It was in the Royal Tombs of Ur in ancient Mesopotamia, which was close to aghdad presently known as Iran about 2600 CE. Leonard was a London-based excavator who had gone to Ur in an effort to discover artifacts including archeological elements. Apparently, when he found it, he was not sure what it was; therefore, he assumed that it was a flag used back then in 2600 CE. In addition, other people were also not sure of what it was, and some of them assumed it was a type of emblem of a king, others suggested it was a musical instrument covering.[footnoteRef:2] [2: Wolley, Leonard. Excavations at Ur: A record of twelve years' work. (London: Routledge) ]
In this regard, the ritish Museum has favored this…
Gansell, Amy Rebecca, and Winter Irene. Treasures from the royal tombs of Ur. Cambridge,
Mass: Publications Dept., Harvard University, 2002.
Sailus, Christopher. "Standard of Ur: Definition, lesson and quiz." Education Portal. Accessed 23 April 2014.
Shannon, White. "Treasures from the Royal Tombs of Ur: A Traveling Exhibition of the University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology," Near Eastern Archaeology 67, no. 4. (2004): 229.
This differentiation refers to the management and administration of the agricultural resources of the kingdom. This in turn involved an organized network of royal foundations. (Wilkinson 116) the second area of administrative concern was the processing of government revenue and "…its redistribution to the various state operations…" (Wilkinson 116) Wilkinson in his book also deals extensively with managements issues in relation to the Egyptian treasury. (Wilkinson 125)
In understanding the background to management in ancient Egypt one has to continually take into account the wide range of concerns and activities that required ordered control and administration. As Erman states in his work Life in Ancient Egypt (1894), "The enormous properties belonging to the temples required of course complicated machinery for their administration & #8230;certain members of the priestly college were deputed to manage the affairs of the treasury, the commissariat and the correspondence…" (Erman 303)
Taking into account the above…
Like the Old World civilizations, the Moche depended on their own irrigation systems to water their crops. Regardless of the harsh climate, the Moche managed to do this quite well. Fagan (nd: 123-124) notes the excellence of the Moche farmers, how they were able to use the difficult terrain to their advantage, creating irrigation systems and using fertile soil. Despite the fact that natural disasters would eventually ruin the civilization, the Moche's honed survival skills could generally find them plenty of nourishment from their irrigated fields or relevant use of the oceans (Fagan nd: 123-125).
esides farming, the Moche proved themselves far more than adequate warriors, able to survive in the midst of land disputes and other instances of conflict among neighboring tribes. Interestingly, the Moche managed to attain a sort of federalism, with several tribes ruling over different geographical areas, although they seemed to be ruled by a Moche…
All faxed sources were used, as indicated in-text citations, but enough information does not exist to create a bibliographic entry.
Since they did not have stone, the Sumerians made do with brick, building a myriad of famous constructions during this period according to their needs.
As kings of rival city-states ruled Sumer during this period, they would often go to battle. For this reason, the Sumerians also engineered many important forms of warfare technology. These include the wheeled chariot and the discovery of bronze (via the melding of copper and tin.)
The second major stage of Sumerian development was marked by the invasion of Sargon the Great, who would come to rule all of Mesopotamia. Sargon would conquer the first known empire, which extended all the way across Syrian into southeastern Turkey. Among Sargon's many accomplishments, he standardized weights and measurements in the disparate lands that he came to rule over. This made trading possible in his kingdom. Sargon was also the first Sumerian king who managed to maintain a…
Hourani, Albert. A History of the Arab Peoples. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press,
Roux, Georges. Ancient Iraq. New York: Penguin USA, 1993.
Tripp, Charles. History of Iraq. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002.
The use of physical suffering as a symbol for emotional and spiritual suffering is also well-known in the estern tradition. Centuries later, men and women would disappear into the desert in search of God. They would live apart from all human companionship, and deprive themselves of all physical comfort. Gilgamesh does the same. Gilgamesh is also like the lover who pines away for his beloved and wastes away in body, as well as in heart. The message is that the eternal truths of the universe are not easily discovered, and again that these truths are largely hidden from humankind. Humanity's lot is to suffer even in the face of our greatest happiness. Unlike the gods, we cannot know joy eternally. Enkidu was a dear friend, but he could not be by Gilgamesh' side forever. The joy and love that the hero had known were foreordained to be short. Even if…
Abusch, Tzvi. "The Development and Meaning of the Epic of Gilgamesh: An Interpretive Essay." The Journal of the American Oriental Society 121.4 (2001): 614+.
Gardner and Maier. FULL CITATION NEEDED www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000950008
Jager, Bernd. "The Birth of Poetry and the Creation of a Human World: An Exploration of the Epic of Gilgamesh." Journal of Phenomenological Psychology 32.2 (2001): 131+.
Although they still remain a mystery as to their origin, the Sumerians seem to have appeared as a fully developed society with technology and organizational skills far superior to any other societies of that era. The Sumerians evolved from hunters and gathers to communities of farmers who faced an unpredictable and hostile environment, yet their innovations in writing and recordkeeping influenced future civilizations. Not only are they credited with inventing the wheel, the plow, and timekeeping, but the earliest known literature, the epic of Gilgamesh, is attributed to the Sumerian civilization. Thus, modern civilizations owe much to this mysterious ancient peoples.
Conan, Neal. "Analysis: Tracing the history of Iraq from its earliest days of civilization to the present. Talk of the Nation: National Public Radio. September 19, 2002. Retrieved December 09, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.
atkins, Thayer. "Sumer." San Jose State University Economics Department.
Retrieved December 09,…
Conan, Neal. "Analysis: Tracing the history of Iraq from its earliest days of civilization to the present. Talk of the Nation: National Public Radio. September 19, 2002. Retrieved December 09, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.
Watkins, Thayer. "Sumer." San Jose State University Economics Department.
Retrieved December 09, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library. http://www.sjsu.edu/faculty/watkins/sumer.htm
Waymire, Gregory B. "Recordkeeping and human evolution." Accounting
ise of the City
Before humans documented history, the beginning of civilization, humans were primarily were hunter-gatherers. This meant human tribes moved from place to place using only what they were able to obtain from their natural surroundings, and what was seasonal. Historical evidence, though fragmentary, suggests that once humans began domesticating floral and fauna, small villages started domesticating the animals they were hunting and the seeds of the plants they were gathering there was no need to constantly move.
Coming together as a civilization is complex and certainly took generations to move into an actual city or city-state. The likely scenario is that for thousands of years, southern Mesopotamia was home to hunters, fishers, some farmers, but mostly nomads. It is really the establishment of farming (the domestication of plants) that allowed humans to settle in one place long enough to have a society in which people became specialists…
Bauer, S. (2007). The History of the Ancient World. W.W. Norton.
Fitzhugh, B. And J. Habu, eds. (2002). Beyond Foraging and Collecting: Evolutionary
Change in Hunter-Gatherer Settlement Systems. Springer.
Mumford, L. (1968). The City in History: Its Origins, Its Transformations, and Its
Today, the professions of architect, engineer and construction worker are well-known. Yet, from the earliest civilizations of Mesopotamia, Egypt, Greece and Rome, the "master builders," who planned and directed the design and construction of many of the greatest structures, held one of the most prestigious positions in society. The fact that some of these structures -- thousands of years old -- remain standing, and many of these same engineering sciences are still used, pay tribute to the abilities of these master craftsmen who were responsible for all steps in the "design-bid-build" project delivery method.
Before the existence of master builders in design and construction, the Code of Hammurabi referred to building as a simple process. Produced approximately between 1792 to 1750 B.C., this is the first known building code. Its rules and responsibilities and acceptable standards of workmanship were carved on stone tablets. Failure to adhere to these…
The Hebrews do not actually appear in history until about 1224-1211 B.C.E. during the reign of Marniptah, king of Egypt (Ancient pg). Marniptah was the son of Raamses I, 1290-1223 B.CE, who is thought to be the kind of Egypt at the time of the Hebrew exodus (Ancient pg). In an account of Marniptah's military campaign in Asia, 1220 B.C.E., inscribed in granite is listed all the conquered peoples including the Israelites, who are mentioned as "now living in Canaan" (Ancient pg). Before this, the only history is that which was written by the Hebrews themselves who trace their origins to a "single individual, Abraham, who comes originally from Mesopotamia" (Ancient pg). This pre-Egyptian Hebrew history is referred to as the age of the patriarchs, which means father-ruler (Ancient pg). More than a thousand years had passed before this era of history was written down, and although it…
Ancient Jewish History
Davidmann, Mandred. "History Speaks: Monarchy, Exile and Maccabees." http://www.solbaram.org/articles/fn2.html
Department for Jewish Zionist Education
Michael Wood’s “Iraq: The Cradle of Civilization” offers fascinating insight into human civilization, through a narrative of the story of Iraq. Tracing Iraq from the cradle of civilization to its current state of devastation, Wood warns viewers to learn from the mistakes of the past instead of continuing to repeat them. In addition to its overarching message, “Iraq: The Cradle of Civilization” includes some incredible details about the cultural diversity within Iraq and how current customs reveal cultural continuity with the past. Some of the most amazing examples of diversity include the Mandean people, who have cultural practices that are vestiges of Christian times such as a wedding ceremony that includes a full-immersion baptism in a river they refer to as the “Jordan,” even though it is the Euphrates. There is also the Yazidi people, who worship Satan but are not what a European or American would call a Satan…
The study of physics, optics and biology of the eye contributed to the development of the quadrant and sextant. The Islamic world also created the concept of a library.
The Crusades of the eleventh century brought the learning of the Islamic world to Europe unfortunately this information was acquired by the act of war. The Crusades also increased the flow of trade, bringing new spices, gemstones and foods to Europe. The Crusades marked the beginning of religion as the basis for society. The Pope and the Catholic Church emerged as the leaders of society and religion as the unifying morality.
Rather than a change in politics, a mini-renaissance occurred during Romanesque period. The study of art, science and culture brought about a change in architectural styling and building materials; increased use of rounded arches and barrel vaults emerged at the same time as the use of metal, enamel, ivory, bronze,…
They were constructed or rather carved as a tribute to Pharaoh Ramses II and his queen Nefertari. The Temple of Edfu (237-57 BC) also shows the expertise and the cultural depth of the Egyptian culture. This temple on the West bank of the Nile in the city of Edfu is the second biggest temple in Egypt after Karnack. The religious foundations of the culture are clearly evident in aspects of the construction. For example, the decorations of the walls of the temple to the god Horus provide a cast array of scientific and mythological knowledge. This temple has also provided archeologists and Egyptologists with knowledge about the culture and its scientific and its advances in fields such as mathematics and astronomy.
In terms of materials and technological processes, the great ziggurats and pyramids show the use of ramps for building upwards and a strong durable material (mud-brick or granite).…
Dr. David Livingstone seemed to epitomize this view, "These privations, I beg you to observe, are not sacrifices. I think that word ought never to be mentioned in reference to anything we can do for Him….Can that be a sacrifice which is simply paid back as a small part of a great debt owing to our God, which we can never repay… it is a privilege."
With this attitude of sacrifice for the greater glory, and it was certainly that for many who endured pain, pestilence, disease, hunger and bodily harm, also came a certain attitude about modernizing and bringing the native populations into the modern world through Christ. In places as diverse as Hawaii, the Philippines, central Africa, and even the Muslim world, these well-meaning missionaries invariable also brought with them cultural baggage and xenophobia. While wishing to save the population from the fires of Hell through Christianity, there…
Smith, E. (1834). Missionary Researches in Armenia: Including a Journey Through Asia Minor. London, J.S. Hudson. Cited in: http://books.google.com/books?id=-c0NAAAAIAAJ&printsec=frontcover&dq=Eli+Smith&hl=en&ei=e0Y9TN3FG4rCsAP3xLjaCg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=10&ved=0CFYQ6AEwCQ#v=onepage&q&f=false
Hallote, 2006, p.12.
Williams, J. (1999). The Times of Edward Robinson: Atlanta: Society of Biblical Literature.
Once the practice of Islamic worship the women of that region began to be subjected to stricter codes, from marriage to dress and the risk of honor becoming an even greater issue grew. The terrorization by the Mongols and Turks was quite different from the terror under Saddam. The Mongols and Turks utilized slavery, rape, beatings and murder. Saddam instead took on an entirely different approach. His first goal was fear coupled with violence to maintain the plans he made for the society and culture. He was less about Islam and more about self-promotion and the glorification of Iraq. This type of leader is most like Josef Stalin of the Soviet Union. One never knew when or why you might be targeted.
Following the fall of the Ba'th government, the population of women in Iraq was at approximately 60%. They are a definite majority and should be in a better…
"AEI - Post-Saddam Iraq Conference Series." Welcome to AEI. Web. 7 July 2010. .
Chesler, Phyliss. "Are Honor Killings Simply Domestic Violence?" The Phyllis Chesler Organization. Web. 7 July 2010. .
Coleman, Isobel. "Women, Islam, and the New Iraq | Foreign Affairs." Home | Foreign Affairs. Web. 7 July 2010. .
"Culture in Post-Saddam Iraq:: Middle East Quarterly." Middle East Forum. Web. 7 July 2010. .
Anyone can virtually make wine out of grapes. The quality of the grapes is the first and most important feature in the wine production and only after that are there other factors involved that influence the final product.
Standage considers the first distinction between Eastern and Western thught and civilization closely linked to the attitude the two cultures from two opposite regions of the globe had when it came to wine consuming. While Greeks drank wine at formal parties, making it more a part of a ritual destined to loosen tongues and relax while sharpening the minds and setting imagination loose, the Persians, mostly drank beer as a part of their nourishment and even when they drank wine, it was not for intellectual purposes of for the pleasure of savoring it, but more as a display of wealth and power, as it was the case mentioned before. Based on such…
Like, beer, the wine was nourishment, the beverage for feasts, celebrations and intellectual gatherings, but also an element of religious rituals and even medicine. As alcoholic beverage on the table of the poor and rich alike it is still praised for its benefits just as it is blamed for the destruction of families and the perversion of whole societies that fell its victim. It is, of course, not the wine, but the human nature, subject to greed and sometimes the victim of its own inability to keep moderation in sight at all times.
Standage, Tom. A History of the World in Six Glasses. 2005. Walker Publishing Company. New York
McGovern, P. Ancient Wine: the Search for the Origins of Viniculture. 2003. Princeton University Press. Princeton Historical Timeline. Georgian Spring. A Magnum Journal. Retrieved; Oct 18, 2009. Available at: http://www.georgianspring.com/timeline.php
The Sumerians of Mesopotamia were also the first to use iron, They recovered the metal from meteorites and used it for spear tips and ornaments. Later smelting techniques developed in the area to purify the iron, and these spread to Europe via trade routes. By the Middle Ages, large foundries existed for smelting and forging iron into the many things it was used for. Basic trade rules and organization also passed from the Sumerians to Europe; methods of keeping accounts and even early guilds and merchant groups were part of Sumer, and passed est with trade (Airmet).
Airmet. "The History of Iron orking." Accessed 26 July 2009. http://www.airmetmetalworks.com/iron-working-history.html
Hooker, Richard. "Ancient China: The Shang." Accessed 26 July 2009. http://www.wsu.edu/~dee/ANCCHINA/SHANG.htm
O'Connor, J.J. And E.F. Robertson. "Egyptian Numerals." Accessed 26 July 2009. http://www.gap-system.org/~history/HistTopics/Egyptian_numerals.html
Airmet. "The History of Iron Working." Accessed 26 July 2009. http://www.airmetmetalworks.com/iron-working-history.html
Hooker, Richard. "Ancient China: The Shang." Accessed 26 July 2009. http://www.wsu.edu/~dee/ANCCHINA/SHANG.htm
O'Connor, J.J. And E.F. Robertson. "Egyptian Numerals." Accessed 26 July 2009. http://www.gap-system.org/~history/HistTopics/Egyptian_numerals.html
Either as mothers, sisters, wives, daughters, mistresses, lovers or supernatural creatures, women populate the world of the Odyssey and bring thus an important source of information when it comes to finding parallels between their representations in real life as drawn from the representations they get in the Homeric epic.
Based on the same starting point as the Odyssey, another ancient author, the Roman irgil wrote the epic Aeneid. He lived in the most flourishing times of the Roman empire, in the first century BC, almost seven centuries after the Odyssey and the Iliad had probably been written. The heroes in irgil's epic are still men, but the women gain a new role: that of sounders and rulers. Analyzing the whole range of epics and poems written by ancient Greek and Latin writers, A.M. Keith points out that "classical Greek and Latin epic poetry was composed by men, consumed largely by…
Virgil. Aeneid. Trans. Stanley Lombardo. Indianapolis: Hackett, 2005.
Avery, Dorothy. Women in the Iliad. Copyright: D. Avery 2004. Retrieved: May 7, 2009. Available at: http://www.latrobe.edu.au/arts/tradition/tradavery1.html
Keith, A.M. Engendering Rome: Women in Latin Epic. Cambridge University Press, 2000.
One can run up against the barriers of entrenched social class, or perhaps lack certain required distinctions or certifications that readily confer status. hile few modern nations claim to possess hereditary classes, most do possess groups of individuals who control vast amounts of family wealth, and the power that goes with it. Many other individuals, by virtue of the social status of their families possess at least the resources to obtain college degrees, or open businesses of their own - all things that will improve their social status. Others lack these things and seem, despite socio-political theories to the contrary, to be condemned to a life as low status individuals. As in the past, inequality exists today, even in a supposedly equal society.
Angle, John. "The Surplus Theory of Social Stratification and the Size Distribution of Personal ealth." Social Forces 65.2 (1986): 293-326.
Angle, John. "The Surplus Theory of Social Stratification and the Size Distribution of Personal Wealth." Social Forces 65.2 (1986): 293-326.
Maisels, Charles Keith. Early Civilizations of the Old World: The Formative Histories of Egypt, the Levant, Mesopotamia, India, and China. London: Routledge, 2001.
Brazil and Chili -- a Cultural Comparison
Brazil was originally colonized by Portugal, while the Spanish colonized Chili. The natural resources that provide jobs and help the economy in Brazil include gold, timber, tin, nickel, iron ore, oil and hydropower. Chili's natural resources include hydropower, copper, nitrates, molybdenum and timber as well. Chili only has 2.62% of its land that is arable; in Brazil, 6.93% of the land is arable. Brazil's fishing industry has a lot of fresh water and ocean to use, 55,460 square kilometers (with 7,491 miles of coastline); the Chilean fishing industry has just 12,290 square kilometers of ocean and fresh water to use (with 6,435 miles of coastline).
In Brazil the deforestation of the Amazon Basin (rainforest) is severe and has put many species of plants and animals in jeopardy. Improper mining tactics have caused Brazil's environment great harm and severe oil spills have caused degradation…
About.com. (2008). Fast Facts About Mesopotamia. Retrieved May 15, 2011, from http://ancienthistory.about.com/od/nearest/ss/052909Mesopotamia.htm.
Central Intelligence Agency. (2011). The World Factbook. Retrieved May 15, 2011, from https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ci.html .
Isaac and ebekah seemed to have a happy and healthy functional marriage. While it is never overtly stated in the text, the implication is that the two love one another. However, despite what one assumes is a fairly active sex life, ebekah is unable to conceive and they do not create a child during ebekah's childbearing years. She passes into old age, which makes one believe that she will never be able to conceive, making her conception of Esau and Jacob even more extraordinary.
Furthermore, though her mother-in-law Sarah also experienced barrenness, she did not have the same tension about conception as ebekah. Sarah always had God's favor; she was a major component of God's plan for Abraham. Therefore, there was some understanding that she would eventually have a child to continue the nation of Israel. In contrast, ebekah was not considered an essential part of Isaac's story. As a…
Carole Armstrong. Women of the Bible. (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1998).
Alice Ogden Bellis. Helpmates, Harlots, and Heroes: Women's Stories in the Hebrew Bible.
(Louisville: John Knox Press, 1994).
Eryl Davies. The Dissenting Reader: Feminist Approaches to the Hebrew Bible. (Bodmin: