Interpersonal Skill of Mesopotamia the Literature Review
Excerpt from Literature Review :
Interpersonal Skill of Islamic Golden Age
A prime instance of Islamic leadership skills includes their medical services. The hospital and its peer review, were both innovations that enabled the Islamic culture to lead the West (and East) in to a better world. Arab philosophers also introduced the ancient teachings from India and China to the West. It also believed by some historians that Islamic legal tradition has laid the groundwork for the Western legal tradition.
Islamic communication included the introduction of paper, the library, universities, research institutes and diplomas into the West. Another significant contribution is the Islamic globalization of its economy, probably a function of the fact that it lies between the East and West and relatively easy access to and friendly markets in both.
The Golden Age of Islam appears to have been an eclectic and dominant era, wherein the Muslim world of the Middle East excelled in all areas of life. They pursued and in many cases achieved a high level of proficiency in economy, agriculture, industry, labor, technology, urbanization, astronomy, chemistry, mathematics, medicine, architecture, arts, literature, music, and philosophy.
Interpersonal Skill of The Crusades
The crusades represent period in history which perhaps has the most variance in its historiography. This is not so because there is a factual discrepancy, but the nature of the Crusades has traditionally made them popular and heroic in the West and shameful and barbaric to the East. Recent historians have tended to view the Crusades as bloody and deadly acts of aggression (Tyerman). In the last decade or so, historians, male and female, have begun to highlight the leadership role of women in the Crusades.
There were substantial communication effects from the Crusades. The contact of Islam culture spread the wealth of material advancements developed by the Islam world. The advances in trade and naval armament led to a revival in Europe which served to hearken an end to the Dark Ages.
The motivation behind the Crusades will vary significantly depending on who is asked. Certainly, the Christians of Western Europe felt threatened by a strong and sometimes outright hostile presence of Muslims in Jerusalem. The Crusades continued for over four hundred years but did not recapture the same zeal and fervor which gripped the West after the first crusade.
Interpersonal Skill of Renaissance of the 12th century
The 12th century Renaissance, also known as the High Middle Ages, has a clearly defined Historiography dating to 1927, when saw the transition from the stagnant Dark Ages into a mini-age of enlightenment with a great many demonstrations of interpersonal skills. The leadership in this Renaissance was provided by innovators in science and technology. As stated above, the Crusades allowed the West exposure to the skilled techniques and advances of the Islam world. After translating the works of the ancient Greeks and Romans, and building the West's first universities, the Renaissance of the 12th century saw the formation of the scientific method.
Another leadership entry in the continual march towards globalization was the Hanseatic League. This league of cities first started as trading alliance, but most historians today agree that it developed a significant political force by the 14th century.
Besides the emergence of the universities, the biggest advent in communication came from Marco Polo. His exploits into the Far East, which he memorialized with his writings, led to widespread interest and missionary activity in the Orient. Scholastism is also a communication advent of the 12th Century Renaissance. The advent of universities with the re-discovery of Greek and Roman philosophers and scientists led the religious leaders to search for empirical truths and reconcile them, when necessary, with theological dogma.
The motivation of this period would survive in Europe for the next 500 years. Many historians feel that only the Black Plague stopped short this renaissance. The desire to understand, to improve and to apply yesterday's teachings with today's discoveries would come to dominate the continent.
Interpersonal Skill of Gothic Period
Historians tend to ignore the large amount of secular works that came out of the Gothic period. Nearly all of the historical record from this period details the religious paintings, architecture and music. Many historians feel that the painters and sculptists of the day were the contemporary leaders. The Gothic period saw
the emergence of trade guilds, which most Gothic artists were required to join. This has led to lists of members and therefore, more recognition of Gothic artists than previous artists.
The musical contribution to communication in this period is known as Gregorian Chant, a slow, monotone, song-like chanting of monks. Here we see an early form of marketing and branding in communication. Many historians believe that its namesake, Pope Gregory, was far removed from the tradition and that the name was given only to impress upon all the sanctity of the chanting.
The art and architecture of this period is considered to be steeped in emotion. The size and elegance of these structures, usually churches, has led historians to conclude that in the 13th 14th, and 15th centuries, religion was the dominant force in the lives of most Europeans.
Interpersonal Skill of Renaissance
The literature and historiography of the Renaissance has been evolving since the study of the period first was undertaken by Jules Michelet over a hundred years ago. All historians agree that the period was one of change and growth. Some feel the scientific and intellectual change dominated the era. Some historians feel the Renaissance is defined by artistic and cultural growth. The modern trend for historians is to recognize the positive and negative aspects of the Renaissance on the lives of those who lived through it (Huizinga). Some historians are even in favor of doing away with the word Renaissance because the term 'Early Modern' fits better.
The Renaissance might not have occurred but for the unintentional leadership of the Medici family. This banking magnate family not only essentially ruled Florence, but the patronized the local arts to such a degree as to spur continent wide interest. Other historians believe that Florence was the fortuitous birthplace of many great men at the same time and therefore, Florence gave birth to the Renaissance.
Most historians do agree that while the popular leaders of the Renaissance are all thought of as painters and sculptures, the period was marked by a plethora of brilliant thinker. Machiavelli redefined what politics was to the politician. Machiavelli revived the idea of the Roman Republic. He not only helped to forge the modern idea of how to lead, but he helped create a modern idea of to be led. Machiavelli stressed the word virtue in both instances. The leaders must respect the liberty of their constituents and those led must be courageous and virtuous. Modern historians frequently disagree about Machiavelli on a number of issues. Whether his theories are classical Roman or they were new and novel when he expressed them, whether his theories have had a direct impact on Western Civilization since his works have been published and whether he was or was not a follower of humanism are just some of the areas.
Another highly significant, non-artistic development was the improvement in scientific research. The scientific method, originally germinated in the 12th century renaissance, now was formalized and finalized. Da Vinci mastered this new art of scientific research and experimentation in his efforts to explore mathematics, anatomy and aerodynamics. Also, astronomy was significantly revamped and although most historians refer to the Copernican revolution, a recent historian, Charles van Doren credits the revolution to Galileo and Descartes.
Those who embodied leadership in the Renaissance also came from the field of Religion. Calvin, Martin Luther and others developed their own Christian dogmas in this period. They rejected the Church dogma for a more individual style of theology. The most significant acts of leadership, was by the founder of Protestantism, Martin Luther protesting the Catholic Church with the 95 Thesis.
The Renaissance saw a revolution in modern art. Artists like Michelangelo, Rafael, Donnatello and Botticelli used new techniques with linear perspective, realism, a study of light and shadow effects and renewed love of natural beauty in art, inspiring a new trend that continues to inspire and teach artists today. Much of the leaders of the Renaissance owed their accomplishments to reviving the ancient classics. Greek and Roman books on architecture and building led to a development of a new style of building, with both heavy Greek and Roman influences. This new style of art communicated a message of fresh hope and change to the waiting world.
Another mode of communication that first occurred during the Renaissance time period was New World exploration. Columbus, Magellan, De Leon and all of the other early globetrotters literally communicated with a brand new world. This group of people could easily be listed under the leadership heading of this section as well. What made Columbus a leader and a pioneer communicator was his steadfast belief that the Earth was round and not flat. All of the explorers spread Christianity wherever…
Sources Used in Documents:
Abbott, Frank Frost. A History and Description of Roman Political
Institutions. Boston: Ginn & Company, Publishers, 1901. Print.
Bala, Arun. The Dialogue of Civilizations in the Birth of Modern
Science. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2006. Print.
Cite This Literature Review: