Metaphysics Essays (Examples)

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Plato and Aristotle

Words: 1518 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95004710

Plato and Aristotle

Metaphysics

The idea of metaphysics is a complex idea that focuses on expanding beyond the mere realities of physics within the natural world. In a sense, this goes "beyond physics," in that the study of metaphysics is "devoted to matters that transcend the mundane concerns" expounded by those of practical scientists such as Einstein and Heisenberg (van Inwagen, Peter). So in a broad term, "metaphysics" attempts to delve deeply into the matters that try to understand and explain that with which still has no explanation.

Neither Plato nor Aristotle coined the term "metaphysics," though it does become the name of Aristotle's collective works, which revolved around the subject that would be later known as "metaphysics" (or "ontology"). In attempting to answer the metaphysical questions of "What is Substance?" And "What is there?" both Plato and Aristotle provide ideas that could help them understand these questions. In some…… [Read More]

Resources

Falcon, Andrea, "Aristotle on Causality," The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Fall 2011 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.), URL = .

Frede, Dorothea, "Plato's Ethics: An Overview," The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Summer 2009 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.), URL = .

Gottlieb, Paula. "Aristotle on Dividing the Soul and Uniting the Virtues." Phronesis 39.3 (1994): 275-290. Academic Search Premier. EBSCO. Web. 3 Oct. 2011.

Kreis, Steven, "Greek Thought: Socrates, Plato and Aristotle." The History Guide (2000). URL = .
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Plato and Aristotle Are Arguably

Words: 2175 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50106522

Finally, Socrates comes to the idea of knowledge as true judgment accompanied by "an account," meaning evidence or reason. In this context, knowledge would mean not only believing something true, but also having a reasonable justification for that belief; in other words, this definition proposes that knowledge means knowing a true thing and knowing why that thing is true. However, even here Socrates has a problem with the definition, because one cannot ultimately distinguish between the preliminary knowledge required for true judgment and the knowledge required to make an account of that judgment, such that one is led in circle back to the defining of knowledge. Ultimately, Socrates concludes that they cannot truly define knowledge (at least that point) and gives up.

The attempts to define knowledge in Theaetetus is particularly interesting because it simultaneously demonstrates how Plato suffers from a lack of critical depth regarding the presence of evidence…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Aristotle. The Metaphysics. New York: Cosimo, Inc., 2008.

Plato. The Republic. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000.
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Evolution of Plato's Ideas on

Words: 1224 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99290611

In Plato's mind, the body is an anchor which holds the soul from enlightenment. That which we know (as we will discuss later) we knew before we had the body and it is only recollection of this knowledge that allows us to know anything while we are in the body.

We will now discuss the application of this idea of Forms and the separation of the same from sensible particulars by discussing Plato's idea of "Two Worlds," or being and partaking. eing does not mean the same thing as partaking is not explained by and does not explain its essence. In fact, Plato postulated that is X lacks essence, it can fail to be. An example given is that of beauty. eauty is beautiful, and other things become beautiful by partaking in what is beautiful. The question then comes whether the partaking is then dependent on the being. In what…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Melchert, Norman (2002). The Great Conversation: A Historical Introduction to Philosophy. McGraw Hill.

Vlastos, G., Platonic Studies (2nd ed., Princeton, 1981

Allen, R.E., 'Participation and Predication in Plato's Middle Dialogues,' in id. (ed.), Studies in Plato's Metaphysics: 43-60

Drede, D. 'The Final Proof of the Immortality of the Soul,' Phronesis, 23(1978): 24-41
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History of the Rosicrucian Order

Words: 5816 Length: 21 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46875287



ather than continue the process that began in the first two books, in which the osicrucian Order first announced themselves, gave their history, and then responded to certain criticisms while making their position within Christian theology clearer, the Chymical Wedding can almost be seen as the first instance of literature written within the osicrucian tradition, rather than as part of its manifesto-like founding documents, because it does not seek to explain the history of osicrucianism, but rather explicate how the teachings and underlying beliefs of osicrucianism contribute to and alter one's interpretation of Christian scripture (Williamson 17; Dickson 760). Specifically, one can see a distinct connection between the Chymical Wedding and seventeenth-century attempts to expand Protestantism throughout Europe. The Chymical Wedding can be seen as a the most explicit attempt on the part of osicrucians and osicrucian supporters to wed the new (or newly revealed) society to the larger religious…… [Read More]

References

Andreae, Johann. The Chymical Wedding of Christian Rosenkreutz. N/a: Benjamin Rowe, 2000.

Case, Paul F. The True and Invisible Rosicrucian Order: An Interpretation of the Rosicrucian

Allegory and an Explanation of the Ten Rosicrucian Grades. York Beach, Me: S. Weiser,

1985. Print.
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Philosophy in Kant's Groundwork of

Words: 649 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69487949

Since a hypothetical imperative represents one of many possibilities that are only means to an end, they cannot be objectively necessary, and therefore do not have the same command over human behavior as a categorical imperative. As Kant notes, commands are laws that we must obey, even when they contradict our inclinations (27).

(b)

If we treat others as a means to an end, then we use them in service of another goal. However, if we treat others as an end in themselves, then we respect them without regard to any other goals or ends. To treat someone as a means to an end is to make them less important than some end result, whereas to treat someone as an end in themselves makes them the final and most important consideration. Slavery may be the most offensive example of using others as a means to an end, but there are…… [Read More]

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Kant's Opinion on the Golden Rule

Words: 1299 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15140266

Metaphysics of Morals" philosopher Immanuel Kant famously argues that his Categorical Imperative is fundamentally different, and superior to the greatly flawed Golden Rule. Kant asserts that the Categorical Imperative is based on the solid rock of rationality, and allows for the formulation of universal moral rules. In contrast, he notes that the Golden Rule is not based on the rational will of the human being, and cannot formulate true universal moral rules. Ultimately, the Golden Rule is a much better tool to help guide the irrational reality of human morality and behavior.

The Golden Rule is often considered to be one of humanities most basic, fundamental moral tenants. It appears in most moral traditions and in the majority of major religions in many different guises. It often appears in a positive form, as in the Christian Bible, " 'do unto others as you would have them do unto you' (Matthew…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Dictionary of Philosophical Terms and Names. Garth Kemerling. ©1997-2001. 27 February 2002.  http://www.philosophypages.com/dy/c.htm#catimp .

Kant, Immanuel. Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals. Cambridge, U.K.; New York: Cambridge University Press, 1998.

Morgan, Michael P. Classics of Moral and Political Theory, Indianapolis & Cambridge: Hackett, 1996.

Xrefer: The Oxford Companion to Philosophy. Golden Rule. 10 December 2002. http://www.xrefer.com/entry/552193
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Comparative Philosophy

Words: 3983 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96992117

Philosophy

Nietzsche often identified life itself with "will to power," that is, with an instinct for growth and durability. This concept provides yet another way of interpreting the ascetic ideal, since it is Nietzsche's contention "that all the supreme values of mankind lack this will -- that values which are symptomatic of decline, nihilistic values, are lording it under the holiest names" (Kaufmann 1959). Thus, traditional philosophy, religion, and morality have been so many masks a deficient will to power wears. The sustaining values of estern civilization have been sublimated products of decadence in that the ascetic ideal endorses existence as pain and suffering. Some commentators have attempted to extend Nietzsche's concept of the will to power from human life to the organic and inorganic realms, ascribing a metaphysics of will to power to him (Kaufmann 1959).

The insidious process by which we ascribe attributes to our fictitious consciousness has…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Call, L. Nietzsche as Critic and Captive of Enlightenment. 1995.

Descartes, R. Discourse on Method and Meditations on First Philosophy, 4th Ed. Translated by D. Cress. Hackett Publishing Company, 1999.

Berkeley, G. Principles of Human Knowledge / Three Dialogues Between Hylas and Philonous.

USA: Penguin Classics, 1988.
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Kant Critique of Pure Reason

Words: 987 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42484337

eligion through its sanctity, and law-giving through its majesty, may seek to exempt themselves from it. But they then awaken just suspicion, and cannot claim the sincere respect which reason accords only to that which has been able to sustain the test of free and open examination.

Axi[n])

The debate of science and metaphysics arises when one wonders if metaphysics is even a science or do we really need it. Kant puts forward this question to explain why metaphysics is a science and why it is needed. He argues that metaphysics is needed, 'if not as science, yet still as natural disposition' because human reason is naturally pre-disposed 'by an inward need', and not just by 'idle desire', to raise metaphysical questions that science alone cannot answer. (B21-2). For example the questions about soul or the existence of God come to our minds naturally and this is where metaphysics steps…… [Read More]

References

N. Kemp Smith, a Commentary to Kant's 'Critique of Pure Reason', 2nd edn (London: Macmillan, 1930)

Immanuel Kant, Critique of Pure Reason, trans. Werner S. Pluhar (Indianapolis: Hackett, 1996
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Compare and Contrast Plato and Kant

Words: 2663 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82104126

Plato and Kant

Plato's life span was between 427 BC and 347 BC. As a youth Plato possessed political visions, but he turned out disenchanted by the political authority of the city of Athens. He slowly turned out a follower of Socrates, adhering to his fundamental theory and conversational pattern of argument: the pursuance of virtue through inspection, results and additional inspection. The self-explanatory custom is one-minded in its inspection that Plato undertook many attires of poetry as a youth, only in the later point of life resorting to philosophy. Plato's chief donation was to philosophy, mathematics and science. Anyhow, it is not as yielding as one might anticipate envisaging Plato's philosophical visions. The cause for this is that Plato penned down no meticulous treatise providing his visions, rather he penned down innumerous conversations which are written in the form of debates. Plato enhanced his visions from within and implemented…… [Read More]

References

Baldwin, James Mark. History of Psychology: A Sketch and an Interpretation"

Volume II, (1913) Retrieved at  http://psychclassics.yorku.ca/Baldwin/History/chap2-2.htm . Accessed on 12/13/2003

Bushnell, Thomas. "Kant's Moral Philosophy: Third Paper" Retrieved at http://www.mit.edu/~tb/papers/kant-eth-ontoAccessed on 12/13/2003

Immanuel Kant | Sigmund Freud" Retrieved at http://www.geocities.com/dragon-dreamer/bits/kantfreud.html. Accessed on 12/13/2003
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What Is Philosophy

Words: 1388 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68310525

Philosophy is a one of the most perplexing, interesting and intriguing branch of study that seeks to understand the world from a viewpoint not commonly used. Three are many different branches of philosophy and three important ones include metaphysics, epistemology and axiology.

Epistemology refers to the branch of study that tries to go deeper into the meaning and scope of knowledge. The field is concerned with important and pertinent questions concerning knowledge such as what is knowledge, how is it acquired and how do we know some of things that we know. For example we understand that adding 2 and 2 would give us 4. Epistemology is simply concerned with the origin of this knowledge and not with how we add etc. Moser (2002) writes: "Epistemology characterized broadly, is an account of knowledge. Within the discipline of philosophy, epistemology is the study of the nature of knowledge and justification: in…… [Read More]

References

1. Edgar Sheffield Brightman, A Philosophy of Religion (New York: Prentice-Hall, 1940)

2 W.H. Walsh, Metaphysics (London: Hutchinson University Library, 1963)

3. Paul K. Moser, ed., The Oxford Handbook of Epistemology (New York: Oxford University Press, 2002)

4. Enrique Dussel, Philosophy of Liberation.
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Psychic Reading in the Professional

Words: 5806 Length: 17 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83959101



The connection between the physical world and the metaphysical world was a topic that has fascinated humans for hundreds of years. Aristotle suggested the soul was the seat of psychic activities. He also felt that activities in the physical world first have to occur in the spiritual world (Elders, 2006). This connection is the basis of modern metaphysics and the ideals that are embodied in the psychic's work. Many, such as Aristotle presented actions in the physical world as evidence of what has happened on the metaphysical plane. Since the time of Aristotle, science has abandoned the idea of self-evidence (Dougherty, 2006).

Now a new interest in the study of metaphysics has arisen. This new interest is the result of new information into the study of quantum physics. Quantum theory and cosmology are only beginning to be explored as possible explanations for psychic ability, ghosts and other manifestations of sub-atomic…… [Read More]

References

Briggs, E. & Grisaffe, D. (2010). Service Performance -- Loyalty Intentions Link in a Business-to-

Business Context: The Role of Relational Exchange Outcomes and Customer

Characteristics. Journal of Service Research, February 1, 2010; 13(1): 37-51.

Coale, S. (2006). Psychic Visions and Quantum Physics: Oates's Big Bang and the Limits of Language. Studies in the Novel. 38 (4): 427.
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Spiritual Intelligence and the Intuitive

Words: 5721 Length: 17 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52985661

98)

The above quotation refers to forms of intuition and perception of the spiritual that in fact advocates the "blocking' of the normal modes of understanding and apprehension. As one commentator state;

The spiritual is all that is beyond the conscious awareness and would include God or gods, demons, spirits and nature spirits, ghosts, non-incarnate entities, angels, devas, guardians of the threshold, guardian angels and all the intangible entities and realities of the religions where the cloud of the unknowable things exists.

(Roze, Janis, Toward the New Humanity: From Emotional Intelligence

to Spiritual Intuition)

It is this perception of the intuitive forms of spiritual intelligence that, it also needsto be taken into account in a discussion of this subject.

2. Literature review

There are many modern as well as more traditional perspectives on the issue of spiritual intelligence. A broad and inclusive view of the central terms in this study…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Blitz, Mark. (2001) "Understanding Heidegger." Public Interest Fall 2001: 106.

Bunge, M. (1962). Intuition and Science. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Diedrich William Frank ( 2007) "What is Spiritual Intelligence and Why Should You Care?" Retrieved May 10, 2009, from http://www.articlealley.com/article_159792_51.html

Gardner, Howard. (1993) Multiple Intelligences: The Theory in Practice. New York: Basic.
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Prolegomena Kant Wrote the Prolegomena

Words: 1835 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47857660



Then present one argument that demonstrates a strength or a weakness.

The strength of Kant's critique of reason and its excesses can be seen in an examination of Plato's famous Theory of Ideas. For Plato, the only suitable instrument for knowledge of the real world is reason and understanding. He defines understanding as the highest activity of the soul and reason as the second-highest activity of the soul. (Republic, 511c) These activities are necessary to glimpse the things of the real word, the actual Forms contained in the world of Forms. (Republic, 509d). For Plato, true Knowledge was the Knowledge of these real things. (Republic, 509e). For him, all Knowledge was Knowledge of something that exists because what does not exist is nothing, of which it is impossible to have Knowledge. (Republic, 477e)

Through the proposition that knowledge and opinion are different capacities, Plato infers that knowledge and opinion must…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Kant, Immanuel. Prolegomena to Any Future Metaphysics. James Fieser. 1997. Internet resource

Plato, Benjamin Jowett, and Irwin Edman. The Works of Plato. New York: Modern Library, 1928. Print.
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Run for Your Wife Ray Cooney's Run

Words: 1976 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20159898

un for Your Wife

ay Cooney's un for Your Wife through Philosophical Inquiry

un for Your Wife is a British farce written by ay Cooney who also played the main protagonist, John Smith, in the play in theater performances in Britain in the 1980s. The play explores numerous issues ranging from ethics, polygamy, and faithfulness to the aesthetics of British culture in the 1950s. The whole play, however, is a farce and sometimes acts in the play seem to be mindless, performed just for the sake of humor although some forms of humor used in the play also seem to be bland. One way to make sense of the play is to explore it through branches of philosophy such as metaphysics and epistemology. Both of these branches of knowledge ultimately suggest that there is subjectivity and relativity in our ways of knowing. This may be useful in understanding un for…… [Read More]

References

Metaphysics (n.d.) PBS Glossary. Retrieved on 17 October 2011, from  http://www.pbs.org/faithandreason/gengloss/metaph-body.html 

Steup, Matthias (2005) Epistemology. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved on 17 October 2011, from  http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/epistemology/
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Education Philosophies Understanding Educational Philosophies

Words: 994 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83967499

Furthermore, the nature and types of value, such as morals, aesthetics, religion, and metaphysics are the core focal areas for this study. In other words, this field of study is related to ethics and aesthetics. Since all the human beings are different in terms of their backgrounds, thus they even think differently from one another and axiology is the science that examines and analyzes the thinking patterns of the diverse people (Ornstein, Levine, Gutek & Vocke, 2010).

This hypothetical study of values is also vital in education because it promotes the learning of moral rules, principles, ethics and values; hence it leads the individual to gain knowledge related to the good deeds and actions. With the study of axiology, the individual would become cognizant of what is right and wrong, good or bad, ethical and unethical (Ornstein, Levine, Gutek & Vocke, 2010).

Logic is considered the fourth subdivision of philosophy…… [Read More]

References

Ornstein, a.C., Levine, D.U., Gutek, G.L., Vocke, D.E. (2010). Foundations of Education, 11th Edition, Cengage Learning, Canada.

Vang (2010). An Educational Psychology of Methods in Multicultural Education, Volume 6 of Educational Psychology, Peter Lang, New York.
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Philosophy Personal Worldview Out of

Words: 1168 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62832454

In terms of ethics, I believe we feel happiest when we are acting and behaving in ways that will promote our survival and the survival of our offspring. This does not mean we feel best when we act selfishly, because I believe there is a universal spiritual dimension (also part of the metaphysics of the world) which makes all living creatures feel connected. Therefore, we cannot feel truly happy unless we are behaving in ways that promote the health and prosperity of all of life in general. As human beings with a developed conscience, we cannot ignore our own unethical actions; they will always affect our own well-being in one way or another (less restful sleep, mental or emotional disorders, difficulty learning, lack of achievement, low self-esteem, etc.).

Dominant Worldview in America Today: My Perception

I believe the dominant worldview in America is axiology-based and influenced heavily by modern technology…… [Read More]

References

Archie, L., & Archie, J.G. (2004). Reading for Philosophical Inquiry: A Brief Introduction to Philosophical Thinking. philosophy.lander.edu.

Lowe, E. (1998). The Possibility of Metaphysics: Substance, Identity, and Time. Oxford: Clarendon.

Steup, M. (2010). Epistemology. Retrieved 01-26, 2011, from the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Spring 2010 Edition):  http://plato.stanford.edu/cgi-bin/encyclopedia/archinfo.cgi?entry=epistemology
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Plato it Seems That From

Words: 1269 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78217437

This may be true, but only to a limited extent. If human experience is limited, then so is the acquired knowledge and truth can not exist partially only. On the one hand. On the other hand, it is safe to say that unlimited experience is impossible at least empirically (419a).

Therefore, truth might be based on experience but experience is not enough. The fact that people are chained to the wall is a metaphor which suggests the fact that human perceptions are influenced and shaped by the environment we live in through its customs, beliefs and values. It becomes obvious how difficult it is to have a free mind. Returning to the issue of experience, we may have a person breaking free from the chain and thus being able to move around the cave.

Now he can see the statues and the fire and with the use of reason he…… [Read More]

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Special Ed Philosophy a Special

Words: 1433 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13632993

Gerl (2010) points out in his advocacy of metaphysics as a way of approaching the philosophy of special education that this helps to construct a legal perspective which is evolving in a way that is consistent with the evolution of ethical perspectives of human dignity, individual rights and the treatment of those with disabilities. hile this strikes as relevant, Gerl even concedes that one may not be suited for the metaphysical philosophy of special education law "if a lack of ambiguity appeals to you." Indeed, in a sense, traditional civil rights case law in combination with the ideals delivered by an axiology discourse should serve to effectively address the need for the evolution in ethical perspective. And quite simply stated, the philosophical underpinnings of Logic are problemetized in the educational context by the sheer force and divergence of opposing political, ideological and economic priorities. Therefore, the idea of constructing logical…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Gerl, J. (2010). The Metaphysics of Special Education Law. Special Education Today.

Gordon, M. (1994). Toward a Complete Axiology of Classroom Practice. Boston University.

Kozleski, E. (2005). Logic Model for Whole School Educational Reform. National Institute for Urban School Improvement.

Silverman, J.C. (2007). Epistemological Beliefs and Attitudes Toward Inclusion in Preservice Teachers. Teacher Education and Special Education, 30(1), 42-51.
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Continental Rationalists

Words: 1490 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12665042

Descartes, Spinoza, and Leibniz are often accurately portrayed as the key figures representing the Continental rationalism. Continental rationalism is characterized by a belief that truth can be deduced from human reason, and that certain innate, or self-evident ideas form the basis for such knowledge. In contrast, British empiricism saw the source of knowledge could be found in experience and through the senses. hile the works of Descartes, Spinoza, and Leibniz contain significant differences, they share the common beliefs in: 1) reason as the ultimate source of knowledge, 2) Leibniz' principle of sufficient reason, and 3) the idea that knowledge must come from self-evident, a priori truths. The belief in innate principles or ideas characterized the work of Descartes, Spinoza, and Leibniz, and is probably best characterized through their shared belief in the idea of a deity.

Overview of Rationalism and Empiricism

Continental rationalism argues essentially that the ultimate source of…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Descartes, Rene. Descartes: Meditations on First Philosophy. Prentice Hall, 1960.

Hauptli, Bruce W. Continental Rationalism Characterized. Florida International University,

2003. 08 November 2004.

http://www.fiu.edu/~hauptli/ContinentalRationalismBrieflyCharacterized.html
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Kant and Happiness for the

Words: 2243 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58076432

For example, many individuals value freedom and knowledge as things that can bring happiness. So, having their own value, these things are parts of happiness.

Mill believed that everyone's happiness is important. He believed in what he called the 'greatest happiness principle.' According to the greatest happiness principle, a person is ethically required to try to bring about the consequences that would lead to the greatest amount of happiness for everyone affected. More simple stated, if a person can produce more happiness (and/or less suffering) in a certain situation, then he or she is ethically obligated to do so. In more contemporary ethical terms, this is called the requirement to 'maximize happiness. If one was considering doing something for one's own happiness, but that action would cause others suffering, then Mill would have to take both of the sides into account in deciding whether or not the action should morally…… [Read More]

References

Kant, Immanuel. (2009). Fundamental principles of the metaphysic of morals. Merchant Books.

Mill, John Stuart. (2010). Utilitarianism. CreateSpace.
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Islamization of Knowledge This Work

Words: 5650 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30455111

Not only is a challenge present for Muslim teachers in attempting to standardize this curriculum but as well "this is compounded by the fact that curriculum materials related to teaching about Islam produced overseas - even for Arabic language studies - are viewed as irrelevant or unsuited to young students' lives and culture in the U.S. And Europe." (Douglass and Shaikh, 2004)

Guidelines have been provided in recent years concerning teaching religion in public schools in the U.S. And it is stated by Douglass and Shaikh that "general adherence to the guidelines and their implementation in textbook development has done more than anything else to improve the accuracy of textbook depictions of the basic beliefs and practices, origin stories and subsequent cultural and institutional history of various religions." (Douglass and Shaikh, 2004) Stated as primary among the changes is "the consistent use of attributive phrases, combined with greater factual accuracy."…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Akhir, Jamadil (2008) Islamic education after independence and the impact of National Educational Policy. Social Issues. Online available at http://www.hijrahmedia.com/proto/iidl2/artikel/edu4.php

Coulson, Andrew (2004) Education and Indoctrination in the Muslim World - Is There a Problem? What Can We Do about it? Policy Analysis 11 Mar 2004. No. 511.

Delic, Zijad)(2001) Hermeneutics of Islamic Education and the Construction of New Muslim Cultures in the West: Faithful by t Reformed. University of Oregon (2006)

Douglass, Susan L. And Shaikh, Munir a. (2004) Defining Islamic Education: Differentiation and Applications. Current Issues in Comparative Education Vol. 7(1) Teachers College, Columbia University.
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Applying Kant's Theory to a

Words: 1402 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80491684

"(Kant, 30) Thus, Dorothea's action coincides with the first formulation of the categorical imperative. Had she determined to refuse the request made by Casaubon, the law would have contained a contradiction in itself and thus would have been violated. It is arguable that when asked for help, a person should grant it at the expense of his or her personal comfort. The contrary law could not have any validity since it would deny the existence of kindness and selflessness among people. Dorothea acted selflessly, although she did waver to make this sacrifice simply because she did not feel the actual end of the action would be noble enough. Nevertheless, the immediate end, that of completing her duty to her husband as a fellow human being, is a noble end in itself, and this is why Dorothea chose to fulfill it. Dorothea significantly rejects the circumstance- that of having to perform…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Eliot, George. Middlemarch. New York: Penguin, 1984

Kant, Immanuel. Grounding for the Metaphysics of Morals. Translated by James W. Ellington. Indianapolis: Hacket, 1993
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Philosophy Plato's Works on Euthyphro

Words: 1521 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 710226

The question arising from this claim is whether evidence exists to prove that there exists an infinitely good, powerful, and wise God where morality naturally emerges. Humes argues that is hard to imagine that an all-good, powerful God exists in this world full of pain and misery. From these claims, one can argue that this insight, or God, has both evil and good, as is present in man if man is in God's image and likeliness.

Immanuel Kant: from the Critique of Pure Reason, the Good Will and the Categorical Imperative, the Postulates of Practical Reason

Kant believes that the vigorous application of same methods of reasoning can yield to an equal development in dealing with the issues of moral philosophy. Kant proposes a list of categories of Freedom in Relation to the concept of good vs. evil. Kant uses logical distinction as the basis for the catalog. Even though…… [Read More]

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Kant Adam Smith

Words: 792 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60330801

Kant; Adam Smith

Locke: primary qualities, secondary qualities, substance Kant: Judgment of perceptions, judgment of experience, categories of the understanding Explain all six terms above. Does Kant's position (relevant to those terms) different from Locke's? Is Kant (on these terms) able to deal with some of the problems Locke encountered (when using these terms)?

According to John Locke, "the primary qualities of objects are their real qualities," such as "solidity, extension, figure, motion, rest, and number, all of which excite or produce similar ideas in your mind," which may be contrasted to secondary qualities, which are subjective in nature "like color, sound, smell, and taste" (Shoulder 2012). When apprehending both primary and secondary qualities, the mind does not apprehend the thing itself directly, but merely creates an impression of it. What gives primary qualities' an objective existence is something known as substance, or literally a "substratum underlying and supporting the…… [Read More]

Reference

Discourse on inequality. Spark Notes. [18 Apr 2012]

 http://www.sparknotes.com/philosophy/rousseau/section1.html 

Hobbes, Locke, Rousseau. Econ 205. PowerPoint. [18 Apr 2012]

web.uconn.edu/cunningham/econ205/Property.ppt
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Education Knowledge Diversity and the

Words: 1888 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75280437

In this regard, the instructor's individual characteristics should be secondary to the readiness of the instructor to recognize individual learning strengths and needs in the students.

Diversity:

Diversity is often taken as a term which refers particularly to difference in race, ethnicity, gender, religion or sexual orientation, to name just a few categories of cultural distinction. And indeed, it does refer to this within the context of education. However, there is yet another level to the discussion on diversity which concerns education in particularly, relating to the individual nature of learning styles. It is therefore necessary for the teacher to channel a recognition of learning styles and cultural diversity into a unified approach to the classroom. This tends to reinforce the position taken throughout this research, which is that the successful teacher will, therefore, tend to an educational strategy which diverts from strict academic prerogatives and instead approaches its subjects…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Chang, J.; De Silva, a.D.; Dien, T.T.; Mccarty, T.C.; Nordlander, a & Perez, B. (2004). Sociocultural Contexts of Language and Literacy. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Haselhurst, G. (1997). Aristotle Metaphysics. Space and Motion.com.

Slavin, R.E. (2007). Educational Psychology: Theory and Practice. Prentice Hall.

Steup, M. (2005). Epistemology. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
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Educational Ideology Philosophy and Theory

Words: 1108 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97649372

Finally, logic consists of the study of formal argument and is fundamentally related to other branches of philosophy and to the process of human reason, more generally.

he metaphysician might study such things as where the lines are properly drawn between identifying something as living or nonliving, whether our perception of being alive necessarily means that we are alive, and whether or not we can trust that we are awake and not merely dreaming that we are awake (aylor, 2002). he epistemologist might study whether (and how) one can know whether our assumptions and perceptions are capable of yielding information on the basis of which any conclusions can be drawn at all. he epistemologist would be concerned with how we know what we know and with what we can possibly know, whereas the metaphysician would be concerned with understanding the nature of what we perceive around us (aylor, 2002).

Axiologists…… [Read More]

Taylor, R. (2002). Freedom, Anarchy, and the Law: An Introduction to Political

Philosophy. Buffalo, NY: Prometheus.

Wiley, C. "The ABC's of Business Ethics: Definitions, Philosophies and Implementation" Industrial Management, Vol. 22, No. 5 (1995): 27-34.
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Kant and His Ethics Kant

Words: 875 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88348602



In Cultural Ethical elativism, Universalism, Absolutism (2005), it was mentioned that Kant said that people engage a particular space in creation and morality can be figured out in one supreme directive of reason or imperative that all responsibilities and duties drawn from; Kant described an imperative as any intention which asserts a particular act or inaction to be compulsory; a hypothetical imperative requires action in a particular condition: "if I wish to quench my thirst, I must drink something;" -- a categorical imperative, in contrast, indicates an absolute, unconditional obligation that states its influence in all conditions, both necessary as well as justified as an end in itself; and it is most recognized in its first expression: "Act only according to that maxim whereby you can at the same time will that it should become a universal law."

In Cultural Ethical elativism, Universalism, Absolutism (2005), it was stated that Kant…… [Read More]

References

Cultural Ethical Relativism, Universalism, Absolutism (2005). Retrieved on March 22, 2009 at http://www.tamucc.edu/~sencerz/relat.htm

Timmermann, J. (2007). Kant's Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals: A Commentary, Cambridge University Press, 189.
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Kant Moral Worth

Words: 1628 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29548750

Moral Worth

Present, explain, and assess the thesis that only acts done from duty have moral worth

In his Groundwork for the Metaphysics of Morals, Immanuel Kant addresses the issue of how people can determine the moral value of actions. His central claim is that only acts that are done out of duty can be considered to have any moral value. Implicit in this topic is the need to reconcile the intent of one's actions with the result of their actions. Kant explores exactly where morality can be located when identifying the value of one's actions. At stake in Kant's argument is whether there is in fact an a priori framework for how people should behave, and where virtue is found.

At the beginning of the Groundwork, Kant explains the notion of logic and defines the terms that he deploys to explain his governing thesis. These terms include: good will,…… [Read More]

References

Kant, Immanuel. (2010). Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals. London: Cambridge University Press.
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Hume Think That Causation Is

Words: 1128 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44770040



A good example as to why causation isn't always connected is found on page 420. Hume asserts that only when two objects are "constantly conjoined" can observers "infer the one from the other." But rarely are two effects and two causes connected, Hume continues. If a cause and effect have "resemblance" to another cause and effect, they can be conjoined, but that is rare indeed.

Put into simpler words, Hume doubts that even with a repetition of conjunctions it would be safe to believe a "connection" between the cause and effect would be established. Indeed, after a person experiences sees instances repeated repetitiously, the mind is convinced through the person's habits and reflections that upon the introduction of one event, another event is expected to happen, and humans believe this will happen. His own explanation is that a cause is an "…object followed by another, and whose appearance always conveys…… [Read More]

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Strengths and Weaknesses of Metaphysical Methods of Inquiry

Words: 660 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96626376

Metaphysical Methods of Inquiry

The philosopher Rene Descartes adopted what he called a 'metaphysical' or rationalist approach to understanding the world and the relationship of the human to the divine. In contrast to a physical approach a 'meta-physical' inquiry, as the word suggests, is a method of reasoning that takes the thinker outside of the physical world and confines the philosopher's focus to the mind when establishing what is true. The great strength of the metaphysical approach, according to Descartes, is that it is not polluted by the potential delusions of the material world, in contrast to an empiricist or scientific approach. Metaphysics is deductive, rather than inductive in nature. It makes suppositions based upon evidence, reasoning from first, established principles, rather than creating principles based upon sensory evidence. "But while my senses may deceive me about what is small or far away, there may still be other things taken…… [Read More]

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Descartes Mechanical Philosophy and Leibniz Reaction to

Words: 1825 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43225100

Descartes Mechanical Philosophy and Leibniz reaction to it. It has 7 sources.

ubstance and form

There must be something out of which change takes place." Aristotle thinks that this "out of which" is what we call matter. For Aristotle everything is composed of form and matter. Consider the example of a statue of a doll made of lump of clay, the clay is what Aristotle calls the matter and the shape of doll that it has is called its form. The result is a compound object made of matter and form, the statue of a doll. till Form and matter are not sufficient to explain change; the statue was first made of clay, which was not first a statue. The contrast between the opposite is not between the statue and the clay [Aristotle, The Physics, 2003]. The contrast is between the non-statues, the lump of clay and the statue. In…… [Read More]

Sources:

Burnham, Douglas. Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (1646-1716) Metaphysics, Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 2001at: http://www.utm.edu/research/iep/l/leib-met.htm

Scott, David, Leibniz's Model Of Creation And His Doctrine Of Substance, 1998 at http://www.mun.ca/animus/1998vol3/scott3.htm

Kemerling, Garth. Rene Descartes (1596-1650), Philosophy Pages, 2002 at  http://www.philosophypages.com/ph/desc.htm 

Author not available, Philosophy 22 Lecture Notes: Leibniz, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy Entries accessed on 24-3-2003 at http://www-philosophy.ucdavis.edu/phi022/leiblec.htm
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Kant Camus Kant and Camus

Words: 1439 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95083014

If Kant's points are to be assimilated when adopting a moral stance which is consistent with man's dignity, such absolute terms are inevitably defined by dominant social structures, bringing us to the application of a normative theoretical structure. The inextricable relationship which theology and morality have shared throughout history tends to have a tangible impact on the way these hegemonic standards are defined.

And Kant, rejects any flexibility outright, however. Beyond its deviation from his established disposition toward moral absolutes, such variation violates Kant's maxim about man as an end rather than a means. Man is to be the motive for moral acts, with his dignity defining right and wrong. Indeed, as he pointedly phrases it, "the laws of morality are laws according to which everything ought to happen; they allow for conditions under which what ought to happen doesn't happen." (Kant, 1)

Counter-argument:

Like Kant, Camus asserts a clear…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Camus, a. (1942). The Myth of Sisyphus. Vintage.

Kant, Immanuel. 1785. Groundwork for the Metaphysics of Morals. Jonathan Bennett.
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Morality the Relative Nature of

Words: 774 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 544234

For some identify happiness with virtue, some with practical wisdom, others with a kind of philosophic wisdom, others with these, or one of these, accompanied by pleasure or not without pleasure; while others include also external prosperity." (Aristotle, I: 8) Aristotle uses this as a divining rod for dissecting the various relationships which are perpetuated amongst men. Here, Aristotle's practicality is of particular relevance, with his semantic explication of terms for the relationship between virtue and happiness offering a rather thorough template for human morality. This denotes that while we do not fully accept the idea offered by Kant that that which is right for one is right for all, we do accept some balance where perceptions of right and wrong may differ but where a clear relationship between happiness and goodness permeates motives and creates something of a universal standard.

This balance is underscored by Plato's consideration of the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Aristotle, Nichomachean Ethics, translated by W.D. Ross. The Internet Classics Archive.

Online at  http://classics.mit.edu/Aristotle/nicomachaen.1.i.html 

Kant, I. 1785. Groundwork for the Metaphysics of Morals. Jonathan Bennett.

Plato. (360 B.C.E.) the Republic. The Internet Classics Archives. Online at  http://classics.mit.edu/Plato/republic.html .
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Educational Philosophy

Words: 406 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15104473

Educational Philosophy

More than ever, teachers have myriad of decisions to make in their classrooms. Naturally, they have to determine curricula, how to rate the students on their work and the specific grades to give to each pupil. However, a teacher's responsibility goes far beyond this. They must decide what other skills would be helpful, or even essential, to live in this fast-paced global environment. Beyond the academics, students need education in intercommunication, diversity and multiculturalism, time management, critical thinking, creativity and expression, and multi-tasking. Many students also need self-esteem building, stress reduction methods, psychological support and just a caring, nonjudgmental hand of support.

According to the class readings, educational philosophy reflects the personal values/principles that guide teachers in making choices in their classroom. To determine these choices, they should take into consideration the nature of reality (metaphysics); the study of knowledge that has been disclosed to man by God…… [Read More]

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Education and the Teacher-Learner Relationship From a

Words: 2523 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87176749

education and the teacher-learner relationship from a Christian-informed philosophical perspective. It begins with an explanation of the author's personal worldview, and then explores the various philosophical schools of education. Combining the two, the author explains how they have helped shape the author's approach to education. ather than relying on a single educational philosophy, the author intends to combine multiple philosophies in the classroom environment.

Describing the purpose of education is an interesting prospect because education is a cultural construct, and, as a result, what constitutes an education is dependent upon the surrounding culture. In a broad sense, an education is the instruction and learning that a person receives, in both formal and informal environments, which is aimed at preparing that person to live as an adult within the surrounding culture. When one views education as a means of adapting the individual to adult life in his or her own culture,…… [Read More]

References

Brekelmans, M., Wubbels, Th., & Brok, P. den. (2002). Teacher experience and the teacher-

student relationship in the classroom environment. In S.C. Goh & M.S. Khine (Eds.),

Studies in educational learning environments: an international perspective

(pp.73-99). Singapore: World Scientific.
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Motivation of Behavior

Words: 1331 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28858537

Motivation in Behavior

a) What does Tolman's theory of animal learning tell us about the motivation for human learning?

Unlike John Watson, B.F. Skinner and the other strict behaviorists, or the ussian physiologists like Ivan Pavlov, Edward C. Tolman argued that the behaviorist theory that learning was a matter of stimulus-response (S-) and positive and negative reinforcement was highly simplistic. Although he rejected introspective methods and metaphysics, he increasingly moved away from strict behaviorism into the areas of cognitive psychology. In short, he became a mentalist without actually using that term to describe himself and concluded that all behavior was "purposive" (Hergenhahn, 2009, p. 428). All of his experiments with rats moving through mazes at the University of Berkeley proved to his satisfaction that behavior was actually the dependent variable, with the environment as the independent variable, with mental processes as intervening variables. Tolman summarized this basic theory, which he…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Leaf, J.B. et al. (2010). "Comparison of Simultaneous Prompting and No-No Prompting in Two-Choice Discrimination Learning with Children with Autism." Journal of Applied Behavioral Analysis, No. 2 (Summer 2010), pp. 215-28.

Lerner, R.M. (2002). Concepts and Theories of Human Development, (3rd ed.) Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.

Lund, S.K. (2009). "Discrete Trial Instruction in Early Intensive Behavioral Intervention" in E.A. Boutot and M. Tincani (eds). Autism Encyclopedia: The Complete Guide to Autism Spectrum Disorders. Prufrock Press, Inc.

Hergenhahn, B.R. (2009). An Introduction to the History of Psychology, (6th ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth
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Do Heidegger's Political Views Influence His Metaphysical Views

Words: 2971 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66357234

Heidegger and Hitler

Proponents of Heidegger's metaphysical viewpoint are reluctant to identify a relationship between it and the opprobrious Nazi regime which Heidegger supported from 1933 to 1945. Critics of Heidegger, however, view the relationship between his metaphysics and his politics as significant. One might well ask, therefore, whether the relationship is real or only apparent -- whether the tenets of National Socialism are found in Heidegger's philosophy, or whether the fact that the two came from one man is merely a coincidence that ultimately means little.

Yet, by the formula of his own analysis (set forth in Contributions to Philosophy: Of the Event), one can see that Heidegger's metaphysics cannot be separated from his politics anymore than he himself can be separated from the environment and context in which he came to maturity. But while some scholars view Heidegger's political views as having an impact on his metaphysical views,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Farias, Victor. Heidegger and Nazism. PA: Temple University Press, 1987. Print.

Gillespie, Michael Allen. Hegel, Heidegger, and the Ground of History. IL: University

of Chicago Press, 1984. Print.

Heidegger, Martin. Contributions to Philosophy: Of the Event. IN: Indiana University
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Aristotle's Position on the Existence

Words: 1141 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68944403

The material cause refers to that substance out of which a thing is constructed. The formal cause is the idea of the thing in the mind of the creator who sets about creating that particular thing. The efficient cause is the Agent - or the being that creates the thing. The final cause is the purpose for which the thing has been created.

Mere potentiality does not exist on its own, but enters into the creation of all things - except for the Supreme Cause. Mere potentiality thus stands at one pole of reality, while the Supreme Cause - or God - is at the other. oth of these entities are real. Materia prima contains the most attenuated reality, as it is pure indeterminateness. God, on the other hand, contains the highest, most complete reality, as God is on the highest level of determinateness. One of the central tasks of…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Adler, Mortimer. Aristotle for Everybody: Difficult Thought Made Easy. New York: Touchstone

Books, 1997.

Aristotle. Metaphysics. 24 March 2008. Retrieved at http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.01.0052
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Myth of the Cave ' Why

Words: 2081 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42184922

Existentialism takes the human subject -- the holistic human, and the internal conditions as the basis and start of the conceptual way of explaining life. Taking idealism From Descartes, Kant, and Hegel, then building upon it, existentialist thinkers strip away the external and look at questions that surround human existence, and the conditions of that existence, rather than hypothesizing or dreaming of different forms of being. Thus, the inward philosophical emotions, angst, dread, self-doubt, self-esteem, etc. are experiences of the historical process, and the process of learning and moving through "existence" into a less fragile, more concrete, way of self-actualization. The existentialist concept of freedom is the manner in which internal values are set and interact with external historical trends. ather than humans being primarily rational, they make decisions when and if they find meaning (Solomon)

Existentialism asserts that people actually make decisions based solely on the meaning to them…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Ankrom, S. "Existentialism." 27 January 2009. About.com. November 2010 .

Beiser, F. The Cambridge Companion to Hegel and 19th Century Philosophy. Cembridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008.

Brickhouse, T. Routledge Philosophy Guidebook to Plato and the Trial of Socrates. New York: Routledge, 2004.

Cross, E. "Branches of Philosophy." September 2009. Elliottcross.com. November 2010 .
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Politics of Difference in Nursing

Words: 5961 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51968345

But the real world was a whole and perfect entity." (Philosophy Is a Way of Life)

The theory of dualism and its implications in term ethics and politics can be derived from the following concise but insightful analysis.

A dualistic view of reality understands there to be two (thus dualism) levels of existence. The top level... is ultimate reality, and consists of ideas, such as truth, beauty, goodness, justice, perfection. In other words, the ultimate reality is non-corporeal, or non-physical. It is the level of spirit and deity. The lower level is the physical world which in which we live. It is the opposite of ultimate reality, thus it is not real in the sense that it is not ultimate. It contains the imperfect physical manifestations of the ideas that exist in the perfect plane, so by definition it is characterized by falsehood, ugliness, evil, injustice, imperfection.

Bratcher D.)

Note…… [Read More]

References

Allen DG. (2006) Whiteness and difference in nursing. Nurs Philos. 7(2):65-78. Bratcher D. Body and Soul. Greek and Hebraic Tensions in Scripture: Thoughts on the Di-/Trichotomous Debate. Retrieved July 19, 2008, at http://www.cresourcei.org/bodysoul.html

Chadwick, Henry. (1984) Early Christian Thought and the Classical Tradition:

Studies in Justin, Clement, and Origen. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Engebretson, Joan.(2002) Hands-on: The persistent metaphor in nursing.
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Idealism With Its Historical Origins

Words: 923 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66972140

The world of matter is real, it is tangible, and it is an essential aspect of our human existence. However, the material universe, according to idealist philosophy, is not absolute; it is not the end. Because metaphysics concerns itself with the ultimate nature of reality, it is impossible for materialism to adequately answer metaphysical questions. There must be some source for all the multiple forms that comprise the physical universe. To propose a materialist metaphysics is to stop well short of the ultimate aim of metaphysics, which is to discover an explanation for material objects. Idealists and materialists both begin with matter but the idealist takes matter one step further, asking from where the matter came and why it exists in precisely the way that it does.

Objects that were created by human beings owe their existence to the human mind, and therefore objects that were not created by human…… [Read More]

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Husserl Language and Consciousness

Words: 3930 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39609832

Husserl, Language & Consciousness: econciliation of Edmund Husserl's Fourth Logical Investigation and Fifth logical investigation

Husserl's theory of consciousness in the fifth Logical Investigation is reported to be "one of the most profound and one of the most difficult theories of consciousness to have as yet been developed." (Smith, 1977) The account of consciousness given by Husserl is descriptive "in terms of a sensation, an intentional act that interprets the sensation, and an intentional object that is referred to by means of the interpretation of the sensation." (Smith, 1977)

The primary efforts of Husserl are committed to an analysis of the relation between what he refers to as 'matter' and 'quality' of the intentional act, and how these two components can be used to understand Brentano's famous proposal that "every act is either a presentation or is founded upon presentation." (Smith, 1977) It is stated that no matter the "brilliance…… [Read More]

References

Whitehead, A.N. (nd) Modes of Thought, Lecture 9, N.Y. The Macmillan Company cited in: Koenstenbaum, Peter (1993) The Paris Lectures. Retrieved from: http://web.me.com/grattonpeter/PHL_274/Continental_Philosophy_files/husserl_parislectures.pdf

Smith, Quentin (1977) On Husserl's Theory of Consciousness in the Fifth Logical Investigation. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research. Vol. 37, No. 4 (Jun., 1977), pp. 482-497. International Phenomenological Society. Retrieved from:

http://www.jstor.org/pss/2106429

Moran, Dermot and Husserl, Dermot (2001) Logical Investigations, Volume 1. Psychology Press 2001. Retrieved from: http://books.google.com/books?id=9KNIlIO_9JYC&pg=PR65&lpg=PR65&dq=Edmund+Husserl+Fourth+Logical+Investigation+and+Fifth+logical+investigation&source=bl&ots=ykRkk2C8fG&sig=-bzr6k3Awcjz8EGYydSX7p1zYbI&hl=en&ei=UmzHTdqpKOHc0QHVrYCRCA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=3&ved=0CCoQ6AEwAg#v=onepage&q&f=false
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Ethical Issue on Abortion

Words: 3142 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89322346

Ethical Issues Surrounding Abortion

Notwithstanding the laws being passed in various states against a woman's right to chose to terminate her pregnancy, the position of this paper is that Roe v. ade is the law of the land and a woman has the ethical and moral right to decide to have an abortion. There are many positions for and against Roe v. ade, and there are many ethical issues that may be (and in many cases are) embraced on both sides of the issue. But the law of the land vis-a-vis a woman's right to the privacy -- regarding her own values -- when it comes to terminating a pregnancy has been determined by the High Court. As a nurse committed to fairness and ethics in healthcare issues, while I respect the rights of others to practice their own values in opposition to Roe v. ade, I am in support…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Abort73. (2010). U.S. Abortion Statistics. Retrieved April 16, 2012, from  http://www.abort73.com .

Glionna, John M. (2012). Arizona passes law restricting abortion. Los Angeles Times.

Retrieved April 16, 2012, from http://www.southbendtribune.com.

Jones, K., and Chaloner, C. (2007). Ethics of abortion: the arguments for and against. Nursing Standard, 21(37), 45-48.
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Descartes' Discourse on Methods Contributions

Words: 3092 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75801694

Sensory experiences are nor reliable for making any statements, since people often mistake one thing for another. (Descartes talks about mirages). Knowledge based on reasoning is not always trustworthy, because people often make mistakes. (adding numbers is a classical example). Finally, knowledge is deemed by Descartes to be illusory, since it may come from dreams or insanity or from demons able to deceive men by making them believe that they are experiencing the real world, when are they are in fact not doing so. (the metaphysical approach in Descartes work is can be easily recognized here).

Following this analysis of existent forms of knowledge, Descartes concludes that certainty can be found in his intuition that, even if deceived, if he thinks he must exist: "Cogito ergo sum." The thought ("cogito") is a self-evident truth that gives certain knowledge of a particular thing's existence, i.e. one's self, but only the existence…… [Read More]

9. Dicker G, Descartes: An Analytical and Historical Introduction," Oxford, 1993

10. Flage D.E., Bonnen C.A., Descartes and Method: The Search for a Method in the Meditations," Routledge, 1999

Brians P., Gallwey M., Hughes D., Hussain, a., Law R., Myers M., Neville M., Schlesinger R., Spitzer a, Swan S. "Reading About the World," Volume 2, published by Harcourt Brace Custom Books. - excerpts from Descartes' works
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Plato and Socrates -- Human Soul There

Words: 2259 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29121319

Plato and Socrates -- Human Soul

There are a number of philosophical tenets that have been the subject of intense scrutiny since humans coalesced into formal societies. ho are we as a species? here do we fit in with the universe? hat is morality? Do the ends justify the means? Moreover, most of all, why are we here and are we free to act as individuals toward greater good? Free will, for instance, or the idea of that human's make choices unconstrained, has been contested even as a concept. The paradigm that humans may make rational choices and that life is not predetermined from "divine" beings allows one to look at a number of philosophical constructs that are on a continuum between the idea that determinism is false and that of hard determinism, or the idea that determinism is true and free will completely impossible forms the crux of a…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Baird, F. And W. Kaufman. From Plato to Derrida. New York: Prentice Hall, 2008. Print.

Huard, R. Plato's Political Philosophy. New York: Penguin, 2006. Print.

MacIntyre, A. A Short History of Ethics, Routledge, New York and London, 2006. Print.

Plato. "The Republic." June 2009. classics.mit.edu. Ed. B. Jowett. Web. May 2013. .
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Philosophy of Science

Words: 2868 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48559114

Scientific Explanation

Must every scientific explanation contain a law of nature? For those who support the Deductive-Nomological Account, the answer is yes. Discuss critically the arguments for and against this view, and present your own analysis of which is stronger.

Date of Submittal

Must every scientific explanation contain a law of nature? For those who support the Deductive-Nomological Account, the answer is yes. Discuss critically the arguments for and against this view, and present your own analysis of which is stronger.

Deductive-Nomological Account

Arguments for and against the statement

Must every scientific explanation contain a law of nature? For those who support the Deductive-Nomological Account, the answer is yes. Discuss critically the arguments for and against this view, and present your own analysis of which is stronger.

Introduction

"Explanation" is sometimes used in what might be called its "pedagogical" or "clarificatory" sense, as opposed to the sense of explanation that…… [Read More]

References

C.G. Hempel and Paul Oppenheim. (1948) Studies in the logic of explanation. Philosophy of Science, 15:135-175,.

CG. Hempel.( 1965) Aspects of Scientific Explanation and Other Essays in the Philosophy of Science. Free Press, New York,.

CG. Hempel. (1963). Explanation and prediction by covering laws. In Bernard Baumrin, editor, Philosophy of Science: The Delaware Seminar, pages 107-133, New York,. John Wiley and Sons.

D. Hume.(1980). Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion. Hackett, Indianopolis,. Contains the Posthumous Essays. Edited by Richard H. Popkin.
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Philosophy What Did Kierkegaard Mean

Words: 2576 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61109929

How is it possible, then, that we can come to know anything?

Methodological doubt is best represented in the first of the Meditations, "hat can be called into doubt."

In this meditation, the meditator is forced to think about everything that he has believed throughout the course of his life. He must then make a conscious decision to do away with all of these lies and begin again so that the basis of his knowledge is free of any lies.

4. hat is the difference between atheism and agnosticism?

Atheism means that there is a denial of theism (i.e., the existence of God) while agnosticism means that there is a question concerning the existence of God, a heaven, or any type of spiritual being. An atheist would believe that God does not exist and therefore does not have any control over his or her life while an agnostic would believe…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Allison, Henry E. Kant's Transcendental Idealism: An Interpretation and Defense. Yale University Press; Rev Exp edition, 2004.

Descartes, Rene., Cottingham, John., Ameriks, Karl. & Clarke, Desmond M. Descartes:

Meditations on First Philosophy: With Selections from the Objections and Replies. Cambridge University Press; Revised edition, 1996.

Kierkegaard, Soren. Fear and Trembling (Penguin Classics). Penguin Classics, 1986.
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Wittgenstein Ludwig Wittgenstein Is Particularly Interesting Because

Words: 1759 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91565635

Wittgenstein

Ludwig Wittgenstein is particularly interesting because in Philosophical Investigations (PI) he repudiated all of his earlier work in logical positivism and the Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus (TLP), along with much of what was traditionally thought of as philosophy, and took a radically new track in the last twenty years of his life. Young Wittgenstein was more certain that he had solved all major philosophical problems, while the older Wittgenstein had completely lost all such certainties. There were even hints in his earlier work of this later, more explicit existential despair, pessimism and even cynicism about the limits of philosophy, which certainly became more profound over the years. He was no longer able to view the world as consisting of facts that were logical representations of objects that really existed or at least had the potential to exist. Thoughts and ideas formed pictures that were models of reality, while everything outside of…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Biletzi, A. (2003). (Over)interpreting Wittgenstein. Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Leung, S.K. (2002). Language and Meaning in Human Perspective. Janus Publishing.

Ryle, G. (1949). The Concept of Mind. University of Chicago Press.

Wittgenstein, L. Philosophical Investigations, 4th Edition (1953, 2009). P.M.S. Hacker and Joachim Schulte (eds.). Oxford University Press.
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Philosophy of Science as Developed by Empiricists David Hume and Logical Positivist Group

Words: 876 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91600864

philosophy of science as developed by empiricists such as David Hume and completed by the logical positivist group. hy do they think truth can be best found by using the senses, the experimental method, and probability? Explain the verifiability theory and its meaning for such subjects as God, the super-natural, justice, morality, and political science. hat are the advantages and the limitations of this philosophical view?

The "Verifiability" or "Verificationist Theory of meaning" states that to understand a statement and to verify it one must first begin with a statement that can be proven true or false through sensory data. (Logic: The Verifiablity Theory of Meaning, 2004) In the Empiricist philosophy towards science, the source of all meaning is ultimately human sensory experience. Only meaningful statements can be true or false. Only statements whose meaning can be verified in observational terms can be true or false. This is in contrast…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Boyd, Richard. "Confirmation, Semantics and the Interpretation of Scientific Theory." http://www.rpi.edu/~eglash/eglash.dir/SST/boyd.htm

Feiser. James. "David Hume (1711-1776): Metaphysics and Epistemology." The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. http://www.utm.edu/research/iep/h/humeepis.htm

Logic: The Verifiability Theory of meaning. Theology Web. 11 Dec 2004

 http://www.theology.edu/logic/logic10.htm
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Relationship Science-philosophy the Relationship Between Science

Words: 4240 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37300639



Wulf, S.J. (2000). "The skeptical life in Hume's political thought. Polity, 33(1), 77.

Wulf uses David Hume's well-known skepticism to advance his concerning the extreme degrees to which philosophy had been taken before returning to less radical modes. He develops material about the antithetical ideas to those investigated here; that is, he puts into a context the ideas of those philosophers who, working at the edge of the intelligible, refused to "accede to the judgment of reason and even their own senses."

ukav, Gary. (1984) the dancing Wu Li masters: An overview of the new physics. New York: Bantam.

One of the first statements ukav makes in this book is that he found, visiting the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory in Berkeley, California, that physics "was not the sterile, boring discipline that I had assumed it to be. It was a rich, profound venture, which had become inseparable from philosophy. Incredibly, no…… [Read More]

Zumbrunnen, J. (2002). Courage in the Face of Reality: Nietzsche's Admiration for Thucydides. Polity, 35(2), 237+. Retrieved July 13, 2005, from Questia database, http://www.questia.com.

The Hundredth Monkey Theory is this: On a desert island at least 20 miles from another desert island, one of the monkeys decides to wash his fruit in the ocean before he eats it. Soon, his fellow monkeys see him doing it and follow suit. There is no communication between the first and second islands; nonetheless, one day shortly after the final monkey on the first island begins to wash his fruit, the monkeys on the second island begin to wash their fruit. They did not hear it through the 'monkey grapevine.' In New Thought, they heard it because ideas, thought to be intangible, are actually tangible, traveling in ways as yet unknown to us throughout the universe and popping up as 'new' ideas.

This story, if one wants to trace it through quarks and string theory and even the fact that airplanes and bumblebees are both incapable of flight but do it anyway, marries science and philosophy very neatly.