Microbiology Essays (Examples)

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Corynebacterium Diphtheria The Answered The Pdf

Words: 1319 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76274818

Corynebacterium diphtheria. The answered . The pdf file attached referenced. The paper written format a scientific paper a microbiology . These textbooks great sources reference: Willey, J.

Corynebacterium diphtheriae is a bacterium that is pathogenic and is the leading cause of diphtheria. Due to the resemblance in their shape and sizes, bacteria and archaea were earlier classified as one but on discovery of their metabolic and biochemical differences, it was determined that they had different evolution histories. The bacillus falls under the nonlipophilic fermentative bacteria in classification. Structurally, it possesses cell membranes formed from a combination of the hydroxyl group and fatty acids. Unlike the bacteria, the archaea has linkages that contain ether bonds (Willey, 2003). The cell wall of C.diphtheriae is made up of peptidoglycan bonds which is a great variance from that of the archaea which contains no such bonds. Another major cutting edge factor that classifies C.diphtheriae…… [Read More]

Lammert, J.M. (2007). Techniques in Microbiology. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.

McClane, B.A., & Mietzner, T.A. (1999). Microbial pathogenesis: a principles-oriented approach: Fence Creek Pub.

Willey, J.M., Sherwood, L.M., & Woolverton, C.J. (2003). Prescott's Microbiology (8 ed.). Dubuque, Iowa: McGraw Hill Higher Education.
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Luminous Bacterium Vibrio Fischeri Vibrio

Words: 2011 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30709179

The chemical was found to turn on quorum sensing in V. fischeri, whereas it inhibited pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Also, the slow-release was shown to be far more effective than by applying the chemical directly as an aqueous solution. Since quorum sensing is also important for pathogen establishment this application could be important for inhibiting pathogenic bacteria from colonization of internal medical devices.

In summary, the V. fischeri and squid symbiotic relationship is an important model host-bacteria system. Aspects of colonization of host-symbiont and host-pathogen have been shown, using the V. fisheri and squid model, to be the same. Therefore, understanding the mechanism and complex transcriptional regulatory systems of V. fischeri could lead to potential new therapies and pharmaceutical applications. Likewise, understanding the environmental factors necessary for successful host-bacteria interactions could lead to novel drug targets. In addition to being important in understanding other harmful host-bacteria relationships the V. fischeri and…… [Read More]

References:

Breitbach, a.S., Broderick, a.H., Jewell, C.M., Gunasekaran, S., Lin, Q., Lynn, D.M., & Blackwell, H.E. 2010. Surface-mediated release of a synthetic small-molecule modulator of bacterial quorum sensing: Gradual release enhances activity. Chem Comm.

Chun, C.K, Troll, J.V., Koroleva, I., Brown, B., Manzella, L., Snir, E., Almabraz, H, Scheetz, T.E., Bonaldo, M.F., Casavant, T.L., Soares, M.B., Ruby, E.G., & McFall-Ngai, M.J. 2008. Effects of colonization, luminescence, and autoinducer on host transcription during development of the squid-vibrio association. PNAS 105(32): 11323-11328.

Lyell, N.L., Dunn, a.K., Bose, J.L., Stabb, E.V. 2010. Bright mutants of Vibrio fischeri ES114 reveal conditions and regulators that control bioluminescence and expression of the lux Operon. J. Bacteriol. 192(19): 5103-5114.

Murray, P.R., Rosenthal, K.S., Kobayashi, G.S., Pfaller, M.A. 1998. Vibrio, Aeromonas, and Plesiomonas. In M. Brown (Ed.), Medical Microbiology Third Edition (pp. 245-250). St. Louis, MO: Mosby.
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Coli and IT's Filamentous Morphology

Words: 916 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98976208

"Elimination of these and other pathogens from the lower respiratory tract is made possible by an effective innate immune response, which is necessary yet potentially dangerous to the infected host."

E. coli Outbreak:

There have been numerous E.coli outbreaks over the years. Pakalniskiene, Falkenhorst, Lisby, and Madsen (2009) studied one of the larger single source outbreaks. On November 11th, 2006, there was an outbreak in Greater Copenhagen, Denmark. The director of a high school had contacted the regional health authority to report an outbreak of diarrhea and vomiting among guests of a school dinner party. A total of 750 people, nearly all of the teachers and students at the school, had attended the dinner. The evening, the first people became sick. Three days later, when the director made the report, approximately 200 to 300 teachers and students had reported gastroenteritis. It was found that the fresh basil used in the…… [Read More]

References

Cegelski, L., Marshall, G., Eldridge, G., Hultgren, S. (Jan 2008). The biology and future prospects of antivirulence therapies. Nature Reviews: Microbiology. (6). Retrieved May 7, 2009, from Proquest.

Hacker, J. & Blum-Oehler, G. (2007). In appreciation of Theodor Escherich. Nature Reviews. Microbiology, 5(12) Retrieved May 7, 2009, from ProQuest.

Justice, S., Hunstad, D., Cegelski, L., & Hultgren, S. (2008). Morphological plasticity as a bacterial survival strategy. Nature Reviews. Microbiology, 6(2). Retrieved May 7, 2009, from ProQuest.

Pakaliniskiene, J., Falkenhorst, G., Lisby, M., Madsen, B., Olsen, K., Nielsen, E., Mygh, A., Boel, J., & Molbak, K. (2009). A foodborne outbreak of enterotoxigenic E. coli and Salmonella Anatum infection after a high-school dinner in Denmark, November 2006. Epidemiology and Infection, 137(3) Retrieved May 7, 2009, from ProQuest.
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Management of Immunocompromised Patients in Beginning I

Words: 2391 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85496540

Management of Immunocompromised Patients

In beginning I writer specific nursing assignment. The Question: 2000 Words While clinical placement asked prepare a single room an admission. The patient requiring admission isolation room immunocompromised.

Immunocompromised patients usually require isolation in order to prevent them from becoming infected with infections from other patients which is known as protective isolation. For the immunocompromised patients, their immune system is unable to fight the infectious diseases. There are many diseases or conditions that lead to immunodeficiency in patients.

One is AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome). The pathophysiology of AIDS starts when the person's CD4+ T cell count begins to decrease as the disease kills these cells. This is HIV-induced cell lysis where the virus enters the CD4+ cells where it inserts its genetic information to the cell nucleus thus taking over the cell and replicating itself. The virus then mutates extremely rapidly thus making it more and…… [Read More]

References

Agusti, C., & Torres, A. (2009). Pulmonary Infection in the Immunocompromised Patient: Strategies for Management. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Bodey, G.P. (2010). Managing Infections in the Immunocompromised Patient. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 40(Supplement 4), S239. doi: 10.1086/427328

Glauser, M.P., & Pizzo, P.A. (2009). Management of Infections in Immunocompromised Patients New York: Elsevier Health Sciences.

Hayden, R.T. (2008). Diagnostic Microbiology of the Immunocompromised Host. Washington, DC: ASM Press.
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Air Traffic Has Continued to Increase and

Words: 28110 Length: 110 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54322150

air traffic has continued to increase and it now constitutes a considerable proportion of the travelling public. The amount of long-hour flights has increased significantly. Based on the International Civil Aviation authority, air traffic can be anticipated to double amid till 2020. Airline travel, especially over longer distances, makes air travelers vulnerable to numerous facets that will impact their health and well-being. Particularly, the speed with which influenza spreads and mutates, via transportation routes, is the reason why the influenza pandemic is considered to be a huge threat to the human population. Pandemic is a term, which is used for a virus or microbe when it spreads over a large area, in severe cases even the whole world and large number of people start getting affecting by it (CDC, 2009).

In the past 300 years, there have been ten significant influenza pandemics outbreaks that have taken place in this world.…… [Read More]

References

Airports Council International (2009) Airport preparedness guidelines for outbreaks of communicable disease. Available at: http://www.airports.org/aci/aci/file/ACI_Priorities/Health/Airport%20preparedness%20guidelines.pdf (Accessed: 28 November 2011)

Bouma, G.D. (2002) The research process. 4th edn. Melbourne: Oxford University Press.

Brigantic, R., Delp, W., Gadgil A., Kulesz, J., Lee, R., Malone, J.D. (2009) U.S. airport entry screening in response to pandemic influenza: Modeling and analysis. Available at: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B7578-4W2M6SG1&_user=10843&_rdoc=1&_fmt=&_orig=search&_sort=d&view=c&_acct=C000000150&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10843&md5=44685b11dd53d74a8ef85a4f03e185f2 (Accessed: 28 November 2011)

Bush, George W. (2003a). Homeland security presidential directive -- 5: Management of domestic incidents. Available at: http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2003/02/20030228-9.html (Accessed: 28 November 2011)
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Prokaryotic & Eukaryotic Cells Can Be Divided

Words: 1018 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46092219

Prokaryotic & Eukaryotic Cells

Cells can be divided into two categories: prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Prokaryotic cells are significantly smaller than eukaryotic cells. This size difference is due to the many contents inside a eukaryotic cell that prokaryotic cells do not have. To begin with, prokaryotic cells are always going to be unicellular, while eukaryotic cells can also be unicellular but are many times multicellular (Murray & Baron, 2007). Prokaryotic cells do not have any membrane-bound organelles inside them, such as the nucleus, mitochondria, or lysosome as eukaryotic cells do. The DNA of eukaryotic cells is linear and is contained within the nucleus, while DNA in prokaryotic cells is circular and is contained within the nuclear body, a non-membrane surrounded structure (Murray & Baron, 2007). The number of ribosomes inside a prokaryotic cell is a lot less than those contained in a eukaryotic cell. Prokaryotic ribosomes are about 70s while…… [Read More]

References:

Murray, Patrick R., and Ellen Jo. Baron. Manual of Clinical Microbiology. Vol. 1. Washington, D.C.: ASM, 2007. Print.

Nester, E., Anderson, D., & Roberts, C.E. (2012).Microbiology: A human perspective. (7th ed). New York, New York: McGraw-Hill Higher Education.
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Child I Contemplated a Career

Words: 889 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73209260

Nurses are also usually the first medical professionals to encounter patients, and so they have to be good at making quick assessments of a patient's condition, to ensure that the patient gets the appropriate care. Obviously, an emergency room nurse might need better triage skills than a nurse in a doctor's office, but all nurses have to be able to identify potentially contagious patients and deal with them appropriately. In hospital settings, nurses are often the consistent element of a patient's care plan, and a nurse's involvement can ensure that a patient gets the type of care that he or she needs to recover. Nurses also play an important emotional role in the life of the patient, providing the patient with a caring person who can answer questions and listen to concerns.

Of course, at this point in my life, I cannot say what type of nurse I would like…… [Read More]

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Earthworm Castings Earthworms Are Seen

Words: 2283 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86145068

This implies that decomposition process goes on activated by the young earthworms in the soil, given that the soil is loose, moist and rich in organic matter for the worms to remain alive. The bacterium which is present in the alimentary canal of the earthworm converts organic water to natural fertilizers. The chemical alterations that the organic wastes are put to consist of deorderising and neutralizing. This implies that the pH of the castings is 7 which is neutral. (the tasteful garden)

Vermiculture:

The Latin meaning of vermes is worm from which the term vermiculture has been derived. Vermiculture is a process wherein the process of composting, containing the addition of some species of earthworms used to improve the process of conversion of waste and produce an improve product. Vemicomposting varies from composting in a number of ways. Mainly, vermicomposting consists of a mesophillic process in which the microorganisms are…… [Read More]

References

Delahaut, Karen; Koval, C.F. Earthworms: beneficial or pests?

 http://grounds-mag.com/mag/grounds_maintenance_earthworms_beneficials_pests/index.html 

N.A. Advantages of Vermicompost. http://www.organicneem.com/neemvermicompost_advnt.htm

N.A. Beautiful gardens begin with great compost.  http://www.happydranch.com/articles/reference.html
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Personal Statement for Occupational Therapy Program

Words: 572 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33731156

Personal Statement for Occupational Therapy Program

After graduating from .University of Telecommunications and Informatics in 1992, I have built a successful career in the telecommunications industry, mostly working in sales and business administration capacities for large international companies. The part of the career that I have enjoyed most has been the opportunity to communicate and build relationships with people. I consider my communication skills and my ability to assess complex problems and resolve them as my prime strengths.

After my daughter's birth in 2002, big changes happened in my family. We decided to move to Canada, where I have continued working in the telecommunications industry. My husband also became employed in his profession, and now I can say we are quite settled in Canada. As such, I now find it possible to fulfill an old desire to change my career to a profession which better suits my natural propensities and…… [Read More]

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Chlamydia Trachomatis

Words: 1117 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83474203

Chlamydia Trachomatis

Chlamydia is the most common and frequently occurring sexually transmitted disease in the United States. According to a recent CDC report there are more than 2.8 million persons infected every year. [CDC] The disease is caused by a bacterium known as Chlamydia trachomatis which is also found to exist as 15 different serotypes. The estimated annual treatment costs for Chlamydia is around $2 billion. The asymptotic nature of the disease presents a big problem in the early diagnosis and a substantial number of infected persons are unaware of their condition. Though totally curable, this 'silent disease' can cause trachoma, infertility, tubal pregnancy and other urinogenital disorders if left untreated. A brief overview of the disease, treatment options and preventive strategies would give a better insight of this medical condition.

Chlamydia trachomatis (Life Cycle)

Chlamydia trachomatis is a parasitic bacterium that cannot produce its own ATP and hence depends…… [Read More]

Bibliography

1) Andrea DeMets, "Chlamydia Trachomatis," Accessed on 5th November 2004,

http://www.bact.wisc.edu/Bact330/lecturechlamydia

2) CDC, "Chlamydia Fact Sheet," Accessed on 5th November,

 http://www.cdc.gov/std/Chlamydia/STDFact-Chlamydia.htm
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UK Student A Suitable Candidate Information

Words: 543 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55795111

UK student / a suitable candidate Information Personal Information First Name: Rasoul Last Name: Abousaeedi Birth Date: January 28th 1984 Born: Kerman, Iran. Hometown: Kerman, Iran Education B.ID

Why studying in the UK would help me and why I am a suitable candidate

The focus of my education has been on plant protection and plant pathology. I received my B. Sc. In Plant Protection and my M. Sc. In Plant Pathology. Understanding how to grow healthy, disease-resistant plants are a crucial component of creating a better food supply for the world. My thesis was on the "Induction of systemic acquired resistance against Xanthomonas translucens pv. translucens in barley plants by chemicals."

Biotechnology can provide ample opportunities to ensure that healthy, nutritious vegetables, fruits, and grains are more available and are more resistant to pests, diseases, and the elements. My most recent publication delivered to the 7th National Biotechnology Congress of…… [Read More]

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Ccpa Coordinates Central Metabolism and Biofilm Formation in Staphylococcus Epidermidis

Words: 1322 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69365688

Biofilm

In order to evaluate the validity of the hypothesis "catabolite control of S. epidermidis biofilm formation is indirectly regulated by CcpA-dependent of the TCA cycle," a laboratory study was performed and then documented in the article "CcpA coordinates central metabolism and biofilm formation in Staphylococcus epidermidis." Through their research, the authors of the article ultimately determined that CcpA is in fact a positive effecter of biofilm formation of S. epidermidis, along with icaADBC transcription and a repressor of TCA cycle activity.

The general profile of S. epidermidis shows that it is a pathogen that is opportunistic in nature, therefore primarily infecting patients who are immunocompromised. It is often a cause of infections for patients who receive implanted biomedical devices. This pathogen makes itself particularly difficult to treat in these situations due to the formation of a biofilm, which encapsulates the bacteria in an exopolysaccharide matrix. It is therefore valuable…… [Read More]

References

Fluckiger, U, Ulrich, M, Steinhuber, A, Doring, G, Mack, D, Landmann, R, Goerke, C & Wolz, C, 2005, 'Biofilm Formation, icaADBC Transcription, and Polysaccharide Intercellular Adhesin Synthesis by Staphylococci in a Device-Related Infection Model, Infection and Immunity, vol. 73, no. 3, pp. 1811-1819.

Sadykov, M, Olson, M, Halouska, S, Zhu, Y, Fey, P, Powers, R & Somerville, G 2008, 'Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle-Dependent Regulation of Staphylococcus epidermidis Polysaccharide Intercellular Adhesin Synthesis', Journal of Bacteriology, vol. 190, no. 23, pp. 7621-7632.

Sadykov, M, Hartmann, T, Mattes, T, Hiatt, M, Jann, N, Zhu, Y, Ledala, N, Landmann, R, Herrmann, M, Rohde, H, Bischoff, M & Somerville, G 2011, 'CcpA coordinates central metabolism and biofilm formation in Staphylococcus epidermidis', Microbiology, vol. 157, pp. 3458-3468.

Seidl, K, Goerke, C, Wolz, C, Mack, D, Berger-Bachi, B & Bischoff, M, 2008, 'Staphylococcus aureus CcpA Effects Biofilm Formation', Infection and Immunity, vol. 76, no. 5, pp. 2044-2050.
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Desiccation Tolerance in Prokaryotes

Words: 5347 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11735432

Desiccation Tolerance in Prokaryotes

Water is very important for life. Indeed, the processes of life, both external and internal even, at the cellular and the molecular level, are governed by water. Without water, most living organisms suffer from what is known as water stress.

This water stress can be due to the loss of water or dehydration. Desiccation is a special case of dehydration where drying takes place in air. Alternatively, another form of water stress is due to the excessive accumulation of salts. This is relatedly called osmotic stress. Osmosis seeks to reduce this accumulation by moving fluids across a concentration gradient. While most living beings cannot survive without water, lesser species belonging to the eukarya group -- that includes both bacteria and a more primitive organism archaea show remarkable tolerance to water stress.

Responses to water stress takes place at a supracellular level as well as a cellular…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Bartels, D., & Salamini, F. (2001). Desiccation tolerance in the resurrection plant Craterostigma plantagineum. A contribution to the study of drought tolerance at the molecular level. Plant Physiol, 127(4), 1346-1353.

Billi, D., Friedmann, E.I., Hofer, K.G., Caiola, M.G., & Ocampo-Friedmann, R. (2000). Ionizing-radiation resistance in the desiccation-tolerant cyanobacterium Chroococcidiopsis. Appl Environ Microbiol, 66(4), 1489-1492.

Breeuwer, P., Lardeau, A., Peterz, M., & Joosten, H.M. (2003). Desiccation and heat tolerance of Enterobacter sakazakii. J Appl Microbiol, 95(5), 967-973.

DiRuggiero, J., Santangelo, N., Nackerdien, Z., Ravel, J., & Robb, F.T. (1997). Repair of extensive ionizing-radiation DNA damage at 95 degrees C. In the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus. J Bacteriol, 179(14), 4643-4645.
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Improving the Quality of Medical

Words: 4818 Length: 18 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29120759

This is particularly the case in sub-Saharan Africa where clinicians have often come to rely on signs and symptoms alone to make diagnoses." (Nicoll, Walraven, Kigadye, Klokke, 1995)

The laboratory environment is critical to administering testing to determine population rates of HIV / AIDS throughout nations and perhaps continents where the lacking of resources facilitates a substandard environment for care. In the case of the African nation of Mozambique, which perhaps can be understood as a case indicative of the environmental assessment one would find throughout Africa and therefore, can be labelled to be a median statistical nation. A nation representing the median would indicate that half of the population nations that are categorized as resourced deficient, half would be above Mozambique in terms of resource allocation and half would fall below.

esearch into the quality of HIV / AIDS case-detection and case-reporting system in Mozambique was conducted by (Chilundo,…… [Read More]

References

Chappuis, F., Loutan, L., Simarro, P., Lejon, V., and Buscher, P. Options for Field Diagnosis of Human African Trypanosomiasis. Clinical Microbiology Reviews, January 2005, p. 133-146, Vol. 18, No.1

Chilundo, B., Sundeep S., Sundby J. The Quality of HIV / AIDS case-detection and case reporting systems in Mozambique. African Journal of AIDS Research 2004, 145-155. Copyright NISC Pty Ltd.

Clark. Blood Safety PPT. CDC, WHO

Loefler, I. Surgical wound infection in the Third World: the African experience. Journal of Medical Microbiology. Volume 47, 471-473. 1998. The Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland
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Shigella Dysenteriae Around the Globe

Words: 1577 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98177074

Micro-Organism: Syghella dysenteriae

Genus: Shigella (Castellani and Chalmers 1919)

Type species: Shigella dysenteriae (Shiga 1897) Castellani and Chalmers 1919 (Approved Lists 1980)

Gammaproteobacteria, from the family of enterobacteriaceae (GBIF.org)

Gram-negative, non-acid-fast bacilli; no spores, no capsules; non-motile; do not posses flagella, rod-shaped bacteria (Todar, 008-01)

Picture was obtained from Sciencephoto Library

According to the national Institute of Health, "Shigella dysenteriae serotype 1 (SD1) causes the most severe form of epidemic bacillary dysentery"

Shigella dysenteriae type 1 is rare in the U.S., but it causes epidemics in the developing countries (Todar, 008-01)

Shigella dysenteriae is one of the four species of Shigella, also known as group A (World Health Organization, 005).

The microorganism produces a toxin called Shiga toxin (Bhunia, 007). I causes shigellosis, characterized by bacillary dysentery (mucoid bloody stool).

Shigella micro-organisms are present in soil and water. They will become infective only in the presence of the "invasion plasmid…… [Read More]

2. http://www.gbif.org/species/117114047

3.  http://www.sciencephoto.com/media/11549/view 

4.  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19813213
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H1N1 Virus

Words: 1355 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44535483

H1N1

I chose this topic because the H1N1 virus and the swine flu have taken over the news. The Ohio Department of Health is heavily committed in getting the word out. "During the week of October 18-24, 2009, influenza activity continued to increase in the United States as reported in FluView. Flu activity is now widespread in 48 states. Nationally, visits to doctors for influenza-like-illness continue to increase steeply and are now higher than what is seen at the peak of many regular flu seasons. In addition, flu-related hospitalizations and deaths continue to go up nation-wide and are above what is expected for this time of year." (ODH).

The story is both a local and national headline. The television news report '60 Minutes' lead off this week's show with a serious discussion about all aspects of the new viral spread of the H1N1 virus and issues regarding the production process…… [Read More]

References

American Society for Microbiology and (Corporate Author) Patrick R. Murray. (2003). Manual of Clinical Microbiology (Manual of Clinical Microbiology). 8th ed. American Society Microbiology.

CDC. (2009). H1N1. Retrieved on November 1, 2009, from Center For Disease Control web site at  http://www.cdc.gov/h1n1flu/sick.htm .

Flu.Gov. (2009). Vaccination. Retrieved on November 1, 2009, from Department of Health web site at http://www.flu.gov/individualfamily/vaccination/index.html.

ODH. (2009). Ohio.Gov. Retrieved on November 1, 2009, from Department of Health web site at http://www.odh.ohio.gov/landing/phs_emergency/swineflu.aspx.
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Detection of the Borna Disease Virus Relating

Words: 6358 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80489172

detection of the Borna disease virus relating them to the epidemiology.

The first cases of Borna disease were descried in the 17-19th century in Southern Germany. It was discovered to e a fatal disease affecting the neurological systems of horses and sheep, (Ludwig et al., 1985; Durrwald, 1993) causing ehavioral and neurological symptoms. It was proven to e caused y a 2003]

Today it is eing realized that the scope of the disease is not limited to just a few countries as was previously elieved ut encompassed the world. Also it was realized that far from affecting just horses and sheep as was originally thought virus, the Borna Disease Virus (BDV) in the early 1900's y Zwick and his team in Giessen Germany. [Author not availale, it in fact affected other animals and even human eings.[Staeheli, Sauder; Schwemmle, et al., 2000]

Research into the epidemiology and pathogenesis of the BDV…… [Read More]

bibliography. Journal of Veterinary Medicine Series B. 44, 147-184.

3.Staeheli, P., Sauder, C. Schwemmle, M. et al.,[2000]. Epidemiology of Borna disease virus, J Gen Virol 81: 2123-2135

4.Author not available, [2003] Diagnostic Methods In Virology, accessed at  http://virology-online.com/general/Tests.htm 

5. Nakamura, K., Takahashi, H., Shoya, Y., Nakaya, T., Watanabe, M., Tomonaga, K., Iwahashi, K., Ameno, K., Momiyama, N., Taniyama, H., Sata, T., Kurata, T., de la Torre, J.C. & Ikuta, K. [2000]. Isolation of Borna disease virus from human brain. Journal of Virology 74, 4601-4611.

6. Zimmermann, W., Durrwald, R. & Ludwig, H. (1994). Detection of Borna disease virus RNA in naturally infected animals by a nested polymerase chain reaction. Journal of Virological Methods 46, 133-143
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Mold Spore Analysis and Toxicity

Words: 4404 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11291106

Mold Spore Trapping

Current Scientific Knowledge

People are exposed to aeroallergens in a variety of settings, both at home and at work. Fungi are ubiquitous airborne allergens and are important causes of human diseases, especially in the upper and lower respiratory tracts. These diseases occur in persons of various ages.

Airborne spores and other fungi particles are ubiquitous in nonpolar landscapes, especially amongst field crops, and often form the bulk of suspended biogenic debris. The term mold often is used synonymously with the term fungi. A more precise definition would specify that molds lack macroscopic reproductive structures but may produce visible colonies. Respiratory illness in subjects exposed to rust and dark-spored imperfecti fungi was described more than 60 years ago, and physicians worldwide now recognize a sensitization to diverse fungi.

Since fungus particles commonly are derived from wholly microscopic sources, exposure hazards are assessed largely through direct sampling of a…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Brinton, W.T., Vastbinder, E.E., Greene, J.W., Marx, J.J., Hutcheson, R.H., Schaffner, W. (1987). An outbreak of organic dust toxic syndrome in a college fraternity. Journal of the American Medical Association 258:1210-1212.

Ceigler, A., & Bennett, J.W. (1980). Mycotoxins and Mycotoxicoses. Bio-Science 30:512-515.

CDC. 1994. Acute pulmonary hemorrhage/hemosiderosis among infants -- "Cleveland, January 1993-November 1994. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR) 1994; 43:881-3.

CDC. 1997. Update: Pulmonary hemorrhage/hemosiderosis among infants -- "Cleveland, Ohio, 1993-1996. MMWR 1997; 46:33-35.
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Developing and Implementing a Kill Step Validation Program

Words: 10186 Length: 54 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49178036

Validation of Commercial Baking as an Effective Step to Control/Inactivate Salmonella in Baked Products

Major findings, analysis and conclusions

Description of the baking industry and baking emphasis in the United States.

Purpose and structure of importance

Description of the problem being addressed and its importance to the practice of applied food safety

Process of Consultation

Outline how the client (ABA) will be engaged and carefully define the problem

Identification of key stakeholders

Overview and feedback of findings and results

ecommended actions and dissemination of these recommendations

Plans for implementation and measurement

Major findings. The U.S. had approximately 167,600 baker positions available in 2012 and around 6% of these were self-employed (Bakery business, 2016). Although industry analysts project sustained growth in the U.S. baking industry, this growth will not be on par with other industries (Bakery business, 2016). Currently, the U.S. baking industry is a nearly $310 billion industry that has…… [Read More]

References

About us. (2016). American Bakers Association. Retrieved from http://www.american bakers.org/.

Albion, R. G. & Williamson, H. F. (1944). The growth of the American economy: An introduction to the economic history of the United States. New York: Prentice-Hall.

Bakery business. (2016). SBDC Net. Retrieved from http://www.sbdcnet.org/small-business-research-reports/bakery-business-2014.

Baking industry economic impact study, 2016). American Bakers Association. Retrieved from http://www.americanbakers.org/industry-data/.
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Evolution Sharma S Kunimoto

Words: 801 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6183547

" (Sharma, Kunimoto, Garg, & Rao) They believe that he information they are providing will allow the clinician to have a more expansive approach in treating bacterial keratitis and in deciding which secondary antibiotic to use.

The goal of initial antibiotic therapy for bacterial keratitis is the proper selection of a drug which has coverage for the aetiopathogen. Microscopic evaluation of corneal smears can provide insight into the identity of the pathogen, but when smear examination is uninformative the principle of managing bacterial keratitis has been to use antibiotics which have coverage that is sufficiently broad and effective to treat the leading corneal pathogens. (Sharma, Kunimoto, Garg, & Rao)

The main thrust for their interest in this study was to assist the clinician who is in less that ideal setting when faced with treating bacterial keratitis. As mentioned previously the virulent nature of this disease necessitates immediate treatment but the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Murillo-Lopez, Fernando H. "Keratitis, Bacterial," Unidad Privada de Oftalmologia CEMES [serial online] 2006. [cited 2009 Mar 23] http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1194028-overview

Sharma S, Kunimoto DY, Garg P, Rao GN. "Trends in antibiotic resistance of corneal pathogens: Part I. An analysis of commonly used ocular antibiotics." Indian J. Ophthalmol [serial online] 1999 [cited 2009 Mar 23];47:95-100. Available from:  http://www.ijo.in/text.asp?1999/47/2/95/22799
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Kemp Health Center Outsourcing Plan Business Outsourcing

Words: 1450 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33756551

Kemp Health Center Outsourcing Plan

Business Outsourcing

The Kemp Health Center (KHC) is actively pursuing organizational changes to allow the hospital to operate in a more efficient manner. With an increasingly negative debt looming over the 2009 fiscal year, the Board of Directors has asked the Performance Management Team to analyze how KHC can reduce the anticipated $2.5 million deficit of 2009 and eliminate debt by 2010.

This report outlines the findings of the Laboratory Performance Management Team. The team investigated various options to help the Laboratory (lab) at KHC operate as efficiently as possible without impacting the ability to provide cost-effective, patient-focused and quality healthcare to our patients. The following paragraphs illustrate the options explored and the proposed solution that will help KHC enhance operations and illuminate the organization's mission and vision statements each and every day.

Current State of the Kemp Health Center' Laboratory

The KHC lab is…… [Read More]

Improve focus on mission - KHC will be able to pay more attention and devote more time on the organization's mission. Management will no longer have to worry about the laboratory services which provide at least 70% of patient care information. Outsourcing reduces cost and provides KHC with the benefit of much needed quality services (Ume, 2008).

Proposed Solution

The Laboratory Performance Management Team at the Kemp Health Center recommends forming a contract with either Portneuf Medical Center or LabCorp for the outsourcing of most clinical laboratory services other than STAT studies and essential microbiology services; the selection
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Naegleria Fowleri Causes Symptoms Diagnosis

Words: 2518 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34947044

2004). In those cases, there was very early diagnosis and administration of intravenous and intrathecal or intraventricular amphotericin B. with intensive supportive care (2004). One survivor received miconazole intravenously and intrathecally and rifampicin orally (2004). Other treatment options include the drugs rifampicin and micoazole.

Khan (2008) notes that the mortality rate for PAM is 95%. Again, one of the major obstacles to effective treatment is the rapid progression of the disease. Another obstacle is the paucity of drugs that have the ability to cross the blood-brain barrier (Schuster & Visvesvara 2004; Khan 2008). Nevertheless, there have been documented recoveries from PAM (Seidel 1982; Wang 1993; Khan 2008). Early recognition and treatment of the disease appear to be the chief elements in successful outcomes (2008). At the time of Khan's (2008) writing, the drug of choice for treatment of human cases was amphotericin B. In conjunction with rifampin as well as…… [Read More]

References:

Embrey, Martha., Hunter, Paul., Chalmers, Rachel., Sellwood, Jane., Wyn-Jones, Peter., & Percival, Steven. (2004). Microbiology of waterborne diseases:

microbiological aspects and risks. Academic Press; 1st edition.

Jarillo-Luna, a., Moreno-Fierros, L., Campos-Rodriguez, R., Rodriguez-Monroy, M.A.,

Lara-Padilla, E., & Rojas-Hernandez, Saul. (2008). Intranasal immunization with Naegleria fowleri lysates and Cry1Ac metaplasia in the olfactory epithelium and inceases IgA secretion. Parasite immunology,30(1), p. 31-38.
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Biological Warfare -- Past and

Words: 691 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15918262



Native Americans in the 18th century contracted smallpox thanks to the U.S. soldiers in Fort Pitt giving them "some blankets and handkerchiefs" that were taken from patents in the infirmary with smallpox (heelis). It was a deliberate "attack" and wiped out many Indians. Also, during the American Revolutionary ar, England were known to have inoculated smallpox on civilians with the intention of spreading it to the Continental Army. In orld ar I (1915 through 1918) the Germans waged "an ambitious campaign of covert biological attack" by injecting horses and mules being sent to the Allies with glanders and anthrax (heelis).

The Japanese used B (8, 9, 10) in China during II; heelis writes that the Japanese "poisoned wells with microbial cultures, sprayed the ground with cultures" and left contaminated food for the Chinese army to eat and become ill. The Soviets are accused of having used biological weapons (tularemia) against…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Center for Biosecurity. (2008). BioAgents and Epidemic Diseases Background

Information. Categorization and Ongoing Assessment of Biological Agents.

Retrieved June 23, 2009, from http://www.upmc-biosecurity.org.

Ready America. (2009). Biological Threat. Retrieved June 23, 2009, from http://www.ready.gov/america/beinformed/biological.html.
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Difficult Step in Responding to

Words: 1020 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38529934

Due to the apparently low level of contagion, the need for public awareness is not urgent, but it is still necessary. Warnings to stay away from the convention area and to report to a local hospital if symptoms developed after being in the area or in contact with someone who had been at the convention should be issued (CDC 2009).

The known details of the attack, however, should not be released, as it is likely to create panic and bolster the terrorists' optimism. Federal assistance should be immediately sought, not necessarily for control of the spread of the disease but for the investigation and apprehension of suspects. All available resources should be called in as soon as possible in order to counter the attack. As far as treatment of the attack goes, mass prophylaxis of all convention attendees and those who have come into contact with infected individuals should be…… [Read More]

References

Bravata DM, Sundaram V, McDonald KM, Smith WM, Szeto H, Schleinitz MD, et al. (2004). "Detection and diagnostic decision support systems for bioterrorism response." Emerging infectious diseases. Accessed 25 April 2009. http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/EID/vol10no1/03-0243.htm

Center for Disease Control and Prevention. (2009). "Emergency preparedness and response." Accessed 25 April 2009. http://www.bt.cdc.gov/

Center for Disease Control and Prevention. (2009). "Anthrax." Accessed 25 April 2009. http://www.bt.cdc.gov/agent/anthrax/

Gerberding JL, Hughes J, Koplan J. (2002). "Bioterrorism preparedness and response." Journal of the American medical association. Accessed 25 April 2009. http://jama.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/full/287/7/898
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New Bacterium Scientists in Japan

Words: 492 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17664208



Epidemiology

The epidemiology of Microbacterium hatanis is unknown at this time (New species of bacteria contaminates hairspray, 2008). However, researchers have found similar bacteria to infect humans and are concerned with what impact Microbacterium hatanis will have. For this reason, researchers will conduct additional testing to determine if the new species poses a health threat and, if so, researchers will make recommendations for new hairspray formulations to prevent future contamination.

Conclusion

The discovery of Microbacterium hatanonis is significant because contamination of cosmetic products has previously been thought to be rare. This new species in hairspray will no doubt lead to further research in this area, especially since Microbacterium hatanonis can grow in an environment which is pH neutral and 30°C, the environment common in the manufacturing of may commercial cosmetic products (Contaminated hairspray, 2008). Hairspray, with its high alcohol content, had not seemed to provide the ideal conditions for life…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Bakir, M.A., Kudo, T. And Benno, Y. (2008). Microbacterium hatanonis sp. nov., isolated as a contaminant of hairspray. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. 58, 654-658; DOI 10.1099/ijs.0.65160-0. Retrieved at http://ijs.sgmjournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/58/3/654

Contaminated hairspray. (2008, March 9). Wall Street Journal. Retrieved at  http://science.kukuchew.com/tag/microbacterium-hatanonis/ 

New Species of Bacteria Contaminates Hairspray (2008, March 9). ScienceDaily. Retrieved at http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2008/03/080307110337.htm
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Xylitol What Is Xylitol Xylitol

Words: 998 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97142368

hile Xylitol was being used elsewhere in the world the United States still have "an abundant amount of sugar available" so it wasn't heard of in the U.S. until it arrived in chewing gum in 1975. hile Germans and Italians -- along with the Russians and Japanese -- were using it as a sugar substitute, Americans were still heaping piles of sugar on their breakfast cereal and in their coffee and ice tea.

But today, Xylitol is marketed in the U.S. As "Miracle Sweet," "Perfect Sweet," and "Healthy Sweet" (Gare, 8). Is it more or less expensive than sugar? Gare writes that it is "far more expensive than sugar, albeit recently the price has been coming down low enough to be marketed in items like cake mixes, brownies, muffins, cookies, candies, ice creams and puddings; Gare asserts that Xylitol in these baked items make them taste as least as good…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Gare, Fran. The Sweet Miracle of Xylitol: Easyread Super Large 20pt Edition. 2009.

Mendez-Vilas, Antonio. Current Research Topics in Applied Microbiology and Microbial

Biotechnology: Proceedings of the International Conference on Environmental, Industrial and Applied Microbiology (Biomicroworld2007). Hackensack, NJ: World Scientific, 2009.

Moritz, Andreas. Timeless Secrets of Health and Rejuvenation. Landrum, SC: Ener-Chi
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Human Papillomavirus

Words: 1450 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41055836

Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a virus that causes warts. HPV is one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). It belongs to the Papovaviridae family. HPV is a small oncogenic DNA virus, which infects epithelial cells of skin and mucous membranes. The epithelial surfaces include all areas covered by skin and/or mucous membranes of the mouth, genital and anus (the area that poop comes out of). A definitive diagnosis of HPV infection depends on the detection of nucleic acids (DNA or NA) or proteins.

Morphology

HPV is a relatively small, non-enveloped virus, and 55 nm in diameter. It has an icosahedral capsid composed of 72 capsomers, which contain at least two capsid proteins, L1 and L2. Each capsomer is a pentamer of the major capsid protein, L1. Each virion capsid contains several copies (about 12 per virion) of the minor capsid protein, L2. The virus is said to somewhat…… [Read More]

References

Anderson, N. And Pearsall, R. (2004). Microbiology a human Perspective. New York: Mc-Graw Hill

Burd, E. (2003) Human Papillomavirus and Cervical Cancer -- Burd 16 (1): 1 -- Clinical

Microbiology Reviews [Online]. [Accessed 25th April 2005]. Available from World Wide

Web:
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Odwalla According to the Seattle-King

Words: 1131 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53994790



Instituting these measures showed that the company was vitally interested in not only maintaining the company's integrity, professionalism and reputation but also in ensuring that the problems never arose again. Other methods initiated by the company included a program that would test heat cleaning of apples that would kill the bacteria while not affecting the taste of the apples. The company also introduced a process of cleaning and decontamination called "flash pasteurization, which "would guarantee that E-coli had been destroyed whilst leaving the best flavoured juice possible." (Companies 2005).

Some experts wonder why the company did not use the pasteurization method before the outbreak.

"Pasteurization, which involves heat treatment, would have killed the bacteria in the Odwalla products. Health officials said when people drink non-pasteurized juice, they run the risk of becoming sick. They suggest boiling juice first. But authorities also said most juices sold in stores are safe." (E.…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Half Moon, (1996)

 http://www.kidsource.com/kidsource/content2/ecoli/odwalla.11.23.html , Accessed Sept. 5, 2006

Companies in Crises, (2005), http://www.mallenbaker.net/csr/CSRfiles/crisis05.html, Accessed Sept 6, 2006

E. Coli (1996),  http://www.cnn.com/HEALTH/9611/01/e.coli.poisoning/ , Accessed Sept 5, 2006
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Campylobacter Jejuni Is a Helical Shaped Non-Spore

Words: 2696 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78482727

Campylobacter jejuni is a helical shaped, non-spore forming, curved, Gram-negative bacteria which is most often found in animal feces. This bacteria comes from the intestinal tracks of animals where is exists as a mixed surface-associated community, protected by an extra cellular material called a biofilm. The protection afforded to the bacteria by the biofilm makes it an extremely resilient bacteria. (Siringan, 2011) It was originally discovered by Theodor Escherich in 1886 and called "Vibrio," but in 1963 a new genus was created for this organism, called Campylobacter. C. jejuni is one of the "most important human enteropathogens among the campylobacter." (Nachamkin, 2008, p. 14) This bacterium is microaerophilic and "requires 3 to 5% oxygen and 2 to 10% carbon dioxide for optimal grown conditions." (Bad Bug Book) Prior to 1972, C. jejuni was believed to be primarily an animal pathogen causing enteritis and abortions in cattle and sheep, but it…… [Read More]

References

Acheson, David. (2011). Campylobacter jejuni Infections: Update on Emerging Issues and Trends. Clinical Infectious Diseases 32(8). Retrieved from  http://cid.oxfordjournals.org/content/32/8/1201.full 

Altrkruse, Sean, et al., (1999) Campylobacter jejuni - An Emerging Foodborne Pathogen. Emerging Infectious Diseases 5(1). Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/eid/vol5no1/altekruse.htm

"Bad Bug Book" U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Retrieved from http://www.fda.gov/Food/FoodSafety/FoodborneIllness/FoodborneIllness

FoodbornePathogensNaturalToxins/BadBugBook/ucm070024.htm
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Health System in Kuwait

Words: 2905 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44394796

Health System of Kuwait

The Managerial Functioning of Kuwait's Health Care System

General Description of the Kuwait Health System

Kuwait claims to have one of "the most comprehensive health care systems, and one of the most all-encompassing social service systems in the world" (KIO, 2003). This health care system has offered free - or nearly free - services to the entire population of Kuwait for about fifty years.

If a Kuwaiti citizen is sick, that person is cared for at no charge; if a person is in an auto accident, or needs an examination for an emerging skin irritation, health service is provided. Free health service is also extended to veterinary medical care for livestock and animals. If a sheep herder finds one of more of his animals is diseased, veterinarians will provide care for that disease. If a family dog is hit in the road and suffers broken legs,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Al-Isa, Abdulwahab Naser, & Moussa, Mohamed A.A. "Nutritional status of Kuwaiti elementary school children aged 6-10 years: comparison with the NCHS/CDC reference population." International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition. 51 (2000).

Al-Jaralla, Khaled (1996). "History of Medicine in Kuwait." Center of Research

Study of Kuwait. http://hsccwww.kuniv.edu.kw/RESOURCES/history.asp.

American Red Cross (2001). "American Red Cross Responds Quickly to Kuwait
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Hepatitis C Virus

Words: 3154 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39518130

Hepatitis C

hat is the leading cause of liver disease? hat could cause so many people to require liver transplants? Most people on the street today would think that the answer to those questions would be alcoholism. And, although alcohol does do its fair share of damage to livers around the world, there is a greater source causing chronic liver disease out there.

This term paper will attempt to shed light on the hepatitis virus. The correct pronunciation would be: (h-p ? t? t-s). There are several strains of the hepatitis virus with some being non-issues and others being incurable killers. This report focuses specifically on the Hepatitis C virus which falls under the incurable killer header. This strain of the viruses can never be taken lightly.

There are many ways for an individual to acquire the hepatitis C virus into their system; however, there is currently no cure once…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Askari, Fred K., and Cutler, Daniel S. Hepatitis C, the Silent Epidemic: The Authoritative Guide. Cambridge, MA: Perseus Publishing, 1999.

Bacteriology. Ed. IUSM Microbiology Core. IUSM Microbiology Core. 12 Apr. 2004  http://users.ipfw.edu/merkel/MicroCore.html .

Burke, William M., Vasant P. Dhopesh, and Taylor, Keitha R. "Survey of Hepatitis B and C. In Addiction Treatment Unit" American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse Vol. 26. (2000).

Hepatitis. Ed. hepatitis-central.com. hepatitis-central.com. 12 Apr. 2004 http://www.hepatitis-central.com/hbv/hepbfaq/other.html.
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Hygiene as a Pivotal Method of Preventing

Words: 3599 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7707917

Hygiene as a pivotal method of preventing infection in a health care setting

Hand Hygiene as a Pivotal Method of Preventing Infection in a Healthcare Setting

Carpetti, G.M., Sandri, F., Trridapallli, E., Galleti, S., Petracci, E., & Faldella, G. (2007).

Nosocomial infection in very low birth weight infants. American journal of infection control, 36(6), 430-435.

To increase the chances of survival of VLBW infants, there are continued improvements in neo-natal management. However, the risk of infection during their stay in hospital is especially because they undergo diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. In order to eliminate the infections, and provide more chances of survival, the article suggests that hand washing is the only effective measure to prevent the transmission of microorganisms. In addition, it suggests that it is the most important precaution in infection control. In the study, sixteen VLBW infants, in the "before" period and five others in the "after" period…… [Read More]

References

Allerganzi, B., Pittet, D. (2009). The role of hand hygiene in healthcare-associated infection prevention. Journal of hospital infection, 73, 305-315.

Andrej, T., & Andreas, W.F. (2004). Hand hygiene: A frequently missed lifesaving opportunity during patient care. Mayo clinic proceedings, 79(1), 109-216.

Asare, A., Enweronu-Laryea, C.C., & Newman, J.M. (2009). Hand hygiene practices in a neo-natal intensive care unit in Ghana. Journal of infection in developing countries, 3(5), 352-356.

Carpetti, G.M., Sandri, F., Trridapallli, E., Galleti, S., Petracci, E., & Faldella, G. (2007).
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Reducing Ventilator Associated Pneumonia

Words: 1591 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55127901

Compliance to Ventilator Care Bundles on educing Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia

Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia (VAP) is a common infection that is acquired by patients who have used mechanical ventilation in health care facilities. This infection has generated numerous concerns in public health because of its negative impacts on health care. Some of these negative health effects include extended hospital stays, increased costs of health care services, and deaths. Consequently, there have been numerous initiatives in healthcare to address this problem including ventilator care bundles. Existing literature on evidence-based practice for dealing with VAP has shown that compliance with ventilator care bundles is the most suitable clinical intervention (Al-Thaqafy, 2014). For this study, the John Hopkins Nursing Evidence Practice Process will be utilized to facilitate compliance to these bundles in order to reduce VAP. John Hopkins developed an equation that helps administrators quantify probable savings through lessening hospital-acquired infections like VAP (Guterl, 2013). This…… [Read More]

References

Al-Thaqafy, M. S., El-Saed, A., Arabi, Y. M., & Balkhy, H. H. (2014). Association of Compliance of Ventilator Bundle with Incidence of Ventilator-associated Pneumonia and Ventilator Utilization among Critical Patients Over 4 Years. Annals of Thoracic Medicine, 9(4), 221-226. doi:10.4103/1817-1737.140132

Guterl, G. (2013). Cost Implications of VAP. Retrieved from: http://respiratory-care-sleep-medicine.advanceweb.com/Features/Articles/Cost-Implications-of-VAP.aspx

Lawrence, P., & Fulbrook, P. (2011). The Ventilator Care Bundle and its Impact on Ventilator-associated Pneumonia: A Review of the Evidence. Nursing In Critical Care, 16(5), 222-234. doi:10.1111/j.1478-5153.2010.00430.x

Mukhtar, A., Zaghlol, A., Mansour, R., Hasanin, A., El-Adawy, A., Mohamed, H., & Ali, M. (2014). Reduced Incidence of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus Aureus Ventilator-associated Pneumonia in Trauma Patients: A New Insight into the Efficacy of the Ventilator Care Bundle. Trauma, 16(3), 202-206. doi:10.1177/1460408614532622
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Aramco Health Center Is a

Words: 2752 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50685287



Emergency Action Plan

As a strict requirement of OSHA, the clinical laboratory science department must comply to this standard that is used in describing all the appropriate actions that must be taken by the facility in order to ensure that there is proper safety in case of any accidents such as fire outbreak.

Fire Safety

As a strict requirement of OSHA, the facility must ensure that there is a proper Fire Prevention Plan that is necessary to avert any kind of loss of either life or property.

Medical and First Aid

All the employees who work in this department must have the necessary component of both medical and first-aid providers. This is in order to ensure that any emergency situation that arises can be met with the appropriate solution.

Personal Protective Equipment

Due to the high risk of infection that is associated with the samples in the laboratory, it is…… [Read More]

Bibliography

AIUM, (2009).Standards and Guidelines for the Accreditation of Ultrasound Practices

ARDMS (2010) Introducing...MY ARDMS

http://www.ardms.org/default.asp?ContentID=30

ASCP (2010).Certification
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Health Care Laboratory Technologists Clinical

Words: 928 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4142721

There are almost 60 programs accredited by the NAACLS for clinical assisting and phlebotomy. The Accrediting Bureau of Health Education Schools and the Commission on Accreditation of Allied Health Education Programs are two extra and relevant accrediting associations (Clinical Laboratory Technologist and Technician Career, Job and Employment Information, 2010).

Laboratory technologists and technicians must be licensed in order to be employed in a number of states; information concerning attaining the license is accessible from the State departments. Nongovernmental agencies, frequently a professional society, set principles and endorse those who meet or surpass their principles. Most companies in this field necessitate certification for new employees and for progression. Each business sets their own principles and is supported by diverse groups (Clinical Laboratory Technologist and Technician Career, Job and Employment Information, 2010). Lab technicians frequently must have a bachelor's degree and pass an examination in order to be licensed. Yet, the necessities…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, Occupational Outlook Handbook, 2010-

11 Edition, Clinical Laboratory Technologists and Technicians, viewed 2 October 2010,



"Career: Clinical Laboratory Technologists." 2010, viewed 2 October 2010,
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Organizational Theory for U S EPA

Words: 1219 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92618891

These aspects should be addressed to make it more effective.

Life Cycle Stage

Organizational life cycle is a concept that "suggests that organizations are born, grow older and eventually die. Organization structure, leadership style, and administrative systems follow a predictable pattern through stages in the life cycle." (Daft, 2009, p.340). There are four stages involved and they are Entrepreneurial stage, collectivity stage, formalization stage and elaboration stage.

The EPA is currently in the elaboration stage because it is mature, large and bureaucratic. Daft has defined this stage as "large and bureaucratic with extensive control systems, rules and procedures. Organization managers attempt to develop a team orientation within the bureaucracy to prevent further bureaucratization. Top managers are concerned with establishing a complete organization." (2009, p.344). All these characteristics correspond to the EPA and it is definitely in this stage.

Organizational Change

Similar to any other organization, the EPA is also undergoing…… [Read More]

References

Nadeau, Louis. (September, 1997). EPA effectiveness at reducing the duration of plant-level non-compliance. Journal of Environmental Economics and Management. Volume 34(1), Pages 54-78

Daft, Richard. (2009). Organization Theory and Design. Publisher: Cengage Learning

Mintz, Joel. a. (1995). Enforcement at the EPA: High stakes and hard choices. Publisher: University of Texas Press.

US Environmental Protection Agency. 2010. Viewed 12 November 2010. Retrieved from: http://www.epa.gov/
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System Analyst Job Website Overview

Words: 450 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22182554

" The job required a candidate with a BS in Technical Writing, Food Science, Food Engineering, Food Microbiology or Food Chemistry and competency in Microsoft Word. Salary was commensurate with experience.

A software system architect for the Interoperable Solutions Team at Motorola would be part of a development group within the company's Worldwide adio Solutions Group. The job required a BA and 5+ years in software or system engineering, along with experience with one of the following systems: C++, java, lte, wimax, tau g2, doors, udp, igmp, multicast ip, sdt, evdo. Salary was not specified. A systems analyst for eCommLink was to act as a liaison between eCommLink's engineering, quality assurance, business, and operations teams and create the technical requirements for the prepaid card system created by the company.

eferences

Associate product lifecycle management specialist. (2010). Con Agra. etrieved February 17,

2010 at http://jobview.monster.com/Assoc-Prod-Lifecycle-Mgmt-Spec-Job-Omaha-NE-U.S.-86306416.aspx

Manager, business development II, Air Force…… [Read More]

References

Associate product lifecycle management specialist. (2010). Con Agra. Retrieved February 17,

2010 at http://jobview.monster.com/Assoc-Prod-Lifecycle-Mgmt-Spec-Job-Omaha-NE-U.S.-86306416.aspx

Manager, business development II, Air Force systems and requirements. (2010). BAE Systems.

Retrieved February 17, 2010 at http://jobview.monster.com/Manager-Business-Development-II-Air-Force-Systems-Requirements-Job-Wright-Patterson-Afb-OH-U.S.-86304605.aspx
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Contagious Disease and Its Impact

Words: 1172 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85723854

, 2001). These two simple measures can drastically increase the subsequent spread of infectious disease throughout the country.

In Outbreak, the military institutes martial law to quarantine the infected populace in the town of Cedar Creek. Eventually, the military begins plans to bomb Cedar Creek in an attempt to eradicate the virus, which had thus far proven untenable. hile the concept of the United States government destroying a small town and murdering its populace is likely superlative Hollywood movie-making, the institution of martial law is a realistic and effective approach toward preventing further spread (Yassi et al., 2001).

In addition to the non-medical measures which can be taken to deal with the spread of an infectious agent, there are several medical actions which could be utilized to treat infected invididuals, including antivirals, antibiotics, or vaccines (Yassi et al., 2001). For example, antivirals and vaccines are both being utilized in an…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Cavendish, M. (2007). Diseases and Disorders (p. 328). Marshall Cavendish.

Groseth, A., Feldmann, H., & Strong, J.E. (2007). The ecology of Ebola virus. Trends in Microbiology, 15(9), 408-416. doi: 10.1016/j.tim.2007.08.001.

Petersen, W. (1995). Outbreak. Warner Bros. Pictures.

Preston, R. (2009). Panic in Level 4 (p. 230). Random House, Inc.
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Communicable Disease Epidemiology Has Been

Words: 2112 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97185279

Using condoms is also an excellent prevention activity that can also be used (Primary and Secondary HIV Prevention, 2008).

Potential obstacles to HIV prevention activities taking place in clinical settings often include:

narrow formations of medical care and the role of physicians or health care providers in HIV prevention, a provider's discomfort with discussing human sexuality and illicit drug use and their attitudes towards persons with HIV or AIDS along with constraints on time and resources, and the vagueness of HIV prevention messages (Primary and Secondary HIV Prevention, 2008).

The very nature of HIV transmission involves behaviors that are not readily discussed in American society. It is important for health care providers to become comfortable discussing sexual and substance-use activities with their patients. They need to create an environment of trust for patients so their risk behaviors can be discussed. It is important to assure the patient of the confidential…… [Read More]

References

ABCs of Aids Prevention - Presentation Transcript. (2009). Retrieved September 3, 2009, from Slideshare Web site:  http://www.slideshare.net/drsujnanendra/ab-cs-of-aids-prevention 

CDC Responds to HIV / AIDS. (2009). Retrieved from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Web site: http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/aboutDHAP.htm

HIV / AIDS. (2009). Retrieved September 4, 2009, from MayClinic Web site:
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Diabetes Is One of the

Words: 1237 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66044949

However, advancements in pharmacogenetics promises new and better ways of managing diabetes. Studies have shown that Lisofylline, an anti-inflammatory compound is very effective in suppressing the autoimmune activity and in improving the islet secretion of insulin. Mice studies showed significant difference (25% vs. 91.6%) in the onset of diabetes among Lisofylline treated mice compared to placebo mice. Reduction of inflammatory cytokines IFN-? And TNF-? levels correlated with reduction in ss cell apoptosis. [Yang et.al, 2003] Recent study by Lipsett et.al (2007) has shown that Islet Neogenesis-Associated Protein (INGAP) is useful as a pancreatic regeneration agent. Successful tests in mice and regeneration of cultured human pancreatic cells have encouraged the researchers to seriously consider INGAP as an effective agent for improving insulin synthesis. [Lipsett et.al, (2007)]

A recent Cornell University study focused on an entirely different approach to diabetes management. The researchers examined the possibility of recombinant Commensal bacteria engineered to…… [Read More]

Bibliography

1) George S. Eisenbarth, (2007) 'Update in Type 1 Diabetes', The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism Vol. 92, No.7. http://jcem.endojournals.org/cgi/content/full/92/7/2403

2) McGill University, 'Deficient Regulators in the Immune System Responsible for Type 1 Diabetes', Updated 25 Jan 2008, Available at, http://www.sciencecentric.com/news/article.php?q=08012539

3) Kent SC, Chen Y, & Bregoli L. et.al (2005) 'Expanded T cells from pancreatic lymph nodes of type 1 diabetic subjects recognize an insulin epitope'. Nature 435:224 -- 228

4) Mathieu C, Gysemans C. et.al (Jul 2005), 'Vitamin D and Diabetes', Diabetologia. 48(7):1247-57
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Neuroborreliosis Borrelia Burgdorferi or Bb

Words: 2247 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57244825



Treatment

The Infectious Diseases Society of America or IDSA came out with guidelines on the treatment of the infection.

A multidisciplinary group, which prepared these guidelines, included infectious disease specialists, rheumatologists, neurologists, pediatricians, and entomologists. The guidelines primary apply to the disease strain acquired in the U.S. And do not tackle the diagnostic evaluation of the disease. They recommended oral and parenteral therapies according to a timetable. Doxycycline or amoxicillin, cefotaxime or penicillin would be prescribed. The guidelines warned against the use of first-generation cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones, and benzathene penicillin.

Greater Recovery Among Children

Studies conducted on 177 children treated for Lyme neuroborreliosis in an endemic area in Sweden showed that 117 of them recovered complete in two months.

The children exhibited fatigue, facial nerve palsy, loss of appetite and fever as symptoms. Antibiotics were given to 69% of the children. At 2 months, 117 of them recovered completely. At 6…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Bransfield, Robert C. 2001. Lyme neuroborreliosis and aggression. Action Lyme. 21-23

(April).Available from  http://actionlyme.50megs.com/neuroborreliosis%20aggression.htm 

-. 2009. Lyme, depression and suicide. Canlyme. 18 (April). Available

from   http://www.mentalhealthandillness.com/tnaold.html
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West Nile Virus in Horses

Words: 2009 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14315101

" (Science Daily, 2008) it is related that these testing and diagnosis of West Nile in horses assist in the identification of where the disease is spreading and helps in the decision concerning whether to vaccinate horses in an area. Dr. Magnarelli states that the information used in this testing " is useful in confirming the epidemiology of the virus, determining when it arrived in certain areas and how it spreads." (Science Daily, 2008) the following illustration shows West Nile Virus (2008) in State with Equine cases with the total number of cases as of September 2, 2008 being 42.

West Nile Virus in 2008 (States with Equine Cases)

Total number of cases September 2, 2008

Source: United States Department of Agriculture: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (2008)

SUMMARY & CONCLUSION

West Nile Virus in horses requires diligent preventive factors because horses are more prone to become infected with…… [Read More]

Bibliography

West Nile Virus Vaccination Guidelines (2005) American Association of Equine Practitioners. Supplement to the AAEP Guidelines for Vaccination of Horses, January 2001. Online available at http://www.aaep.org/pdfs/AAEP_WNV_Guidelines_2005.pdf

West Nile Encephalitis in Horses (nd) Penn State University. College of Agricultural sciences - Agricultural Research and Cooperative Extension. Online available at http://pubs.cas.psu.edu/FreePubs/pdfs/un008.pdf

Society for General Microbiology (2008, August 22). New and Improved Test for West Nile Virus in Horses. ScienceDaily. Retrieved October 13, 2008, at http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2008/08/080819213052.htm

Animal Health Monitoring & Surveillance (2008) West Nile Virus - States with Equine Cases, Total Cases as of September 2, 2008-42. United States Department of Agriculture - Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service.
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Histone H2AX in the Study

Words: 5478 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64159440

These proteins include homologous members of yeast. The presences of these proteins suggest that E. histolytica is skilled to perform homologous recombination, which is the same as in other organisms. DNA damage was evaluated by TUNEL assay. In yeast and in human cells, histone H2AX becomes rapidly phosphorylated when DSs are introduced into chromatin (Lavi et al.).

Studies show that histone as a protein plays a significant role in the transition between the expression of a fetal gene and that of the adult gene. The adult gene's metabolism becomes oxidative in order to adapt to air and to weight, as it generates methylated transmitters and creatine phosphate. The muscles get used to life on the ground as compared to the fetal life which takes place in an aquatic environment. Regulated proteins allow the muscles to respond in a more adequate manner to this environment.

Now, let us see how histone…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Abraham, R.T. (2001). "Cell cycle checkpoint signaling through the ATM and ATR kinases." Genes Dev 15(17): 2177-96.

Alexiadis, V., T. Waldmann, J. Andersen, M. Mann, R. Knippers and C. CGruss (2000). "The protein encoded by the proto-oncogene DEK changes the topology of chromatin and reduces the efficiency of DNA replication in a chromatin-specific manner." Genes Dev 14(11): 1308-12.

Aten, R. And H. Behrman (1989). Antigonadotropic effects of bovine ovarian gonadotropin-releasing hormone-binding inhibitor from bovine ovaries. Purification and identification of histone H2A. J. Biol. Chem. 264: 11065-11071.

Antigonadotropic effects of bovine ovarian gonadotropin-releasing hormone-binding inhibitor/histone H2A in rat luteal and granulosal cells. J. Biol. Chem. 264: 11072-11075.
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Influenza the Story of Pandora's

Words: 1079 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95735709

Two families belong to this one, the Paramyxovirus and the Orthomyxovirus. Influenza virus belong to the latter.

It was only perhaps during in the 1930's when the etiologic agent was identified to be a virus, rather than a bacteria.. Influenza virus has five genera: InfluenzavirusA, InfluenzavirusB, InfluenzavirusC, Isavirus and Thogotovirus. The virus that causes influenza has three immunologic types: A, B and C. Influenza type a is known to have great antigenic changes, type B to a lesser degree. Type C appears to be the most stable antigenically among the three. Types a and C. affect multiply species, while Type B exclusively infects humans. (2008 the Flu)

Influenza virus a is the prototype of the Influenza virus, and the structures of other Influenza virus are almost the same.

Influenza virus are usually spherical, but can also be globular and about 100 nm in diameter, sheathed in a lipid bilayer that…… [Read More]

Reference:

Brooks, GF, Butel, JS, Ornston, LN 1995, Jawetz, Melnick and Adelberg's Medical Microbiology 20th ed, Appleton and Lange, Norwalk.

2008 the Flu, Available from:  http://users.rcn.com/jkimball.ma.ultranet/BiologyPages/I/Influenza.html [April 24, 2008].

2005 Influenza Viruses, Center for Disease and Control Prevention, Available at http://www.cdc.gov/flu/avian/gen-info/flu-viruses.htm,[April 24, 2008].

2008 Influenza, Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Influenza[April 24, 2008].
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Child in the Case Study

Words: 586 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25548074

g., teachers of young children, day-care employees, and residents and staff in institutional settings).

Persons who live or work in environments in which varicella transmission can occur (e.g., college students, inmates and staff of correctional institutions, and military personnel).

Nonpregnant women of childbearing age. Vaccination of women who are not pregnant -- but who may become pregnant in the future -- will reduce the risk for VZV transmission to the fetus.

Interpretation of elative History:

18-month female with fever, diffuse rash

Prime demographic for varicella infection)

Child is irritable but alert

Good sign, since toxicity would be an issue with this child. A good level of consciousness is useful in assessing the level of illness but can change quickly in the pediatric population)

Her heart rate is 180 beats per minute

She is tachycardic, but most likely due to the fever and irritability. The child is not described as tachypneic)…… [Read More]

References

Hamment, JM. (1999) Respiratory viral infection predisposing for bacterial disease: a concise review. FEMS Immunology and Medical Microbiology [FEMS Immunol. Med. Microbiol.]; 26, 189-195. 1 Dec 1999.

Haiduven-Griffiths D, Fecko H. Varicella in hospital personnel: a challenge for the infection control practitioner. Am J. Infect Control 1987; 15:207-11.
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Profesional Dental Hygienist Info I

Words: 2467 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59413173

16). Some of the options available to patients are (p. 16):

What it Is Colgate Total

Over-the-counter tooth- triclosan and fluoride paste containing the anti- toothpaste bacterial triclosan

Peridex or generic

Prescription mouth rinse chlorhexidine mouth containing'an anti-micro- rinse bial called chlorhexidine

Periochip tiny piece of gelatin filled with chlorhexidine

Atridox gel that contains the anti- biotic doxycycline

Actisite

Thread-like fiber that con- tains the antibiotic tetracy- cline

Arestin microspheres

Tiny round particles that contain the antibiotic minocycline

Periostat low dose of the medica- tion doxycycline that keeps destructive enzymes in check

Why it's Used

Colgate Total

The antibacterial ingredient triclosan and fluoride reduces plaque and result- toothpaste ing gingivitis. The fluoride protects against cavities.

Peridex or generic

To control bacteria, result- chlorhexidine mouth ing in less plaque and gin- rinse givitis

Periochip

To control bacteria and re- duce the size of periodon- tal pockets

Atridox

To control bacteria and…… [Read More]

References

Adams, T.L. (2003). Professionalization, Gender and Female-Dominated Professions: Dental Hygiene in Ontario. The Canadian Review of Sociology and Anthropology, 40(3), 267+. Retrieved November 30, 2007, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002041268

Being a Dental Hygienist Means You Can Clean Up. (2006, February 16). Daily Post (Liverpool, England), p. 25. Retrieved November 30, 2007, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5013780467

Chojnacki, C. (2006, December 31). Smiles All around Women Clean Up in National Contest for Hygenist of the Year. Daily Herald (Arlington Heights, IL), p. 1. Retrieved November 30, 2007, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5018805116

Kaldenberg, D.O. (1995). Total Quality Management Practices and Business Outcomes: Evidence from Dental Practices. Journal of Small Business Management, 33(1), 21+. Retrieved November 30, 2007, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000281668
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Chemistry Remediation Chemistry at Chromium

Words: 1738 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16904162

Bioreduction will be most effective in the future if researchers and engineers can develop more effective means of delivering needed nutrients to the microorganism strands used in remediation efforts, as well as tailor site conditions as needed. In the final analysis, it seems most likely that a combination of extractive and immobilization techniques will produce the best results, by each removing aspects of chromium contamination that the other cannot effectively eliminate.

orks Cited

Camargo, F.A.O., Okeke, B.C., Bento, F.M., and Frakenberger, .T. "In Vitro Reduction of Hexavalent Chromium by a Cell-Free Extract of Bacillus sp. ES 29 Stimulated by CU2+." Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 62.5/6 (Oct. 2003): 569-573.

Ciura, J., Poniedzialek, M., Jedrszczyk, E., and Sekara, a. "The Possibility of Using Crops as Metal Phytoremediants." Polish Journal of Environmental Studies 14.1 (2005): 17-22.

Kapoor, Anoop, and Viraraghavan, Thiruvenkatachari. "Remediation of Chromium-Containing Soils by Heap Leaching: Column Study." Journal of Environmental…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Camargo, F.A.O., Okeke, B.C., Bento, F.M., and Frakenberger, W.T. "In Vitro Reduction of Hexavalent Chromium by a Cell-Free Extract of Bacillus sp. ES 29 Stimulated by CU2+." Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 62.5/6 (Oct. 2003): 569-573.

Ciura, J., Poniedzialek, M., Jedrszczyk, E., and Sekara, a. "The Possibility of Using Crops as Metal Phytoremediants." Polish Journal of Environmental Studies 14.1 (2005): 17-22.

Kapoor, Anoop, and Viraraghavan, Thiruvenkatachari. "Remediation of Chromium-Containing Soils by Heap Leaching: Column Study." Journal of Environmental Engineering 121.4 (Apr. 1995): 366-367.

Pagilla, Krishna R., and Canter, Larry W. "Laboratory Studies on Remediation of Chromium-Contaminated Soils." Journal of Environmental Engineering 125.3 (Mar. 1999): 243-248.
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Respiratory Syncytial Virus RSV Is

Words: 2800 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57245085



It has also been suggested that low-level viral replication associated with SV may be a driver in chronic inflammation in some sufferers of chronic lung disease, although this is so far uncertain (Openshaw, 2005). It is estimated that infants who develop a wheeze as a result of SV contraction develop a recurring wheeze in around two thirds of all cases. It is also estimated that around half of these children will develop some form of asthma (Lehtinen et al., 2007). It is unclear why there are some who experience delayed onset of SV, although both immune 'imprinting' and viral persistence have been implicated (Openshaw and Tregoning, 2005).

Diagnosis

The condition is diagnosed through rapid antigen-detection tests. It is difficult to diagnose SV in adults as the tests are insensitive in persons other than children, and practitioners rarely request tests for SV in adults. This means that it is difficult to…… [Read More]

References

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2005) Respiratory Syncytial Virus. National Center for Infectious Diseases: Respiratory and Enteric Viruses Branch. Retrieved on November 11, 2007, at http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dvrd/revb/respiratory/rsvfeat.htm.

Feltes, T.F. And Sondheimer, H.M. (2006) Palivizumab and the prevention of respiratory syncytial virus illness in pediatric patients with congenital heart disease. Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy, 7(9): 1471-1480.

Flynn, J.D., Akers, W.S., Jones, M., Stevkovic, N., Waid, T., Mullett, T. And Jahania, S. (2004) Treatment of Respiratory Syncytial Virus pneumonia in a lung transplant recipient: Case report and review of literature. Pharmacotherapy. Retrieved on November 11, 2007, at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/482817?src=mp.

Health-Cares.net (2005) "How is RSV infection diagnosed?" Retrieved on November 11, 2007, at  http://respiratory-lung.health-cares.net/rsv-infection-diagnosis.php .
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Prevention of Central Line Infections

Words: 3055 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56007883

One possible explanation for the differences observed in the studies could be that the strengths of the chlorhexidine solution were different. It could also be that over time more effective techniques have been developed in the application of the solution, as the results do appear to improve over time.

There are limitations to the methodology of the study which are centered on the use of secondary data for analysis. The use of secondary data allows a wider range of data to be gathered from across the U.S. than would be practical from primary data collection which is the reason for the choice in this study. However this puts the control of several variables beyond the researcher. The results of the techniques may have been affected by the application of different individuals, departments and hospitals, all of whom may vary techniques and other factors influencing the success of these techniques. The…… [Read More]

References

Adams, D., Quavum, M., Worthington, T., Lambert, P., & Elliott, T. (2005). Evaluation of a 2% chlorhexidine gluconate in 70% isopropyl alcohol skin disinfectant. Journal of Hospital Infections, 61 (4), 287-290.

Brungs, S., & Render, M. (2006). Using Evidence-Based Practice to Reduce Central line Infections. Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing, 10 (6), 723-725.

CDC. (2002). Guidelines for Prevention of Intravascular Catheter-Related Infections. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report; Recommendations and Reports, 51 (RR-10), 1-34.

CDC Mission. (n.d.). Retrieved February 6, 2006, from CDC Web site: http://www.cdc.gov/about/mission.htm
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Soon After 911 Terrorist Attack

Words: 2862 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70819230

Therefore the consequences of such restrictions and regulations have further complicated the case, the research activities have been either shunned or go unreported to avoid any confrontation with the investigation agencies, 'the climate of fear created by the Butler case is even threatening the ability of the United States government to detect bioterrorist activity, the labs in one state are no longer reporting routine incidents of animals poisoned with ICIN, a deadly toxin found in castor beans, for fear of federal investigation'. Stanley Falkow, a respected researcher at Stanford University in California, in his letter to the former attorney-general of the United States revealed that, 'Trying to meet the unwarranted burden of what the government considers 'bio-safety' is simply not coincident with the practice of sound, creative scientific research'. The government introduced a policy which highlighted the need for tight control over the biologists 'with access to dangerous pathogens', in…… [Read More]

References

Robyn L. Pangi, Arnold M. Howitt. Countering Terrorism: Dimensions of Preparedness. 2003. MIT Press. pp. 341

Anthony Kubaik. Stages of Terror: terrorism, Ideology, and Coercion as theatre History. 2000. Pp. 154.

Jamie Lewis Keith. Regulation of Biological Materials under Export Controls and Bioterrorism Laws. University of Florida Press. 2003.

Debora MacKenzie. U.S. crackdown on Bio-Terror is backfiring. New Scientist Publication. November 2003.
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Injections of Phosphatidylcholine Solubilized With

Words: 4199 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89968927

Therefore, Hexsel's study will not be included in this analysis for failure to meet the study protocol.

Another human study involved a case study of a single patient. This Brazilian study represented a case study and does not meet the protocol for inclusion in this analysis either (Rittes, 2001). As there have been no human studies in the United States to date, we must rely on studies published in other countries for our meta-analysis. A study conducted in Vienna by Karl Heinrich will be used as one of the studies to be analyzed. This was the only study that could be located involving an actual population of human subjects, as this type of research is prohibited in the U.S. At this time.

The sample population used by Heinrich consisted of 86 individuals who received a standardized series of treatments. This study suffered from significant flaws that make the results questionable.…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Atoba MA, Ayoola EA, Ogunseyinde O. Effects of essential phospholipid choline on the course of acute hepatitis-B infection. Trop Gastroenterol. 1985; 6:96-9.

Bechara FG, Sand M, Altmeyer P. et al. Intralesional lipolysis with phosphatidylcholine for the treatment of lipomas: pilot study. Arch Dermatol. 2006 Aug;142(8):1069-70. Retrieved March 24, 2007 at  http://www.hubmed.org/display.cgi?uids=16924064 .

Hanin I, Ansell GB, eds. Lecithin. Technological, Biological and Therapeutic Aspects. New York and London: Plenum Press; 1987.

Doris Hexsel "
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Antimicrobial Agents in Household Use Triclosan

Words: 746 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2679510

Antimicrobial Agents in Household Use: Triclosan

Describe how Triclosan works on a molecular level. Explain how Triclosan differs from soap and bleach in its antimicrobial activity.

Triclosan blocks the active site of the enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase enzyme (EN), this is the vital enzyme in the synthesis of fatty acid in bacteria (Levy et a, 1999). Blocking this active site by triclosan leads to the inhibition of the enzyme thus preventing the synthesis of the fatty acid by the bacteria, a process needed for building cell membranes and reproduction. Given the fact that this EN enzyme exists in humans, triclosan has been considered to be relatively friendly to humans. Due to its strong nature of inhibition, powerful antibacterial action can be achieved using only a small amount of triclosan.

Triclosan differs from soap and bleach in the mechanism of action. Levy et al. (1999) also clarify that whereas triclosan interferes…… [Read More]

References

Bester, K. (2003) "Triclosan in a sewage treatment process balances and monitoring data," Water

Research, 37(16): 3891-3896.

Levy, C.W. et al. (1999). "Molecular Basis of Triclosan Activity," Nature, 398, 383-384.

Lindstrom, A. et al. (2002) "Occurrence and Environmental Behavior of the Bactericide
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Clinical Supervision the Subject Supervisor

Words: 2443 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64456789

In certain countries, an effective supervisor possesses basic teaching skills, facilitation skills, negotiation and assertiveness skills, counseling and appraisal skills, mentoring skills, and knowledge of learning resources and certification requirements (Kilminster).

The most important aspect of the role of an effective supervisor is giving supervisee responsibility and the opportunity to practice it (Kilminster, 2000). Supervisees come to view the supervisor as a colleague and this leads them to become self-directed. Some supervisees consider teaching skills and techniques, interpersonal style and professional competence the most important characteristics of an effective supervisor. An effective supervisor shows empathy, is supportive, and exhibits flexibility, instruction, knowledge, interest in supervision and good tracking of supervisees. He is interpretative, respectful, focused ad practical. In contrast, an ineffective supervisor is rigid, shows little empathy and provides low support. He fails to consistently track supervisee concerns, teach or instruct. He is indirect and intolerant. He is close-minded. He…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Borders, L.D. (1994). The good supervisor. ERIC Digests: ERIC Clearinghouse on Counseling and Student Services. Retrieved on October 28, 2011 from http://www.ericdigest.org/1995-1/good.htm

Joslin, v. (2008). Ten traits of a good supervisor. Associated Content: Yahoo. Inc. Shine.

Retrieved on October 28, 2011 from http://www.associatedcontent.com/article/969660/ten_traits_of_a_good_supervisor.html

Kilminster, S.M. (2000). Effective supervision in clinical practice settings. Vol 34
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Role of Information Technology in Promoting Lean

Words: 3186 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52372178

Role of Information Technology in Promoting Lean Thinking/Practices in a Hospital:

How it Helps Streamlining Processes

Lean Thinking and Healthcare

Lean thinking has evolved from well-known business management disciplines such as the Toyota Production System (TPS), Just-in-Time (JIT) and Kaizen. The core principles of lean are fundamentally the same as these other disciplines, but lean thinking has developed this theory into a generic concept that can be more readily applied in a diverse range of industries using a more people focused approach. Lean thinking is more than an initiative; it is an all-encompassing business ethic that every function throughout the company supply chain must be committed to if the company is to achieve an integrated approach to improving our products, processes, people and plant capability.

Lean thinking is based on creating value driven activity by defining the value stream of a product from the customers' perspective. The value stream is…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Bartlett J, Cameron P, Cisera M. The Victorian emergency department collaboration. Int J. Qual Health Care 2002; 14: 463-70.

Balle, F., & Balle, M. The gold mine: A novel of Lean turnaround. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Lean Enterprise Institute. 2005.

Bicheno, J. The Lean toolbox for service systems. Buckingham, UK: Picsie Books. 2008.

Doll R. Controlled Trials: The 1948 Watershed. BMJ. 1998; 317:1217 -- 20. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
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Nursing A Provides an Account of Your

Words: 2243 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42466858

Nursing

(a) provides an account of your observations on the management of peripheral intravascular devices from your clinical practicum in NMIH202;

Clinical practicum NM1H202 introduces nurses to the management of peripheral devices via scholarly inquiry and clinical practice. The practicum includes a thorough training in handling, inserting, replacing, and dressing peripheral intravascular devices including peripheral venous catheters. Because the primary risk associated with peripheral intravascular devices is infection, proper management of the devices is crucial. Bloodstream infections can cause patient casualties, leading not just to humanitarian disasters but also financial ones as well.

Hand washing vigilance is a primary part of the introduction to peripheral intravascular device management. While it may seem like an abundance of common sense, hand washing and aseptic techniques themselves depend on continued knowledge acquisition and training. Nurses must stay abreast of latest products and tools that promote hygiene in relation to the management of peripheral…… [Read More]

References

Bregenzer, T., Conen, D., Sakmann, P., & Widmer, A.F. (1998). Is Routine Replacement of Peripheral Intravenous Catheters Necessary? Arch Intern Med. 1998;158:151-156.

Crnich, C.J . & Maki, D.G. (2002). The Promise of Novel Technology for the Prevention of Intravascular Device -- Related Bloodstream Infection. I. Pathogenesis and Short-Term Devices. Clin Infect Dis. (2002) 34 (9): 1232-1242

Crnich, C.J. & Maki, D.G. (n.d.). The role of intravascular devices in sepsis. Current Infectious Disease Reports 3(6): 496-506.

Elliot, T.S.J. (1988). Intravascular device infections. Journal of Medical Microbiology 27(1988): 161-167.
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Range Theory Nursing If Accepts Premise Grand

Words: 1655 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24736764

range theory nursing. If accepts premise grand theories nursing longer, implications nursing education, practice, research? Question 2: due 11/29/11 There controversy nursing direction development nursing knowledge .

There is an emphasis at present on the development and use of mid-range theory in nursing. If one accepts the premise that grand theories of nursing are no longer necessary, what are the implications for nursing education, practice, and research?

Nursing theories can be classified in many different ways, but one of the most common methods is to group them into grand and middle range theories. A grand theory "provides a conceptual framework under which the key concepts and principles of the discipline can be identified," while, in contrast, a "middle range theory is more precise and only analyzes a particular situation with a limited number of variables" (Nursing theories: An overview, 2011, Nursing Theories). Mid-range theories of nursing do not attempt to…… [Read More]

References

Entry-to-practice competencies. (2011). College & Association of Registered Nurses of Alberta.

Retrieved September 25, 2011 at http://www.nurses.ab.ca/Carna-Admin/Uploads/Entry-to-Practice%20Competencies.pdf

Is nursing theory important? (2099). All Nurses. Retrieved September 25, 2011 at http://allnurses.com/general-nursing-discussion/nursing-theory-important-406192-page4.html

Kennedy, Shawn. (2009). New nurses face reality shock in hospital setting. AJN.
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Empyema Clinical Manifestation Empyema Lung Sounds and

Words: 640 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86986479

Empyema Clinical Manifestation

Empyema: Lung Sounds and other Clinical Manifestations

Over the past decade, empyema has consistently been recognized as an acute, potentially life-threatening respiratory disease. A large number of studies have been conducted over the last years that address the unique symptomatology of empyema and the clinical implications of these symptoms.

The biggest diagnostic challenge of empyema is that patient often present with symptoms very similar and difficult to distinguish from an uncomplicated pneumonia. A patient typically shows symptoms such as fever and chills, excessive sweating, malaise, cough, dyspnea, pleuritic chest pain and unintentional weight loss (Sahn, 2007). These symptoms individually do not warrant a diagnosis of empyema. They do, however, require precautionary follow-up testing that should include a pleural fluid aspiration. The presence of pus -- an opaque, whitish-yellow viscous fluid consisting of serum coagulation proteins, cellular debris and fibrin deposition -- aspirated from the pleural space is…… [Read More]

References:

1. Walker W, Wheeler R, Legg J. (2011). Update on the causes, investigation and management of empyema in childhood. Archives of Disease in Childhood, 96, 5, 482-488.

2. Sahn SA. (2007). Diagnosis and management of parapneumonic effusions and empyema. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 45, 11, 1480-1486.

3. Heffner JE, Klein JS, Hampson C. (2010). Diagnostic utility and clinical application of imaging for pleural space infections. Chest, 137, 2, 467-479.

4. Froudarakis ME. (2008). Diagnostic Work-Up of Pleural Effusions. Respiration, 75, 4-13.
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Justification Assessment of Proteome Changes

Words: 1822 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18669217

efining other techniques is laudable and important, but is not the domain of the proposed research. In addition, the mixed methods use of both mass spectrometry and bioinformatics methodologies is logically called fro due to the volume of data the mass spectrometry is expected to generate and the time consuming nature of any other mode of analysis save those available through specialized bioinformatics programs (Kuamr & Mann, 2009).

Conclusion

The selection of the model bacterial strain and of the previously validated antibiotic agent will be important considerations for this research, and will have a direct impact on the applicability of the results in other areas of research. Selection should be made on a basis of practicality not only in the ability to carry out the research, but also in light of how the findings can and might actually be applied. There are no real ethical implications that need to be…… [Read More]

References

Aebersold, R. & Mann, M. (2003). Mass spectrometry-based proteomics. Nature 422: 198-207.

Aldred, S., Grant, M. & Griffiths, H. (2004). The use of proteomics for the assessment of clinical samples in research. Clinical Biochemistry 37(11): 943-52.

Freiberg, C., Brotz-Oesterhelt, H. & Labischinski, H. (2004). The impact of transcriptome and proteome analyses on antibiotic drug discovery. Current Opinion in Microbiology 7(5): 451-9.

Kuiper, H., Kok, E. & Engel, K. (2003). Exploitation of molecular profiling techniques for GM food safety assessment. Current Opinion in Biotechnology 14(2): 238-43.
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Bioprocess of Monosodium Glutamate MSG

Words: 1940 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62730171

Monosodium glutamate, otherwise known as MSG, is a commonly discussed food additive used throughout the world today. While some countries use it minimally, and place high restrictions on its use, other countries use it on a consistent basis, in many foods. This paper will examine MSG, and its uses. Additionally, this paper will examine each step of how MSG is made, using fermentation. The discussion will include technical details of the process, the equipment commonly used, the use of enzymes and bacteria, as well as an examination of the product packaging and quality control procedures. Finally, this paper will include a brief description of the market of MSG, and the socio-economic aspects of the product.

Monosodium glutamate, or MSG, is the sodium salt of glutamic acid. Glutamate is an amino acid that occurs naturally in many foods known for their flavor, such as tomatoes and mushrooms. Additionally, glutamate is found…… [Read More]

References

Aida, K., Chibata, L. Nakayama, K., Takinami, K., and Yamada, K. 1986. Biotechnology of Amino Acid Production. Amsterdam: Elsevier, p. 215.

Ajinomoto Company, Inc. 1996. Production process of amino acids. Encyclopedia of Amino Acids. Tokyo, Japan: Ajinomoto Company, Inc.

Blue Diamond. 2004. History of MSG. Facts About MSG. Obtained October 18, 2004 from Direct Food Ingredients, LTD. Web site: http://www.directfood.net/bluediamond/history.asp.

DeSilva, F.J. 1997. Removing organics with ion exchange resin. Water Conditioning and Purification Magazine, 2, p. 5-8.
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Goldberger's War

Words: 1653 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1215052

GOLDBEGE'S WA"

Early 20th century saw the outbreak of a deadly mysterious disease, pellagra that could cause anything from fever to dementia to death. The disease that had killed over 100,000 people by the end of 1914 was shrouded in deep mystery because of the fact that the epidemic was largely limited to the South and was exclusively affecting the peasant class. It was indeed a poor man's disease and conventional wisdom suggested it had something to do with sanitary conditions.

"Pellagra, a classic dietary deficiency disease caused by insufficient niacin, was noted in the South after the Civil War. Then considered infectious, it was known as the disease of the four Ds: diarrhea, dermatitis, dementia, and death. The first outbreak was reported in 1907. In 1909, more than 1000 cases were estimated based on reports from 13 states. One year later, approximately 3000 cases were suspected nationwide based on…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

1. Etheridge EW. The Butterfly Caste: A Social History of Pellagra in the South. Westport, CT: Greenwood Publishing Company; 1972.

2. Harkness Jon M. Prisoners and pellagra, Public Health Reports; 9/1/1996;

3. Kraut, A.M. 2003. Goldberger's war: the life and work of a public health crusader. Hill and Wang. New York, New York, USA.

4. Roth, J. Goldberger's war:The life and work of a public health crusader -- Journal of Clinical Investigation 113 (5):650 2004
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Immunology Toll Like Receptors

Words: 1635 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78389438

Immunology - Toll-Like receptors

The family of Toll-like eceptors has gained in importance since the discovery that they could be potential regulators and controllers of the immune response system in the human body as they are capable of recognizing the molecular patterns that are associated with pathogens. It was found that Toll-like eceptors are capable of recognizing endogenous ligands, as well as microbial components and those Toll-like receptors are activated by small-molecular-mass synthetic compounds and for these reasons the Toll-like eceptors are significant in that they are potential targets for the development of new therapies for several diseases. (Toll-like receptors as potential therapeutic targets for multiple diseases)

Toll eceptors were first found in an insect, the fruit fly Drosophila and these receptors were found to play a significant part in the innate immunity by the recognization of microbial particles and also by triggering the immune cells against the source of…… [Read More]

References

Cohen J; Hopkins P. (April 6, 2002) "Toll-like receptors: the key to the stable door?" Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve& db=PubMed& list_uids=11983029& dopt=Abstract Accessed on 12/20/2004

Imler, Jean-Luc; Zheng Liangbiao. "Biology of Toll receptors: lessons from insects and mammals" Retrieved from http://www.jleukbio.org/cgi/content/abstract/75/1/18 Accessed on 12/20/2004

Lin-fu Zhou; Kai-sheng Yin "Toll-like receptors: function and roles in asthma." Retrieved from http://www.cmj.org/information/full.asp?id=1817 Accessed on 12/20/2004

"Multidisciplinary UI Team Awarded Grant to Study Innate Immune System" (November 24, 2003) Retrieved from http://www.uihealthcare.com/news/news/2003/11/24microbes.html Accessed on 12/20/2004
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Influenza the Threat of Bird

Words: 2077 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91535668

Medications must be continued until the vaccine becomes effective. She should contact the state of local health department immediately about the outbreak and report cases to the local health department.

The Watson Caring Theory may be infused in the role and functions of the community health nurse when treating and caring for patients or victims of influenza. Jean Watson's 10 carative factors can translate into clinical caritas processes and bring about subject healing processes that can help speed up the recovery of a patient as an individual, as part of a family or as a member of the community. In applying Watson's caring theory or model, the nurse can form or build a humanistic-altruistic system of values with the individual patient, the family or community; instill faith and hope; become more sensitive to them in their suffering; develop a more trusting relationship with them; elicit and accept their expression of…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2004). Influenza: the Disease. Department of Health and Human Services.  http://www.cdc.gov/flu/about/disease.htm 

Ghosh, T. (2004). Preventing Widespread Influenza: Influenza Surveillance Activities. Public Health Update. http://www.tchd.org/pdfs/update9.04_flu.pdf

Keen, a. (1995). Influenza. Virology lectures. Department of Medical Microbiology: University of Cape Town. http://web.uct.ac.za/depts/mmi/jmondie/influen2.html

La Porte, RE. (2005). Influenza: Epidemiology, Prevention and Control. A Supercourse. Global Health Network.  http://www.pitt.edu/~super1/lecture/lec0652/index.htm
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Living Things Are Characterized by the Following

Words: 4492 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61564004

living things are characterized by the following seven characteristics namely mobility, respiration, excretion, sensitivity or response to external stimulus, growth, feeding, and reproduction. Though there may be variations between animal and plant kingdom (ex, plants take in carbon dioxide and prepare their own food), these characteristics are commonly observed among all living things.

iology is a very broad field that encompasses the study of characteristics of living things. It includes botany, zoology and all other sub-disciplines that range from microbiology to evolution and ecology.

Evolution is the branch of biology that deals with the study of natural development of living organisms and the changes in them over time. Evolution refers to the heritable changes that occur in a population over a period of time. All the diversity that is observed currently in plant and animal kingdom can be ascribed to evolution over a long period of time.

Atoms are the…… [Read More]

Bibliography

1) Mark Rothery, "Cells," Accessed on Sep 20th 2005, Available from  http://www.mrothery.co.uk/cells/cellnotes.htm
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BSN Growing as a Nurse

Words: 1738 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51998758



Management

Experience and good performance can result in promotion to better positions. In management, nurses have the opportunity to become assistant head nurses or head nurses and, from there, to assistant directors, directors, and vice presidents. Many of today's management-level nursing positions require a degree in nursing or health services administration.

As floor supervisors, a BSN graduate oversees care for an entire unit of patients while mentoring and training new nurses. Other RN to BSN degree holders put their liberal arts skills to work as entrepreneurs, running temporary nursing staffing agencies, home care services, and other health care-related small businesses.

In conclusion, by learning more about the nursing field, nurses discover new options for solving day-to-day problems in a way that can improve the practice environment (Barry, 2000). The BSN provides a solid foundation for specialized study to prepare for teaching new nurses, or being a resource nurse specialist.

Nurses…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Barry, Mark. (2000). More Letters: Entry Into Practice. AJN, American Journal of Nursing, Volume 103 Number 3, 69-70.

Leonard, Teresa. (March, 2003). RN to BSN -- advice on returning to school - registered nurses pursing baccalaureate degree. AORN Journal.

Mattera, M. (May, 2005). BSN on your terms. Registered Nurse, 63, 7.

Rosseter, R. (1997). As Demand for RNs Climbs, Bachelor's-Degree Enrollments
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Hydrothermal Vents A New Way

Words: 2749 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31652738

2005). The rules for deep-sea life are different than those for terrestrial species. Stratification plays an important role in species classification in vent environments. As the chimney grows in height the environment changes.

Tarasov and associates believe that deep-sea vents have a longer evolutionary history then shallow vents found closer to the surface. This is an important factor in understanding how hydrothermal vents are connected to early life on planet earth. Deep-sea hydrothermal vent communities represent a different phenomenon than shallow water vents. The chemical processes that take place in the deep-sea vent communities are very different from those in shallow areas. Shallow vent species receive light from the sun and more closely resemble terrestrial life forms. However, this is not so with deep-sea forms. Hydrothermal plumes are a rising column of hot water that can have sharp definitions in microhabitats. Similar species found inside the plume and outside of…… [Read More]

Works Cited

DeChaine, E. And Cavanaugh, C. 2006. Presence of post larval alvinocaridid shrimps over south-west Indian Ocean hydrothermal vents, with comparisons of the pelagic biomass at different vent sites Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 86 (1): 125-128.

Govenar, B., Le Bris, N., and Gollner, S. 2005. Epifaunal community structure associated with Riftia pachyptila aggregations in chemically different hydrothermal vent habitats. Marine Ecology Progress Series,. 305: 67-77.

Jeng, M., Ng, K., and Ng, P. 2004. Feeding behaviour: Hydrothermal vent crabs feast on sea 'snow' Nature. December 2004. 432 (7020): 969.

Kelley, D., Karson, J., and Blackman, D. 2001. An off-axis hydrothermal vent field near the Mid-Atlantic Ridge at 30 degree N. Nature. July 12, 2001. 412 (6843): 145-149.