116 results for “Microbiology”.
Microbiology & Spontaneous Generation
Microbiology is the study of microbes that are practically invisible to the human eye. Although microbes are usually associated with causing and aiding disease, they are essential organisms in the ecological world. They allow for life to thrive and are of great interests for food, scientific, and medical industries (Black, 2008). The term microorganism encompasses bacteria, protozoa, fungi, archaea, parasites, algae, prions, and viruses (Nester, Anderson, & oberts, 2012). Each of these types of microorganism is responsible for everything that can essentially cause illness in living organisms, but are also necessary for the proper functioning of a mammal's digestive tract. However, in early scientific history, as illnesses were being investigated and the cell theory was beginning to emerge, the question about whether life could come out of nowhere was being explored. Because the majority of microorganisms were practically invisible, early microbiologists did not understand the concept…
Nester, E., Anderson, D., & Roberts, C.E. (2012).Microbiology: A human perspective. (7th ed). New York, New York: McGraw-Hill Higher Education.
Black, J.G. (2008). Microbiology, principles and explorations. (7th ed). Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Microbial metabolism is referred to as the manner in which microbes find their nutrients and energy that makes them live and reproduce. The paper will describe metabolic requirement for Staphylococcus aureus and Clostridium botulinum that provide them with environment that support their growth. The paper also summarizes mechanism of action by which drug inhibits the growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
Staphylococcus aureus is as facultative anaerobic gram-positive cocci that is able to occur in irregular, in pairs or in single cluster. It tends to be catalase/coagulase positive, non-spore forming and nonmotile. The real colonies have a color that ranges from yellow to golden yellow, slightly raised, smooth as well as hemolytic on 5% sheep blood agar. Nevertheless, most of the strains may as well look non-hemolytic and dirty white.
Generally staphylococcus aureus is known to find their breading environment on the skin as well as mucous membranes…
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (1998) "Botulism in the United States, 1899-1996. Handbook for epidemiologists, clinicians, and laboratory workers." Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, CDC. Retrieved May 18, 2013 http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dbmd/diseaseinfo/files/botulism.pdf .
Keith R. Schneider, Alexandra Chang and Renee M. Goodrich (2012) Preventing Foodborne Illness: Clostridium botulinum. Retrieved May 18, 2013. http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/fs104
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, (2013) "Staphylococcus aureus Toxin Formation in Hydrated Batter Mixes" U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Retrieved May 18, 2013 http://www.fda.gov/Food/GuidanceRegulation/GuidanceDocumentsRegulatoryInformation/Seafood/ucm092237.htm
How to discover the causative agent of a new disease and its mode of transmission:
The standard epidemiologic triangle model of infectious disease causation, asserts that communicable diseases are the result of the contact between the agent, surroundings and the host with the vector. Transmission in particular happens if the agent leaves the host or reservoir via an exit portal and then it is moved (transmitted) in a particular form and enters a vulnerable host, infecting it through a suitable portal of entry. This cycle is also is widely regarded as the sequence of infection.
The locale where the infectious agent usually breeds and multiplies in number is its reservoir. The environment, animals and humans are some of the reservoirs. A contagious agent can be transmitted to a host either directly from a reservoir or through other intermediary sources. There are several different ways by which diseases spread from…
Bailey, R. (2015). Antibodies. Retrieved from http://biology.about.com/od/molecularbiology/ss/antibodies.htm
BiologicTX. (2013). Transplant donors: Why donors & recipients do not match. Retrieved from http://biologictxpaireddonation.com/donors/why-donors-recipients-do-not-match/
Brigham & Women's Hospital Kidney Transplant Staff. (n.d). Kidney transplantation: A guide for patients. Retrieved from http://msl1.mit.edu/ESD10/kidneys/HndbkHTML/ch12.htm
CDC. (2012). Introduction to epidemiology. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/ophss/csels/dsepd/ss1978/lesson1/section10.html
This is primarily because two sprouting facilities in two states were linked with the implicated alfalfa sprouts and only one lot of seeds from Idaho State was common to Michigan and Virginia. Therefore, the likely point of contamination include during growth or harvesting, seed processing, in storage, or during transportation of the food. This implies that the identification of the actual point of contamination requires collection of more information on each of these steps.
The results of inspection of the alfalfa fields indicated that the three possible source of contamination include cattle manure, deer feces, and irrigation water. Generally, cattle are the basic reservoir for E. coli O157:H7 while other animals like deer can either be carriers of or become infected by the bacteria. Therefore, inspecting the alfalfa fields and harvesting process may require consideration of the site of the fields, soil, fertilizer, pesticides, irrigation water, harvesting and…
Canada. Health Canada. Risks Associated with Sprouts. The Government of Canada, 11 Aug. 2011. Web. 25 June 2013. .
Clark, Marler. "Press Releases: Food Poisoning Litigation News: Sprouts and Foodborne Illness Have a Long History, Says Marler Clark Food Safety Expert." Marler Clark: Attorney at Law L.L.P.P.S. Marler Clark, 24 May 2010. Web. 25 June 2013. .
United States. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Center for Disease Control and Prevention. A Multistate Outbreak of E. Coli O157:H7 Infection: INSTRUCTOR'S VERSION. By Jeanette K. Stehr-Green. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Apr. 2002. Web. 25 June 2013. .
Quality in the Clinical Microbiology Laboratory
The objective of this study is to define quality in the microbiology clinical laboratory including its major components. Toward's this end, this study will examine what constitutes quality in the laboratory setting and will list and discuss the activities in the laboratory that are designed to assure quality from collection of specimen to reporting.
Quality management in the clinical microbiology field was initiated in the decade of the 1960s with government and professional societies alike introducing proficiency testing and laboratory inspection and accreditation programs. It is reported that there were many laboratory scientist and pathologists "independently active and creative in expanding efforts to monitor and improve practices." (artlett, et al., 1994, p.1) The emphasis in the beginning was on intralaboratory process with attention later shifting to such as "physician ordering, specimen collection, reporting, and use of information." (artlett, et al., 1994, p.1)
Bartlett, RC, et al. (1994) Evolving Approaches to Management of Quality in Clinical Microbiology. Clinical Microbiology Reviews. Jan 1994, p.55-88. Retrieved from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC358306/pdf/cmr00030-0067.pdf
Elder, B.L. And S.E. Sharp. 2003. Cumitech 39: competency assessment in the clinical microbiology laboratory. Coordinating ed., S.E. Sharp. ASM< Press, Washington, DC
McCarter, Y.S. And A Robinson. 1997. Competency assessment in clinical microbiology. Clin.Micro.Newsl. 19: 97-101.
Sharp, S.E. 2001. Initial training verification and competency assessment in the clinical microbiology laboratory. Clin.Micro.Newsl. 23: 79-91.
Base Case Study Microbiology
Which organism is causing the food poisoning (include genus and species)? What is the most common source of contamination?
The organism causing the food poisoning is E. coli or Escherichia coli. The most common source of contamination is through food like in ground beef, venison, sausages, dried (non-cooked) salami, unpasteurized milk and cheese, unpasteurized apple juice and cider, alfalfa, parsley, radish sprouts, lettuce, cabbage, spinach, fruit, nuts, and berries, and cookie dough.
What information should Ami gather from the victims and their families?
Ami should gather what the victims have eaten prior to being sick.
Why do children seem to be the most ill?
The children seem to be the most ill because their immune system isn't fully developed and are weak, so they are at an increased risk of serious complications from E. coli.
How does this bacterium damage its victims?
The bacterium damages its…
Certainly, the fact that I signed up for the course both times I was given a form is an indication of my understanding of my responsibilities and my desire to fulfill them. When I was not scheduled for these classes, I assumed I still had some time to meet the requirements in a future semester. However, I am learning only now that due to the aforementioned inconsistency between the handbook and the curriculum itself, that there is a requirement for this course to have been completed before I am able to move on the next tier of my education.
I do understand and respect the rules of this institution. However, in my current position, I am imploring you to consider that this misunderstanding was a reasonable one and that I might be entitled to be made an exception. Certainly, I have had every intention of taking the required microbiology course.…
The history of Microbiology
Microbiology dates back to the 1600s. This is when there was recorded evidence of scientists collecting and observing micro organisms. obert Hooke was the first person to do so, as he studied strands of fungi among the different cells he observed. In the 1670s, Anton van Leeuwenhoek conducted research on protozoa, fungi and bacteria. After he died, is when the theory of spontaneous generation was developed. This is because there were only a handful of experiments to support his claims. Under the theory, it was believed that life forms emerge from lifeless matter such as beef broth. This debate continued until Lazzaro Spallanzani and Francesco edi disputed it through a series of experiments that were conducted by them. (Bastian, 2001) (Black, 2008)
In the late 1880s, Louis Pasteur concluded that bacteria can make someone ill and demonstrated how it will have an effect on…
Bastian, C. (2001). Evolution and the Spontaneous Generation Debate. Sterling, VA: Thoemmes.
Black, J. (2008). Microbiology. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
M. tuberculosis can extend to other tissues or organs such as the lymph nodes, joints, skin, bones, the central nervous system, the urinary tract and the abdomen. The host immune reaction to M. tuberculosis originally involves the employment of activated macrophages to the site of infection in the lung, where they can form a tuberculous granuloma that serves to restrict the infection. Bacteria that are trapped in the granuloma face aggressive surroundings that become anoxic and rich in toxic fatty acids. M. tuberculosis under these circumstances has been assumed to take for granted a dormant status in which it can remain viable for years without causing observable disease. A succeeding breakdown of the immune system of the host may permit its emergence from this dormant status, resulting in reactivation of the latent disease (Manganelli, Dubnau, Tyagi, ussell and Smith, 1999).
In order to diagnosis TB a doctor will complete a…
Manganelli, Riccardo, Dubnau, Eugenie, Tyagi, Sanjay, Russell, Fred and Smith, Issar. (1999).
Differential expression of 10 sigma factor genes in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
Molecular Microbiology. 31(2), p. 715 -- 724.
Schiffman, George. (2010). Tuberculosis (TB). Retrieved July 23, 2010, from MedicineNet Web
Phylogenetic Analysis of the Black Plague
Microbiology Article eview
The first successful sequencing of an ancient bacterial pathogen was reported in the October 27, 2011 issue of Nature (Bos et al., 2011). Samples of Yersinia pestis, otherwise known as the Black Death, the Black Plague, or the bubonic plague, were recovered from the teeth and bones of victims interred in a 14th century burial ground outside of London, England.
Y. pestis DNA was recovered from five teeth and the authors found a C. To T. damage pattern previously shown to be characteristic of endogenous ancient DNA. The recovered DNA fragment length averaged around 55.5 base pairs, which is also consistent with ancient DNA. These findings help to confirm the recovered samples had not been contaminated with extant strains of Y. pestis.
After validating the technical approach, which was a capture-based array method, the authors were faced with aligning the very…
Bos, Kirsten I., Schuenemann, Verena J., Golding, G. Brian, Burbano, Hernan A., Waglechner, Nicholas, Coombes, Brian K. et al. (2011). A draft genome of Yersinia pestis from victims of the black death. Nature, 478, 506-510.
Corynebacterium diphtheria. The answered . The pdf file attached referenced. The paper written format a scientific paper a microbiology . These textbooks great sources reference: Willey, J.
Corynebacterium diphtheriae is a bacterium that is pathogenic and is the leading cause of diphtheria. Due to the resemblance in their shape and sizes, bacteria and archaea were earlier classified as one but on discovery of their metabolic and biochemical differences, it was determined that they had different evolution histories. The bacillus falls under the nonlipophilic fermentative bacteria in classification. Structurally, it possesses cell membranes formed from a combination of the hydroxyl group and fatty acids. Unlike the bacteria, the archaea has linkages that contain ether bonds (Willey, 2003). The cell wall of C.diphtheriae is made up of peptidoglycan bonds which is a great variance from that of the archaea which contains no such bonds. Another major cutting edge factor that classifies C.diphtheriae…
Lammert, J.M. (2007). Techniques in Microbiology. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.
McClane, B.A., & Mietzner, T.A. (1999). Microbial pathogenesis: a principles-oriented approach: Fence Creek Pub.
Willey, J.M., Sherwood, L.M., & Woolverton, C.J. (2003). Prescott's Microbiology (8 ed.). Dubuque, Iowa: McGraw Hill Higher Education.
The chemical was found to turn on quorum sensing in V. fischeri, whereas it inhibited pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Also, the slow-release was shown to be far more effective than by applying the chemical directly as an aqueous solution. Since quorum sensing is also important for pathogen establishment this application could be important for inhibiting pathogenic bacteria from colonization of internal medical devices.
In summary, the V. fischeri and squid symbiotic relationship is an important model host-bacteria system. Aspects of colonization of host-symbiont and host-pathogen have been shown, using the V. fisheri and squid model, to be the same. Therefore, understanding the mechanism and complex transcriptional regulatory systems of V. fischeri could lead to potential new therapies and pharmaceutical applications. Likewise, understanding the environmental factors necessary for successful host-bacteria interactions could lead to novel drug targets. In addition to being important in understanding other harmful host-bacteria relationships the V. fischeri and…
Breitbach, a.S., Broderick, a.H., Jewell, C.M., Gunasekaran, S., Lin, Q., Lynn, D.M., & Blackwell, H.E. 2010. Surface-mediated release of a synthetic small-molecule modulator of bacterial quorum sensing: Gradual release enhances activity. Chem Comm.
Chun, C.K, Troll, J.V., Koroleva, I., Brown, B., Manzella, L., Snir, E., Almabraz, H, Scheetz, T.E., Bonaldo, M.F., Casavant, T.L., Soares, M.B., Ruby, E.G., & McFall-Ngai, M.J. 2008. Effects of colonization, luminescence, and autoinducer on host transcription during development of the squid-vibrio association. PNAS 105(32): 11323-11328.
Lyell, N.L., Dunn, a.K., Bose, J.L., Stabb, E.V. 2010. Bright mutants of Vibrio fischeri ES114 reveal conditions and regulators that control bioluminescence and expression of the lux Operon. J. Bacteriol. 192(19): 5103-5114.
Murray, P.R., Rosenthal, K.S., Kobayashi, G.S., Pfaller, M.A. 1998. Vibrio, Aeromonas, and Plesiomonas. In M. Brown (Ed.), Medical Microbiology Third Edition (pp. 245-250). St. Louis, MO: Mosby.
"Elimination of these and other pathogens from the lower respiratory tract is made possible by an effective innate immune response, which is necessary yet potentially dangerous to the infected host."
E. coli Outbreak:
There have been numerous E.coli outbreaks over the years. Pakalniskiene, Falkenhorst, Lisby, and Madsen (2009) studied one of the larger single source outbreaks. On November 11th, 2006, there was an outbreak in Greater Copenhagen, Denmark. The director of a high school had contacted the regional health authority to report an outbreak of diarrhea and vomiting among guests of a school dinner party. A total of 750 people, nearly all of the teachers and students at the school, had attended the dinner. The evening, the first people became sick. Three days later, when the director made the report, approximately 200 to 300 teachers and students had reported gastroenteritis. It was found that the fresh basil used in the…
Cegelski, L., Marshall, G., Eldridge, G., Hultgren, S. (Jan 2008). The biology and future prospects of antivirulence therapies. Nature Reviews: Microbiology. (6). Retrieved May 7, 2009, from Proquest.
Hacker, J. & Blum-Oehler, G. (2007). In appreciation of Theodor Escherich. Nature Reviews. Microbiology, 5(12) Retrieved May 7, 2009, from ProQuest.
Justice, S., Hunstad, D., Cegelski, L., & Hultgren, S. (2008). Morphological plasticity as a bacterial survival strategy. Nature Reviews. Microbiology, 6(2). Retrieved May 7, 2009, from ProQuest.
Pakaliniskiene, J., Falkenhorst, G., Lisby, M., Madsen, B., Olsen, K., Nielsen, E., Mygh, A., Boel, J., & Molbak, K. (2009). A foodborne outbreak of enterotoxigenic E. coli and Salmonella Anatum infection after a high-school dinner in Denmark, November 2006. Epidemiology and Infection, 137(3) Retrieved May 7, 2009, from ProQuest.
Management of Immunocompromised Patients
In beginning I writer specific nursing assignment. The Question: 2000 Words While clinical placement asked prepare a single room an admission. The patient requiring admission isolation room immunocompromised.
Immunocompromised patients usually require isolation in order to prevent them from becoming infected with infections from other patients which is known as protective isolation. For the immunocompromised patients, their immune system is unable to fight the infectious diseases. There are many diseases or conditions that lead to immunodeficiency in patients.
One is AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome). The pathophysiology of AIDS starts when the person's CD4+ T cell count begins to decrease as the disease kills these cells. This is HIV-induced cell lysis where the virus enters the CD4+ cells where it inserts its genetic information to the cell nucleus thus taking over the cell and replicating itself. The virus then mutates extremely rapidly thus making it more and…
Agusti, C., & Torres, A. (2009). Pulmonary Infection in the Immunocompromised Patient: Strategies for Management. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Bodey, G.P. (2010). Managing Infections in the Immunocompromised Patient. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 40(Supplement 4), S239. doi: 10.1086/427328
Glauser, M.P., & Pizzo, P.A. (2009). Management of Infections in Immunocompromised Patients New York: Elsevier Health Sciences.
Hayden, R.T. (2008). Diagnostic Microbiology of the Immunocompromised Host. Washington, DC: ASM Press.
air traffic has continued to increase and it now constitutes a considerable proportion of the travelling public. The amount of long-hour flights has increased significantly. Based on the International Civil Aviation authority, air traffic can be anticipated to double amid till 2020. Airline travel, especially over longer distances, makes air travelers vulnerable to numerous facets that will impact their health and well-being. Particularly, the speed with which influenza spreads and mutates, via transportation routes, is the reason why the influenza pandemic is considered to be a huge threat to the human population. Pandemic is a term, which is used for a virus or microbe when it spreads over a large area, in severe cases even the whole world and large number of people start getting affecting by it (CDC, 2009).
In the past 300 years, there have been ten significant influenza pandemics outbreaks that have taken place in this world.…
Airports Council International (2009) Airport preparedness guidelines for outbreaks of communicable disease. Available at: http://www.airports.org/aci/aci/file/ACI_Priorities/Health/Airport%20preparedness%20guidelines.pdf (Accessed: 28 November 2011)
Bouma, G.D. (2002) The research process. 4th edn. Melbourne: Oxford University Press.
Brigantic, R., Delp, W., Gadgil A., Kulesz, J., Lee, R., Malone, J.D. (2009) U.S. airport entry screening in response to pandemic influenza: Modeling and analysis. Available at: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B7578-4W2M6SG1&_user=10843&_rdoc=1&_fmt=&_orig=search&_sort=d&view=c&_acct=C000000150&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10843&md5=44685b11dd53d74a8ef85a4f03e185f2 (Accessed: 28 November 2011)
Bush, George W. (2003a). Homeland security presidential directive -- 5: Management of domestic incidents. Available at: http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2003/02/20030228-9.html (Accessed: 28 November 2011)
Prokaryotic & Eukaryotic Cells
Cells can be divided into two categories: prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Prokaryotic cells are significantly smaller than eukaryotic cells. This size difference is due to the many contents inside a eukaryotic cell that prokaryotic cells do not have. To begin with, prokaryotic cells are always going to be unicellular, while eukaryotic cells can also be unicellular but are many times multicellular (Murray & Baron, 2007). Prokaryotic cells do not have any membrane-bound organelles inside them, such as the nucleus, mitochondria, or lysosome as eukaryotic cells do. The DNA of eukaryotic cells is linear and is contained within the nucleus, while DNA in prokaryotic cells is circular and is contained within the nuclear body, a non-membrane surrounded structure (Murray & Baron, 2007). The number of ribosomes inside a prokaryotic cell is a lot less than those contained in a eukaryotic cell. Prokaryotic ribosomes are about 70s while…
Murray, Patrick R., and Ellen Jo. Baron. Manual of Clinical Microbiology. Vol. 1. Washington, D.C.: ASM, 2007. Print.
Nester, E., Anderson, D., & Roberts, C.E. (2012).Microbiology: A human perspective. (7th ed). New York, New York: McGraw-Hill Higher Education.
Nurses are also usually the first medical professionals to encounter patients, and so they have to be good at making quick assessments of a patient's condition, to ensure that the patient gets the appropriate care. Obviously, an emergency room nurse might need better triage skills than a nurse in a doctor's office, but all nurses have to be able to identify potentially contagious patients and deal with them appropriately. In hospital settings, nurses are often the consistent element of a patient's care plan, and a nurse's involvement can ensure that a patient gets the type of care that he or she needs to recover. Nurses also play an important emotional role in the life of the patient, providing the patient with a caring person who can answer questions and listen to concerns.
Of course, at this point in my life, I cannot say what type of nurse I would like…
This implies that decomposition process goes on activated by the young earthworms in the soil, given that the soil is loose, moist and rich in organic matter for the worms to remain alive. The bacterium which is present in the alimentary canal of the earthworm converts organic water to natural fertilizers. The chemical alterations that the organic wastes are put to consist of deorderising and neutralizing. This implies that the pH of the castings is 7 which is neutral. (the tasteful garden)
The Latin meaning of vermes is worm from which the term vermiculture has been derived. Vermiculture is a process wherein the process of composting, containing the addition of some species of earthworms used to improve the process of conversion of waste and produce an improve product. Vemicomposting varies from composting in a number of ways. Mainly, vermicomposting consists of a mesophillic process in which the microorganisms are…
Delahaut, Karen; Koval, C.F. Earthworms: beneficial or pests?
N.A. Advantages of Vermicompost. http://www.organicneem.com/neemvermicompost_advnt.htm
N.A. Beautiful gardens begin with great compost. http://www.happydranch.com/articles/reference.html
UK student / a suitable candidate Information Personal Information First Name: Rasoul Last Name: Abousaeedi Birth Date: January 28th 1984 Born: Kerman, Iran. Hometown: Kerman, Iran Education B.ID
Why studying in the UK would help me and why I am a suitable candidate
The focus of my education has been on plant protection and plant pathology. I received my B. Sc. In Plant Protection and my M. Sc. In Plant Pathology. Understanding how to grow healthy, disease-resistant plants are a crucial component of creating a better food supply for the world. My thesis was on the "Induction of systemic acquired resistance against Xanthomonas translucens pv. translucens in barley plants by chemicals."
Biotechnology can provide ample opportunities to ensure that healthy, nutritious vegetables, fruits, and grains are more available and are more resistant to pests, diseases, and the elements. My most recent publication delivered to the 7th National Biotechnology Congress of…
In order to evaluate the validity of the hypothesis "catabolite control of S. epidermidis biofilm formation is indirectly regulated by CcpA-dependent of the TCA cycle," a laboratory study was performed and then documented in the article "CcpA coordinates central metabolism and biofilm formation in Staphylococcus epidermidis." Through their research, the authors of the article ultimately determined that CcpA is in fact a positive effecter of biofilm formation of S. epidermidis, along with icaADBC transcription and a repressor of TCA cycle activity.
The general profile of S. epidermidis shows that it is a pathogen that is opportunistic in nature, therefore primarily infecting patients who are immunocompromised. It is often a cause of infections for patients who receive implanted biomedical devices. This pathogen makes itself particularly difficult to treat in these situations due to the formation of a biofilm, which encapsulates the bacteria in an exopolysaccharide matrix. It is therefore valuable…
Fluckiger, U, Ulrich, M, Steinhuber, A, Doring, G, Mack, D, Landmann, R, Goerke, C & Wolz, C, 2005, 'Biofilm Formation, icaADBC Transcription, and Polysaccharide Intercellular Adhesin Synthesis by Staphylococci in a Device-Related Infection Model, Infection and Immunity, vol. 73, no. 3, pp. 1811-1819.
Sadykov, M, Olson, M, Halouska, S, Zhu, Y, Fey, P, Powers, R & Somerville, G 2008, 'Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle-Dependent Regulation of Staphylococcus epidermidis Polysaccharide Intercellular Adhesin Synthesis', Journal of Bacteriology, vol. 190, no. 23, pp. 7621-7632.
Sadykov, M, Hartmann, T, Mattes, T, Hiatt, M, Jann, N, Zhu, Y, Ledala, N, Landmann, R, Herrmann, M, Rohde, H, Bischoff, M & Somerville, G 2011, 'CcpA coordinates central metabolism and biofilm formation in Staphylococcus epidermidis', Microbiology, vol. 157, pp. 3458-3468.
Seidl, K, Goerke, C, Wolz, C, Mack, D, Berger-Bachi, B & Bischoff, M, 2008, 'Staphylococcus aureus CcpA Effects Biofilm Formation', Infection and Immunity, vol. 76, no. 5, pp. 2044-2050.
Desiccation Tolerance in Prokaryotes
Water is very important for life. Indeed, the processes of life, both external and internal even, at the cellular and the molecular level, are governed by water. Without water, most living organisms suffer from what is known as water stress.
This water stress can be due to the loss of water or dehydration. Desiccation is a special case of dehydration where drying takes place in air. Alternatively, another form of water stress is due to the excessive accumulation of salts. This is relatedly called osmotic stress. Osmosis seeks to reduce this accumulation by moving fluids across a concentration gradient. While most living beings cannot survive without water, lesser species belonging to the eukarya group -- that includes both bacteria and a more primitive organism archaea show remarkable tolerance to water stress.
Responses to water stress takes place at a supracellular level as well as a cellular…
Bartels, D., & Salamini, F. (2001). Desiccation tolerance in the resurrection plant Craterostigma plantagineum. A contribution to the study of drought tolerance at the molecular level. Plant Physiol, 127(4), 1346-1353.
Billi, D., Friedmann, E.I., Hofer, K.G., Caiola, M.G., & Ocampo-Friedmann, R. (2000). Ionizing-radiation resistance in the desiccation-tolerant cyanobacterium Chroococcidiopsis. Appl Environ Microbiol, 66(4), 1489-1492.
Breeuwer, P., Lardeau, A., Peterz, M., & Joosten, H.M. (2003). Desiccation and heat tolerance of Enterobacter sakazakii. J Appl Microbiol, 95(5), 967-973.
DiRuggiero, J., Santangelo, N., Nackerdien, Z., Ravel, J., & Robb, F.T. (1997). Repair of extensive ionizing-radiation DNA damage at 95 degrees C. In the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus. J Bacteriol, 179(14), 4643-4645.
This is particularly the case in sub-Saharan Africa where clinicians have often come to rely on signs and symptoms alone to make diagnoses." (Nicoll, Walraven, Kigadye, Klokke, 1995)
The laboratory environment is critical to administering testing to determine population rates of HIV / AIDS throughout nations and perhaps continents where the lacking of resources facilitates a substandard environment for care. In the case of the African nation of Mozambique, which perhaps can be understood as a case indicative of the environmental assessment one would find throughout Africa and therefore, can be labelled to be a median statistical nation. A nation representing the median would indicate that half of the population nations that are categorized as resourced deficient, half would be above Mozambique in terms of resource allocation and half would fall below.
esearch into the quality of HIV / AIDS case-detection and case-reporting system in Mozambique was conducted by (Chilundo,…
Chappuis, F., Loutan, L., Simarro, P., Lejon, V., and Buscher, P. Options for Field Diagnosis of Human African Trypanosomiasis. Clinical Microbiology Reviews, January 2005, p. 133-146, Vol. 18, No.1
Chilundo, B., Sundeep S., Sundby J. The Quality of HIV / AIDS case-detection and case reporting systems in Mozambique. African Journal of AIDS Research 2004, 145-155. Copyright NISC Pty Ltd.
Clark. Blood Safety PPT. CDC, WHO
Loefler, I. Surgical wound infection in the Third World: the African experience. Journal of Medical Microbiology. Volume 47, 471-473. 1998. The Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland
Micro-Organism: Syghella dysenteriae
Genus: Shigella (Castellani and Chalmers 1919)
Type species: Shigella dysenteriae (Shiga 1897) Castellani and Chalmers 1919 (Approved Lists 1980)
Gammaproteobacteria, from the family of enterobacteriaceae (GBIF.org)
Gram-negative, non-acid-fast bacilli; no spores, no capsules; non-motile; do not posses flagella, rod-shaped bacteria (Todar, 008-01)
Picture was obtained from Sciencephoto Library
According to the national Institute of Health, "Shigella dysenteriae serotype 1 (SD1) causes the most severe form of epidemic bacillary dysentery"
Shigella dysenteriae type 1 is rare in the U.S., but it causes epidemics in the developing countries (Todar, 008-01)
Shigella dysenteriae is one of the four species of Shigella, also known as group A (World Health Organization, 005).
The microorganism produces a toxin called Shiga toxin (Bhunia, 007). I causes shigellosis, characterized by bacillary dysentery (mucoid bloody stool).
Shigella micro-organisms are present in soil and water. They will become infective only in the presence of the "invasion plasmid…
I chose this topic because the H1N1 virus and the swine flu have taken over the news. The Ohio Department of Health is heavily committed in getting the word out. "During the week of October 18-24, 2009, influenza activity continued to increase in the United States as reported in FluView. Flu activity is now widespread in 48 states. Nationally, visits to doctors for influenza-like-illness continue to increase steeply and are now higher than what is seen at the peak of many regular flu seasons. In addition, flu-related hospitalizations and deaths continue to go up nation-wide and are above what is expected for this time of year." (ODH).
The story is both a local and national headline. The television news report '60 Minutes' lead off this week's show with a serious discussion about all aspects of the new viral spread of the H1N1 virus and issues regarding the production process…
American Society for Microbiology and (Corporate Author) Patrick R. Murray. (2003). Manual of Clinical Microbiology (Manual of Clinical Microbiology). 8th ed. American Society Microbiology.
CDC. (2009). H1N1. Retrieved on November 1, 2009, from Center For Disease Control web site at http://www.cdc.gov/h1n1flu/sick.htm .
Flu.Gov. (2009). Vaccination. Retrieved on November 1, 2009, from Department of Health web site at http://www.flu.gov/individualfamily/vaccination/index.html .
ODH. (2009). Ohio.Gov. Retrieved on November 1, 2009, from Department of Health web site at http://www.odh.ohio.gov/landing/phs_emergency/swineflu.aspx .
detection of the Borna disease virus relating them to the epidemiology.
The first cases of Borna disease were descried in the 17-19th century in Southern Germany. It was discovered to e a fatal disease affecting the neurological systems of horses and sheep, (Ludwig et al., 1985; Durrwald, 1993) causing ehavioral and neurological symptoms. It was proven to e caused y a 2003]
Today it is eing realized that the scope of the disease is not limited to just a few countries as was previously elieved ut encompassed the world. Also it was realized that far from affecting just horses and sheep as was originally thought virus, the Borna Disease Virus (BDV) in the early 1900's y Zwick and his team in Giessen Germany. [Author not availale, it in fact affected other animals and even human eings.[Staeheli, Sauder; Schwemmle, et al., 2000]
Research into the epidemiology and pathogenesis of the BDV…
bibliography. Journal of Veterinary Medicine Series B. 44, 147-184.
3.Staeheli, P., Sauder, C. Schwemmle, M. et al.,. Epidemiology of Borna disease virus, J Gen Virol 81: 2123-2135
4.Author not available,  Diagnostic Methods In Virology, accessed at http://virology-online.com/general/Tests.htm
5. Nakamura, K., Takahashi, H., Shoya, Y., Nakaya, T., Watanabe, M., Tomonaga, K., Iwahashi, K., Ameno, K., Momiyama, N., Taniyama, H., Sata, T., Kurata, T., de la Torre, J.C. & Ikuta, K. . Isolation of Borna disease virus from human brain. Journal of Virology 74, 4601-4611.
6. Zimmermann, W., Durrwald, R. & Ludwig, H. (1994). Detection of Borna disease virus RNA in naturally infected animals by a nested polymerase chain reaction. Journal of Virological Methods 46, 133-143
Mold Spore Trapping
Current Scientific Knowledge
People are exposed to aeroallergens in a variety of settings, both at home and at work. Fungi are ubiquitous airborne allergens and are important causes of human diseases, especially in the upper and lower respiratory tracts. These diseases occur in persons of various ages.
Airborne spores and other fungi particles are ubiquitous in nonpolar landscapes, especially amongst field crops, and often form the bulk of suspended biogenic debris. The term mold often is used synonymously with the term fungi. A more precise definition would specify that molds lack macroscopic reproductive structures but may produce visible colonies. Respiratory illness in subjects exposed to rust and dark-spored imperfecti fungi was described more than 60 years ago, and physicians worldwide now recognize a sensitization to diverse fungi.
Since fungus particles commonly are derived from wholly microscopic sources, exposure hazards are assessed largely through direct sampling of a…
Brinton, W.T., Vastbinder, E.E., Greene, J.W., Marx, J.J., Hutcheson, R.H., Schaffner, W. (1987). An outbreak of organic dust toxic syndrome in a college fraternity. Journal of the American Medical Association 258:1210-1212.
Ceigler, A., & Bennett, J.W. (1980). Mycotoxins and Mycotoxicoses. Bio-Science 30:512-515.
CDC. 1994. Acute pulmonary hemorrhage/hemosiderosis among infants -- "Cleveland, January 1993-November 1994. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR) 1994; 43:881-3.
CDC. 1997. Update: Pulmonary hemorrhage/hemosiderosis among infants -- "Cleveland, Ohio, 1993-1996. MMWR 1997; 46:33-35.
Validation of Commercial Baking as an Effective Step to Control/Inactivate Salmonella in Baked Products
Major findings, analysis and conclusions
Description of the baking industry and baking emphasis in the United States.
Purpose and structure of importance
Description of the problem being addressed and its importance to the practice of applied food safety
Process of Consultation
Outline how the client (ABA) will be engaged and carefully define the problem
Identification of key stakeholders
Overview and feedback of findings and results
ecommended actions and dissemination of these recommendations
Plans for implementation and measurement
Major findings. The U.S. had approximately 167,600 baker positions available in 2012 and around 6% of these were self-employed (Bakery business, 2016). Although industry analysts project sustained growth in the U.S. baking industry, this growth will not be on par with other industries (Bakery business, 2016). Currently, the U.S. baking industry is a nearly $310 billion industry that has…
About us. (2016). American Bakers Association. Retrieved from http://www.american bakers.org/.
Albion, R. G. & Williamson, H. F. (1944). The growth of the American economy: An introduction to the economic history of the United States. New York: Prentice-Hall.
Bakery business. (2016). SBDC Net. Retrieved from http://www.sbdcnet.org/small-business-research-reports/bakery-business-2014 .
Baking industry economic impact study, 2016). American Bakers Association. Retrieved from http://www.americanbakers.org/industry-data/.
" (Sharma, Kunimoto, Garg, & Rao) They believe that he information they are providing will allow the clinician to have a more expansive approach in treating bacterial keratitis and in deciding which secondary antibiotic to use.
The goal of initial antibiotic therapy for bacterial keratitis is the proper selection of a drug which has coverage for the aetiopathogen. Microscopic evaluation of corneal smears can provide insight into the identity of the pathogen, but when smear examination is uninformative the principle of managing bacterial keratitis has been to use antibiotics which have coverage that is sufficiently broad and effective to treat the leading corneal pathogens. (Sharma, Kunimoto, Garg, & Rao)
The main thrust for their interest in this study was to assist the clinician who is in less that ideal setting when faced with treating bacterial keratitis. As mentioned previously the virulent nature of this disease necessitates immediate treatment but the…
Murillo-Lopez, Fernando H. "Keratitis, Bacterial," Unidad Privada de Oftalmologia CEMES [serial online] 2006. [cited 2009 Mar 23] http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1194028-overview
Sharma S, Kunimoto DY, Garg P, Rao GN. "Trends in antibiotic resistance of corneal pathogens: Part I. An analysis of commonly used ocular antibiotics." Indian J. Ophthalmol [serial online] 1999 [cited 2009 Mar 23];47:95-100. Available from: http://www.ijo.in/text.asp?1999/47/2/95/22799
Kemp Health Center Outsourcing Plan
The Kemp Health Center (KHC) is actively pursuing organizational changes to allow the hospital to operate in a more efficient manner. With an increasingly negative debt looming over the 2009 fiscal year, the Board of Directors has asked the Performance Management Team to analyze how KHC can reduce the anticipated $2.5 million deficit of 2009 and eliminate debt by 2010.
This report outlines the findings of the Laboratory Performance Management Team. The team investigated various options to help the Laboratory (lab) at KHC operate as efficiently as possible without impacting the ability to provide cost-effective, patient-focused and quality healthcare to our patients. The following paragraphs illustrate the options explored and the proposed solution that will help KHC enhance operations and illuminate the organization's mission and vision statements each and every day.
Current State of the Kemp Health Center' Laboratory
The KHC lab is…
Improve focus on mission - KHC will be able to pay more attention and devote more time on the organization's mission. Management will no longer have to worry about the laboratory services which provide at least 70% of patient care information. Outsourcing reduces cost and provides KHC with the benefit of much needed quality services (Ume, 2008).
The Laboratory Performance Management Team at the Kemp Health Center recommends forming a contract with either Portneuf Medical Center or LabCorp for the outsourcing of most clinical laboratory services other than STAT studies and essential microbiology services; the selection
2004). In those cases, there was very early diagnosis and administration of intravenous and intrathecal or intraventricular amphotericin B. with intensive supportive care (2004). One survivor received miconazole intravenously and intrathecally and rifampicin orally (2004). Other treatment options include the drugs rifampicin and micoazole.
Khan (2008) notes that the mortality rate for PAM is 95%. Again, one of the major obstacles to effective treatment is the rapid progression of the disease. Another obstacle is the paucity of drugs that have the ability to cross the blood-brain barrier (Schuster & Visvesvara 2004; Khan 2008). Nevertheless, there have been documented recoveries from PAM (Seidel 1982; Wang 1993; Khan 2008). Early recognition and treatment of the disease appear to be the chief elements in successful outcomes (2008). At the time of Khan's (2008) writing, the drug of choice for treatment of human cases was amphotericin B. In conjunction with rifampin as well as…
Embrey, Martha., Hunter, Paul., Chalmers, Rachel., Sellwood, Jane., Wyn-Jones, Peter., & Percival, Steven. (2004). Microbiology of waterborne diseases:
microbiological aspects and risks. Academic Press; 1st edition.
Jarillo-Luna, a., Moreno-Fierros, L., Campos-Rodriguez, R., Rodriguez-Monroy, M.A.,
Lara-Padilla, E., & Rojas-Hernandez, Saul. (2008). Intranasal immunization with Naegleria fowleri lysates and Cry1Ac metaplasia in the olfactory epithelium and inceases IgA secretion. Parasite immunology,30(1), p. 31-38.
Native Americans in the 18th century contracted smallpox thanks to the U.S. soldiers in Fort Pitt giving them "some blankets and handkerchiefs" that were taken from patents in the infirmary with smallpox (heelis). It was a deliberate "attack" and wiped out many Indians. Also, during the American Revolutionary ar, England were known to have inoculated smallpox on civilians with the intention of spreading it to the Continental Army. In orld ar I (1915 through 1918) the Germans waged "an ambitious campaign of covert biological attack" by injecting horses and mules being sent to the Allies with glanders and anthrax (heelis).
The Japanese used B (8, 9, 10) in China during II; heelis writes that the Japanese "poisoned wells with microbial cultures, sprayed the ground with cultures" and left contaminated food for the Chinese army to eat and become ill. The Soviets are accused of having used biological weapons (tularemia) against…
Center for Biosecurity. (2008). BioAgents and Epidemic Diseases Background
Information. Categorization and Ongoing Assessment of Biological Agents.
Retrieved June 23, 2009, from http://www.upmc-biosecurity.org .
Ready America. (2009). Biological Threat. Retrieved June 23, 2009, from http://www.ready.gov/america/beinformed/biological.html .
Due to the apparently low level of contagion, the need for public awareness is not urgent, but it is still necessary. Warnings to stay away from the convention area and to report to a local hospital if symptoms developed after being in the area or in contact with someone who had been at the convention should be issued (CDC 2009).
The known details of the attack, however, should not be released, as it is likely to create panic and bolster the terrorists' optimism. Federal assistance should be immediately sought, not necessarily for control of the spread of the disease but for the investigation and apprehension of suspects. All available resources should be called in as soon as possible in order to counter the attack. As far as treatment of the attack goes, mass prophylaxis of all convention attendees and those who have come into contact with infected individuals should be…
Bravata DM, Sundaram V, McDonald KM, Smith WM, Szeto H, Schleinitz MD, et al. (2004). "Detection and diagnostic decision support systems for bioterrorism response." Emerging infectious diseases. Accessed 25 April 2009. http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/EID/vol10no1/03-0243.htm
Center for Disease Control and Prevention. (2009). "Emergency preparedness and response." Accessed 25 April 2009. http://www.bt.cdc.gov/
Center for Disease Control and Prevention. (2009). "Anthrax." Accessed 25 April 2009. http://www.bt.cdc.gov/agent/anthrax/
Gerberding JL, Hughes J, Koplan J. (2002). "Bioterrorism preparedness and response." Journal of the American medical association. Accessed 25 April 2009. http://jama.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/full/287/7/898
The epidemiology of Microbacterium hatanis is unknown at this time (New species of bacteria contaminates hairspray, 2008). However, researchers have found similar bacteria to infect humans and are concerned with what impact Microbacterium hatanis will have. For this reason, researchers will conduct additional testing to determine if the new species poses a health threat and, if so, researchers will make recommendations for new hairspray formulations to prevent future contamination.
The discovery of Microbacterium hatanonis is significant because contamination of cosmetic products has previously been thought to be rare. This new species in hairspray will no doubt lead to further research in this area, especially since Microbacterium hatanonis can grow in an environment which is pH neutral and 30°C, the environment common in the manufacturing of may commercial cosmetic products (Contaminated hairspray, 2008). Hairspray, with its high alcohol content, had not seemed to provide the ideal conditions for life…
Bakir, M.A., Kudo, T. And Benno, Y. (2008). Microbacterium hatanonis sp. nov., isolated as a contaminant of hairspray. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. 58, 654-658; DOI 10.1099/ijs.0.65160-0. Retrieved at http://ijs.sgmjournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/58/3/654
Contaminated hairspray. (2008, March 9). Wall Street Journal. Retrieved at http://science.kukuchew.com/tag/microbacterium-hatanonis/
New Species of Bacteria Contaminates Hairspray (2008, March 9). ScienceDaily. Retrieved at http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2008/03/080307110337.htm
hile Xylitol was being used elsewhere in the world the United States still have "an abundant amount of sugar available" so it wasn't heard of in the U.S. until it arrived in chewing gum in 1975. hile Germans and Italians -- along with the Russians and Japanese -- were using it as a sugar substitute, Americans were still heaping piles of sugar on their breakfast cereal and in their coffee and ice tea.
But today, Xylitol is marketed in the U.S. As "Miracle Sweet," "Perfect Sweet," and "Healthy Sweet" (Gare, 8). Is it more or less expensive than sugar? Gare writes that it is "far more expensive than sugar, albeit recently the price has been coming down low enough to be marketed in items like cake mixes, brownies, muffins, cookies, candies, ice creams and puddings; Gare asserts that Xylitol in these baked items make them taste as least as good…
Gare, Fran. The Sweet Miracle of Xylitol: Easyread Super Large 20pt Edition. 2009.
Mendez-Vilas, Antonio. Current Research Topics in Applied Microbiology and Microbial
Biotechnology: Proceedings of the International Conference on Environmental, Industrial and Applied Microbiology (Biomicroworld2007). Hackensack, NJ: World Scientific, 2009.
Moritz, Andreas. Timeless Secrets of Health and Rejuvenation. Landrum, SC: Ener-Chi
Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a virus that causes warts. HPV is one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). It belongs to the Papovaviridae family. HPV is a small oncogenic DNA virus, which infects epithelial cells of skin and mucous membranes. The epithelial surfaces include all areas covered by skin and/or mucous membranes of the mouth, genital and anus (the area that poop comes out of). A definitive diagnosis of HPV infection depends on the detection of nucleic acids (DNA or NA) or proteins.
HPV is a relatively small, non-enveloped virus, and 55 nm in diameter. It has an icosahedral capsid composed of 72 capsomers, which contain at least two capsid proteins, L1 and L2. Each capsomer is a pentamer of the major capsid protein, L1. Each virion capsid contains several copies (about 12 per virion) of the minor capsid protein, L2. The virus is said to somewhat…
Anderson, N. And Pearsall, R. (2004). Microbiology a human Perspective. New York: Mc-Graw Hill
Burd, E. (2003) Human Papillomavirus and Cervical Cancer -- Burd 16 (1): 1 -- Clinical
Microbiology Reviews [Online]. [Accessed 25th April 2005]. Available from World Wide
Instituting these measures showed that the company was vitally interested in not only maintaining the company's integrity, professionalism and reputation but also in ensuring that the problems never arose again. Other methods initiated by the company included a program that would test heat cleaning of apples that would kill the bacteria while not affecting the taste of the apples. The company also introduced a process of cleaning and decontamination called "flash pasteurization, which "would guarantee that E-coli had been destroyed whilst leaving the best flavoured juice possible." (Companies 2005).
Some experts wonder why the company did not use the pasteurization method before the outbreak.
"Pasteurization, which involves heat treatment, would have killed the bacteria in the Odwalla products. Health officials said when people drink non-pasteurized juice, they run the risk of becoming sick. They suggest boiling juice first. But authorities also said most juices sold in stores are safe." (E.…
Half Moon, (1996)
http://www.kidsource.com/kidsource/content2/ecoli/odwalla.11.23.html, Accessed Sept. 5, 2006
Companies in Crises, (2005), http://www.mallenbaker.net/csr/CSRfiles/crisis05.html , Accessed Sept 6, 2006
E. Coli (1996), http://www.cnn.com/HEALTH/9611/01/e.coli.poisoning/ , Accessed Sept 5, 2006
Campylobacter jejuni is a helical shaped, non-spore forming, curved, Gram-negative bacteria which is most often found in animal feces. This bacteria comes from the intestinal tracks of animals where is exists as a mixed surface-associated community, protected by an extra cellular material called a biofilm. The protection afforded to the bacteria by the biofilm makes it an extremely resilient bacteria. (Siringan, 2011) It was originally discovered by Theodor Escherich in 1886 and called "Vibrio," but in 1963 a new genus was created for this organism, called Campylobacter. C. jejuni is one of the "most important human enteropathogens among the campylobacter." (Nachamkin, 2008, p. 14) This bacterium is microaerophilic and "requires 3 to 5% oxygen and 2 to 10% carbon dioxide for optimal grown conditions." (Bad Bug Book) Prior to 1972, C. jejuni was believed to be primarily an animal pathogen causing enteritis and abortions in cattle and sheep, but it…
Acheson, David. (2011). Campylobacter jejuni Infections: Update on Emerging Issues and Trends. Clinical Infectious Diseases 32(8). Retrieved from http://cid.oxfordjournals.org/content/32/8/1201.full
Altrkruse, Sean, et al., (1999) Campylobacter jejuni - An Emerging Foodborne Pathogen. Emerging Infectious Diseases 5(1). Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/eid/vol5no1/altekruse.htm
"Bad Bug Book" U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Retrieved from http://www.fda.gov/Food/FoodSafety/FoodborneIllness/FoodborneIllness
Compliance to Ventilator Care Bundles on educing Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia
Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia (VAP) is a common infection that is acquired by patients who have used mechanical ventilation in health care facilities. This infection has generated numerous concerns in public health because of its negative impacts on health care. Some of these negative health effects include extended hospital stays, increased costs of health care services, and deaths. Consequently, there have been numerous initiatives in healthcare to address this problem including ventilator care bundles. Existing literature on evidence-based practice for dealing with VAP has shown that compliance with ventilator care bundles is the most suitable clinical intervention (Al-Thaqafy, 2014). For this study, the John Hopkins Nursing Evidence Practice Process will be utilized to facilitate compliance to these bundles in order to reduce VAP. John Hopkins developed an equation that helps administrators quantify probable savings through lessening hospital-acquired infections like VAP (Guterl, 2013). This…
Al-Thaqafy, M. S., El-Saed, A., Arabi, Y. M., & Balkhy, H. H. (2014). Association of Compliance of Ventilator Bundle with Incidence of Ventilator-associated Pneumonia and Ventilator Utilization among Critical Patients Over 4 Years. Annals of Thoracic Medicine, 9(4), 221-226. doi:10.4103/1817-1737.140132
Guterl, G. (2013). Cost Implications of VAP. Retrieved from: http://respiratory-care-sleep-medicine.advanceweb.com/Features/Articles/Cost-Implications-of-VAP.aspx
Lawrence, P., & Fulbrook, P. (2011). The Ventilator Care Bundle and its Impact on Ventilator-associated Pneumonia: A Review of the Evidence. Nursing In Critical Care, 16(5), 222-234. doi:10.1111/j.1478-5153.2010.00430.x
Mukhtar, A., Zaghlol, A., Mansour, R., Hasanin, A., El-Adawy, A., Mohamed, H., & Ali, M. (2014). Reduced Incidence of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus Aureus Ventilator-associated Pneumonia in Trauma Patients: A New Insight into the Efficacy of the Ventilator Care Bundle. Trauma, 16(3), 202-206. doi:10.1177/1460408614532622
Emergency Action Plan
As a strict requirement of OSHA, the clinical laboratory science department must comply to this standard that is used in describing all the appropriate actions that must be taken by the facility in order to ensure that there is proper safety in case of any accidents such as fire outbreak.
As a strict requirement of OSHA, the facility must ensure that there is a proper Fire Prevention Plan that is necessary to avert any kind of loss of either life or property.
Medical and First Aid
All the employees who work in this department must have the necessary component of both medical and first-aid providers. This is in order to ensure that any emergency situation that arises can be met with the appropriate solution.
Personal Protective Equipment
Due to the high risk of infection that is associated with the samples in the laboratory, it is…
AIUM, (2009).Standards and Guidelines for the Accreditation of Ultrasound Practices
ARDMS (2010) Introducing...MY ARDMS
There are almost 60 programs accredited by the NAACLS for clinical assisting and phlebotomy. The Accrediting Bureau of Health Education Schools and the Commission on Accreditation of Allied Health Education Programs are two extra and relevant accrediting associations (Clinical Laboratory Technologist and Technician Career, Job and Employment Information, 2010).
Laboratory technologists and technicians must be licensed in order to be employed in a number of states; information concerning attaining the license is accessible from the State departments. Nongovernmental agencies, frequently a professional society, set principles and endorse those who meet or surpass their principles. Most companies in this field necessitate certification for new employees and for progression. Each business sets their own principles and is supported by diverse groups (Clinical Laboratory Technologist and Technician Career, Job and Employment Information, 2010). Lab technicians frequently must have a bachelor's degree and pass an examination in order to be licensed. Yet, the necessities…
Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, Occupational Outlook Handbook, 2010-
11 Edition, Clinical Laboratory Technologists and Technicians, viewed 2 October 2010,
"Career: Clinical Laboratory Technologists." 2010, viewed 2 October 2010,
" The job required a candidate with a BS in Technical Writing, Food Science, Food Engineering, Food Microbiology or Food Chemistry and competency in Microsoft Word. Salary was commensurate with experience.
A software system architect for the Interoperable Solutions Team at Motorola would be part of a development group within the company's Worldwide adio Solutions Group. The job required a BA and 5+ years in software or system engineering, along with experience with one of the following systems: C++, java, lte, wimax, tau g2, doors, udp, igmp, multicast ip, sdt, evdo. Salary was not specified. A systems analyst for eCommLink was to act as a liaison between eCommLink's engineering, quality assurance, business, and operations teams and create the technical requirements for the prepaid card system created by the company.
Associate product lifecycle management specialist. (2010). Con Agra. etrieved February 17,
2010 at http://jobview.monster.com/Assoc-Prod-Lifecycle-Mgmt-Spec-Job-Omaha-NE-U.S.-86306416.aspx
Manager, business development II, Air Force…
Associate product lifecycle management specialist. (2010). Con Agra. Retrieved February 17,
Manager, business development II, Air Force systems and requirements. (2010). BAE Systems.
, 2001). These two simple measures can drastically increase the subsequent spread of infectious disease throughout the country.
In Outbreak, the military institutes martial law to quarantine the infected populace in the town of Cedar Creek. Eventually, the military begins plans to bomb Cedar Creek in an attempt to eradicate the virus, which had thus far proven untenable. hile the concept of the United States government destroying a small town and murdering its populace is likely superlative Hollywood movie-making, the institution of martial law is a realistic and effective approach toward preventing further spread (Yassi et al., 2001).
In addition to the non-medical measures which can be taken to deal with the spread of an infectious agent, there are several medical actions which could be utilized to treat infected invididuals, including antivirals, antibiotics, or vaccines (Yassi et al., 2001). For example, antivirals and vaccines are both being utilized in an…
Cavendish, M. (2007). Diseases and Disorders (p. 328). Marshall Cavendish.
Groseth, A., Feldmann, H., & Strong, J.E. (2007). The ecology of Ebola virus. Trends in Microbiology, 15(9), 408-416. doi: 10.1016/j.tim.2007.08.001.
Petersen, W. (1995). Outbreak. Warner Bros. Pictures.
Preston, R. (2009). Panic in Level 4 (p. 230). Random House, Inc.
Using condoms is also an excellent prevention activity that can also be used (Primary and Secondary HIV Prevention, 2008).
Potential obstacles to HIV prevention activities taking place in clinical settings often include:
narrow formations of medical care and the role of physicians or health care providers in HIV prevention, a provider's discomfort with discussing human sexuality and illicit drug use and their attitudes towards persons with HIV or AIDS along with constraints on time and resources, and the vagueness of HIV prevention messages (Primary and Secondary HIV Prevention, 2008).
The very nature of HIV transmission involves behaviors that are not readily discussed in American society. It is important for health care providers to become comfortable discussing sexual and substance-use activities with their patients. They need to create an environment of trust for patients so their risk behaviors can be discussed. It is important to assure the patient of the confidential…
ABCs of Aids Prevention - Presentation Transcript. (2009). Retrieved September 3, 2009, from Slideshare Web site: http://www.slideshare.net/drsujnanendra/ab-cs-of-aids-prevention
CDC Responds to HIV / AIDS. (2009). Retrieved from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Web site: http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/aboutDHAP.htm
HIV / AIDS. (2009). Retrieved September 4, 2009, from MayClinic Web site:
However, advancements in pharmacogenetics promises new and better ways of managing diabetes. Studies have shown that Lisofylline, an anti-inflammatory compound is very effective in suppressing the autoimmune activity and in improving the islet secretion of insulin. Mice studies showed significant difference (25% vs. 91.6%) in the onset of diabetes among Lisofylline treated mice compared to placebo mice. Reduction of inflammatory cytokines IFN-? And TNF-? levels correlated with reduction in ss cell apoptosis. [Yang et.al, 2003] Recent study by Lipsett et.al (2007) has shown that Islet Neogenesis-Associated Protein (INGAP) is useful as a pancreatic regeneration agent. Successful tests in mice and regeneration of cultured human pancreatic cells have encouraged the researchers to seriously consider INGAP as an effective agent for improving insulin synthesis. [Lipsett et.al, (2007)]
A recent Cornell University study focused on an entirely different approach to diabetes management. The researchers examined the possibility of recombinant Commensal bacteria engineered to…
1) George S. Eisenbarth, (2007) 'Update in Type 1 Diabetes', The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism Vol. 92, No.7. http://jcem.endojournals.org/cgi/content/full/92/7/2403
2) McGill University, 'Deficient Regulators in the Immune System Responsible for Type 1 Diabetes', Updated 25 Jan 2008, Available at, http://www.sciencecentric.com/news/article.php?q=08012539
3) Kent SC, Chen Y, & Bregoli L. et.al (2005) 'Expanded T cells from pancreatic lymph nodes of type 1 diabetic subjects recognize an insulin epitope'. Nature 435:224 -- 228
4) Mathieu C, Gysemans C. et.al (Jul 2005), 'Vitamin D and Diabetes', Diabetologia. 48(7):1247-57
The Infectious Diseases Society of America or IDSA came out with guidelines on the treatment of the infection.
A multidisciplinary group, which prepared these guidelines, included infectious disease specialists, rheumatologists, neurologists, pediatricians, and entomologists. The guidelines primary apply to the disease strain acquired in the U.S. And do not tackle the diagnostic evaluation of the disease. They recommended oral and parenteral therapies according to a timetable. Doxycycline or amoxicillin, cefotaxime or penicillin would be prescribed. The guidelines warned against the use of first-generation cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones, and benzathene penicillin.
Greater Recovery Among Children
Studies conducted on 177 children treated for Lyme neuroborreliosis in an endemic area in Sweden showed that 117 of them recovered complete in two months.
The children exhibited fatigue, facial nerve palsy, loss of appetite and fever as symptoms. Antibiotics were given to 69% of the children. At 2 months, 117 of them recovered completely. At 6…
Bransfield, Robert C. 2001. Lyme neuroborreliosis and aggression. Action Lyme. 21-23
(April).Available from http://actionlyme.50megs.com/neuroborreliosis%20aggression.htm
-. 2009. Lyme, depression and suicide. Canlyme. 18 (April). Available
These proteins include homologous members of yeast. The presences of these proteins suggest that E. histolytica is skilled to perform homologous recombination, which is the same as in other organisms. DNA damage was evaluated by TUNEL assay. In yeast and in human cells, histone H2AX becomes rapidly phosphorylated when DSs are introduced into chromatin (Lavi et al.).
Studies show that histone as a protein plays a significant role in the transition between the expression of a fetal gene and that of the adult gene. The adult gene's metabolism becomes oxidative in order to adapt to air and to weight, as it generates methylated transmitters and creatine phosphate. The muscles get used to life on the ground as compared to the fetal life which takes place in an aquatic environment. Regulated proteins allow the muscles to respond in a more adequate manner to this environment.
Now, let us see how histone…
Abraham, R.T. (2001). "Cell cycle checkpoint signaling through the ATM and ATR kinases." Genes Dev 15(17): 2177-96.
Alexiadis, V., T. Waldmann, J. Andersen, M. Mann, R. Knippers and C. CGruss (2000). "The protein encoded by the proto-oncogene DEK changes the topology of chromatin and reduces the efficiency of DNA replication in a chromatin-specific manner." Genes Dev 14(11): 1308-12.
Aten, R. And H. Behrman (1989). Antigonadotropic effects of bovine ovarian gonadotropin-releasing hormone-binding inhibitor from bovine ovaries. Purification and identification of histone H2A. J. Biol. Chem. 264: 11065-11071.
Antigonadotropic effects of bovine ovarian gonadotropin-releasing hormone-binding inhibitor/histone H2A in rat luteal and granulosal cells. J. Biol. Chem. 264: 11072-11075.
g., teachers of young children, day-care employees, and residents and staff in institutional settings).
Persons who live or work in environments in which varicella transmission can occur (e.g., college students, inmates and staff of correctional institutions, and military personnel).
Nonpregnant women of childbearing age. Vaccination of women who are not pregnant -- but who may become pregnant in the future -- will reduce the risk for VZV transmission to the fetus.
Interpretation of elative History:
18-month female with fever, diffuse rash
Prime demographic for varicella infection)
Child is irritable but alert
Good sign, since toxicity would be an issue with this child. A good level of consciousness is useful in assessing the level of illness but can change quickly in the pediatric population)
Her heart rate is 180 beats per minute
She is tachycardic, but most likely due to the fever and irritability. The child is not described as tachypneic)…
Hamment, JM. (1999) Respiratory viral infection predisposing for bacterial disease: a concise review. FEMS Immunology and Medical Microbiology [FEMS Immunol. Med. Microbiol.]; 26, 189-195. 1 Dec 1999.
Haiduven-Griffiths D, Fecko H. Varicella in hospital personnel: a challenge for the infection control practitioner. Am J. Infect Control 1987; 15:207-11.
16). Some of the options available to patients are (p. 16):
What it Is Colgate Total
Over-the-counter tooth- triclosan and fluoride paste containing the anti- toothpaste bacterial triclosan
Peridex or generic
Prescription mouth rinse chlorhexidine mouth containing'an anti-micro- rinse bial called chlorhexidine
Periochip tiny piece of gelatin filled with chlorhexidine
Atridox gel that contains the anti- biotic doxycycline
Thread-like fiber that con- tains the antibiotic tetracy- cline
Tiny round particles that contain the antibiotic minocycline
Periostat low dose of the medica- tion doxycycline that keeps destructive enzymes in check
Why it's Used
The antibacterial ingredient triclosan and fluoride reduces plaque and result- toothpaste ing gingivitis. The fluoride protects against cavities.
Peridex or generic
To control bacteria, result- chlorhexidine mouth ing in less plaque and gin- rinse givitis
To control bacteria and re- duce the size of periodon- tal pockets
To control bacteria and…
Adams, T.L. (2003). Professionalization, Gender and Female-Dominated Professions: Dental Hygiene in Ontario. The Canadian Review of Sociology and Anthropology, 40(3), 267+. Retrieved November 30, 2007, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002041268
Being a Dental Hygienist Means You Can Clean Up. (2006, February 16). Daily Post (Liverpool, England), p. 25. Retrieved November 30, 2007, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5013780467
Chojnacki, C. (2006, December 31). Smiles All around Women Clean Up in National Contest for Hygenist of the Year. Daily Herald (Arlington Heights, IL), p. 1. Retrieved November 30, 2007, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5018805116
Kaldenberg, D.O. (1995). Total Quality Management Practices and Business Outcomes: Evidence from Dental Practices. Journal of Small Business Management, 33(1), 21+. Retrieved November 30, 2007, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000281668
Bioreduction will be most effective in the future if researchers and engineers can develop more effective means of delivering needed nutrients to the microorganism strands used in remediation efforts, as well as tailor site conditions as needed. In the final analysis, it seems most likely that a combination of extractive and immobilization techniques will produce the best results, by each removing aspects of chromium contamination that the other cannot effectively eliminate.
Camargo, F.A.O., Okeke, B.C., Bento, F.M., and Frakenberger, .T. "In Vitro Reduction of Hexavalent Chromium by a Cell-Free Extract of Bacillus sp. ES 29 Stimulated by CU2+." Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 62.5/6 (Oct. 2003): 569-573.
Ciura, J., Poniedzialek, M., Jedrszczyk, E., and Sekara, a. "The Possibility of Using Crops as Metal Phytoremediants." Polish Journal of Environmental Studies 14.1 (2005): 17-22.
Kapoor, Anoop, and Viraraghavan, Thiruvenkatachari. "Remediation of Chromium-Containing Soils by Heap Leaching: Column Study." Journal of Environmental…
Camargo, F.A.O., Okeke, B.C., Bento, F.M., and Frakenberger, W.T. "In Vitro Reduction of Hexavalent Chromium by a Cell-Free Extract of Bacillus sp. ES 29 Stimulated by CU2+." Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 62.5/6 (Oct. 2003): 569-573.
Ciura, J., Poniedzialek, M., Jedrszczyk, E., and Sekara, a. "The Possibility of Using Crops as Metal Phytoremediants." Polish Journal of Environmental Studies 14.1 (2005): 17-22.
Kapoor, Anoop, and Viraraghavan, Thiruvenkatachari. "Remediation of Chromium-Containing Soils by Heap Leaching: Column Study." Journal of Environmental Engineering 121.4 (Apr. 1995): 366-367.
Pagilla, Krishna R., and Canter, Larry W. "Laboratory Studies on Remediation of Chromium-Contaminated Soils." Journal of Environmental Engineering 125.3 (Mar. 1999): 243-248.
It has also been suggested that low-level viral replication associated with SV may be a driver in chronic inflammation in some sufferers of chronic lung disease, although this is so far uncertain (Openshaw, 2005). It is estimated that infants who develop a wheeze as a result of SV contraction develop a recurring wheeze in around two thirds of all cases. It is also estimated that around half of these children will develop some form of asthma (Lehtinen et al., 2007). It is unclear why there are some who experience delayed onset of SV, although both immune 'imprinting' and viral persistence have been implicated (Openshaw and Tregoning, 2005).
The condition is diagnosed through rapid antigen-detection tests. It is difficult to diagnose SV in adults as the tests are insensitive in persons other than children, and practitioners rarely request tests for SV in adults. This means that it is difficult to…
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2005) Respiratory Syncytial Virus. National Center for Infectious Diseases: Respiratory and Enteric Viruses Branch. Retrieved on November 11, 2007, at http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dvrd/revb/respiratory/rsvfeat.htm .
Feltes, T.F. And Sondheimer, H.M. (2006) Palivizumab and the prevention of respiratory syncytial virus illness in pediatric patients with congenital heart disease. Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy, 7(9): 1471-1480.
Flynn, J.D., Akers, W.S., Jones, M., Stevkovic, N., Waid, T., Mullett, T. And Jahania, S. (2004) Treatment of Respiratory Syncytial Virus pneumonia in a lung transplant recipient: Case report and review of literature. Pharmacotherapy. Retrieved on November 11, 2007, at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/482817?src=mp .
Health-Cares.net (2005) "How is RSV infection diagnosed?" Retrieved on November 11, 2007, at http://respiratory-lung.health-cares.net/rsv-infection-diagnosis.php .
One possible explanation for the differences observed in the studies could be that the strengths of the chlorhexidine solution were different. It could also be that over time more effective techniques have been developed in the application of the solution, as the results do appear to improve over time.
There are limitations to the methodology of the study which are centered on the use of secondary data for analysis. The use of secondary data allows a wider range of data to be gathered from across the U.S. than would be practical from primary data collection which is the reason for the choice in this study. However this puts the control of several variables beyond the researcher. The results of the techniques may have been affected by the application of different individuals, departments and hospitals, all of whom may vary techniques and other factors influencing the success of these techniques. The…
Adams, D., Quavum, M., Worthington, T., Lambert, P., & Elliott, T. (2005). Evaluation of a 2% chlorhexidine gluconate in 70% isopropyl alcohol skin disinfectant. Journal of Hospital Infections, 61 (4), 287-290.
Brungs, S., & Render, M. (2006). Using Evidence-Based Practice to Reduce Central line Infections. Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing, 10 (6), 723-725.
CDC. (2002). Guidelines for Prevention of Intravascular Catheter-Related Infections. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report; Recommendations and Reports, 51 (RR-10), 1-34.
CDC Mission. (n.d.). Retrieved February 6, 2006, from CDC Web site: http://www.cdc.gov/about/mission.htm
Therefore the consequences of such restrictions and regulations have further complicated the case, the research activities have been either shunned or go unreported to avoid any confrontation with the investigation agencies, 'the climate of fear created by the Butler case is even threatening the ability of the United States government to detect bioterrorist activity, the labs in one state are no longer reporting routine incidents of animals poisoned with ICIN, a deadly toxin found in castor beans, for fear of federal investigation'. Stanley Falkow, a respected researcher at Stanford University in California, in his letter to the former attorney-general of the United States revealed that, 'Trying to meet the unwarranted burden of what the government considers 'bio-safety' is simply not coincident with the practice of sound, creative scientific research'. The government introduced a policy which highlighted the need for tight control over the biologists 'with access to dangerous pathogens', in…
Robyn L. Pangi, Arnold M. Howitt. Countering Terrorism: Dimensions of Preparedness. 2003. MIT Press. pp. 341
Anthony Kubaik. Stages of Terror: terrorism, Ideology, and Coercion as theatre History. 2000. Pp. 154.
Jamie Lewis Keith. Regulation of Biological Materials under Export Controls and Bioterrorism Laws. University of Florida Press. 2003.
Debora MacKenzie. U.S. crackdown on Bio-Terror is backfiring. New Scientist Publication. November 2003.
Therefore, Hexsel's study will not be included in this analysis for failure to meet the study protocol.
Another human study involved a case study of a single patient. This Brazilian study represented a case study and does not meet the protocol for inclusion in this analysis either (Rittes, 2001). As there have been no human studies in the United States to date, we must rely on studies published in other countries for our meta-analysis. A study conducted in Vienna by Karl Heinrich will be used as one of the studies to be analyzed. This was the only study that could be located involving an actual population of human subjects, as this type of research is prohibited in the U.S. At this time.
The sample population used by Heinrich consisted of 86 individuals who received a standardized series of treatments. This study suffered from significant flaws that make the results questionable.…
Atoba MA, Ayoola EA, Ogunseyinde O. Effects of essential phospholipid choline on the course of acute hepatitis-B infection. Trop Gastroenterol. 1985; 6:96-9.
Bechara FG, Sand M, Altmeyer P. et al. Intralesional lipolysis with phosphatidylcholine for the treatment of lipomas: pilot study. Arch Dermatol. 2006 Aug;142(8):1069-70. Retrieved March 24, 2007 at http://www.hubmed.org/display.cgi?uids=16924064 .
Hanin I, Ansell GB, eds. Lecithin. Technological, Biological and Therapeutic Aspects. New York and London: Plenum Press; 1987.
Doris Hexsel "
Antimicrobial Agents in Household Use: Triclosan
Describe how Triclosan works on a molecular level. Explain how Triclosan differs from soap and bleach in its antimicrobial activity.
Triclosan blocks the active site of the enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase enzyme (EN), this is the vital enzyme in the synthesis of fatty acid in bacteria (Levy et a, 1999). Blocking this active site by triclosan leads to the inhibition of the enzyme thus preventing the synthesis of the fatty acid by the bacteria, a process needed for building cell membranes and reproduction. Given the fact that this EN enzyme exists in humans, triclosan has been considered to be relatively friendly to humans. Due to its strong nature of inhibition, powerful antibacterial action can be achieved using only a small amount of triclosan.
Triclosan differs from soap and bleach in the mechanism of action. Levy et al. (1999) also clarify that whereas triclosan interferes…
Bester, K. (2003) "Triclosan in a sewage treatment process balances and monitoring data," Water
Research, 37(16): 3891-3896.
Levy, C.W. et al. (1999). "Molecular Basis of Triclosan Activity," Nature, 398, 383-384.
Lindstrom, A. et al. (2002) "Occurrence and Environmental Behavior of the Bactericide
In certain countries, an effective supervisor possesses basic teaching skills, facilitation skills, negotiation and assertiveness skills, counseling and appraisal skills, mentoring skills, and knowledge of learning resources and certification requirements (Kilminster).
The most important aspect of the role of an effective supervisor is giving supervisee responsibility and the opportunity to practice it (Kilminster, 2000). Supervisees come to view the supervisor as a colleague and this leads them to become self-directed. Some supervisees consider teaching skills and techniques, interpersonal style and professional competence the most important characteristics of an effective supervisor. An effective supervisor shows empathy, is supportive, and exhibits flexibility, instruction, knowledge, interest in supervision and good tracking of supervisees. He is interpretative, respectful, focused ad practical. In contrast, an ineffective supervisor is rigid, shows little empathy and provides low support. He fails to consistently track supervisee concerns, teach or instruct. He is indirect and intolerant. He is close-minded. He…
Borders, L.D. (1994). The good supervisor. ERIC Digests: ERIC Clearinghouse on Counseling and Student Services. Retrieved on October 28, 2011 from http://www.ericdigest.org/1995-1/good.htm
Joslin, v. (2008). Ten traits of a good supervisor. Associated Content: Yahoo. Inc. Shine.
Retrieved on October 28, 2011 from http://www.associatedcontent.com/article/969660/ten_traits_of_a_good_supervisor.html
Kilminster, S.M. (2000). Effective supervision in clinical practice settings. Vol 34
Role of Information Technology in Promoting Lean Thinking/Practices in a Hospital:
How it Helps Streamlining Processes
Lean Thinking and Healthcare
Lean thinking has evolved from well-known business management disciplines such as the Toyota Production System (TPS), Just-in-Time (JIT) and Kaizen. The core principles of lean are fundamentally the same as these other disciplines, but lean thinking has developed this theory into a generic concept that can be more readily applied in a diverse range of industries using a more people focused approach. Lean thinking is more than an initiative; it is an all-encompassing business ethic that every function throughout the company supply chain must be committed to if the company is to achieve an integrated approach to improving our products, processes, people and plant capability.
Lean thinking is based on creating value driven activity by defining the value stream of a product from the customers' perspective. The value stream is…
Bartlett J, Cameron P, Cisera M. The Victorian emergency department collaboration. Int J. Qual Health Care 2002; 14: 463-70.
Balle, F., & Balle, M. The gold mine: A novel of Lean turnaround. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Lean Enterprise Institute. 2005.
Bicheno, J. The Lean toolbox for service systems. Buckingham, UK: Picsie Books. 2008.
Doll R. Controlled Trials: The 1948 Watershed. BMJ. 1998; 317:1217 -- 20. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
(a) provides an account of your observations on the management of peripheral intravascular devices from your clinical practicum in NMIH202;
Clinical practicum NM1H202 introduces nurses to the management of peripheral devices via scholarly inquiry and clinical practice. The practicum includes a thorough training in handling, inserting, replacing, and dressing peripheral intravascular devices including peripheral venous catheters. Because the primary risk associated with peripheral intravascular devices is infection, proper management of the devices is crucial. Bloodstream infections can cause patient casualties, leading not just to humanitarian disasters but also financial ones as well.
Hand washing vigilance is a primary part of the introduction to peripheral intravascular device management. While it may seem like an abundance of common sense, hand washing and aseptic techniques themselves depend on continued knowledge acquisition and training. Nurses must stay abreast of latest products and tools that promote hygiene in relation to the management of peripheral…
Bregenzer, T., Conen, D., Sakmann, P., & Widmer, A.F. (1998). Is Routine Replacement of Peripheral Intravenous Catheters Necessary? Arch Intern Med. 1998;158:151-156.
Crnich, C.J . & Maki, D.G. (2002). The Promise of Novel Technology for the Prevention of Intravascular Device -- Related Bloodstream Infection. I. Pathogenesis and Short-Term Devices. Clin Infect Dis. (2002) 34 (9): 1232-1242
Crnich, C.J. & Maki, D.G. (n.d.). The role of intravascular devices in sepsis. Current Infectious Disease Reports 3(6): 496-506.
Elliot, T.S.J. (1988). Intravascular device infections. Journal of Medical Microbiology 27(1988): 161-167.
range theory nursing. If accepts premise grand theories nursing longer, implications nursing education, practice, research? Question 2: due 11/29/11 There controversy nursing direction development nursing knowledge .
There is an emphasis at present on the development and use of mid-range theory in nursing. If one accepts the premise that grand theories of nursing are no longer necessary, what are the implications for nursing education, practice, and research?
Nursing theories can be classified in many different ways, but one of the most common methods is to group them into grand and middle range theories. A grand theory "provides a conceptual framework under which the key concepts and principles of the discipline can be identified," while, in contrast, a "middle range theory is more precise and only analyzes a particular situation with a limited number of variables" (Nursing theories: An overview, 2011, Nursing Theories). Mid-range theories of nursing do not attempt to…
Entry-to-practice competencies. (2011). College & Association of Registered Nurses of Alberta.
Retrieved September 25, 2011 at http://www.nurses.ab.ca/Carna-Admin/Uploads/Entry-to-Practice%20Competencies.pdf
Is nursing theory important? (2099). All Nurses. Retrieved September 25, 2011 at http://allnurses.com/general-nursing-discussion/nursing-theory-important-406192-page4.html
Kennedy, Shawn. (2009). New nurses face reality shock in hospital setting. AJN.
Empyema Clinical Manifestation
Empyema: Lung Sounds and other Clinical Manifestations
Over the past decade, empyema has consistently been recognized as an acute, potentially life-threatening respiratory disease. A large number of studies have been conducted over the last years that address the unique symptomatology of empyema and the clinical implications of these symptoms.
The biggest diagnostic challenge of empyema is that patient often present with symptoms very similar and difficult to distinguish from an uncomplicated pneumonia. A patient typically shows symptoms such as fever and chills, excessive sweating, malaise, cough, dyspnea, pleuritic chest pain and unintentional weight loss (Sahn, 2007). These symptoms individually do not warrant a diagnosis of empyema. They do, however, require precautionary follow-up testing that should include a pleural fluid aspiration. The presence of pus -- an opaque, whitish-yellow viscous fluid consisting of serum coagulation proteins, cellular debris and fibrin deposition -- aspirated from the pleural space is…
1. Walker W, Wheeler R, Legg J. (2011). Update on the causes, investigation and management of empyema in childhood. Archives of Disease in Childhood, 96, 5, 482-488.
2. Sahn SA. (2007). Diagnosis and management of parapneumonic effusions and empyema. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 45, 11, 1480-1486.
3. Heffner JE, Klein JS, Hampson C. (2010). Diagnostic utility and clinical application of imaging for pleural space infections. Chest, 137, 2, 467-479.
4. Froudarakis ME. (2008). Diagnostic Work-Up of Pleural Effusions. Respiration, 75, 4-13.
efining other techniques is laudable and important, but is not the domain of the proposed research. In addition, the mixed methods use of both mass spectrometry and bioinformatics methodologies is logically called fro due to the volume of data the mass spectrometry is expected to generate and the time consuming nature of any other mode of analysis save those available through specialized bioinformatics programs (Kuamr & Mann, 2009).
The selection of the model bacterial strain and of the previously validated antibiotic agent will be important considerations for this research, and will have a direct impact on the applicability of the results in other areas of research. Selection should be made on a basis of practicality not only in the ability to carry out the research, but also in light of how the findings can and might actually be applied. There are no real ethical implications that need to be…
Aebersold, R. & Mann, M. (2003). Mass spectrometry-based proteomics. Nature 422: 198-207.
Aldred, S., Grant, M. & Griffiths, H. (2004). The use of proteomics for the assessment of clinical samples in research. Clinical Biochemistry 37(11): 943-52.
Freiberg, C., Brotz-Oesterhelt, H. & Labischinski, H. (2004). The impact of transcriptome and proteome analyses on antibiotic drug discovery. Current Opinion in Microbiology 7(5): 451-9.
Kuiper, H., Kok, E. & Engel, K. (2003). Exploitation of molecular profiling techniques for GM food safety assessment. Current Opinion in Biotechnology 14(2): 238-43.
Microbiology & Spontaneous Generation Microbiology is the study of microbes that are practically invisible to the human eye. Although microbes are usually associated with causing and aiding disease, they…Read Full Paper ❯
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air traffic has continued to increase and it now constitutes a considerable proportion of the travelling public. The amount of long-hour flights has increased significantly. Based on the International…Read Full Paper ❯
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This implies that decomposition process goes on activated by the young earthworms in the soil, given that the soil is loose, moist and rich in organic matter for the…Read Full Paper ❯
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" The job required a candidate with a BS in Technical Writing, Food Science, Food Engineering, Food Microbiology or Food Chemistry and competency in Microsoft Word. Salary was commensurate…Read Full Paper ❯
, 2001). These two simple measures can drastically increase the subsequent spread of infectious disease throughout the country. In Outbreak, the military institutes martial law to quarantine the infected…Read Full Paper ❯
Using condoms is also an excellent prevention activity that can also be used (Primary and Secondary HIV Prevention, 2008). Potential obstacles to HIV prevention activities taking place in clinical…Read Full Paper ❯
However, advancements in pharmacogenetics promises new and better ways of managing diabetes. Studies have shown that Lisofylline, an anti-inflammatory compound is very effective in suppressing the autoimmune activity and…Read Full Paper ❯
Treatment The Infectious Diseases Society of America or IDSA came out with guidelines on the treatment of the infection. A multidisciplinary group, which prepared these guidelines, included infectious disease…Read Full Paper ❯
These proteins include homologous members of yeast. The presences of these proteins suggest that E. histolytica is skilled to perform homologous recombination, which is the same as in other…Read Full Paper ❯
g., teachers of young children, day-care employees, and residents and staff in institutional settings). Persons who live or work in environments in which varicella transmission can occur (e.g., college…Read Full Paper ❯
Health - Nursing
16). Some of the options available to patients are (p. 16): What it Is Colgate Total Over-the-counter tooth- triclosan and fluoride paste containing the anti- toothpaste bacterial triclosan Peridex…Read Full Paper ❯
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Bioreduction will be most effective in the future if researchers and engineers can develop more effective means of delivering needed nutrients to the microorganism strands used in remediation efforts,…Read Full Paper ❯
It has also been suggested that low-level viral replication associated with SV may be a driver in chronic inflammation in some sufferers of chronic lung disease, although this is…Read Full Paper ❯
One possible explanation for the differences observed in the studies could be that the strengths of the chlorhexidine solution were different. It could also be that over time more…Read Full Paper ❯
Therefore the consequences of such restrictions and regulations have further complicated the case, the research activities have been either shunned or go unreported to avoid any confrontation with the…Read Full Paper ❯
Business - Miscellaneous
Therefore, Hexsel's study will not be included in this analysis for failure to meet the study protocol. Another human study involved a case study of a single patient. This…Read Full Paper ❯
Antimicrobial Agents in Household Use: Triclosan Describe how Triclosan works on a molecular level. Explain how Triclosan differs from soap and bleach in its antimicrobial activity. Triclosan blocks the…Read Full Paper ❯
In certain countries, an effective supervisor possesses basic teaching skills, facilitation skills, negotiation and assertiveness skills, counseling and appraisal skills, mentoring skills, and knowledge of learning resources and certification…Read Full Paper ❯
Role of Information Technology in Promoting Lean Thinking/Practices in a Hospital: How it Helps Streamlining Processes Lean Thinking and Healthcare Lean thinking has evolved from well-known business management disciplines…Read Full Paper ❯
Business - Management
Nursing (a) provides an account of your observations on the management of peripheral intravascular devices from your clinical practicum in NMIH202; Clinical practicum NM1H202 introduces nurses to the management…Read Full Paper ❯
Health - Nursing
range theory nursing. If accepts premise grand theories nursing longer, implications nursing education, practice, research? Question 2: due 11/29/11 There controversy nursing direction development nursing knowledge . There is…Read Full Paper ❯
Empyema Clinical Manifestation Empyema: Lung Sounds and other Clinical Manifestations Over the past decade, empyema has consistently been recognized as an acute, potentially life-threatening respiratory disease. A large number…Read Full Paper ❯
efining other techniques is laudable and important, but is not the domain of the proposed research. In addition, the mixed methods use of both mass spectrometry and bioinformatics methodologies…Read Full Paper ❯