¶ … Corynebacterium diphtheria. The answered . The pdf file attached referenced. The paper written format a scientific paper a microbiology . These textbooks great sources reference: Willey, J.
Corynebacterium diphtheriae is a bacterium that is pathogenic and is the leading cause of diphtheria. Due to the resemblance in their shape and sizes, bacteria and archaea were earlier classified as one but on discovery of their metabolic and biochemical differences, it was determined that they had different evolution histories. The bacillus falls under the nonlipophilic fermentative bacteria in classification. Structurally, it possesses cell membranes formed from a combination of the hydroxyl group and fatty acids. Unlike the bacteria, the archaea has linkages that contain ether bonds (Willey, 2003). The cell wall of C.diphtheriae is made up of peptidoglycan bonds which is a great variance from that of the archaea which contains no such bonds. Another major cutting edge factor that classifies C.diphtheriae as bacteria is the RNA analysis whereby, the bacterium possesses a single RNA polymerase while the archaean possess three RNA polymerases. This difference also clearly rules out the fact and believed history that the archaea and bacteria had a similar evolution origin (Lammert, 2007).
The bacterium is best described in shape as a being rod- shaped bacteria and that it's non-motile and pleomorphic. Its size varies between 2-6 micrometers in length and its 0.5 micrometers in diameter. Though the bacillus has swollen terminus, it is non-spore forming. When stained, they are seen to form irregular shaped arrangements that are either in a club shape or differ in that they are V- shaped and it gives an impression of Chinese letters. This is due to the type of division they undergo usually snapping like. Deeper into its structure, it contains the pili which are appendages that are found on its outer surface and they are hair like in nature with a helical arrangement. Fimbriae are exceptionally useful for attachment purposes where they are used to attach the microorganism to the host and the colonization of the organism will solely and successfully depend on the possession of the fimbriae. It contain a flagellum which is a projection from the body that is tail like and is a hollow tube of size twenty nanometers. Its main function is propulsion and by rotation from the motor through the hook, helical screw is able to propel the bacterium far from a repellent or towards an attractive body (Holmes, 2000). The bacillus is encapsulated. The organism is divided into three sections if view with close scrutiny, these are the three cultural types, mitis, intermedius, and gravis. In these divisions the areas containing tellurium or selenite colors the organism red or black, there are granules containing selenium and tellurium.
The cell wall composition of the bacterium is gram positive. When stained, the bacillus takes up the colour of the crystal violet and maintains the dark blue colour due to the high amount of peptidoglycan that maintains the stain. This is a layer of that is made up of sugar and amino acid that forms outside the plasma membrane. Unlike the Gram- positive bacteria, the gram negative bacteria upon staining cannot maintain the crystal violet stain and instead it retains the counterstain leading to a red or pink appearance. Another structural difference between the Gram positive and negative bacteria is that, there is a covalent bond between the peptidoglycan molecules in Gram negative and they have no intervening bridge while in Gram positive the individual peptidoglycan molecules with catalysis from DD-transpeptidase enzyme, are cross-linked…
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