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William Shakespeare's a Midsummer Night's

Words: 1791 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 98757717

And while it may seem silly upon first reading or seeing the play, it is clear that a Midsummer Night's Dream also has quite serious ideas. Scholars have noted that the play includes a cultural critique of the Elizabethan era in which it is set (Lamb 93-124). Other critics have noted that the play may contain quite subversive ideas regarding the fluid nature of sexual identity (Green 369-370). Whatever way you choose to interpret a Midsummer Night's Dream, the play's goofy characters, outrageous situations, and rich language have ensured the play's status as a classic work of English literature.


Casey, Charles. "Was Shakespeare Gay? Sonnet 20 and the Politics of Pedagogy."

College Literature, Fall 1998. 29 November 2007.

Gibson, H.N. The Shakespeare Claimants: A Critical Survey of the Four Principal

Theories Concerning the Authorship of the Shakespearean Plays. New York: Routledge, 2005.

Green, Douglas E. "Preposterous Pleasures: Queer…… [Read More]


Casey, Charles. "Was Shakespeare Gay? Sonnet 20 and the Politics of Pedagogy."

College Literature, Fall 1998. 29 November 2007. .

Gibson, H.N. The Shakespeare Claimants: A Critical Survey of the Four Principal

Theories Concerning the Authorship of the Shakespearean Plays. New York: Routledge, 2005.
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Britten's Midsummer's Night Midsummer Night's

Words: 1095 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 57625458

Those who watch the play make comments about how silly the play is and the play becomes more and more ridiculous, adding the parts of a Lion and Moonshine, played by two more rustics. In the play, the principle actors, Thisby and Pyramus kill themselves, as Romeo and Juliet did, then Pyramus rises to sing about his death, slumps into death, and then rises again to ask the audience if they would like to see an epilogue. Being refused an epilogue, the rustics leave and four fairies come in to dance and Puck chases them away with a broom before Oberon and Tytania appear with the other fairies, who claim they are off to bless lovers, as they themselves are in love.

The ending shows that purity and innocence win out, and that the ideal is the goal for all. Puck has the final say as he declares "all is…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Britten-Pears Foundation. A Midsummer Night's Dream, 2007. .

Karadar Classical Music. "Benjamin Britten's a Midsummer Night's Dream." Composer's BiographyComposer's Biography.

Britten, Benjamin. A Midsummer Night's Dream (the recording). February 6, 1990 .
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Midsummer Bottom's Up in a

Words: 924 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18382307

This is why Shakespeare included a character and plot of such low comedy in a play with such far-reaching and complex themes; in the end, all of the complexity boils down to a few very simple facts bout humanity. As Valerie Traub notes, "early modern England was a culture of contradictions, with official ideology often challenged by actual social practice," and Midsummer makes this exceedingly clear (131). Such contradictions necessarily lead to complications, as the central plot of the play (that of the lovers) clearly illustrates, and though these complications are comedic in their own way it is also hysterical watching someone who is unabashedly human -- and quite asinine in several senses because of it. His transformation is yet one more piece of honesty that Shakespeare includes in his commentary on humanity.

This aspect of both the character and the pay is captured brilliantly in Michael Hoffman's 1999 film…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Evans, G. Blakemore and M. Tobin, eds. The Riverside Shakespeare. New York: Houghton Mifflin, 2003.

Shakespeare, William. A Midsummer Night's Dream. In the Riverside Shakespeare.

Traub, Valerie. "Gender and Sexuality in Shakespeare." The Cambridge Companion to Shakespeare. New York: Cambridge University Press 2001
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Romantic Poet a Midsummer's Night

Words: 1435 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 27029326


Oberon and Titania are thus not above the common desires and petty passions that motivate all mortals -- but they know the harms that their jealousies can do, even on a cosmological level, accept that infidelity is a part of life -- and when moved use more creative ways to wage war with the opposite sex. Titiana is jealous of Hippolyta, her most obvious human parallel, given that she has also enjoyed a relationship with Theseus, but she extracts no revenge -- she simply moves on, as Oberon can love a shepherdess, a young boy, and his queen. At their most profound and insightful, the ageless fairies seem to be able to accept that beings such as themselves will have multiple passions, even though they still have the feelings of a human-like creature. This is unlike the four adolescent lovers who literally fall to blows when they suspect infidelity,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Shakespeare, William. "A Midsummer Night's Dream." MIT Classics Page. December 11, 2008 /" target="_blank" REL="NOFOLLOW">
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Mnd William Shakespeare's Play a

Words: 621 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42137867

" Creating this intermediary set of characters is one of the main techniques Shakespeare uses to confound appearance and reality in a Midsummer Night's Dream.

Act II reveals yet another layer of Shakespeare's reality in a Midsummer Night's Dream. In Act II, the central human drama is shifted from the realistic and familiar world of Athenian reality to the world of the woods in which fairies dwell. Even the fairies allude to yet another layer of reality, when Puck recalls the story of Oberon and Titania fighting over the Indian prince: "Oberon is passing fell and wrath, / Because that she as her attendant hath / a lovely boy, stolen from an Indian king," (Act II, scene i). Moreover, it is soon revealed that the alternative forest reality is filled with different laws of physics than the familiar worlds. Shakespeare shows that these two worlds are well-integrated and blend seamlessly…… [Read More]

Work Cited

Shakespeare, William. A Midsummer Night's Dream. Retrieved online: /" target="_blank" REL="NOFOLLOW">
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Shakespeare's Play Romeo and Juliet

Words: 1299 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 73072382


Perhaps because of this reference to contemporary political ideals, the romance of Shakespeare seems more archetypal than the immediately relevant sociological commentary of "est Side Story." Bernstein's musical is unapologetically topical, dealing with the 1950s obsession with juvenile delinquency and even common theories to explain it, as in the song "Gee Officer Krupkie" which suggests alternatively that delinquency is caused by society, psychology, and also a young thug being "no damn good." hile Shakespeare's conflict between young desires and old hatreds and resistance to change could apply to a variety of contexts, from ancient times as in the case of Pyramus and Thisbe, to the lovers of Brooke's history of Italy, to New York City gangs, to Bosnia, Bernstein's specific focus on the linguistic differences between Puerto Ricans and whites in their speeches and songs, the significance of juvenile crime in American society, and specific cultural ideals like that…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Greenblatt, Stephen. "Romeo and Juliet." Introduction to the Norton Shakespeare. New York:

W.W. Norton, 1997.

West Side Story." Directed by Jerome Robbins and Roger Wise. 1961.

Romeo + Juliet." Directed by Baz Luhrmann. 1996.
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Concert Critique of Mendelssohn's Violin

Words: 831 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 24220755

Violin Concerto

The Violin Concerto was one of the last works of Mendelssohn and this was composed in E Minor. It is also hugely popular and is performed by artists all over the world. Published in 1845, this piece was written for a solo violinist and the average performance time is about half hour. The piece begins with the Allegro molto appassionato that goes on for about thirteen minutes. It is in E minor and starts with rapid notes that slowly subside. This is followed by the cadenza that gains rapid notes and rhythms in E Major before ending in E minor again.

The second part of this piece is Andante that lasts for about nine minutes. The composition moves from E Minor to C Major. This is the melody part of the piece and is dark and grim in certain places. This pieces ends with a trembling effect that…… [Read More]


The Dallas Symphony Orchestra. Mendelssohns Violin Concerto, 2011. Web. 14 Nov 14. 2011.

IMSLP/Petrucci Music Library. Mendelssohn, 2011. Web. 14 Nov, 2011.

Felix Mendelssohn. Biography, 2002. Web. 14 Nov, 2011.
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Shakespeare's Success as a Playwright

Words: 2400 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 12081360

hile Shakespeare attracted his fair share of criticism during his day, it is also clear that many of his contemporaries as well as the general public viewed Shakespeare's work in a positive light. For example, Callaghan (2004) points out that, "hile we do not know how much Shakespeare was paid for the plays he furnished his company, it is clear that the greatest part of the handsome fortune Shakespeare had started to amass as early as the 1590s came from his share in the profits of his company rather than from his plays" (405). This relative affluence apparently helped to provide a sort of comfort zone for Shakespeare that allowed him to write when and what he wanted and for whatever audience he desired in ways that contributed to his ultimate success as a playwright as well as the enduring qualities of his works. For instance, Callaghan adds that, "For…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Alexander, Peter. Shakespeare's Life and Art. London: James Nisbet, 1939.

Blakeley, John. (2009). "Shakespearean Relocations: The Final Scene of John Madden's

Shakespeare in Love." Shakespeare Bulletin 27(2): 249-250.

Blayney, Peter W.M. The First Folio of Shakespeare. Washington, DC: Folger Shakespeare
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A Midsummer's Night Dream Play

Words: 1389 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87763367

Midsummer's Night Dream


ere the actors believable in their roles?

I did not find all of the actors particularly believable in their roles. I could not help noticing that several of the members of the cast forgot their lines or misspoke their lines, sometimes saying a line in the wrong place. Knowing the play well, this really threw me off and took me out of the moment of the performance. I felt there was a lot of timing issues with the performers at well where they would not hit their mark or missed their cue.

Identify the performers you considered most successful.

Of all the performers in the play, I felt that the actress playing the role of Hermia excelled in her role. She made the love and despondency and anger very palpable which was conveyed easily to the audience.

If there were performers you did not like, identify…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Shakespeare, William. A Midsummer's Night Dream.
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Transformations of Literature This Focus

Words: 1711 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 86526682


A Midsummer Night's Dream is a piece of literature that incorporates the use of various writing styles for various characters. Some of these writing styles include prose and complex form of poetry. While prose enables Bottom and his friends to have a simple, rustic quality, the complex form of poetry presents a superb beauty and magic of the fairy kingdom. The audience laughs at the take of mistaken identity and frustrated love in which lovers change their object of love while believing their feelings are totally sincere. Based on the three themes presented in the play, a Midsummer Night's Dream provokes certain profound and difficult questions.


Davis, H.K., Ellis, W.G. & eed, a.J.S. (n.d.). A Teacher's Guide to the Signet Classic Edition

of William Shakespeare's a Midsummer Night's Dream. etrieved June 12, 2013, from

Loutro, G. & Shurin, a. (1985). William Shakespeare's a Midsummer Night's Dream.

Hauppauge,…… [Read More]


Davis, H.K., Ellis, W.G. & Reed, a.J.S. (n.d.). A Teacher's Guide to the Signet Classic Edition

of William Shakespeare's a Midsummer Night's Dream. Retrieved June 12, 2013, from 

Loutro, G. & Shurin, a. (1985). William Shakespeare's a Midsummer Night's Dream.

Hauppauge, NY: Barron's Educational Series, Inc.
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Lunatic Lover and the Poet

Words: 1123 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80691776

The quick shifts of the young lovers' giddy affections thus take place in the 'real world' of Athens, just as they do under the power of Puck's magic. Love in fairyland is not that different from the real world, it only looks different on stage and screen. Even when there are misunderstandings, these misunderstandings are often merely illustrations of a larger truth, as when Hermia wrongly accuse Helena of taking Lysander from her -- she correctly accuses Helena of betrayal, just the wrong kind of betrayal. And Hermia unwittingly, temporarily won Demetrius from Helena in the real world, just as Helena wins the affection of both men in the forest, because of Puck's magic. The ways in which the never-never land of the woods parallel 'real' life in Athens point out how dreams and desire, while they may seem separated from real life, are also heightened reflections of real-world concerns.…… [Read More]


A Midsummer Night's Dream. Directed by Max Reinhardt and William Dieterle. 1935

Shakespeare, William. A Midsummer Night's Dream. MIT Classic Page.

October 18, 2009. /" target="_blank" REL="NOFOLLOW">
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Renaissance English Theater

Words: 1177 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 17424448

Supernatural in Renaissance Drama

There are things in heaven and earth, not dreamt of in the philosophy of Horatio, not simply in "Hamlet" but also in the "Midsummer's Night Dream" of Shakespeare, and the "Dr. Faustus" of Christopher Marlowe. But while all of these plays deal with the theme of human aspirations in a world with a permeable, rather than an impermeable wall between humanity and the supernatural, "Dr. Faustus" suggests that breaking down this wall is initially fun and playful, although it has dire consequences at the end for the play's protagonist. Marlowe's cartoon characters and images of conventional morality, combined with heightened language convey humor rather than horror, until Faustus is condemned to hell for all eternity. The even lighter "Midsummer's Night Dream" also suggests in its early language an initial playfulness for the human and supernatural lovers who engage in transgressing sensual activities. But this comedy set…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Marlowe, Christopher. "Dr. Faustus." Text B. Edited by Hilary Binder. Tufts Classics Edition online. Last updated 2003. Retrieved from Perseus. Database at 8 December 2004 at ; layout=norm%3Dreg& query=act%3D%235

Shakespeare, William. "A Midsummer's Night's Dream." MIT Complete Shakespeare. Retrieved 8 Dec 2004 at 

Shakespeare, William. "A Midsummer's Night's Dream." MIT Complete Shakespeare. Retrieved 8 Dec 2004 at
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Film Project Othello Modernized Shakespeare

Words: 2228 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 25205463

My story being done,

She gave me for my pains a world of sighs:

She swore, in faith, twas strange, 'twas passing strange,

Twas pitiful, 'twas wondrous pitiful:

She wish'd she had not heard it, yet she wish'd

That heaven had made her such a man: she thank'd me,

And bade me, if I had a friend that loved her, should but teach him how to tell my story.

And that would woo her. Upon this hint I spake:

She loved me for the dangers I had pass'd,

And I loved her that she did pity them.

This only is the witchcraft I have used:

Here comes the lady; let her witness it.


Setting: The inside of the administrative building. Nighttime. Othello is wearing a suit, and is confronted by the school's president, 'Dr. B,' and several members of the administration in their pajamas.

John Othello: Look Dr. B,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Shakespeare, William. "Othello." MIT Classics Page. [2 Nov 2006] /Shakespeare/othello/othello.1.3.html
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Clip Oberon and Titania 1935 Clip Available

Words: 701 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31535228

Clip: Oberon and Titania 1935 (clip available on You Tube)

Foolish fairies and mortals: Multiple interpretations of Shakespeare's a Midsummer Night's Dream

Shakespeare's A Midsummer Night's Dream has been interpreted and reinterpreted many times. One of the most popular cinematic versions, directed by Max Reinhardt in 1935, depicts the play as a fantastic spectacle. The fairy king Oberon and the fairy queen Titania are shown as otherworldly beings, flitting through the air, shimmering and transparent. Oberon is manly and aggressive, while Titania is shy, retiring, and feminine in her tenderness.

However, the actual text of the play seems to belie such an interpretation. Shakespeare's words stress the humanness of the fairy characters as well as their fantastical nature. Oberon is frustrated with his inability to control Titania on their first meeting. He wants a young boy in her entourage, the child of a woman whom Titania loved. Although the fairy…… [Read More]

Work Cited

Shakespeare, William. A Midsummer Night's Dream. Shakespeare Homepage.  / [30 Aug 2012]
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Psycho-Social Concepts in the Dead

Words: 1208 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 47156953


Wallace x) Three psycho-sociological concepts which are well represented in the film are conformity of group behavior, gender roles in adolescents, especially boys and narrow tradition based attitudes about what is valuable in society.

The whole film is based upon conformity of behavior according to accepted traditions and accepted societal standards of the 1950s in America. Acting was not an accepted vocation, as accepted vocations were those which carried prestige and high salaries. Society's judgment of the value of a job was its monetary worth. The school and its teachers are bound by the traditional mode of teaching, which is largely stale drill and practice with attendant exams. The value is based upon the idea of education being based upon how much information a student can store and regurgitate. It is especially well illustrated by the scene with Keating where he has the students tear out the introduction in…… [Read More]


Bernard, L.L. (1926). An Introduction to Social Psychology. New York: Henry Holt. Retrieved December 18, 2006, from Questia database: 

Hedley, M. (2002). The Geometry of Gendered Conflict in Popular Film: 1986-2000. 201+. Retrieved December 18, 2006, from Questia database:
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Marjorie Garber Shakespeare After

Words: 1059 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 11788193

Shakespeare After All -- Contrapunctual Love in "A Midsummer's Night's Dream"

In the introduction to her text, Shakespeare after All, scholar Marjorie Garber engages in the paradoxical task of making an argument that essentially Shakespeare's plays have no 'argument.' Garber states that although the different characters may argue amidst themselves, Shakespeare's plays take no final position as to what is the correct moral approach to life. Arguments about human behavior are submitted "contrapunctually" in Garber's phrase. For example, the reaffirmation of the patriarchal order and patriarchal control of marriage in "A Midsummer's Night's Dream," as expressed by Hermia's father in Act I of the play, is subverted by the marriage between Hermia and her beloved Lysander. Yet conventional gender dynamics are affirmed contrapunctually affirmed through the marriage of Theseus and Hippolyta, as well as the newly submissive Titania to the antics of Oberon.

For example, one seamless or non-Garber-like reading…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Garber, Marjorie. Shakespeare After All.

Shakespeare, William. "A Midsummer's Night's Dream." MIT Shakespeare Homepage. Complete text. /Shakespeare/midsummer/. [20 Mar 2005]
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Myth it Has Been Stated That There

Words: 1056 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 63305000


It has been stated that there are only seven real story lines, upon which all literature is based. Whether or not this is true, modern literature often echoes myths or legends of long ago. Sometimes, the recycling of a tale is blatant, and other times it is subtle. William Shakespeare regularly made use of Greek myths, and folklore. In the play, "A Midsummer Night's Dream," Shakespeare's premise is that Theseus, the Duke of Athens, and Hippolyta, a warrior he has captured, are to be married. Shakespeare has successfully created a plotline based, if only loosely, on the greek myths of Theseus and Hippolyta, queen of the Amazons.

The myth of Theseus is one of the most popular of the Greek myths. There are many different stories that involve Theseus, but perhaps the most famous is the story of how Theseus killed the Minotaur. The greeks understood the myth in…… [Read More]

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Book the Prince of Tides

Words: 1718 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 8383400

City and Country in 'The Prince of Tides'

William Shakespeare's comedies often differentiate between the staid, political atmosphere of the court and the city, and the raucous carnival atmosphere of the forest and the countryside. Often, characters will escape the court to the forest to explore their inner depths and their passions. The result is a dichotomy that permeates several of his plays: even from close textual analysis of one passage in a Shakespeare comedy, the reader is able to discern whether the scene takes place in the court or in the forest.

There is a similar breakdown in Pat Conroy's "Prince of Tides." Scenes and flashbacks switch between New York City and the low-country in South Carolina. Like in Shakespeare's comedies, "Prince of Tides" also makes it very easy to discern exactly where each scene is taking place. In a novel of violence, deception and denial, the low-country in…… [Read More]

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Printing Press and the Internet

Words: 6637 Length: 17 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64054291


"Sonnet 130" by Shakespeare and "Sonnet 23" by Louis Labe both talk about love, as so many sonnets do. Their respective techniques however, differentiate them from each other. Shakespeare uses a rhyme scheme that became known as Shakespearean rhyme scheme or English rhyme. He writes about love in a sarcastic manner though. He is mocking the traditional love poems and the usual expressive manner in which women are often compared to. It is ironic in a way because Shakespeare himself also uses the very techniques in his previous writing when he is writing from a man's point-of-view and describing a woman. But in this sonnet he uses the technique of mocking this exaggerated comparison. Usually women are compared to having skin as white as snow, however, in reality, Shakespeare points out, women don't really fit this description, "If snow be white, why then her breasts are dun."

Louis Labe…… [Read More]

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My Final Film Critique

Words: 2726 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Film Review Paper #: 8832823

ob einer's 1987 film The Princess Bride enjoyed only moderate box office revenues, but developed popular underground appeal and has become a cult classic. The enduring respect for einer's quirky romantic comedy is immediately apparent: it is far from formulaic, and does not truly fit in either to the "rom com" designation or that of a fantasy. The Princess Bride also includes a cast filled with luminaries like Peter Falk, Andre the Giant, and Christopher Guest. Its cast and celebrity director therefore enhances the credibility of The Princess Bride. Ultimately, though, the script and the overall tone of the film make The Princess Bride classically compelling. William Goldman's eponymous novel, upon which the film is based, transforms seamlessly into a film that capitalizes on the clever story-within-a-story concept. Peter Falk reads The Princess Bride to his grandson, who is staying home sick from school. At first, the grandson balks at…… [Read More]


Berardinelli, J. (2003). The Princess Bride. Retrieved online: 

Ebert, R. (1987). The Princess Bride. Retrieved online: 

Ecroyd, C.S. (1991). Motivating students through reading aloud. The English Journal 80(6).

Henry, R. And Rossen-Knill, D.F. The Princess Bride and the parodic impulse: The seduction of Cinderella. International Journal of Humor Research 11 (1): 43 -- 64, ISSN (Online) 1613-3722, ISSN (Print) 0933-1719, DOI: 10.1515/humr.1998.11.1.43, / / 1998
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Miracle Worker Is an Inspiring

Words: 1052 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Assessment Paper #: 57774084

The Ghost of Canterville Hall adapts Oscar Wilde's fairy tale and plays upon the middle school fascination with English ghosts and haunting: it depicts a ghost who has grown tired of haunting a family who needs the help of a young girl to be free of a curse.

The Magic Garden by Irene Corey is designed for theatre-goers between ages 5-9 and unfolds a nutritional tale: the battle of vegetables vs. sweets.

A Midsummer Night's Dream adapted by Aurand Harris uses William Shakespeare in a humorous fashion to introduce children to the Bard in this tale of mistaken identity, love, and mischievous fairies.

Dramatists Play Service

Dragonwings by Lawrence Yep is the story of a Chinese boy who comes to America and his struggles adjusting to life in his new country.

The Children's Crusade by Paul Thompson tells the tale of the failed idealism of young children in the 13th…… [Read More]

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Music Michael Tilson Thomas the

Words: 1500 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 91906655

I especially appreciate the opportunity to place musical compositions and composers within a historical context. Placing music within a historical context illuminates some of the variables that characterize a piece like "ite of Spring." Understanding the cultural, political, and military events taking place during the composer's lifetime is essential to understanding the music. Although analyzing classical pieces can prove difficult because of shifting time signatures, counterpoint, and layering of sounds, I am now much more able to distinguish between different styles and composers. The course content has awoken my mind and my ears to rhythms and melodies and I look forward to exploring Western classical music more in-depth. For example, pieces like "ite of Spring" have made their way into movies and therefore continue to have an impact on musical culture.


Alsop, M. (2008). "Getting Hooked on the 'ite' Sound." NP MUSIC. etrieved Dec 19, 2008 at

Kelly,…… [Read More]


Alsop, M. (2008). "Getting Hooked on the 'Rite' Sound." NPR MUSIC. Retrieved Dec 19, 2008 at 

Kelly, T. (1999). "Igor Stravinsky's "The Rite of Spring." NPR Online. Retrieved Dec 19, 2008 from Igor Stravinsky's "The Rite of Spring"

Revolutions in Music: Stravinsky's Rite of Spring." (2006). Retrieved Dec 19, 2008 at 

Thomas, M.T. (2006). "Stravinsky: The Rite of Spring." San Francisco Symphony. Retrieved Dec 19, 2008 at
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Benjamin Britten

Words: 1442 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 69469074

Benjamin Britten

Today, Benjamin Britten (1913-1976) is best known for his instrumental, choral, and operatic compositions as well as being the co-founder of the English Opera Group and the Aldeburgh Festival (Radloff 426). Although Britten's music is likely familiar to many modern observers, his name is probably unfamiliar to most and facts about his early life even less well-known. To determine these facts and the impact of his work, this paper provides a review of the relevant peer-reviewed and scholarly literature concerning the composer, Benjamin Britten, including an in-depth analysis of one of his compositions. A summary of the research and important findings concerning Britten and his work are provided in the conclusion.

Review and Discussion

On November 22, 1913 (St. Cecilia's Day), Edward Benjamin Britten was born in Lowestoft, Suffolk, England (Craggs 3). Benjamin was the youngest child of five sons and two daughters (Brann 2) born to Robert…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Brann, Vincent. (2003). "(Edward) Benjamin Britten -- 22 November 1913-4 December 1976."

Stanford University College of Music. [online] available: 


Craggs, Stewart R. Benjamin Britten: A Bio-Bibliography. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 2002.
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Art Music and Art This

Words: 380 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 41688389

Later, they share a kiss on their wedding night, and even more, as this statue implies. The statue embodies the love and physical relationship that comes with marriage, while the music embodies the very origins and roots of that relationship. Thus, the two go perfectly together. One leads to the other, and back again, in a perfect circle. Without love, there is usually not marriage, and without marriage for many people at least, there is no physical relationship. Therefore, these two works embody the two pieces of a committed relationship that bring it together and make it truly whole, and that is why I chose to combine them. I also feel odin is one of the most powerful and realistic modern sculptors, and I have always admired his work, which is why I turned to him in the first place.


Mendelssohn, Felix."Wedding March from a Midsummer Night's Dream." 2007.…… [Read More]


Mendelssohn, Felix."Wedding March from a Midsummer Night's Dream." 2007. 29 Sept. 2007. 

Rodin, Aususte. "The Kiss." 2007. 29 Sept. 2007.
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Ben Jonson Intertextualities The Influence

Words: 22973 Length: 80 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70168505

" James a.S. McPeek

further blames Jonson for this corruption: "No one can read this dainty song to Celia without feeling that Jonson is indecorous in putting it in the mouth of such a thoroughgoing scoundrel as Volpone."


asserts that the usual view of Jonson's use of the Catullan poem is distorted by an insufficient understanding of Catullus' carmina, which comes from critics' willingness to adhere to a conventional -- yet incorrect and incomplete -- reading of the love poem. hen Jonson created his adaptation of carmina 5, there was only one other complete translation in English of a poem by Catullus. That translation is believed to have been Sir Philip Sidney's rendering of poem 70 in Certain Sonnets, however, it was not published until 1598.

This means that Jonson's knowledge of the poem must have come from the Latin text printed in C. Val. Catulli, Albii, Tibulli, Sex.…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Alghieri, Dante Inferno. 1982. Trans. Allen Mandelbaum. New York: Bantam Dell, 2004.


Allen, Graham. Intertextuality. Routledge; First Edition, 2000. Print.

Baker, Christopher. & Harp, Richard. "Jonson' Volpone and Dante." Comparative
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Structure and Arrangement of the

Words: 2281 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 58055213

(Shakespeare V.ii.201-4)

In these scenes, the Chorus adds something significant to the play.

The Chorus encourages us to use our "imaginary forces" and create the "might monarchies./hose high upreared and abutting fronts/the perilous narrow oceans parts asunder" (Prologue.21-3). In addition, the Chorus tells us to "Think when we talk horses that you see them/Printing their proud hoofs i' the receiving earth;/for 'tis your thoughts that now must deck our kings" (Prologue. 27-9). Here, the Chorus has an extended role in many ways because it is telling the audience how to use their imaginations where the stage is limited. The Chorus also apologizes for the crowded constriction of time we find in the last act. Members of the audience told:

humbly pray them to admit the excuse

Of time, of numbers, and due course of things,

hich cannot in their huge and proper life

Be here presented. (V.0.4-7)

The Chorus serves…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Abrams, M.H. The Norton Anthology of English Literature. "The Sixteenth Century." New York W.W. Norton and Company. 1986.

Barnet, Sylvan, et al. "A Note on the Elizabethan Theater." An Introduction to Literature. 8th Ed. Boston: Little, Brown and Company. 1985.

Harrison, G.B. Introducing Shakespeare. New York: Penguin Books. 1983.

Shakespeare, William. King Henry V. Bartleby Online. Site Accessed September 26, 2003.
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Compare and Contrast Balanchine to Petipa

Words: 4148 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 36637789

Balanchine to Petipa

George Balanchine was born in the year 1904. He was invited to come over the United States of America by Lincoln Kirstein, in the year 1933, and subsequently, Balanchine arrived in America in the month of October 1933. One of the very first things that Balanchine is reputed to have done after his arrival in the United States, was to found the 'School of American Ballet', which opened in the year 1934, with a class of twenty five students. It must be stated here that although Balanchine and Kirstein made several attempts through many years to start a Company, they did not succeed in their endeavor, but the School of American Ballet, however, has endured and remains intact, to this day. This was the Scholl through which Balanchine was able to present his very first ballet to the entire world, in America, which was named the 'Serenade'.…… [Read More]


Ballet Training Techniques. Retrieved From  Accessed 15 October, 2005

Balustrade. Retrieved From
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Shakespeare Used Music in His Works William

Words: 1098 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 2626142

Shakespeare used Music in his orks

illiam Shakespeare (1564-1616), English playwright and poet, is recognized all over the world as the greatest dramatist of all times. His plays have been performed more times than those of any other dramatist and have been translated in almost every major language. (Kastan) hile many aspects of Shakespeare's plays have been discussed and analyzed, it is perhaps not so widely known that music has also played an important role in many of his plays. In this paper we shall review the historical background of music in the Shakespearian era and discuss how and why music was used in Shakespeare's works. The type of music used by the playwright as well as some examples of music in specific plays shall also be described.

Historical Background of Music in the Shakespearian Era

The 16th century in which Shakespeare was born was a period when England was…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Lackey, Stephanie. "Shakespeare and his Music." October 12, 1998. Vanderbilt University's MusL 242 Gateway Page. April 25, 2003. 

Kastan, David Scott. "William Shakespeare." Article in Encyclopedia Encarta. CD-ROM Version, 2003

Music in the plays." The Internet Shakespeare Editions. March 1996 (Updated January 26, 2003). April 25, 2003. 

Music of the streets and fairs." The Internet Shakespeare Editions. March 1996 (Updated January 26, 2003). April 25, 2003.
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What Is Swagger

Words: 676 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92804492

Swagger: Verb: To walk or conduct oneself with an insolent or arrogant air; strut. (Barrow, 2010)

'Swagger' may actually not even be as new as we think it to be. William Shakespeare invented an incredible 1,7000 new English words many of which we still use today -- and one of these was swagger, first used in A Midsummer Night's Dream (1590). (Others include bump, first used in omeo and Juliet, obscene, first used in Love's Labor's lost, and luggage, first used in King Henry IV, Part I) (The Atlantic 'Swagger' and Other Everyday Words Invented by Famous Authors). The etymology of 'swagger' although mostly connected nowadays to walk actually originates form the term 'swag' which means to brag or boast. The noun of 'swag' is dated to 1725 (Online Etymology Dictionary)

'Swagger' was used for a long time. It circulated in rap in the 1990s when Sadat X of Brand…… [Read More]


Barrow, J (2010), SLANG EDITORIAL: The Death Of "Swagger" 

The Atlantic 'Swagger' and Other Everyday Words Invented by Famous Authors 

Online Etymology Dictionary
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Carl Orff

Words: 2111 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 65099227

Carl Orff a German composer, was born in Munich, Germany on July 10, 1895. Munich had been the place where Orff grew up and where his life had been shaped. The childhood days of Orff brought him a lot of memories that he used later as inspirations for his works and compositions.

Carl Orff started to develop his talent in music at the age of 5. He received his first piano, organ, and cello lessons in 1900. At the age of 16, he had already composed almost 50 songs using the text of classical authors such as Heinrich Heine and Friedrich Hoelderlin ( he was at the age of 19, Orff served in First World War for a short period of time

Carl Orff's genius in music was nourished and developed into a master's art at the Academy for the Musical Arts, a music school in Munich where Orff studied.…… [Read More]


Johnson, S.E. Carl Orff and the Orff Approach. Available at . Internet. Accessed 28 November 2003.

Harris, William; Levey, Judity. "Carl Orff.," in The New Columbia Encyclopedia.

1994 ed.

Schmerda, Susanne. 2000. 50 Years of Music for Children.
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The Influence of William Shakespeare and Robert Burns

Words: 4625 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79498587


William Shakespeare and Robert Burns are both iconic figures in the UK. Also known as the Bard of Avon, Shakespeare is often regarded as England’s national poet. Shakespeare is also considered the world’s greatest English writer and dramatist. During his time, Shakespeare authored tens of plays, over a hundred sonnets, and several narrative poems and verses (Marche, 2012). Shakespeare’s work has been translated into virtually all major languages of the world. Also, his work is performed more regularly than any other work. Robert Burns, born close to one and a half centuries after the death of Shakespeare, was also a prominent poet. Similar to Shakespeare, Burns is regarded as Scotland’s national poet (Hogg, 2008). Referred to as the Bard of Ayrshire, Burns is also recognised worldwide for his work (Cairney, 2000). As poets and playwrights, both Shakespeare and Burns have substantially influenced English literature and language as well as…… [Read More]

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Summer Night Dream the Relationship

Words: 593 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 46710094

Hipollyta, his bride to be, is Queen of the Amazons. As a warrior, she grows into understanding love and marriage throughout the play, However, through the fact that she is Theseus's partner, as well as the fact that she has her own qualities, she also symbolizes order and stability.

3. In terms of Theseus's attitude towards marriage, Shakespeare follows this in the way he manifests himself with regards to third parties who are to get married in imposing the law of the nation of which he is king. In the first act of the play, Theseus appears as being undecided about the decision he needs to make. On one hand, there is a law that he needs to respect and, indeed, enforce. On the other hand, he talks with both Egeus and Demetrius in order to try to reach a different decision by negotiating a third solution (which is somewhat…… [Read More]

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Identity in Shakespeare Clearly One

Words: 1160 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19395854

Most Elizabethans believed their self-identity was wrapped up in a cosmic paradigm of fate and destiny, and were somehow controlled by the stars and planets and had a power over the baser side of man -- tools of God, but with certain amounts of free will. Thus, a very central idea in Shakespeare is this central view that an individual's identity is set by God, the Planets, the Universe, the Gods, and Nature. But in contrast, the idea of free will for the individual -- or even a single utterance or decision, can change forever the destiny of the individual. A superb example of this is in Romeo and Juliet.

Fate and chance surround the identities of the major and minor characters in RJ almost from the opening scene. Because the audience already believed that their destiny was predetermined, they saw the characters as having very little choice in their…… [Read More]

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Sean O'Faolain Was an Irish Writer Who

Words: 992 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 93034824

Sean O'Faolain was an Irish writer who often used the relationship between society and individual characters to show his readers how the Irish struggled with adjusting its conservative past with a modern present. O'Faolain's stories do not leave the reader with the satisfaction that things will be better. His protagonists have all been shunned from society and experience all sorts of loss. O'Faolain shows how these characters overcome their realities through inventive ideas.

O'Faolain's Foreign Affairs, a collection of short stories, shows how the Irish, caught in a limited and culturally conservative environment, search for imaginative escape routes to a more fulfilling lifestyle. The characters in O'Foalain's book do not literally travel but instead, use their imaginative and daring sides to free themselves and think outside of the box.

In An Inside Outside Complex, ertie olger, an antique dealer, is dissatisfied with his conservative and boring life. To satisfy his…… [Read More]


O'Faolain. Midsummer Night Madness and Other Stories. London: Cape, 1932.

Bonaccorso, Richard. Sean O'Faolain's Irish Vision. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1987.

Sean O'Faolain: A Life. London: Constable, 1994.
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Shakespeare Othello 1 My Noble Father I

Words: 1506 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32434433


Othello (1)

My noble father,

I do perceive here a divided duty:

To you I am bound for life and education;

My life and education both do learn me

How to respect you; you are the lord of duty;

I am hitherto your daughter: but here's my husband,

And so much duty as my mother show'd

To you, preferring you before her father,

So much I challenge that I may profess

Due to the Moor my lord.

(Othello, Act 1, Scene iii, lines 179-188)

Desdemonda's character is defined early in Shakespeare's Othello. She plays a supportive role, allowing the nature of Othello's character to emerge clearly by the end of the play. Here, Desdemonda defends both herself and her husband. The passage tells the audience much about gender roles and norms in Elizabethan society, as Desdemonda speaks of her father as the "lord of duty," and refers to a…… [Read More]

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Romeo & Juliet the Most

Words: 972 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31789714

Juliet's speeches to the Friar after learning that she must marry Paris in a week's time indicate this as she lists the horrors she would rather endure: "bid me leap... / From off the battlements of any tower...lurk / here serpents are; chain me with roaring bears..." (Riverside 1130, IV.i. 77-80). She continues in much the same vein, and this is not her only moment of such emotional extremity. To see this as comedic, it must be remembered that Juliet is only twelve years old, and Romeo probably around fourteen, and although people married younger in those days it is ridiculous to assume that they could possibly have had the same emotional maturity as other of Shakespeare's heroes and heroines.

In Baz Luhrmann's 1997 film version of Romeo and Juliet, certain aspects of the storyline are also ridiculously overblown. Luhrmann does not attempt to approach comedy in the tragic moments…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Dobson, Michael. "Shakespeare on the Page and on the Stage." The Cambridge

Companion to Shakespeare. New York: Cambridge University Press 2001.

Evans, G. Blakemore and M. Tobin, eds. The Riverside Shakespeare. New York: Houghton Mifflin, 2003.

Shakespeare, William. Romeo and Juliet. In the Riverside Shakespeare.
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Flea This Paradoxical and Provocative Poem by

Words: 1168 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 26710482


This paradoxical and provocative poem by John Donne illustrates a number of the central characteristics of Metaphysical poetry. This paper will attempt to elucidate the paradoxical elements of the poem through a close reading of the text. The poem is essentially argumentative and displays a number of conceits or paradoxical comparisons. The poet uses words and meanings in an unconventional and often startling sense to convince his lover to make love with him.

The poem compares the image of a flea to love and physical union. The entire poem is a sustained argument to convince the protagonist's lover of the validity of this comparison. The image of the flea is used to spur or encourage the loved one into agreeing to the unification of their blood through intercourse. It is also significant to note in this regard that during the Renaissance it was believed that in the act of…… [Read More]

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Shaman as a Spiritual Specialist

Words: 2131 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 85190069

( Achterberg 21) The man then proceeds to chop up the rest of his shaman's body, which he then boils in a pot for three years. After three years the body is reassembled by the spirits and covered with flesh. This means that in effect the ordinary man is now, through the process of initiation and dismemberment, resurrected as a shaman who has the capability to communicate with the spiritual world and who can acquire the knowledge to help and heal numerous illnesses. As the research by Achterberg notes, he now has the ability to, "…read inside his head…" (Achterberg 22) In other words, he now has the ability to see in a mystical sense without the use of his ordinary vision. (Achterberg 22) The initiation process also refers to the view that the shaman acts and perceives in a way that is different to ordinary human beings.

The world…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Achterberg J. Imagery in Healing: Shamanism and Modern Medicine. London:

Shambala Press. 1985.

Berlo J. And Phillips R. Native North American Art. New York: Oxfors University

Press. 1998.
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Tenets Lawrence and Derek Walcott

Words: 1860 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 18345473

Although "Midsummer" is a shot work, in keeping with more of the original modernistic style of poetry writing, it is no less poignant in the message it conveys.


In many ways, DH Lawrence is a visionary that offers the reader imagery and creativity that engulfs the reader into the world in which he creates with his words. As with Walcott, it was not necessary for Lawrence to achieve cadence in his writing though the use of rhyme. There is a balance that is struck that clearly reads as poetic. Lawrence's expressive language and use of interesting characters helps to tell the stories of dehumanization that only comes with man's lack of recognition for the power of nature, and moving too fast in directions unknown under the call for modernization.

"If one thinks a poem is coming on… you do make a retreat, a withdrawal into some kind of silence…… [Read More]


Baugh, Edward. Derek Walcott. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2006.

Burnett, Paula. Derek Walcott: Politics and Poetics. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2001.

Eagleton, Terry. The English novel: an introduction. Willey-Blackwell, pp. 258-260, 2005.

King, Bruce. Derek Walcott, a Caribbean life. Oxford: OUP, 2000.