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Military Forces in Mexico American
Words: 1406 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 32678018
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Particularly, many democrats and republicans expressed their dismay about the fact that the ush administration did not notify or seek congressional input while the policy was being developed. However, as the Deputy Assistant Secretary of State for Western Hemisphere Affairs, Roberta Jacobson, who actually drafted the 'Merida initiative' says, "Although it [Merida] was proposed by a Republican administration, it was passed by a Democratic [party-controlled] Congress." [Jim Fischer, 2009]

Some policy analysts from Mexico have expressed their concern that controlling drug trafficking in Mexico would be better achieved if the U.S. takes active measures to control the arms trafficking from across its borders into Mexico. Gen. Javier del Real Magallanes, who is in command of the northeastern states such as Nuevo Leon, Tamaulipas, and San Luis Potosi says, "If there are no weapons, there's no violence. These arms aren't from Mexico; they're from the other side." [Laura Starr, 2007]. Sharing…

Bibliography

1) Colleen W. Cook, Oct 2007, 'CRS Report for Congress: Mexico's Drug Cartels', retrieved Apr 22nd, 2010, from,  http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/row/RL34215.pdf 

2) Bernd Debussman, 'Latin America: Mexico Drug War Update', retrieved Apr 22nd 2010, from,  http://stopthedrugwar.org/chronicle/604/mexico_drug_war_update 

3) Manuel Roig-Franzia, 'U.S. Guns Behind Cartel Killings In Mexico', retrieved Apr 22nd 2010, from,  http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/10/28/AR2007102801654.html 

4) Inside USA, 'Mexico's Drug', retrieved Apr 22nd 2010, from,  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hyDHNeJxazU

Military Application of Tranexamic Acid in Trauma Emergency Resuscitation
Words: 1054 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Article Review Paper #: 33744430
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Military Application of Tranexamic Acid in Trauma Emergency esuscitation

This is an article that reviews military use of tranexamic acid in cases of resuscitation in the instance of a trauma emergency.

Scular disturbance with concomitant bleeding is one of the main death causes in military and civilian trauma. Experience from Afghanistan and Iraq wars has caused developments in resuscitation of hemorrhage victims, with the use of optimum blood component ratio identification (Morrison, et.al, 2012). The new approaches involved balanced and early delivery of packed BCs (red blood cells), FFP (fresh frozen plasma), cryoprecipitate and platelets to restore clotting factor 6 and circulating volume. Notwithstanding these developments, the usefulness of a treatment to reduce hemorrhagic shock related mortality is yet to be established.

The Problem

As a result of wars in Iraq and Afghanistan, there has been a need to find advances towards revitalization for hemorrhagic shock. Optimal blood ratio components…

References

Additional Information

Morrison, J., Dubose, J., Rasmussen, T., & Midwinter, M. (2012). Military Application of Tranexamic Acid in Trauma Emergency Resuscitation (MATTERs) Study. Achieves of Surgery, 147(2). Retrieved, from http://118.139.163.84:8088/2161431/Article_2.pdf

Military Therapeutic Group Introduction and
Words: 2672 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 52442895
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Attendance will be required for all group members to optimize the effect of the sessions. Group members will be allowed to leave the group as long as the intention to leave is provided in writing. No reasons will be required.

Because of the nature of the group, a mutual confidentiality agreement will be signed by all group members, including leaders, at the first meeting of the group. There will generally not be homework, apart from the requirement to apply what has been learned to the work and home environment. Group members may report on results if they feel they want to.

There is no need for a formalized institution to determine the ground rules and structure of the meetings. This will be a collaborative process between me and the group members.

IX. Group essions

Group dynamics generally consist of four stages: forming, storming, norming, and performing (Group Dynamics, Unit 10).…

Sources

Adams, B.D. And Webb, R.D.G. Trust in Small Military Teams. Retrieved from http://www.dodccrp.org/events/7th_ICCRTS/Tracks/pdf/006.PDF

Armstrong, R. (2005) Requirements of a Self-Managed Team Leader. Leader Values. Retrieved from http://www.leader-values.com/Content/detail.asp?ContentDetailID=1004

Borchers, T. (1999). Small Group Communication. Retrieved from http://www.abacon.com/commstudies/groups/leader.html

Castano, E. Leidner B, and Slawuta, P. (2008, Jun). Social identification processes, group dynamics and the behaviour of combatants. International Review of the Red Cross, Vol 90, No. 870. Retrieved from  http://www.icrc.org/Web/eng/siteeng0.nsf/htmlall/review-870-p259/$File/irrc-870_Castano.pdf

Civil-Military Relations Civil Military Relations
Words: 2314 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 53546597
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However in those days, the progress was even slower and there was deeper concern about the possibility of complete transition. Samuel Huntington's path-breaking book, Political Order in Changing Societies (1968) has been by far the most well received and comprehensive book on the subject of civilian military relations. Huntington studied the conditions in Latin America and found that in underdeveloped countries, militaries were usually more powerful because society cannot access the government and hence support military's interference. Middle classes then "compel the military to oppose the government" and restore the status quo ante. Military may be powerful but Huntington felt that it was the organizational structure that can be blamed for coups but instead the social structure and thus "Military explanations do not explain military intervention," he argued.

By the end of the 1970s, even more literature appeared on the scene to explain civil military relations and to study the…

Moral Interventions
Words: 1400 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29121753
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Humanitarian intervention: hen is it justified?

One of the most controversial concerns of 20th and 21st century international affairs is the question of when it is justified to embark upon humanitarian interventions. On one hand, there have been clear examples in recent history of genocides (most notably in Rwanda and Bosnia) that clearly defy human decency. On the other hand, the concept of national sovereignty well as the logistics and costs of a coordinated humanitarian intervention can be daunting. Furthermore, calls for humanitarian intervention also often provoke concerns about using such interventions as the pretext for self-interested actions of a more powerful state. This paper will argue that while there are legitimate philosophical objections to humanitarian interventions, on a practical basis such interventions are required to preserve international stability and to prevent future warfare.

A number of theorists of international relations believe that humanitarian interventions of any kind are unjustified.…

Works Cited

Clarke, Walter & Herbst, Jeffrey. "Somalia and the Future of humanitarian intervention."

Foreign Affairs. March/April. 1996. Web. 4 May 2015

"Dutch state liable for 300 Srebrenica massacre deaths." The Guardian. 16 Jul 2014. Web.

4 May 2015

The Military and Diplomatic Resolution
Words: 1684 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22359785
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In the aftermath of the war, these acts would be called into
question given America's ultimate and necessary abandonment of the war.
Accordingly, Hickman reports that "on January 15, 1973, after pressuring
South Vietnam to accept the peace deal, Nixon announced the end of
offensive operations against North Vietnam." (Hickman, 1) And with Nixon's
scandalized resignation in 1973 and the passage of Congressional
legislation forbidding American military intervention in Southeast Asia,
the North Vietnamese were free to pursue the unification which the U.S. had
sacrificed so much to prevent.
And consideration that the United States might continue to support its
overall goals in Vietnam at least through aid to the South Vietnamese
forces that it had propped up for a decade would ultimately be fully
dismissed when "in 1975, Congress refused President Gerald Ford's last-
minute request to increase aid to South Vietnam by $300 million, just weeks
before it…

Works Cited:

Hickman, K. (2008). Vietnam War: End of the Conflict. About Military
History. Online at
 http://militaryhistory.about.com/od/vietnamwar/a/VietnamEnd.htm 

Kamps, C.T. (2003). Operation: Linebacker II. Air and Space Power
Journal. Online at
 http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mim0NXL/is317/ai109219950

Panama and Haiti Interventions
Words: 978 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35213272
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The public opinion differences in support for the Haiti and Panama interventions were that the latter was viewed by the people (prompted by the media) simplistically, as a mission of good guys (the U.S.) fighting bad guys (Noriega); on Haiti, the public (again prompted by the mainstream media) was the reverse—intervention was unnecessary and was just a case of Clinton trying to get the spotlight off his own back. This paper will compare and contrast the way the government handled the two interventions and discuss the media’s role in the interventions and how a “rally ‘round the flag effect” occurred for the Panama intervention—but not for the Haiti intervention.
In the Panama intervention under Bush, the media depicted the soldiers as effectively bringing Christmas and Santa Claus to the Panamanians (Milburn Panama Video 1, n.d.). The propaganda campaign made it appear as though Noriega was a ruthless dictator who was…

International Law on Overt and Covert Interventions
Words: 1504 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15008814
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The international law is the universal rules and principles guiding the conducts and relations between nation-states, and international organizations. The modern concept of international law started in the 17th century, and has been accepted as the rules and conducts guiding the relations among nation states. In the contemporary international environment, rules and principles guiding the states' conducts have become critically important to maintain international peace and security, and preventing violation and aggression. However, the principle of the international law prohibits the use of force against other state actors except where the security council authorizes the use of military force to restore the international peace or where a state uses the force as a self-defence. In the international arena, nation states have been found using the overt and covert method to exercise military interventions against other states. However, a self-defense is one of the major factors that provokes a state to…

U S Interventions in Afghanistan and
Words: 2550 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 62701561
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The Taliban have many sympathizers in the tribal areas of Pakistan and it is suspected that bin Laden and his lieutenant, and his lieutenant, Ayman al-Zawahiri, may well be in Pakistan (Ibid.) it has also been alleged that the powerful ISI (the Pakistan army's intelligence wing) still has links with the Taliban and elements within the agency are sympathizers of Islamic extremists, who may be surreptitiously helping the Taliban. The U.S. has also been accused of carrying out attacks on alleged hideouts of militants across the Pakistan side of the border by drone and missile attacks that have caused a number of civilian deaths. This has further inflamed anti-American sentiment in Pakistan, where the majority of public opinion was never in favor of the United States, in any case. The U.S. support for Musharraf has also emboldened him to perpetuate his rule as he has recently imposed Emergency, suspended the…

Works Cited

Analysis: Who are the Taleban?" BBC News. December 20, 2000. November 23, 2007.  http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/south_asia/144382.stm 

Chapter I: Purposes and Principles." Charter of the United Nations: UN.org. November 23, 2007.  http://www.un.org /' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>

U S Intervention in Latin America
Words: 1292 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 4083405
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The accident in the Tonkin Gulf when North Vietnamese forces attacked the U.S. vessels and caused two airplanes to crash was a good reason to start the conflict, as the troops of North Vietnam violated the Geneva Convention and attacked a foreign navy in the neutral international waters. The United States has to react on this accident, as it was the mater of international respect, but at the same time the presidents administration had to estimate the future consequences of the military strike back. It was not secret that a lot of Soviet weapon was concentrated in North Vietnam, and Viet Kong army was ready to start the war for the unification of the country as it was guaranteed to have a support from Soviets.

Invention in Grenada was caused by the Cuban influence on Grenada's government in early 1980 iers. Grenada changed its political orientation and turned to the…

Reference:

John J. Johnson, a Hemisphere Apart: Foundations of U.S. Policy toward Latin America Westview Press; 2nd edition (January, 2001)

Alonso Aguilar, Pan-Americanism from Monroe to the Present Monthly Review Pr (June 1, 1969)

Military Participation of African-Americans Especially
Words: 2775 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 85316353
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His plan to create a black regiment in the South failed, but black regiments were created during the war, and some of them were vital to certain battles and victories.

Perhaps the most notable black regiment formed during the war was the 1st hode Island egiment, which has become legendary in the fight for freedom. Colonel Christopher Greene commanded the egiment, and it was one of only three black regiments to fight during the war. In fact, many historians feel the war might have ended sooner if more regiments like the 1st hode Island had been formed and utilized. The Kaplans note, "Colonel Christopher Greene's First hode Island egiment distinguished itself for efficiency and gallantry throughout the war -- perhaps the war would have ended sooner if its example had been heeded" (Kaplan, and Kaplan 1989, 64). hode Island was unable to fill its quota of fighting men for the…

References

Bradley, Patricia. 1998. Slavery, Propaganda, and the American Revolution. Jackson, MS: University Press of Mississippi.

Dunmore, Lord. 1775. Lord Dunmore's Appeal to the Slaves of Virginia (1775).

Editors. 2005. Black Loyalists: Our History, Our People. Government of Canada's Digital Collections. http://collections.ic.gc.ca/blackloyalists/story/our_story.htm

Kaplan, Sidney, and Emma Nogrady Kaplan. 1989. The Black Presence in the Era of the American Revolution. Revised ed. Amherst, MA: University of Massachusetts Press.

Children in the Military
Words: 2358 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 38865446
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Military Children

Military life and civilian life differ in key ways, and these differences affect families in particular. Since September 11, there have been higher rates of deployment and a correspondingly increased rate of family stress and domestic abuse. Deployment and the stressors associated therewith are especially important to understand. A review of literature shows that PTSD and other problems are linked to increased rates of abuse among military families. esearch also shows that abuse can be prevented, whether or not PTSD exists. The ways to prevent abuse include developing resilience. esilience includes a range of coping mechanisms that help parents be more able to deal with change and uncertainty. Parents can then pass on these traits to their children. Developing a strong social network has been proven especially helpful in both military and civilian families. Both civilian and military parents benefit from the development of resilience, coping skills, and…

References

Bursch, B. & Lester, P. (2011). The long war comes home: mitigating risk and promoting resilience in military children and families. Psychiatric Times 28.7 (July 2011): p26.

Chandra, A. & London, A.S. (2013). Unlocking insights about military children and families.

"Help Your Family Face Challenges Successfully," (2014). MilitaryOneSource. 22 Feb, 2014.

Masten, A.S. (2013). Afterword: what we can learn from military children and famliies. The Future of Children 23(2): Fall 2013.

Private Military Companies Iraq Illustrate a Trend
Words: 3262 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96504220
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private military companies Iraq illustrate a trend warfare? -No, Historical reasons great empires employed a large number mercenaries.-What reasons, -Type firms, divided types- type spear

Private military companies

Today's society is more challenging and dynamic than it has ever been. And this trend is manifested within the military sector as well. Here, the employees in the division have to be better motivated in order to risk their lives and this motivation has to be complex, and include both financial and non-financial incentives. While the major non-financial incentive would be the sense of fighting to protect one's country, the financial incentive has to be substantial and significantly larger than that of any other category of employees.

The modern day army then integrates technologic developments to improve the nature and outcome of its operations. It as such strives to answer the more and more complex demands of the contemporaneous society and, in…

References:

Adebajo, A., Sriram, C.L., 2000, Messiahs or mercenaries? The future of international private military services, International Peacekeeping, Vol. 7, No. 4

Avant, D., 2006, Private military companies and the future of war, Foreign Policy Research Institute,  http://www.fpri.org/enotes/200604.military.avant.privatemilitarycompanies.html  last accessed on May 27, 2011

Beutel, M.D., 2005, Private military companies: their emergence, importance and a call for global regulation, Northwich University, http://princess.digitalfreaks.org/thesis/beutelmdthesis.pdf last accessed on May 27, 2011

Carafano, J.J., 2008, Private sector, public wars: contractors in combat-- Afghanistan, Iraq, and future conflicts, Greenwood Publishing, ISBN 0275994783

U S Intervention in Somalia Introductory
Words: 2117 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 11699405
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As the end of the Cold War, would present a unique opportunity to take advantage of this situation. This strategy could have been successful had there been a commitment from both the U.S. And UN to the long-term stability of Somalia. The problems began, when the different roles of the mission would change and there would not be enough resources or support to obtain the different objectives of UNSOM II.

At the same time, various war lords and terrorists would fear that a large international presence will take away their power as well influence. At which point, they would begin to target the different troops and aid workers. This is troubling, because various bureaucrats and political talking heads refused to take into account this reality. As a result, both operations were doomed to failure because there were no resources or the support to engage these warlords and terrorist. This would…

References

Ambush in Mogadishu. (2010). PBS. Retrieved from:  http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/ambush /etc./cron.html

Glossary a -- B. (2001). University of Massachusetts. Retrieved from: http://www.umass.edu/wsp/statistics/glossary/ab.html

Qualitative Research. (2009). Market Research World. Retrieved from: http://www.marketresearchworld.net/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=393&Itemid=42

United Nations Operation in Somalia. (2003). UN. Retrieved from:  http://www.un.org /' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>

Worst Faults of a Military Leader
Words: 1416 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 62663429
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Worst Faults a Military Leader Can Exhibit:

Incompetence, selfishness, and living in the past

"If America is to meet the multiple challenges of the 21st century, it is crucial that we develop a system that places the right people in the right places in government at the right moment."[footnoteRef:1] ut just as critical as being the 'right' type of leader is avoiding making some of the most typical mistakes of poor leaders of the past. Incompetence and disorganization; fighting the last war rather than the current conflict (i.e., living in the past); selfishness and a focus on the personal ego rather than the actual needs of the nation are the three worst faults a leader can exhibit. [1: J. McCausland, "Developing strategic leaders for the 21st century," Strategic Studies Institute, 2008. Available: http://www.StrategicStudiesInstitute.army.mil / (26 Sept 2013), xi]

On a very basic level, military leaders must have basic organizational skills.…

Bibliography

Bartone, P, Barry, C., & Armstrong, R. "To Build Resilience: Leader Influence on Mental

Hardiness. Defense Horizons, 69 (2009): 1-8.

Hermann, Margaret. "Assessing leadership style: A trait analysis." Social Science Automation

1999

American Intervention in Vietnam Including
Words: 893 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 42214436
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Much of the country to this day suffers, and many look back and consider the country at best a "wasteland" destroyed and dismantled for unrecognizable causes (Kirkwood-Tucker & Benton, 2002).

World response was so dramatic to the war in Vietnam and the presence of allied forces that in 1973 the Treaty of Paris "called for the withdrawal of all U.S. troops" and allied forces in S. Vietnam (Kirkwood-Tucker & Benton, 2002). Entire villages had been wiped out, people, innocent civilians, not just soldiers, which is one reason the United States had reason to feel disgraced and failed to distinguish the returning soldiers from the war as heroes. This in turn took a tremendous toll on many soldiers resulting in post traumatic syndromes including long-lasting depression, aggression and sleep disorders (Kirkwood-Tucker & Benton, 2002; Lockard, 1994). No other war had exacted such a toll on domestic and foreign life than did…

References

Kirkwood-Tucker, Toni and Benton, Janet E. The Lessons of Vietnam: Using Literature to Introduce Students to the Vietnam War. Social Education, 66.6, (2002), p. 362.

Lockard, Craig a. Meeting Yesterday Head-on: The Vietnam War in Vietnamese,

American and World History, Journal of World History, 5.2 (1994, Fall): 227-70.

Vietnam War

Training Women for the Military
Words: 3228 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 76933795
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In those days prior to 2003, TADOC gave recruits nut-and-bolt basics, then sent the new Soldiers to their units where the real training started....nTo achieve "Soldier" status, recruits now spend 21 days in the field during basic training. The training focus has changed dramatically from what was primarily a standards, discipline and soldierization process to one of intensive combat skills. (Leipold, 2009)nHowever, such changes have tended to come about without any sort controlled, rigorous study. There is nothing wrong about changes that come from within and that grow organically out of the requirements of an organization. However, a controlled experiment offers certain key advantages because it can cast off old attitudes and biases.nI have already described the control group in this experiment. The three experimental groups add different elements to the equation. The first of these experimental groups is actually one that I predict will reduce the overall fitness of…

References\nEvans, M. (2005). Women pay painful price for equal military training. The Times, retrieved 9 February 2010 from  http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/uk/article434024.ece .\nhttp://answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=20100121052640AAZ1xPL \nhttp://www.military.com/military-fitness/fitness-test-prep/physical-fitness-test-anxiety \nLeipold, J. (2009). Not your father\'s basic, anymore, retrieved 8 February 2010 from \nhttp://usmilitary.about.com/od/armyjoin/a/newarmybasic.-u5p.htm.\nO\'Reilly, K. (1981). Dick and Jane in basic training. Newsweek. \nhttp://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,953209-\n2,00.html#ixzz0fYEyTybe \nRichards, T. (n.d.) What is comprehensive cognitive-behavioral therapy? \nRetrieved 10 \nFebruary 2010 from \nhttp://www.socialanxietyinstitute.org/ccbtherapy.html.\nSegura, L. (2009). Veterans Decry Institutional Sexism in Military, retrieved 11 February 2010 \nfrom  http://www.alternet.org/reproductivejustice/79877/ .

Gangs Military Weapons Tactics Unclassified For
Words: 721 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Article Review Paper #: 47357698
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Call for backup before attempting pursuit into unsecured potential gang situations

5.. Examples of gangs deploying military weapons and tactics against law enforcement:

2005: Contract assassination attempt against corrections officer in Lakewood, Wash. By United Blood Nation gang member in active service from Bremerton Navy Station (10)

2005: Ceres, California: Active-duty, U.S. Marine Iraq combat veteran gang member shoots two police, killing one, using military tactics (11)

2006: Verbal testimony by several gang members suggests veterans training gangs for combat (12)

2010: U.S.Marine Corps veterans charged with selling assault weapons to gangs (13)

2011: Twenty-seven AK-47s stolen from California's Fort Irwin Army base (14)

2011: National Gang Threat Assessment report: "Gang members are acquiring high-powered, military-style weapons and equipment, which poses a significant threat because of the potential to engage in lethal encounters with law enforcement and citizens alike" (15)

6. ACTION: If you believe you may encounter military-level threat…

References: All sources peer-reviewed, government or considered reliable.

Blankenstein, A. "Marines sold military assault weapons to L.A. gang members, authorities allege." Los Angeles Times L.A. Now, 9 Nov. 2010. 26 Dec. 2011 (4, 13)

Cooley, S. "Findings and proposals from the District Attorney's Office." L.A. County District Attorney. April 2008. 26 Dec. 2011 < da.co.la.ca.us/pdf/LADA_Gang_Crime_&_Violence_APR_2008.pdf > (9)

Federal Bureau of Investigation. "The Continuing Gang Threat." National Gang Threat Assessment 2011 Key Findings, National Gang Intelligence Center. 21 Oct. 2011 (15)

L.A. County District Attorney's Office. "Gang Crimes." Hardcore Gang Division, 1 Nov. 2011. 26 Dec. 2011 (16)

US Foreign Policy and The Use of American Military Power
Words: 2277 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41833305
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“As Long as The Personal and Societal Safety of American Citizens Is at Risk from External Threats, Historical Precedents Suggest That Rather Few Limits Will Be Placed on The Use of American Military Power, Or on The Constraints the United States Will Impose on The Peoples of Other Countries.”
The government of America exists for its citizens’ welfare, an obligation which encompasses being in charge of both its internal and external affairs. US foreign policy’s key principles are: defense of the physical territory of America, safeguarding citizens from attacks by enemies, promoting the status and economic interests of America, and promoting the nation’s democracy- and freedom- related values across the world. By end-twentieth century, the US’s foreign policy entailed relationships with a total of 159 states that were typically competitive, supportive at times, and at other times clearly unfriendly (Deutsch, 1997).
The government’s executive wing has largely remained in charge…

U S Military Power & Its Uses Do
Words: 797 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99834700
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U.S. Military Power & Its Uses

Do you think our military needs to be so large and powerful? Do you think it is ever possible for the U.S. To use force against another nation? Do you agree with President Obama's decision to end the war in Iraq? Do you believe President Obama deserved to receive the Nobel Peace Prize? Explain why or why not in answering all the questions.

The world is a dangerous place where sometimes sovereign nations go to war against each other, or oppress their own people, or are unable to solve their domestic problems. In those cases, it becomes imperative for the United Nations to act. The United Nations, however, is constrained by a set of rules and regulations, not to mention its large bureaucracy and occasional corruption. That was certainly the case when the Rwandan genocide took place in 1994. Given this incompetence and inability…

Works Cited:

Military-Industrial Complex Speech, Dwight D. Eisenhower, 1961  http://www.h-net.org/~hst306/documents/indust.html 

"The Nobel Peace Prize 2009 - Press Release." Nobelprize.org. 15 Dec 2010  http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/peace/laureates/2009/press.html

U S Military Chain of Command the Traditional
Words: 1012 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60375850
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U.S. Military Chain of Command

The traditional wars that have followed the Europeans models developed by Napoleon basically incorporate the leadership in writing and training troops for rules of engagement. ules of Engagement (OE) is described as a management tool that help in keeping soldiers within control and aligned with the specific mission. This management tool has contributed to benefits and costs in which training OE in each leadership level down to the individual soldiers enables every participant to make responsible decisions and achieve the mission as stated by the battlefield commander. Notably, the chain of command basically consists of various levels since it links everyone in the uniformed service ranging from the senior ranks to the junior ranks as well as the United States President. An important example that correlates an understanding of rules of engagement with limited war ideology is the Vietnam War. The Vietnam War incorporates various…

References:

Boot, M. (2011, October 4). The War Over the Vietnam War. Retrieved September 29, 2012,

from  http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052970204422404576595011469382894.html 

Lester, R.E. (1990). Records of the U.S. Marine Corps in the Vietnam War. Retrieved September

29, 2012, from  http://cisupa.proquest.com/ksc_assets/catalog/11199.pdf

History a Military War or Campaign
Words: 2600 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 78971851
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Military ar or Campaign

The world has existed amidst a set of wars and conflicts that have shaped political systems, governments, and humanitarian associations. Gulf ar is one of the universal and all time conflicts that rocked the world. ith equitable measures and categorical procedures, philosophies, missions, and visions of these wars, this piece of study exemplifies Gulf ar as one of America's participatory wars in the world. The article tries to establish the basement of Gulf ar together with its consequences and responses it received from the United States of America and the world as a whole.

and the Middle East have been on good terms for quite some time. Various wars between the U.S. And countries including Iraq have occurred. In such instances, military deployment by the U.S. government is intense supported by its foreign policies. This study focuses on the 1990/91 Gulf ar. The America's paradoxical love-hate…

Works cited

Boyne, Walter J. Gulf War: A Comprehensive Guide to People, Places & Weapons. New York: Signet, 1991. Print.

Bulloch, John, and Harvey Morris. The Gulf War: Its Origins, History, and Consequences.

London: Methuen London, 1989. Print.

Carlisle, Rodney, and John S. Bowman. Persian Gulf War. New York: Facts on File, 2003.

Identifying Optimal Interventions for a Terrorist State
Words: 633 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Paper #: 91391971
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ECJ5 Action Officer's GRADE, NAME

APPROVED BY: ____ DATE

STRATEGIC ESTIMATE OF THE CAUCASUS REGION

Ahurastan has a population of 33 million, comprised of 80% Azeri, 9% Kurd, and 11% other, and is 89% Shi'a and 10% Sunni.

Ahurastan was founded in 2019 and the government is a military dictatorship.

The current Ahurastan president is Piruz Dilanchi and the prime minister is General Ali Kerimli.

The country is a terrorist sponsor that supports the South Azeri People's Army (SAPA) and places the country at odds with Azerbaijan. Ahurastan naval vessels have confronted Turkish and Azerbaijani oil exploration vessels in the Caspian Sea but trade with Armenia continues.

The country appears to be strengthening its relationship with Russia which sells arms to the Ahurastan military.

Ahurastan also has a number of nuclear facilities that Iran would like to reacquire.

Current U.S. programs include securing Caspian Sea routes through support of the…

Japan's Post World War II Military Rights
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Japan's post World War II military rights and capabilities, an article that was written for the Japanese Constitution, following Japan's military defeat by the Allies in World War II, states, "The Japanese people forever renounce war as a sovereign right of the nation and the threat or use of force as a means of settling international disputes." Based on that Constitutional decree, then, Japan has not had an army of its own since World War II. Japan now needs its own original independent army, and should have it for the 21st century, in order for Japan to maintain the economic and political respect it has earned for itself, internationally, since World War II, and because Japan also needs other nations' respect for its military capability in order for it to maintain itself as a significant economic, technological, and political player on today's world stage. If Japan is not granted the…

Suicide and How it Impacts Military Families
Words: 2840 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 62023833
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Suicide and How it Impacts Military Families

Description of the Case or Problem

As the number of suicides amidst the U.S. Armed Service members have constantly increased in the past decade, so has the rate of survivors affected by military suicide, leading to loss of life. Whenever a loved one loses their life as an outcome of suicide, the resulting trauma and shock might compromise the survivors' physical and mental health. This leaves the victims more susceptible to a more agonizing and intricate grief process. Those individuals bereaved by suicide are at an increasing danger of also committing suicide. Peer encouragement, a recognized recuperation method from addictions and sickness, has been clinically monitored to be broadly used by the suicide loss survivors. esearchers have given minimal interest to effective interventions for the victims of suicide loss in the general U.S. population; less is recognized regarding the efficiency of peer support…

References

AFSP. (2014, August 8). President Obama Announces Executive Actions to Address Veteran and Military Suicide. Retrieved from American Foundation for Suicide Prevention:  https://www.afsp.org/advocacy-public-policy/policy-news-updates/president-obama-announces-executive-actions-to-address-veteran-and-military-suicide 

American Association of Suicidology. (2010). Survivors of suicide fact sheet. Retrieved from American Association of Suicidology:  http://www.suicidology.org/c/document_library/get_file?folderId=232&name=D 

American Foundation for Suicide Prevention. (2010). Survivor research: AFSP and NIMH propose research agenda. Retrieved from American Foundation for Suicide Prevention:  http://www.afsp.org/index.cfm?fuseaction=home.viewpage&page_id=2D9DF73E  -BB25-0132-3AD7715D74BFF585

Cerel, J., Padgett, J. H., Conwell, Y., & Reed, G. A. (2009). A call for research: The need to better understand the impact of support groups for suicide survivors. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, 39(3), 269-281.

Why Alcohol Misuse Is'so Rampant in the Military
Words: 2925 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34456939
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Alcohol and Special Populations: Unique Problems and Considerations That Apply to the Military

The military is a special population that has its own culture and its own code of ethics. Its veterans have their own VA hospital and society recognizes a distinct difference between civilian and military life. The effect of alcohol on the military, therefore, requires unique consideration outside the realm of investigations on the effects of alcohol on mainstream America. This paper will describe the effect of alcohol on the military, identify unique problems and considerations that apply to the military, and compare and contrast the military to the overall U.S. population in terms of the problem of alcohol. It will conclude with a description of the best treatment practices for specific issues relevant to the military.

The Effect of Alcohol on the Military

The military population is not without its weakness for alcohol consumption. As Pemberton et…

References

Bray, R., Brown, J., Williams, J. (2013). Trends in binge and heavy drinking, alcohol-related problems, and combat exposure in the U.S. military. Substance Use and Misuse, 48(10): 799-810.

Burns, B., Grindlay, K., Holt, K. (2014). Military sexual trauma among U.S.

Servicewomen during deployment: A qualitative study. American Journal of Public Health, 104(2): 345-349.

Foran, H., et al. (2012). Hazardous alcohol use and intimate partner violence in the military: Understanding protective factors. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 26(3): 471-483.

U S Military Assistance Funding to
Words: 6309 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 43316197
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On November 8, 2001, the U.S. Senate passed several new conditions before direct 'military-to-military relations can be restored with Indonesia including the punishment of the individuals who murdered three humanitarian aid workers in West Timor, establishing a civilian audit of armed forces expenditures, and granting humanitarian workers access to Aceh, West Timor, West Papua, and the Moluccas."

Following are two very recent bills and rulings by the U.S. Congress concerning the Indonesian presence, changes, and sanctions.

In the House resolution, number 666, urton (R-IN), Wexler (D-FL), and lumenauer (D-OR) congratulate the Indonesian people and government for a successful election process, supported Indonesia in political and economic transformations, expresses gratitude to Indonesian leadership for arresting 109 terrorists, supports the emerging legal framework, commends Indonesia for "discovering new ways of working with regional law enforcement and intelligence communities in a sincere effort to root out domestic radicalism, and urged Indonesia to conduct…

Bibliography

(2001). U.S. And Indonesia Pledge Cooperation, Joint Statement Between the United States of America and the Republic of Indonesia.

(2001, October 1). U.S. To Send Team to Indonesia To Discuss Combating Terrorism. Xinhua News Agency.

(2001, November 27). U.S. Admiral Urges Indonesian Military To Account for East Timor Mayhem. Agence France-Presse.

Baker, P. (1997, April 22). U.S. To Impose Sanctions on Burma for Repression. Washington Post.

Armed Intervention Crisis Modern Day
Words: 587 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 41135320
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Even if one uses the previous five sets, they must decide the percentage of importance and relevance to assign to each criterion. It as such becomes understandable why peoples or states use the same decisional framework and come to inconsistent results. Personally, I would place the most emphasis on human rights and would generally decide in favor of an armed intervention in countries where more cases of human rights breaches are registered. Secondly, I would also look at the United States' interests and possible losses pegged to the intervention. How could it benefit or harm us? Third, I would seek international acceptance, support and cooperation from other sovereign states. The final element I would consider is not present in the five set decision criteria, but I hold it pivotal. It would consist of an analysis of the diplomatic efforts in the region. I would trail the discussions and their outcomes;…

U.S. WA IN VIETNAM UNJUSTIFIED

US IN VIETNAM WA UNJUSTIFIED

intervention in Vietnam was utterly unjustifiable and uncalled for action. It all began when an otherwise peaceful country resorted in civil war that was orchestrated by the spread of communism. Vietnam, which was a colony of French, had fallen into the offensive communist movement led by Ho Chi Minh and his communist rebels. This event occurred immediately after World War II in 1945. The Northern Vietnam had readily embraced communism, but greater resistance was from the South. In 1949, the Chinese communist forces successful triumphed in the war thus converting China into a communist state. America, under President Truman, and its western allies became wary of the advances of communism in Asia. They feared that this movement may gradually spread into south East Asia into countries such as Vietnam and Cambodia. Already the Northern part of Vietnam had fallen victim.…

References

Davis, L.E., & Shapiro, J. (2003). The U.S. Army and the new national security strategy. Santa Monica, CA: RAND

Gettleman, M.E. (1995). Vietnam and America. The most comprehensive documented history of the Vietnam War.

Hagopian, P. (2011). The Vietnam War in American Memory: Veterans, Memorials, and the Politics of Healing. New York, NY: Univ of Massachusetts Press.

Walzer, Michael. (2006). Just And Unjust Wars: A Moral Argument With Historical Illustrations. Texas, TX: Basic Books.

Government Intervention in the Steel Industry 2002
Words: 4097 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 16072750
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Government Intervention in the Steel Industry

The Bush administration announced the imposition of sweeping tariffs of up to 30% on steel imports to the United States for a period of 3 years in March 2002 purportedly to save the ailing steel industry from collapsing. Predictably, the action has invited particularly harsh criticism from the U.S. trade partners that have been directly affected by the tax, i.e., the European Union, Japan, and China. Domestically too, the proponents of a free market economy have been no less critical of the measure, although the U.S. steel industry, in general, has welcomed the move.

This research report will focus on various aspects of the U.S. government's imposition of steel tariffs. It will discuss the benefits and costs of tariffs in general, and include a history of government's support of the U.S. steel industry, details of the steel tariff 2002, why it was imposed, and…

References

Anderson, William L. "A History of Privileges." (January, 1999). The Free Market. Retrieved on July 8, 2002 at  http://www.mises.org/freemarket_detail.asp?control=43&sortorder=articledate 

Anger over steel." (March 6, 2002). From Economist.com Global Agenda. Retrieved on July 9, 2002 at  http://www.economist.com/agenda/displayStory.cfm?Story_ID=1022220 

Arnold, James. (March 6, 2002). "Steel Sector Stares into Abyss." BBC News Online Business Report. Retrieved on July 8, 2002 at  http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/business/newsid_1857000/1857914.stm 

Bartlett, Bruce. "Suffering Steel Tariff Side Effects." (April 22, 2002). The Washington Times. Retrieved on July 9, 2002 at  http://www.washtimes.com/commentary/20.htm

Mental Health for Military Personnel
Words: 714 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 15504681
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National Council for Behavioral Health (n.d.) points out, at least thirty percent of active duty military personnel suffer from a serious mental health disorder that requires treatment, but less than half of these individuals receive treatment. However, there are a variety of state and national mental health services specifically for individuals and families affiliated with the military. The state of Washington maintains a list of mental health resources including family resources for military and veteran families (Washington Mental Health Care esources, n.d.). The state of California's Department of Health Care Services (n.d.) offers a similar set of resources including suicide prevention hotlines for homeless veterans. The California Department of Veterans Affairs (n.d.) draws attention to the range of state and federal resources available, including those that are funded under the Mental Health Services Act (MHSA), Proposition 63. The primary resource for service members and their families is the Department of…

Peace Agreements and International Intervention
Words: 3606 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 65074896
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Peace Agreements and International Intervention

A peace treaty is an agreement between two hostile parties, usually countries or governments, which formally ends a war or armed conflict. Treaties are often ratified in territories deemed neutral in the previous conflict and delegates from these neutral territories act as witnesses to the signatories. In the case of large conflicts between numerous parties there may be one global treaty covering all issues or separate treaties signed between each party. In more modern times, certain intractable conflict situations, especially those involving terrorism, may first be brought to cease-fire and are then dealt with via a peace process where a number of discrete steps are taken on each side to eventually reach the mutually desired goal of peace and the signing of a treaty. Some ceasefires, such as the one following the American Revolution, may last a number of years and follow a tortuous process.…

Bibliography

Berdal, Mats and David M. Malone, eds. Greed and Grievance: Economic Agendas in Civil Wars. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner, 2000.

Chomsky, Noam. "Peace Process' Prospects." July 27, 2000. June 27, 2005. .

Collier, Paul and Anke Hoeffler. "Greed and Grievance, Policy Research Paper 2355." World Bank Development Group. May 2000.

Fitzpatrick, Sheila. The Russian Revolution. New York: Oxford University Press, 1994.

Northern Territory Nt Intervention in This Essay
Words: 2426 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2340144
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Northern Territory (NT) Intervention

In this essay, the author will examine how the Australian Federal Government can pass legislation (as was done with the Northern Territory (NT) intervention) which is not subject to the operation of acial Discrimination Act (Clth) and, in turn, any State/Territories acial Discrimination Acts. The author will raise the question of whether or not the Federal Government has such power. If this is so, the author will then examine under what circumstances such power should be exercised. Further, in the essay the author will raise the question of whether the federal government exercised this power correctly with regards to the NT intervention. Finally, the essay will examine if the Federal Government should not have such power, then how human rights can be protected in Australia.

It is the author's opinion that the Australian government far overstepped its mandate. While technically legal, the intervention was only barely…

Reference List

Ashby-Cliffe, J. (2008) 'Reaching the End,' Army (1202), 4.

ABC News. (2007). Pearson Fears for Indigenous Parents' Freedom. Available:  http://www.abc.net.au/news/2007-06-22/pearson-fears-for-indigenous-parents-freedom/78106 . Last accessed 6 September 2011.

Australian Human Rights Commission. (2007). Submission of the Human Rights

and Equal Opportunity Commission (HREOC) to the Senate Legal and Constitutional Committee on the Northern Territory National Emergency

Somalia Intervention and the Public
Words: 696 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Article Review Paper #: 34755946
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They also felt like they could assist in the war efforts. This is what the American public had issues with because in our effort to create a more peaceful Somalia, we were losing some of our troops in the process.

Providing relief to eliminate starvation should not mean the loss of life for anyone. On the one hand, we want to help those who are severely in danger. On the other hand, does this mean that those we send to aid and assist can expect to lose their lives by doing what is considered humanitarian? The right thing for most of us is to do what is humanitarian by providing food for those that are starving. When met with opposition, it is natural for this country to feel the need to help those in need. It must be understood that in any war, lives will be lost. While we do…

Outline of Policemen of the World Thesis
Words: 1830 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19021626
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military, as exemplified in the two (2) real-Life international incidents that you have researched. Justify your response.

America is not merely a superpower -- the nation is also commonly known as the 'Policeman of the World', owing to its many interventions in resolving global issues. Time and again, the world has expected USA to intercede and play the role of mediator when issues crop up around the world. The world feels helpless when the nation hesitates or does not keep up to people's expectation while intervening. Two international incidents in which America opted for an unexpected course while simultaneously striving to keep from regular military action are the Libyan evolution and Syrian Civil War. Other nations' reaction in the former case and the retention of America's position in the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) serve to confirm the fact that USA is, indeed, the 'policeman' of the world.

Part 2…

References

Barna II., W. U.S. Military Intervention for Humanitarian Purposes: Exception to Policy or an Emerging Norm? Retrieved from  http://www.hofstra.edu/pdf/library/ulra_military_intervention.pdf 

Blanchard, C. N., Humud, C. E., & Nikitin, M. B. D (2015). Armed Conflict in Syria: Overview and U.S. Response. Retrieved from  https://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/mideast/RL33487.pdf 

Gulf War. Retrieved from  http://www.saylor.org/site/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/Gulf-War.pdf 

Lindstrom, M. & Zetterlund, K. (2012).Setting the Stage for the Military Intervention in Libya: Decisions Made and Their Implications for the EU and NATO. Retrieved from www.foi.se/.../foir3498.pdf

Policemen of the World Thesis
Words: 1940 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90609492
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military, as exemplified in the two (2) real-Life international incidents that you have researched. Justify your response.

America is more than just the leading superpower in the world; it is also widely regarded as the 'world's policeman' on account of its numerous interventions in solving global problems. Every now and again, it has been expected to mediate and negotiate when problems arise in any corner of the globe. When the U.S. is hesitant or doesn't act in accordance with general expectations, a cloud of helplessness engulfs the world. Two global scenarios wherein the U.S. resorted to a surprising course of action, while concurrently attempting to steer clear of usual military tactics are the ongoing civil war in Syria and the 2011 Libyan Civil War. Other countries' reaction in case of the latter event and the continuance of USA's position in the NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) merely validate that it…

References

Barna II., W. U.S. Military Intervention for Humanitarian Purposes: Exception to Policy or an Emerging Norm? Retrieved from  http://www.hofstra.edu/pdf/library/ulra_military_intervention.pdf 

Blanchard, C. N., Humud, C. E., & Nikitin, M. B. D (2015). Armed Conflict in Syria: Overview and U.S. Response. Retrieved from  https://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/mideast/RL33487.pdf 

Gulf War. Retrieved from  http://www.saylor.org/site/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/Gulf-War.pdf 

Lindstrom, M. & Zetterlund, K. (2012).Setting the Stage for the Military Intervention in Libya: Decisions Made and Their Implications for the EU and NATO. Retrieved from www.foi.se/.../foir3498.pdf

China and Taiwan the Military
Words: 1618 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 37629997
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S. And Russia initiated and encourage in the pursuit of their respective objectives, has gone out of control and is expanding to include not only conventional weapons but also space-based systems and nuclear missiles. It is this frightening arms race focused on the Taiwan Strait, which analysts predict as creating regional ripples or waves in Asia (lack). China's military expansion would also affect Russia, Australia and New Zealand, according to Taiwan Chen Shui-bian, who urged the international community to restrain eijing (Reuters 2005). He said that China could not use the 23 million Taiwanese's efforts at deepening democracy and securing a peaceful cross-strait as an excuse to expand its global military power. Last year, President Chen stopped Taiwan's 34,000-strong war games in order to ease tension in the Taiwan Strait, which security analysts consider one of the most dangerous places in Asia (Reuters).

ibliography

Alexander, eth R.U.S. In Line of…

Bibliography

Alexander, Beth R.U.S. In Line of Fire in China-Taiwan War. United Press International: News World Communications, Inc., July 19, 2005.  http://www.washtimes.com/upi-breaking/20-1926r.htm 

Associated Press, The. Chinese General: We'll Nuke U.S. In Fight for Taiwan, July 24, 2005.  http://www.newsmax.com/archives/ic/2005/7/15/94638.shtml  blank, Stephen. China-Taiwan Arms Race Quickens. Asia Times Online, 2004. http://www.atimes.com/atimes/China/FB24Act01.html

Minnick, Wendell. The Year for Taiwan: 2006. Asia Times Online Co. Ltd. http://www.atimes.com/atimes/China/FD10Ad02.html

Reuters. China Eases Travel Rules to Taiwan. Cable News Network, 2005. http://edition.cnn.com/2005/WORLD/asiapcf/07/24/China.taiwan.reut

Policemen of the World
Words: 1462 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 24376631
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Policemen of the World:

By the beginning of the 20th Century, the United States has become the principal force in international relations. As a result of the growth of the country, some people argue that the American military operates as the world's police. In addition, the United States' elevated status has resulted in the occurrence of shifts and consequences that have not only changed the country but also had a significant impact on the rest of the world. The consideration of the United States military as the world's police is evident in its continual use to resolve several crises in different places across the globe. In the past few decades, the United States Army has been used in international incidents that are geared towards the fight against global terrorism. Moreover, successive American governments have used the military in international incidents to promote the security of its citizens across the borders.…

References:

Armstrong, B. (2010, June 18). Differences in American Foreign Policy After World War I and World War II. Retrieved November 22, 2013, from  http://voices.yahoo.com/differences-american-foreign-policy-after-world-6233710.html?cat=37 

Lantier, A. (2013, April 19). U.S. Deploys Troops to Jordan, Prepares to Invade Syria. Retrieved November 22, 2013, from  http://www.wsws.org/en/articles/2013/04/19/syri-a19.html 

"U.S. Military Involvement in Nigeria." (2009, September). African Security Research Project.

Retrieved November 22, 2013, from  http://concernedafricascholars.org/african-security-research-project/?p=83

Roe in Afghanistan
Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 68728157
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WARFARE RULES OF ENGAGEENT (EDIT CUSTOER'S DRAFT)

One of the most contentious issues in contemporary warfare is the concept of rules of engagement (ROE). Just as the Vietnam War highlighted the concept in the 1960s, America's current involvement in Afghanistan provides the contextual background in the early 21st Century. In principle, ROI ensure that combat troops comply with the international conventions of warfare, even if our enemies are not. The Commander-in-Chief strongly supports ROI concept at both the philosophical and practical level, aiming to balance military objectives and politics. Nevertheless, problems have emerged, with the application of the primacy of rules of engagement in the field.

ost significantly, military leaders sometimes focus so much on ROE that soldiers in the field are handicapped operationally. Pausing to consider rules of engagement is less practical in the field than it is in theory. Sometimes, the cloud of ROE results in soldiers' become…

Michael Jenkins is a decorated combat veteran who has received the Department of the Army's highest award for his service. According to Jenkins (2013) "the Rules of Engagement in Afghanistan created an unwanted psychology in our soldiers (and) the fear of retribution and the fear of being court-martialed pre-destined the forces to lose against the nation's enemies." Jenkins understands what the ROE dilemma and how ROE-manipulation generates more of a hindrance than a help to the soldier in the field: "the ROE have become an enemy, soldiers are afraid to take risks" (Jenkins, 2013).

It can be argued that soldiers, under the duress of combat, need the ability to react in sometimes unstructured manners; they need authority and autonomy to take certain risks without fear of reprisal or retribution from superiors. At a minimum, they should have the right to protect themselves from direct threats to their lives instead of being burdened with guidelines that "can be entangled with political agendas and philosophies" (Vallely, 2013, para 3).

According to Zinke (2014), the ROE in Afghanistan seem to be making "Afghan dwellings virtual safe

Kosovo War
Words: 2552 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 27675563
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strategy executed by the United States (U.S.) and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) met the criterions for a just war as defined below. Both the U.S. And NATO did not fight this war in order to overthrow the Yugoslavian government nor to give the Kosovo Albanians a country of their own. ather, the war was fought to stop the needless ethnic violence against the Albanians living in Kosovo and allow the return of all refugees, and that is just what both the U.S. And NATO did during this military operation. The U.S. And NATO had no intention of any major military operation, they only wished to use the minium force required in order to achieve their stated goals. This paper examines the strategy formulation, coordination, and execution, that lead to NATO's war to save Kosovo. How the U.S. And NATO reached their goal could not be described as perfectly…

References

Yugoslavia: Travel Guide, n.d. [cited 12 December 2004] Available from World Wide Web:  http://sg.travel.yahoo.com/guide/europe/yugoslavia  / history.html

Elshtain J.B. "The third annual grotius lecture: Just war and humanitarian intervention." American Society of International Law: Proceedings of the Annual Meeting.( 2001) 1-12

Please replace this with the proper citationr, e.g. (W.U. 1987 4)

Need reference for W.U.

Global Socioeconomic Perspectives the Issue
Words: 1209 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55091806
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One also has to question the 'rationality 'of these criteria in the light of the severity of the possible repercussions and diplomatic fallout.

The most acceptable criterion which could justify the use of force in intervention is when the freedom of the state of the safety of its citizens comes under real and tangible threat. However, what is much more questionable are other criteria which are vague and possibly ethically suspect. For example, the view of theorists like Clausewitz that forceful intervention is a tool used by the states to achieve certain political objectives:"….war was merely one means states might employ to achieve objectives set by political authorities" ( Viotti and Kauppi, 2009, chapter 7).

The above perspective, in my point-of-view, is unacceptable as a true criterion for the intervention by force. The reason for the rejection of this criterion is not only on ethical grounds but also refers to…

References

Brown, B.S. (2000). Humanitarian Intervention at a Crossroads. William and Mary Law Review, 41(5), 1683. Retrieved June 23, 2010, from Questia database:  http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001761450 

Hillen H. (1996) American Military Intervention: A User's Guide. Retrieved from  http://www.heritage.org/Research/Reports/1996/05/BG1079nbsp-American-Military-Intervention-a-Users-Guide 

Johnson J. Which Criteria Should the President Use to Decide on Armed Intervention?

Retrieved from  http://gotmine9.blogspot.com/2008/05/which-criteria-should-president-use-to.html

Changing Paradigm in International Policing
Words: 8998 Length: 33 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87743756
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The lack of action over Rwanda should be the defining scandal of the presidency ill Clinton. Yet in the slew of articles on the Clinton years that followed Clinton's departure from power, there was barely a mention of the genocide."

The UN, pressured by the ritish and the U.S., and others, refused to use the word "genocide" during the event, or afterward when it issued its official statement of condemnation of the genocide in Rwanda.

Since that time, ill Clinton has said that Rwanda is one of his regrets of his presidency, but that he lacked the information to "fully grasp what was going on in Rwanda."

Reports to the UN and its member states, as reported by William Ferroggiaro (1995), online at http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAE/NSAE119/index.htm, were based on reports via the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA), said that there was a "probability" of certain individuals and groups being responsible for certain…

Bibliography

Anderson, D.L. The Columbia Guide to the Vietnam War. Columbia University Press, New York, 2002. p. 232.

Brahimi. L, Report of the Panel on United Nations Peace Operations (2000), found at  http://www.un.org /' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>

Philippine War 1899-1903 Brian Mcallister
Words: 578 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Book Review Paper #: 56181787
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In the Philippine War, Linn argues for a middle ground perspective on the American involvement that many readers will find refreshing. Although Linn does admit that the United States Army was guilty of torture and brutality, the author pushes those realities inside to focus instead on the broader strategies used. Success in the Philippines depended on the complex interplay of realities, argues Linn. On the one hand, Emilio Aguinaldo's tactics failed miserably because there was no indigenous nationalistic movement. Without a unified front, Aguinaldo failed whereas the Americans seized the opportunity to rescue a fractured archipelago and somehow emerge as heroes rather than Imperialist invaders. Even when America did play the role of the Imperialist invader, the nation did so with aplomb that would establish the United States as a dominant world power. Linn does not linger too long on the implications of the Philippine War but does suggest that…

Reference

Linn, Brian McAllister. The Philippine War: 1899-1902. University Press of Kansas, 2000.

Terrorism Situation Analysis - Preemptive
Words: 2173 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 49912757
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In the event the intelligence detailed by the Israeli administration proves to be accurate with respect to nuclear weapons development, this office is reminded of the words of the late President John, F. Kennedy, spoken almost exactly 45 years ago to the day, on October 22, 1962, addressing the Soviet threat in Cuba:

We no longer live in a world where only the actual firing of weapons represents a sufficient challenge to a nation's security to constitute maximum peril. Nuclear weapons are so destructive and ballistic missiles are so swift that any substantially increased possibility of their use or any sudden change in their deployment may well be regarded as a definite threat to peace." (Sorensen, 1965)

Extraordinary risks to national security demand (and justify) extraordinary actions to prevent them from materializing. A military response will be required to participate with Israel in destroying Iranian nuclear facilities either in possession…

References

Allison, G. (2004) Nuclear Terrorism: The Ultimate Preventable Catastrophe.

Henry Holt: New York

Dershowitz, a. (2002) Why Terrorism Works: Understanding the Threat,

Responding to the Challenge. Yale University Press: New Haven

Under Fire
Words: 879 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 60468177
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Rules of Engagement (ROE) are necessary to a certain degree during wars and skirmishes in order to determine what actions military personnel can take when confronted with immediate and personal dangerous or violent situations. Determining a correct ROE, however, is the key to successfully addressing the overall mission and purpose for military interventions in the first place. As one recent author states "these rules are in place for reasons that both protect the military and respect the international conventions of war" (Vallely, 2013). hat is interesting about this subject is the fact that in the same report, Vallely goes on to state "ROE can be conveniently manipulated by the political objectives and military mission limitations essential to the construction and application of ROE" (Vallely, 2013). That is what seems to be happening in the current war situation in Afghanistan if what experts are saying is to be believed.

Michael Jenkins…

Works Cited

Bobbitt, P.; (2010) The new rules of engagement, Newsweek, Vol. 155, Issue 2, pp. 42-43

Interventionism From the Perspective of Realism vs
Words: 13409 Length: 44 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 80916514
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interventionism from the perspective of realism vs. idealism. Realism is defined in relationship to states national interests whereas idealism is defined in relation to the UNs Responsibility to Protect doctrine -- a doctrine heavily influenced by Western rhetoric over the past decade. By addressing the question of interventionism from this standpoint, by way of a case study of Libya and Syria, a picture of the realistic implications of "humanitarian intervention" becomes clear. Idealistically, humanitarian interventionism is a process that stops atrocities and establishes peace and prosperity. Realistically, interventionism allows Western businesses to reap the spoils of destabilization -- as has been seen in Libya with the Libyan oil fields being claimed by Western oil companies -- and as is being seen in Syria, with the threat of invasion bound to have detrimental effects on the construction of a new pipeline that bypasses the Turkey-Israel pipeline. Syria also presents itself as…

'Violent chaos': Libya in deep crisis 2 years since rebels took over', 2013, RT, 26 Aug.

Available from . [24 Aug 2013].

Weiner, T 2008, Legacy of Ashes, Anchor Books, NY.

IR Review Fox J 2001
Words: 541 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Article Review Paper #: 82913282
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The weakness here is that, given the specificity of the situation analyzed in the article, the conclusions are not nearly as broadly applicable as the author seems to imply. Doubtless the conclusions can be related to other events to some degree, but the author himself acknowledges that a lack of experts on Somalia was instrumental in the ultimate failure of the intervention, and other countries would require other experts and different proposed solutions. Still, the author is quite successful in developing his theory through direct analysis of what key players and documents actually said regarding the issue, basing his theory firmly in facts and drawing conclusions based on effects rather than on theoretical principles.

Along the same line, the research methods that the author employs and his evidence collection are directly related to the research questions that he developed. His citing of Oakley, the U.S. Ambassador in Nairobi, as well…

Political Science United States Participation
Words: 2003 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 71236377
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orks Cited

http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5014679198

Babuna, Aydin. "National Identity, Islam and Politics in Post-Communist Bosnia-Hercegovina." East European Quarterly 39.4 (2005): 405+.

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Lischer, Sarah Kenyon. "Military Intervention and the Humanitarian "Force Multiplier." Global Governance 13.1 (2007): 99+.

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Mangum, Ronald Scott. "NATO's Attack on Serbia: Anomaly or Emerging Doctrine?." Parameters 30.4 (2000): 40.

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Mertus, Julie a. "Legitimizing the Use of Force in Kosovo." Ethics & International Affairs 15.1 (2001): 133+.

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Petras, James. "The Meaning of ar: A Heterodox Perspective." Journal of Contemporary Asia 35.4 (2005): 423+.

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Piiparinen, Touko. "The Lessons of Darfur for the Future of Humanitarian Intervention." Global Governance 13.3 (2007): 365+.

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Shank, Gregory. "Commentary: Not a Just ar, Just a ar - NATO's Humanitarian Bombing Mission." Social Justice 26.1 (1999): 4+.

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Sloan, Elinor C. Bosnia and the New Collective Security. estport, CT: Praeger, 1998.

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Talbot, Karen.…

Works Cited

 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5014679198 

Babuna, Aydin. "National Identity, Islam and Politics in Post-Communist Bosnia-Hercegovina." East European Quarterly 39.4 (2005): 405+.

A www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5021483873

Lischer, Sarah Kenyon. "Military Intervention and the Humanitarian "Force Multiplier." Global Governance 13.1 (2007): 99+.

U S Participation in a Multi-National
Words: 2357 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 99725775
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" (Miles, 2006)

According to Norway's Department of Defense document entitled: "International Military Operations, Crisis Management - Multinational Operations" when a country is a participant in an "multinational crisis management" initiative entailed is "the ability, at short notice and in concert with allies and others, to contribute a military capability in some form for the purpose of bringing under control a given situation in which poses a threat either to international security or to other vital interests, or which is likely to have other unacceptable adverse consequences. Such crisis management may involve all kinds of security challenges, may in principle arise anywhere in the world, and may be led either by an established organization or alliance such as the UN, NATO or the EU, or conducted under the auspices of an ad hoc coalition of one kind or another." (Norway Department of Defense, 2003)

The work of Timothy D. Sisk…

Works Cited

Miles, Donna (2006) Multinational Experiment Lessons Already Benefiting Coalition Ops. American Forces Press Service News Articles, U.S. Department of Defense. 2006. Online available at  http://www.defenselink.mil/news/newsarticle.aspx?id=15246 

Sharp, Walter L. (2007) Multinational Operations. U.S. Department of the Navy and U.S. Department of the Marines and U.S. Department of the Army. Online available at http://www.js.pentagon.mil/doctrine/jel/new_pubs/jp3_16.pdf

Norwegian Defense Facts and Figures 2003. Forsvarsdepartmentet. Regjeringen Stoltenberg II. 2003. Online available at  http://www.regjeringen.no/nb/dep/fd/dok/veiledninger_brosjyrer/2003/Norwegian-Defence-Facts-and-Figures-2003/4.html?id=275469 

Sisk, Timothy D. (2003) Democracy and Conflict Management. August 2003. Beyond Intractability: A Free Knowledge Base on More Constructive Approaches to Destructive Conflict. Online available at  http://www.beyondintractability.org/essay/democ_con_manag/?nid=1353

Government - The Diversionary Effects
Words: 6491 Length: 21 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 80363526
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In this respect, it was not the reality which mattered but rather the perception of that reality. Most of the times during the Cold War, but especially after the fall of the Iron Curtain, the reality showed that the perception of the Russian Soviets as the strongest forces in the world was often not true. Still it motivated the U.S. To consider all sorts of side games to defeat the communist threat, which in fact was not as big as considered throughout the decades.

Diversionary war has its own motivation in terms of psychological impact on the population. People tend to view the international threat as being the ultimate point of reference for danger. The state in itself is the most trusted instrument for the insurance of security, and an international threat constitutes the questioning of this establishment. More precisely, it has been argued that "as the leader of one…

Bibliography

Baker, William D.. "The Dog That Won't Wag: Presidential Uses of Force and the Diversionary Theory of War" Strategic Insights, Volume III, Issue 5 (May 2004).

Clausewitz, Carl Von. On War.. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1984

Hendrickson, Ryan. "Clinton's Military strikes in 1998: diversionary uses of force?" In Armed Forcea & Society, vol. 28, no. 2. Winter 2002, pp 309-332.

James, Patrick and John R. Oneal, "The Influence of Domestic and International Politics on the President's Use of Force," Journal of Conflict Resolution 35 (1991): 307-332.

Withdrawal of U S Troops in
Words: 656 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 55701379
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It can be assumed that this rise in public opinion for U.S. intervention can be attributed to possible challenges or difficulties that Iraqis could experience once U.S. troops are fully withdrawn and security has been completely detached from U.S. military intervention. Moreover, Americans have become more conservative this year, as can be attributed also to the financial crisis that hit the country in the last quarters of 2008.

This concern on a possible 'breach in security' is expressed by political analysts in Iraq. In an interview with Baghdad correspondent Jane Arraf, reporter Gwertzman (2009) uncovered that because of the recent truck bombings in Baghdad last August 19, there have been speculations on the capability of the new Iraqi government to truly handle their domestic affairs and conflicts, primarily because of the evident animosity between the Shiites and Baathists, which now leads the government and oppose the administration, respectively.

However, other…

References

Bruno, G. (2009). "A shaky Iraq's sovereign step." Council on Foreign Relations Official Website. Available at:  http://www.cfr.org/publication/19728/shaky_iraqs_sovereign_step.html?breadcrumb=%2Fregion%2F405%2Firaq .

Gwertzman, B. (2009). "Reappraising U.S. withdrawal from Iraqi cities." Council on Foreign Relations Official Website. Available at:  http://www.cfr.org/publication/20075/reappraising_us_withdrawal_from_iraqi_cities.html?breadcrumb=%2Fregion%2F405%2Firaq .

Saad, L. (2009). "Special report: Ideologically, where is the U.S. moving?" Gallup Official Website. Available at:  http://www.gallup.com/poll/121403/special-report-ideologically-moving.aspx .

U S Capability to Support Two
Words: 1658 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 76669849
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Moreover, the lack of support from the American public brings to fore an issue raised by Grover (3) with the deployment of U.S. military personnel in various parts of the world. As many of these deployments have "the potential for violent conflict," this calls for "the need to respond quickly and decisively," which is hinged on the "unambiguous support of the American people." There is no other U.S. president who has been demonized because of his war policy as former President George W. Bush.

With this underlying weakness in America's psyche in engaging in war, no amount of hardware and war machinery can beat the will to emerge victorious of no matter how small an army. Despite all the superiority of the U.S. war machine, the nation's -- both its citizens and its leadership -- weakness is all the more exposed, which makes it impossible to decisively support and bring…

References

Anderson, Fred and Andrew Cayton. The Dominion of War: Empire and Liberty in North America, 1500-2000. New York: Penguin Books, 2005.

Grover, John R. Crossroads in U.S. Military Capability: The 21st Century U.S. Army and the Abrams Doctrine. The Land Warfare Papers Number 37. Arlington, Virginia: The Institute of Land Warfare Association of the U.S. Army, August 2001.

Palmer, Richard. "Iraq Sides with Iran: As the U.S. Leaves, Iran Steps In." The Philadelphia Trumpet. March 2009: 11.

Scarborough, Rowan. "Gates Clips Air Force Wings." Human Events. April 16, 2009. April 19, 2009 .

Kennedy and Flexible Response'so
Words: 2273 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 11752300
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The administration of J.F.K. determined that the mission and size of the U.S. advisory project must increase if the U.S.-backed government in Saigon was to survive and win the war. While some of Kennedy's cabinet advisors proposed a negotiated settlement for Vietnam similar to one that recognized Laos as a neutral nation, this was not to be. The administration had just suffered diplomatic setbacks and embarrassments in Berlin and Cuba. So that it did not repeat this, the covert military option was used, but unsuccessfully. The war continued to escalate, requiring more U.S. advisors and military and foreign aid. Unfortunately for the U.S., the covert operations to assist the South against North Vietnam escalated in the harassment and landing of covert forces until the U.S. Navy became embroiled in the Gulf of Tonkin incident that sealed the U.S. path to open military involvement in the conflict (ibid.).

Diplomatic options in…

References

Anderson, D.L. (1999). The military and diplomatic course of the vietnam war. Retrieved from  http://www.english.illinois.edu/maps/vietnam/anderson.htm .

Kennedy considered supporting coup in south vietnam, august 1963. (2009, December 11). Retrieved

from  http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB302/index.htm .

Lemnitzer, L. (1962). Operation northwoods. Retrieved from www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/news/20010430/doc1.pdf.

Logical Flaw With Robert J
Words: 621 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 79502149
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Though according to many on the ground there was no viable alternative to direct military confrontation, the results were less than favorable to further diplomatic solutions (WGBH, 2008). Within a short time after this conflict, the United States withdrew from Somalia; its diplomatic position there had become completely untenable due to the increased violence that was seen as a direct result of their presence.

On the other hand, the use of force was the only thing General Aidid and his militia had ever shown any signs of responding to. Though it ended in complete failure, the force that was employed in this situation was thought adequate to ensure effective conflict management through force. There are instances where this option is the only viable one, and this could very well have been one of those instances had force been applied perhaps more liberally.

Hindsight does not draw the use of military…

References

Art, R. (2004). "The Strategy of Selective Engagement." from the use of force. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.

Rajghatta, C. (2008). "Covert bid to push U.S. troops into Pak [sic]." The times of India. Accessed 8 March 2009.  http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/India/Covert_bid_to_push_US_troops_into_Pak/articleshow/2729511.cms 

WGBH. (2008). "Ambush in Mogadishu." Frontline. Accessed 8 March 2009.  http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/ambush

Theoretical Applications on Why Bill
Words: 1905 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 3464459
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Therefore Clinton can be said to have generally followed a realist foreign policy program in Kosovo, yet due to changes in the international system which made it problematic to cut too many deals with dictators and war-criminals like Milosevich, a more conflictive approach to the issue was created. National interest, while predominant, was no longer the only consideration.

One of the problems with a constructivist understanding of the war though, is to what extent the international system allows for freedom of choice. If constructivism were true, then there were no "real" constraints on the actions of ill Clinton during the crisis. Yet sending ground troops in for example, would have been politically infeasible, not only due to American public opinion, but because Russia might have seen that as a threat to its interests in the region and moved to act in a provocative way. The point is then, that if…

Bibliography

Bacevich, a.J., and Eliot a. Cohen. 2001. War over Kosovo. Columbia University Press.

Morgenthau, Hans J. 1978. Politics Among Nations: The Struggle for Power and Peace. 5th ed. New York: Alfred a. Knopf.

Sell, Louis. 2003. Slobodan Milosevic and the destruction of Yugoslavia. Duke University Press, September 1.

Wendt, Alexander. 1992. Anarchy is what States Make of it: The Social Construction of Power Politics. International Organization 46, no. 2 (Spring): 391-425.

War in Vietnam
Words: 924 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79614149
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Vietnam War provides the opportunity to learn from history. Analysis of the Vietnam War experience, from the American point-of-view anyway, sheds light on current diplomatic negotiations, presidential leadership, and cultural/social contexts of war. Unfortunately, it would seem that the opportunities to learn from Vietnam had been squandered by the time the War on Terror began in earnest after September 11, 2001. The Vietnam conflict, for example, began as a diplomatic farce. As Young (2014) puts it, "Lyndon Johnson and obert McNamara created the illusion that attacks on North Vietnam were alternatives to war rather than war itself," (p. 1). Bombs were used as a darkly ironic form of diplomacy. Therefore, one of the most important lessons learned from Vietnam is that the United States must be more honest and straightforward in its use of force. Use of force cannot be disguised as a form of diplomatic negotiations. "There is a…

References

Donovan, D. (2012). Viewpoint: Counter-insurgency lessons from Vietnam. BBC. Retrieved online:  http://www.bbc.com/news/magazine-19634728 

Young, R. (2014). Retrieved online:  http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/military/etc./lessons.html

The Important Roles Played by
Words: 8566 Length: 30 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 28129557
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omen were also a significant part of the civilian staff, committing their
abilities as typists, phone switchboard operators and facility
administrators.
Likewise, on the home front, women would commit their services in
place of their husbands, fighting abroad. In fact, the term home front
should be well understood as one coined with the psychological intention of
conveying that those who were enlisted in one manner or another for
civilian duty were themselves a crucial force in the war effort. The
terminology of 'home front' implies that such domestic locales as the
continental United States were to be seen as war theatre's demanding of
unified and concerted participation in shared goals of conservation, labor
and administrative support.
For women in all walks of American life, the end of the Depression
would coincide with the start of orld ar II, making the association
between job creation and the war effort fully inextricable.…

Works Cited
Associated Press (AP), Nazi Sex Slaves, Spiegel Online, 2007.
Online at  http://www.spiegel.de/international/0,1518,459704,00.html 

Ardrossan Herald, Join the Women's Land Army, WWII in North Ayrshire, Mar.
20, 1942.

Irvine Herald, Work For Women, WWII in North Ayrshire, Jan. 19, 1940.

Colin Powell General Colin L
Words: 2231 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 71228625
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Powell was unanimously approved by the Senate and became the first African-American to hold that position. His service as Secretary of State is a clear example of his reticence, yet readiness, for war. hile Powell is known for "the so-called Powell doctrine -- that U.S. military power only be used in overwhelming strength to achieve well-defined strategic national interests," (answers.com 3) he made a famous speech to the United Nations in which he voiced support for the war in Iraq. Although he clashed with the often "hawkish" members of the Bush hite House such as Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld, "one of Powell's best known moments as secretary of state was his speech last year [2003] to the U.N. Security Council in which he made a case for invading Iraq" (King 3). The initial invasion of Iraq was billed as necessary by the Bush hite House because of the threat…

Works Cited

Academy of Achievement. "Colin Powell Biography." January 11, 2006.  http://www.achievement.org/autodoc/page/pow0bio-1 

America's Promise. "General Powell's Message to America." 2006.  http://www.americaspromise.org/WhyHere.aspx?id=124 

Answers.com. "Colin Powell." 2006.  http://www.answers.com/topic/colin-powell 

King, John; Koppel, Andrea; Malveaux, Suzanne; Labotte, Elise. "Powell resigns with three other Cabinet secretaries."  http://www.cnn.com/2004/ALLPOLITICS/11/15/powell/