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Military Strategy in Korean and Vietnam Wars
There have been numerous wars in the history of the United States. Some of the critical wars in the history of the United States include the Korean and Vietnam Wars. Prior to venturing into the Vietnam War, United States had participated in the Korean War. The case of Korean War proves to be a success because of the implementation of accurate and extensive strategies. Ten years after the success in the Korean War, the United States faced a similar situation, but could not recognize the same success as in the case of the previous war. One of the essential factors in the failure in relation to the Vietnam War was lack of appropriate military strategies. This research paper focuses on the illustration of reasons behind the success and failure with reference to Korean and Vietnam Wars respectively.
Military Strategy in Korea War
Mehta, Harish C. 2012. "Fighting, Negotiating, and Laughing: The Use of Humour in the Vietnam War." Historian 74, no. 4: 743-788.
Schell, Jonathan. 2013. "The Real Vietnam War." Nation 296, no. 5: 20-24.
Hee Kyung, Suh. 2012. "War and Justice: Just Cause of the Korean War." Korea Journal 52,
no. 2: 5-29.
The famous military strategy of "divide and conquer" doesn't just work on the battlefield. Sebenius describes the manner in which then-Treasury Secretary James Baker convened and conducted the so-called Plaza Accords in 1985 to form an international coalition that worked to solve currency problems depressing the U.S. economy: first one ally was approached and an agreement secured, then this allegiance was used to gain support with another, and this coalition of three was used to create a coalition of five, and so on. This sequencing, as Sebenius terms it, is essential in multi-party negotiations, even in situations where the choices are relatively simple or even a binary "yes/no" question. Securing the desired answer from each party in a specific order can greatly increase the likelihood of overall success and consensus, as it did in the Plaza Accords and in the Harborco negotiations that were conducted as a role-playing exercise.…
Military Decision Making Process Exam (MDMP)
Movement Estimate of the Operations
Commander's Critical Information equirements (CCIs)
COA Analysis, Comparison & ecommendation
Movement Estimate of the Operations
The POW Camp
The planning for the liberation of American and Allied prisoners held in a compound at Pangatian is to be done at central Luzon. The camp was five miles east of Cabanatuan.
The primary hindrance to the plan would be the rapid and frequent movement of the Japanese troops on the highway in front of the camp where the PoWs were held. The compound, in addition to being behind enemy lines was also the mainstay of Japanese troop movements. The Japanese retreating troops moved at night and rested during the day and the POW camp is one such resting place. The roads in the Pangatian area are regularly used by Japanese tanks. Dense troop concentrations are also reported in the…
Barbier, M. And O'Donnell, P. (2002). Beyond Valor: World War II's Rangers and Airborne Veterans Reveal the Heart of Combat. The Journal of Military History, 66(3), p.897.
Kem, J. (2009). Campaign planning. Fort Leavenworth, Kan.: U.S. Army Command and General Staff College, Dept. Of Joint, Interagency, and Multinational Operations.
King, M. (1985). Leavenworth Papers Number 11. Rangers. Selected Combat Operations in World War II. Ft. Belvoir: Defense Technical Information Center.
Kirkpatrick, C. (1990). An unknown future and a doubtful present. Washington, D.C.: Center of Military History, United States Army.
American Way of War
Many people point to an American way of war. The author of this report will explore whether there is any content or credence to that statement. There are some common themes and trends when it comes to American wars and how they are fought. There has also been a lot of variance, even from war to war and in the same arenas. The class for which this essay is being completed focuses on the United States and its military history from 1945 to the present. Even with that tight of a window, the evolution and shifts that have happened in terms of how American has and has not fought wars has been massive. While some themes and trends regarding Americans and war have not changed all that much, many of the tactics, what is deemed acceptable, what is not deemed acceptable and so forth have changed…
2011. "MANUEL NORIEGA 1989-1990: Chasing Pure Evil." MHQ: Quarterly Journal Of Military History 24, no. 1: 28. MasterFILE Premier, EBSCOhost (accessed March 9, 2016).
Bariagaber, Assefaw. 1996. "The United Nations and Somalia." Journal Of Asian & African Studies (Brill) 31, no. 3/4: 162. Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost (accessed March 9, 2016).
Belloni, Roberto, and Francesco Strazzari. 2014. "Corruption in post-conflict Bosnia-Herzegovina and Kosovo: a deal among friends." Third World Quarterly 35, no. 5: 855-871. Business Source Premier, EBSCOhost (accessed March 9, 2016).
Bin Abdel Aziz, Fahd. 1990. "Iraq invasion of Kuwait." Vital Speeches Of The Day 56, no. 22: 675. History Reference Center, EBSCOhost (accessed March 9, 2016).
military strategies employed by Alexander the Great and how he was able to skillfully use his political and military skills in conquering most of Europe and Asia in his time.
Alexandros III Philippou Makedonon reigned as the king of Macedonia from 356-323 B.C. He was born to King Philip and his third wife, Olympias in July 356 BC in Pella, Macedonia. He is remembered as one of the greatest military genius in history. During his lifetime, he conquered much of world, since his main ambition was to conquer the world and create world monarchy.
Alexander, was the strong, handsome commander leading his army using the best military strategies of his time. His army was armed with sarisses, the fearful five and half meter long spears. He was the first great conqueror to invade Greece, Egypt, and India. He was popular for creating ethnic syncretism between the Macedonians and the conquered…
Arrian. Campaigns of Alexander, The (~90-172 A.D.)
J.F.C. Fuller. Generalship of Alexander the Great (1958)
J. Keegan. Mask of Command, The (1987)
Lisa Jardine, Worldly Gods: A New History of the Renaissance (London: Macmillan, 1996) pp. 67-68
Fearfulness of non-state actors remains salient, but what is particularly interesting is the way ussia and China are singled out as nations with whom the United States is not currently engaged in war with but which nevertheless present peculiar threats. The Department of Defense's National Defense Strategy notes that China's blossoming wealth has also enabled the proliferation of its military, which threatens peace in the Straits of Taiwan and potentially beyond. ussia presents its own realm of problems, especially in light of the failure of democracy to take root there.
The supremacy of the United States as a global military power is an underlying message in these strategy papers, which are written as much to motivate and inspire as to guide policy. isk management is addressed within a characteristically confident framework, reflecting the overall ambition of America's military strategies. Commitments to far-reaching objectives in Iraq and Afghanistan are toughed upon,…
Department of Defense (2010). Quadrennial defense review report.
Department of Defense (2008). National defense strategy.
"The National Military Strategy of the United States of America." (2011).
"National Security Strategy." (2010).
The colonists' most revered military institution was the militia, a model inherited from their forebears in England. The philosophical underpinnings of the militia model are easy to understand: "fear of a standing army," (Millet and Maslowski 1). A standing army can turn against its people, staging what now would be called military coups one after the other. During and especially after Independence, the validity, effectiveness, efficiency, and relevance of the militia model was called into question. This is why the United States Constitution eventually included the provisions for federalized systems of national security. Naturally, the existence of a standing army to "provide for the common defense" would be required. Independence required an organized military strategy against a powerful Empire; to protect the new nation, it was certain that the military would be necessary to preserve all that hard work. The Constitution therefore enabled the creation and maintenance of standing…
Boot, Max. "The New American Way of War." Foreign Affairs. 2003.
Jay, John. "The Federalist 2." Independent Journal. Oct 31, 1787.
Madison, James. "Federalist 41." Independent Journal. Jan 19, 1788.
Millet, Allen R. And Maslowski, Peter. For the Common Defense. Free Press, 1994.
He goes on to insist that "professional military education alone is not sufficient" to develop a real NCO leader. The ability to make decisions in a split second, the ability to make the best use of technologies, and the ability to train others, to be able to evaluate the men around you -- these are the components of leadership that Maxwell emphasizes. I like the fact that Maxwell emphasizes versatility, creativity and good coordination skills for the NCO, because today's Army is isn't just about giving orders and expecting everything and every soldier to follow without question. It's about leadership, and yes a civilian education is important, and military training is pivotal to success; but, Maxwell concludes, the NCO must also be able to "apply new, innovative techniques to lead and influence soldiers." That includes encouraging those in the NCO's unit to use the Internet, to engage in distance education,…
Crozier, David. (2009). Leadership / Ethics / The Larger Moral Issues. Fort Bliss, Texas
Reading M. 1 Leadership
Leadership Assessment and Development. Reading A: FM 6-22.
Maxwell, Frederick J. (2009). Preparing the NCO Corps for the 21st century. American Civil-Military Relations Reading C161RE.
Military-Led econstruction and Fiedler's Contingency Theory
In light of the unfolding instability, violence and difficulty that characterized the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan, the United States military must reexamine its approach to the strategic invasion, occupation, reconstruction and power-handover that have evolved into a war-making template for the nation. Accordingly, the research conducted hereafter considers the need for a change in leadership orientation, using Fiedler's Contingency Theory as the lens for the literature review thereafter. The Findings drawn from the review of literature are presented in this account and, generally, provided confirmation of the pertinence of Fiedler's contingency theory to modern military strategy as well as the pertinence of Fiedler's Least-Preferred Coworker checklist to defining ideal military leadership. The reported findings connecting Fiedler's ideas with strategic and empirical documentation on applied military policy contribute to a number of policy recommendations. In particular, these policy recommendations revolve around two…
Conner, Maj. W.D. (2005). Understanding First in the Contemporary Operational
Environment. School of Advanced Military Studies; For Leavenworth Kansas.
Ellyson, L.M.; Gibson, J.H.; Nichols, M. & Doerr, A. (2012). A Study of Fiedler's
Contingency Theory Among Military Leaders. Allied Academies International
Military Management and the Agency Problem
Agency theory can be helpful for understanding any organizational conflict or behavior, and applies equally as well to the private and public sector. Applied to the military organization, agency theory "offers insight into how military strategies relate to political objectives," an important consideration (Petrina, 2005, p. v). When it is applied to the corporate world, agency theory also offers insight into how executive decisions are made and how executives can become corrupt when they possess significant power and separation from agents or shareholders. There are differences in corporate versus military governance and organizational culture, but those differences to do not cloud over the essential applicability of agency theory to both the private and public sector.
A traditional view of agency theory as it applies to military organizations is that "civilians set oversight measures to monitor the behavior of the military and the military responds…
military topic; exclude civil war. (I chose Special Forces) • All Research Papers 8 1/2 x
white paper, margins 1" x 1." • The Research Papers a minimum 4 pages typed information exceed 6 pages
There is much controversy concerning the U.S. Special Operations Forces (SOF) and the missions that they perform on a daily basis because the mass-media tends to distort people's understanding about the military organization. Some might be inclined to consider that the Special Forces take most of the good men in the army and put them in a community that typically performs actions that most military groups would be capable of doing. Moreover, many believe that these people basically take advantage of the government's determination to keep the Special Forces in operation. However, most people fail to understand the training that these people go through on a daily basis, the fact that they have the ability…
Hamilton, John, "Special Forces," (ABDO, 10.01.2007)
North, Robert, "American Heroes: In Special Operations," (B&H Publishing Group, 01.11.2010)
Olson, Eric T., "U.S. Special Operations: Context and Capabilities in Irregular Warfare," Retrieved November 16, 2012, from the National Defense University Website: http://www.ndu.edu/press/lib/images/jfq-56/8.pdf
Pushies, Fred J., "United States Army Special Forces," (Zenith Imprint, 01.10.2001)
(Mahnken and Maiolo, 2008, p. 339); (Friedman, 2003); (Military Doctrine, Guerrilla Warfare and Counterinsurgency, 2003)
"Disaggregation" could provide a new strategy for the counterinsurgency model for its war against terrorism. Disaggregation would involve prohibiting links between theaters, preventing global or regional insurgents to associate with or exploit potential local terrorists, disrupting the flow of information, propaganda and materials within and between jihad hotspots, abolishing sanctuary areas, identifying and isolating radical elements from the local populace and interrupting inputs from Islamist sources emanating from the greater Middle East. This new approach must address the problem at three levels -- local, regional and global levels. (Mahnken and Maiolo, 2008, p. 339); (Friedman, 2003); (Military Doctrine, Guerrilla Warfare and Counterinsurgency, 2003)
Lessons Learnt by the U.S. Marines and the U.S. Army
The lessons learnt by the U.S. Army and the Marine Corps in Vietnam were profound but were soon forgotten, but the recent…
Amstutz, Mark R. 2005. International ethics: concepts, theories, and cases in global politics. Rowman & Littlefield.
Boot, Max. 2009. A New Counterinsurgency in Afghanistan. [Online]. Available at:
http://www.commentarymagazine.com/viewarticle.cfm/a-new-counterinsurgency-in-afghanistan-15116 [accessed 28 April 2008]
Cassidy, Robert M. 2006. Counterinsurgency and the global war on terror: military culture and irregular war. Greenwood Publishing Group.
One of the great challenges the military faces is remaining current and preparing the current and future generations of soldiers for inevitable shifts to the geopolitical environment, technological changes, and shifts in both domestic and foreign policies. The importance of preparing officers for the new realities of unpredictable environments and non-state actors cannot be underestimated.[footnoteef:1] The roles and goals of the AMSP and SAMS have not changed. These educational programs provide the requisite advanced and specialized knowledge to foster critical thinking and strategic analysis among military leaders. What must be remembered, however, is the need for organizational awareness and the willingness to change. [1: Edward B. Bankston, Boards vs. Bureaucracies: Field Grade Officer Education in the United States Army, 1946-1985. School of Advanced Military Studies Monograph, 2013.]
This analysis points out the importance of analyzing post-Cold War realities and adapting AMSP and SAMS programs accordingly to include such things…
Bankston, Edward B., Boards vs. Bureaucracies: Field Grade Officer Education in the United States Army, 1946-1985. School of Advanced Military Studies Monograph, 2013.
Beck, William T., Developing Army Leaders Through CGSOC/AMSP and BCTP. School of Advanced Military Studies Monograph, 2005.
Goble, Jeffrey J., Wants and Needs: SMAS' Relationship with the Army. School of Advanced Military Studies Monograph, 2008.
McKinley, Matthew R., An Assessment of the Army Officer Education System from an Adult Learning Perspective. School of Advanced Military Studies Monograph, 2005.
military philosophies of von Clausewitz, Vegetius, and Machiavelli reveal common threads of pragmatism and political realism. Vegetius focuses less on philosophy and theory, and more on the practical details and logistics of military campaigns. Yet in so doing, Vegetius does evolve a foundational political strategy that remains relevant almost two thousand years later, even as technology and the dictums of foreign affairs have changed. Likewise, the tenets embodied by Italian political philosopher Niccolo Machiavelli are still studied in the 21st century, long after they were written. Machiavelli is not as focused on the minutia of military formations on the battlefield as his predecessor Vegetius, but he is far more focused on the ways political leaders need to comport themselves in times of war and peace. Machiavelli is likewise concerned with the ramifications of political power and how leaders can retain and wield their power to achieve self-serving ends. Just as…
Gilbert, Felix. "Machiavelli: The Renaissance of the Art of War." In Makers of Modern Strategy. Oxford University Press, 1986.
Vegetius. Epitome of Military Science. Trans. N.P. Milner. Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 1996.
Von Clausewitz, Carl. On War. Trans. Col. J.J. Graham.
Manual War Gaming Methods
The American military frequently employs manual war gaming methods as key analytical techniques. War gaming itself provides situational models that can reveal ideal decision-making processes and illuminate the pros and cons of potential courses of action. Conflict situations are generally framed in scientific or mathematical terms, offering clues for troop maneuvering, combat situations, and taking into account situational or interpersonal variables. In spite of tremendous and helpful advancements in technology and the tools of technology applied to war gaming, manual war gaming remains a core component of military preparedness. Manual war gaming methods enable the conceptualization of skills and resources possessed in light of the realities on the field. Moreover, manual war games provide a transparent, accessible means for visualization. The three primary manual war gaming methods include deliberate timeline analysis, operational phasing, and critical events/sequence of essential tasks. Each of these three manual war gaming…
Department of Military Strategy, Planning, and Operations (2008). U.S. Army War College. Retrieved online: http://www.au.af.mil/au/awc/awcgate/army-usawc/campaign_planning_primer.pdf
Joint Operation Planning (2011). August 2011. Retrieved online: http://www.dtic.mil/doctrine/new_pubs/jp5_0.pdf
[footnoteRef:24] in the Archaic Period, Ancient Greece's initial maritime power was critical but also "sporadic."[footnoteRef:25] During the Classical Period, Athens in particular "pursued a policy of naval imperialism"[footnoteRef:26] and this Period saw the development of "siege warfare" in which the Greeks -- particularly the Athenians -- developed the skills to wage war on the open sea.[footnoteRef:27] in the Hellenistic Period, the scope of warfare was enlarged considerably, as whole areas of land were now in dispute. Consequently, there was an "ancient naval arms race"[footnoteRef:28] in which various kings extending beyond Greece fought for control of mainland Greece, islands of the Aegean, western Turkey and southern Syria.[footnoteRef:29] [21: EH.Net and C. Michael Hogan. "Economy of Ancient Greece." www.eoearth.org Web site. May 1, 2010. http://www.eoearth.org/article/Economy_of_Ancient_Greece (accessed January 17, 2013).] [22: Chester G. Starr. The Influence of Sea Power on Ancient History. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, Inc., 1989, 7.] [23: Ibid.,…
" Clearly, strengthening America's military is a unilateral objective that requires a focused military agenda.
The remaining six features that Kugler identifies from the National Security Strategy are inherently multilateral. Championing aspirations for human dignity, the first feature, is vague but likely refers to issues related to gender, class, and social struggles worldwide. esolving such struggles requires multilateral efforts. The second and third features, strengthening alliances to prevent and defeat global terrorism and working with others to defuse regional conflicts are explicitly cooperative in tone. Preventing enemies from threatening peace may require both multilateral and unilateral action, depending on the situation. Igniting a new era of global economic growth and expanding the circle of development both clearly require the cooperation of foreign markets, regional trade organizations, and the international private sector as well.
Kugler, ichard L. "A Distinctly American Internationalism for a…
Kugler, Richard L. "A Distinctly American Internationalism for a Globalized World."
In arguing against reinstating the military draft in the United States, several things come immediately to mind. First among those, for anyone who has learned anything at all about the Vietnam ar, is that the draft can be devastating to society, causing upheaval at home as well as the return of bright, strong young men in body bags. David Halberstam, a journalist of considerable experience, wrote a book, The Best and the Brightest, about the sacrifice of these young Americans for precious little, if any, gain to this country or any other.
Moreover, that war lasted for years, ending in horrific scenes of people running through the streets of Saigon trying to leave any way they could. In the end, there was a Communist takeover despite the loss of all those young Americans.
In an article called "Thinking About the Draft," illiam Galston wrote:
In the wake of…
Galston, William A. 2004. Thinking about the Draft. Public Interest, Wntr, 6ff. http://www.questia.com/ .
Swomley, John. 2004. The Return of the Draft? The Humanist, July/August, 14ff.
For example, in decision making style differences arise from professional backgrounds, "the decision cycle of a fighter pilot (the Navy Captain) [is] measured in seconds while that of an infantry officer (the Colonel) in hours and days." If one compounds this paradigm with career Statists, who tend to measure decisions in months or years based on "never enough data," we can see the conundrum (Marks, 2007).
For generations, though, training on both sides has been based on a world polarized by fear -- of mutual destruction, or of the United States and the Soviet Union continuing to militarize in order to maintain the balance of power that would ensure the other side refrained from ever having the advantage. . Through it all, though, the economic model that drove both sides certainly caused the downfall and bankruptcy of the U.S.S.., and an overall change in the very idea of war as…
Horibe, F. (2001). Creating the Innovation Culture. New York: John Wiley & Sons
Marks, E. (April 2007). Three Years Before the Mast. American Diplomacy. Retrieved from: http://www.unc.edu/depts/diplomat/item/2007/0103/life/marks_three.html
Rife, R.L. (1998). Defense is from Marx, State is from Venus. Army War College. Retrieved from: http://www.au.af.mil/au/awc / …/dod_from _mars_state_from_venus.doc
Smith, R. (2007). The Utility of Force: The Art of War in the Modern World.
Likewise, according to Anderson (2004), "War, if good for anything, is great for business. It means more than just the production of weapons and equipment -- sometimes faulty and overpriced. It promises billions in government revenues for increasingly privatized military training, recruiting, laundry and even KP services" (p. 155). These privatized military services all provided courtesy of the friendly folks at Kellogg, Brown & oot - and all at a hefty profit, of course. To be fair, though, the vice president is not the only one involved in this unholy conspiracy to bilk the American taxpayer while bleeding the armed forces dry. In this regard, Achcar (2004) emphasizes that the president is also implicated by virtue of his close ties with the oil and gas industry and the enormous political contributions they have provided to support his administration's prosecution of the war in Iraq. "Besides his own personal and family…
Achcar, G. (2004, February). U.S. imperial strategy in the Middle East. Monthly Review, 55(9), 23.
Anderson, R. (2004). Home front: The government's war on soldiers. Atlanta: Clarity Press.
Cobe, C. (2004, July 4). Fence post. Daily Herald, 17.
Goodman, a., & Goodman, D. (2004). The exception to the rulers: Exposing America's war profiteers, the media that love them and the crackdown on our rights. Crows Nest, NSW: Allen & Unwin.
The definition for "subversives" is a bit vague, but Fagen explains that in Argentina and elsewhere in Latin American dictatorships the victims of violent repression tended to be union leaders, liberal political leaders, artistic people in cultural circles, student protest leaders and media personalities (p. 41). The whole point of these horrendous repressive policies was to inspire fear, confusion and "distrust" among the general population. For those who believe the United States' military always stands on the side of democratic movements it may come as something of a shock that the U.S. funded and trained many military outfits during the time of dictators in Latin America.
"An entire generation of Latin American military officers and police were armed, trained, and 'professionalized'" by American police and military leaders (Fagen, 1992, p. 43). Fagen says the repression in Argentina was, in part, designed to "Purge ideological infection"; Argentine present General Jorge Rafael…
Fagen, Patricia Weiss. "Repression and State Security." Fear at the Edge: State Terror and Resistance in Latin America. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1992.
Hunter, Wendy. "Continuity or Change? Civil-Military Relations in Democratic Argentina,
Chile, and Peru." Political Science Quarterly 112.3 (1997): 453-475.
Remmer, Karen L. Military Rule in Latin America. University of Texas: Unwin Hyman, 1989.
That is why I became Treasurer of the ives Club, out of gratefulness for this extended family. I know many people of my generation struggle to find 'who they are' but the structure of the military offers a potent and compelling answer to that question. To serve means always to be at home amongst people who understand exactly what you are going through: "Home is the place where, when you have to go there, they have to take you in" (Frost 118-119).
Being in the military does not mean, contrary to conventional wisdom, that one must obey an unthinking policy of 'my country right or wrong.' The men and women in the military must obey because soldiers cannot afford to question every order and live, however, this does not make them unthinking automatons -- far from it. In fact, soldiers think more about the great questions of life and death,…
Frost, R. (2009). The death of the hired man. In G. Perkins, & B. Perkins (Eds.), The
American Tradition in Literature (12 ed., Vol. 2, pp. 888-891). New York City:
McGraw-Hill Higher Education.
Iyer, P. (2000). The empire. In The global soul: Jet lag, shopping malls, and the search for home. (pp. 234-265). New York: Alfred A. Knopf.
Military Theory: Jomini on Napoleon
The objective of this study is to use the Campaign of 1813 culminating in the battle of Leipzig and to identify and analyze both the critical points and decisive points that Antoine-Henri Jomini in his 'Principles of War' would have listed in relation to proper time and sufficient force and identify how many would be applied both positively and negatively to Napoleon's maneuvering and engaging.
The focus of Napoleon in the Campaign of 1813 was to launch such a mass attack on the enemy that they would be overcome and decimated. However, as this study will demonstrate, Napoleon missed chances to do just that and his poor planning and improper timing resulted in the losses of many thousands of lives that did not have to be lost. According to Jomini, the art of war is comprised by six specific parts including: (1) statesmanship…
Allen, BM (1998) The Effects of Infectious Disease on Napoleon's Russian Campaign. Air Command and Staff College, Air University. Retrieved from: http://www.dtic.mil/cgi-bin/GetTRDoc?AD=ADA398046
Jomini on Strategic Lines and Points, Decisive Points of the Theater of War, and Objective Points of Operations. [Excerpted from Antoine-Henri Jomini, The Art of War G.H. Mendell and W.P. Craighill, trs. (Philadelphia: Lippicott, 1892), pp. 85-92]. Retrieved from: http://www.shsu.edu/~his_ncp/JominiSP.html
Keefe, JM (1995) Napoleon's Marshals in 1813. School of Advanced Military Studies. United States Army Command and General Staff College. Fort Leavenworth, Kansas. First Term AY 94-95. Retrieved from: http://www.dtic.mil/cgi-bin/GetTRDoc?AD=ADA293453
Nomura, RC (2012) Issues in strategic thought: from Clausewitz to al-Qaida. NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL I. JOMINI VS. CLAUSEWITZ December 2012. Retrieved from: http://calhoun.nps.edu/public/bitstream/handle/10945/27881/12Dec_Nomura_Ryan.pdf?sequence=1
[footnoteRef:32] This lack of forces for other Pacific struggles generally weakened the Japanese war effort, as the Japanese were forced to fight those battles with insufficient men, weapons, ammunition and other related materiel. [27: Eric Hammel. Guadalcanal: Decision at Sea: The Naval attle of Guadalcanal, November 13-15, 1942. Pacifica, CA: Pacifica Military History, 1999, p. 346.] [28: Colin G. Jameson. "attle of Guadalcanal: 11-15 November, 1942." www.history.navy.mil Web site. 1944. http://www.history.navy.mil/library/online/battleguadalcanal1942.htm (accessed March 18, 2013), p. 78.] [29: Robert Leckie. Challenge for the Pacific: Guadalcanal: The Turning Point of the War (Paperback). New York, NY: antam ooks, 2010, pp. 127-128.] [30: Mark Stille. USN Cruiser vs. IJN Cruiser: Guadalcanal 1942. New York, NY: Osprey Publishing, 2009, pp. 19-20.] [31: Leckie, p. 306.] [32: Ibid.]
The Allied victory at the Naval attle of Guadalcanal through the leadership of Vice Admiral William F. Halsey, the Southwest Pacific Theater commander, was also a…
Baer, George. One Hundred Years of Sea Power: The U.S. Navy, 1890-1990. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1993.
Frank, Richard B. Guadalcanal: The Definitive Account of the Landmark Battle. New York, NY: Penguin Books USA, Inc., 1992.
Hammel, Eric. Carrier Clash: The Invasion of Guadalcanal and the Battle of the Eastern Solomons: August, 1942. St. Paul, MN: Zenith Press, an imprint of MBI Publishing Company, 2004.
-- . Guadalcanal: Decision at Sea: The Naval Battle of Guadalcanal, November 13-15, 1942. Pacifica, CA: Pacifica Military History, 1999.
Good managers must act quickly when faced with ethical dilemmas.
Leaders need ensure that dignity and respect are maintained at all times.
These different elements are important, because they are providing us with a basic foundation as to how manages can apply effective leadership inside their organization. Once this occurs, is when there will be a transformation in operating environment with everyone willing to work together on a regular basis. (Voyer, 2011)
Clearly, the different pieces of literature that we reviewed are illustrating how managers must be able to embrace certain ideas. That will help to improve the ability of the firm to deal with a host of challenges. The way that this is accomplished is through having everyone focus on certain characteristics that will enhance the operating environment to include: exercising effective leadership, having good communication and implementing a values-based system. These different elements are important, because the…
Engaging Stakeholders. (2011). Wharton. Retrieved from: http://knowledge.wharton.upenn.edu/article.cfm?articleid=2814
Demichellis, S. (2008). Language, Meaning and Games. The American Economic Review, 98 (4), 1292 -- 1311.
Easty, B. (2004). Airbus A3XX. Harvard Business Review. Retrieved from: http://cb.hbsp.harvard.edu/cb/web/product_detail.seam?E=8284&R=201028-PDF-ENG&conversationId=88900
Kiron, D. (2011). Analytics. MIT Sloan Management Review. Retrieved from: http://sloanreview.mit.edu/feature/achieving-competitive-advantage-through-analytics/
Attendance will be required for all group members to optimize the effect of the sessions. Group members will be allowed to leave the group as long as the intention to leave is provided in writing. No reasons will be required.
Because of the nature of the group, a mutual confidentiality agreement will be signed by all group members, including leaders, at the first meeting of the group. There will generally not be homework, apart from the requirement to apply what has been learned to the work and home environment. Group members may report on results if they feel they want to.
There is no need for a formalized institution to determine the ground rules and structure of the meetings. This will be a collaborative process between me and the group members.
IX. Group essions
Group dynamics generally consist of four stages: forming, storming, norming, and performing (Group Dynamics, Unit 10).…
Adams, B.D. And Webb, R.D.G. Trust in Small Military Teams. Retrieved from http://www.dodccrp.org/events/7th_ICCRTS/Tracks/pdf/006.PDF
Armstrong, R. (2005) Requirements of a Self-Managed Team Leader. Leader Values. Retrieved from http://www.leader-values.com/Content/detail.asp?ContentDetailID=1004
Borchers, T. (1999). Small Group Communication. Retrieved from http://www.abacon.com/commstudies/groups/leader.html
Castano, E. Leidner B, and Slawuta, P. (2008, Jun). Social identification processes, group dynamics and the behaviour of combatants. International Review of the Red Cross, Vol 90, No. 870. Retrieved from http://www.icrc.org/Web/eng/siteeng0.nsf/htmlall/review-870-p259/$File/irrc-870_Castano.pdf
Military Draw-Down from Afghanistan
hen terrorists attacked the United States on September 11, 2001, there was very little hesitation on the part of then President George . Bush -- and the United States Congress -- to mount a retaliatory military campaign in Afghanistan, the place where bin Laden was training terrorists to kill Americans. The Taliban militants were control of Afghanistan at that time and they had provided training camps for bin Laden and al Qaeda to plan their terrorist activities against the United States. Bush gave the Taliban time to either hand over bin Laden (which they were not about to do) or prepare for a bombardment by U.S. military. The American public was fully behind the 2001 military engagement in Afghanistan, but few citizens at that time imagined that more than ten years later American soldiers would still be in Afghanistan, fighting the resurgent Taliban militants.
Aymeen Jawad, al-Tamimi. 2012. Rethinking U.S. Strategy in Afghanistan. Middle East
Quarterly 19 (Winter) 1-15.
Jones, Jeffrey M. 2011. Americans More Positive on Afghanistan After Bin Laden Death.
Gallup Poll. Retrieved January 29, 2012, from http://www.gallup.com .
Many lessons can be learned from Khafji. First, the situation demonstrates effective coalition fighting; the Qatari and Saudi troops effectively squelched the Iraqi incursion not only in Khafji but also to the West, near the Kuwaiti border. Stratifying coalition forces into primary and secondary sectors ensures organized and effective responses to surprise attack like this one. The Saudi and Qatari forces not only drove back the Iraqis but prevented further problems. This allowed Marine forces to organize their reconnaissance mission and establish ground presence along the strategic Saudi-Kuwaiti border.
Second, Khafji proved a strategic stronghold, allowing American and coalition forces to amass troops only six miles from the Kuwaiti border: "occupying forward positions in anticipation of a future ground offensive." In contrast, Iraqi troops lay "entrenched behind layers of minefields, barbed wire and fortifications in occupied Kuwait."
Murphy, C. & Gugliotta, G. (1991). "Saudi Town eclaimed." Washington Post. Feb…
Murphy, C. & Gugliotta, G. (1991). "Saudi Town Reclaimed." Washington Post. Feb 1, 1991. Retrieved Mr. 27, 2007 at http://www.washingtonpost.com /wp-srv/inatl/longterm/fogofwar/archive/post013191_2.htm' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Furthermore, the strategy still relies on the fact that the country is set to get a transition beyond the war on terror activities. This comes so early that the nation will not be ready to abandon some of the activities being done to counter terrorist attacks. Nonetheless, the U.S. is still experiencing numerous serious threats from its enemies like the al-Qaeda and other terrorist actors in the world. The strategy will serve as a good idea but a serious threat to the general existence of peace and stability in the country. The basic mechanisms of counterterrorism will be eradicated when the nation is facing serious certainties of attacks from the wounded enemies.
Asia in the balance: Transforming U.S. military strategy in Asia
After the Second World War, the United States has been at a forefront in ensuring the security of its allies and commodities found in China. The interests bestowed…
Berman, I. (1/05/2012). Reading the Tea Leaves on Obama's New Military Strategy. Forbes.
Retrieved on 30 Jan. 13 from http://www.forbes.com/sites/ilanberman/2012/01/05/reading-the-tea-leaves-on-obamas-new-military-strategy/
Mahnken, T. G et al. (June 04, 2012). Asia in the balance: Transforming U.S. military strategy in Asia. American Enterprise Institute. Retrieved on 30 Jan. 13 from http://www.aei.org/papers/foreign-and-defense-policy/regional/asia/asia-in-the-balance-transforming-us-military-strategy-in-asia/
National Defense Strategy (NDS)
The United States operates its defense methods and actions based upon our overall beliefs about what is meant by the Constitution's expectation that our government shall "provide for the common good." It is the Department of Defenses' "capstone" document, which lays the foundation for the grand ideals it expects to carry out as part of the larger presidential directives on using our forces at home and abroad.
National Military Strategy (NMS)
This directive exists as a result of Congressional and coordination directives. It seeks to identify and monitor operational readiness of the military forces and partners as they conduct their activities. An overview of these two documents can be found in the 2004 unclassified release of The National Military Strategy of the U.S.: A Strategy for Today; A vision for Tomorrow, which can be found at http://www.defense.gov/news/mar2005/d20050318nms.pdf.
Each of the two documents and…
Enemy of the U.S. Military
The United States military is currently wrapping-up two full-scale wars in which its performance was tested in ways previously unforeseen. One particular aspect of the military's standard operating procedure which has become a problem is its dependence and use of PowerPoint presentations to organize information regarding battlefield operations. For instance, in the book Fiasco, by Thomas icks, a tale is recounted how the general who actually led the ground forces in the 2003 invasion of Iraq, Gen. David McKiernan, "grew frustrated when he could not get Gen. Tommy . Franks, the commander at the time of American forces in the Persian gulf region, to issue orders that stated explicitly how he wanted the invasion conducted, and why." (Bumiller, 2010) The problem lay with General Franks' complete reliance on PowerPoint presentations containing slides which, while seeming to explain a point, instead contained vague and often confusing…
Bumiller, Elisabeth. (26 April 2010). "We Have Met the Enemy and He is PowerPoint."
New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2010/04/27/world/27powerpoint.html
They did not have any problems fighting with their enemies that had inferior technologies but when the United States came into the picture, Japan saw itself fighting not only a technologically superior enemy but one with information / intelligence gathering capabilities unbeknownst of in previous warfare history. In addition, Japan indeed woke up a "sleeping dragon" that not only was capable of evening the battlefield but mobilizing all efforts to withstand Japan's aggression in the pacific theatre of operations.
The Pacific war provided a venue to demonstrate the technological and information superiority of the United States against the Japanese Imperial forces. The use of the atomic bomb in Hiroshima and Nagasaki is the ultimate proof of these abilities but the deployment and utilization thereof could never have been possible without the people behind the invention, manufacturing, production, and implementation of these advanced military technologies and information superiority. Thus, it has…
Advameg, Inc. (2011). Science and technology -- World War II and the early Cold War. Retrieved August 7, 2011 from http://www.americanforeignrelations.com/O-W/Science-and-Technology-World-war-ii-and-the-early-cold-war.html
Grunden, W.E. (2005). Secret weapons and World War II: Japan in the shadow of big science. Wichita, KS: University Press of Kansas.
Harper, M.M., Jeffries, J.W., Tuttle, W.M. Jr., Lichtenstein, N., & Sitkoff, H. (2007, October). World War II and the American home front: A National Historic Landmarks theme study. Retrieved August 7, 2011 from http://www.nps.gov/nhl/themes/HomefrontStudy.pdf
Mercado, S. (2009, January 7). "Book review: Nisei linguists: Japanese-Americans in the military intelligence service during World War II by James C. McNaughton." Intelligence in Recent public literature. Retrieved August 7, 2011 from https://www.cia.gov/library/center-for-the-study-of-intelligence/csi-publications/csi-studies/studies/vol-52-no-4/nisei-linguists.html
Worst Faults a Military Leader Can Exhibit:
Incompetence, selfishness, and living in the past
"If America is to meet the multiple challenges of the 21st century, it is crucial that we develop a system that places the right people in the right places in government at the right moment."[footnoteRef:1] ut just as critical as being the 'right' type of leader is avoiding making some of the most typical mistakes of poor leaders of the past. Incompetence and disorganization; fighting the last war rather than the current conflict (i.e., living in the past); selfishness and a focus on the personal ego rather than the actual needs of the nation are the three worst faults a leader can exhibit. [1: J. McCausland, "Developing strategic leaders for the 21st century," Strategic Studies Institute, 2008. Available: http://www.StrategicStudiesInstitute.army.mil / (26 Sept 2013), xi]
On a very basic level, military leaders must have basic organizational skills.…
Bartone, P, Barry, C., & Armstrong, R. "To Build Resilience: Leader Influence on Mental
Hardiness. Defense Horizons, 69 (2009): 1-8.
Hermann, Margaret. "Assessing leadership style: A trait analysis." Social Science Automation
National strategy is the art and science of development and usage of informational, diplomatic and economic powers of a country in union with its armed forces for purposes of securing national objectives during war and peace times. National strategies are a key delivery mechanism for several new and existing nations. It was first introduced in the year 1998 with the aim of assisting in developing educational settings to improve the standards and life expectancy of children. Troops in the Air Force have today become experienced exceptional at applying space, air and cyber powers to achieve operational and tactical objectives (Bush, 2002). The Air Force plays a big role in national security. Some of the critical capabilities that determines what the Air Force is able to provide for a nation include: action freedom in air, space and cyberspace; power projection; air diplomacy; global situational awareness; and military support to civil…
S. National Interests in the area of the bailout of the global economy and yet, in terms of his strategic objectives for the U.S. In Afghanistan it does appear that the President has followed the requirements of strategy as set out in the work of Yarger and Barber in the "U.S. Army War College Strategy Model" although the President does seem to have failed in terms of global economy bailout strategy.
Abbreviation: USG (U.S. Government)
H. Richard Yarger and George F. Barber, The U.S. Army War College Methodology for Determining Interests and Levels of Intensity, U.S. Army War College, Carlisle Barracks, Carlisle, PA, 1997. Adapted from Department of National Security and Strategy, Directive Course 2: "War, National Policy & Strategy" (Carlisle, PA: U.S. Army War College, 1997) 118-125.
H. Richard Yarger and George F. Barber, The U.S. Army War College Methodology for Determining Interests and Levels of Intensity,…
The Greco-Persian Wars were still in their early stages at this point, but it would be Xerxes, not Darius, that continued and stepped up efforts to invade and conquer the Attic Greeks.
If the Battle of Marathon had turned the other way, as many at the time expected it to and as many historians and tacticians believe it easily could and by all rights should have, the entire course of Western and even world history would have been drastically altered. Europe was built on the ideas and culture of the Greeks, particularly the Athenians. The eventual conquering of the Greek and the establishment of the oman Empire led to the spread of Greek philosophy, art, and science throughout the then known world; if the Persians had been successful in their attempt to conquer the Greeks, this culture would most likely not have existed by the time the omans came around.…
"Background on the battle of Marathon." (2004). Accessed 3 August 2009. http://www.guilford.k12.ct.us/~rebhunj/documents/DAY6MARATHON.pdf
Foster, J. (2009). "Battle of Marathon: Greeks vs. The Persians." Accessed 3 August 2009. http://www.historynet.com/battle-of-marathon-greeks-versus-the-persians.htm
Gill, N.S. (2009). "Persian wars: The battle of Marathon." Accessed 3 August 2009. http://ancienthistory.about.com/od/persianwararticles/a/MarathonBattle.htm
Herodotus. "The Persian Wars." Histories. Accessed 3 August 2009. http://www.thenagain.info/Classes/Sources/Herodotus-Marathon.html
In those days prior to 2003, TADOC gave recruits nut-and-bolt basics, then sent the new Soldiers to their units where the real training started....nTo achieve "Soldier" status, recruits now spend 21 days in the field during basic training. The training focus has changed dramatically from what was primarily a standards, discipline and soldierization process to one of intensive combat skills. (Leipold, 2009)nHowever, such changes have tended to come about without any sort controlled, rigorous study. There is nothing wrong about changes that come from within and that grow organically out of the requirements of an organization. However, a controlled experiment offers certain key advantages because it can cast off old attitudes and biases.nI have already described the control group in this experiment. The three experimental groups add different elements to the equation. The first of these experimental groups is actually one that I predict will reduce the overall fitness of…
References\nEvans, M. (2005). Women pay painful price for equal military training. The Times, retrieved 9 February 2010 from http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/uk/article434024.ece .\nhttp://answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=20100121052640AAZ1xPL \nhttp://www.military.com/military-fitness/fitness-test-prep/physical-fitness-test-anxiety \nLeipold, J. (2009). Not your father\'s basic, anymore, retrieved 8 February 2010 from \nhttp://usmilitary.about.com/od/armyjoin/a/newarmybasic.-u5p.htm.\nO\'Reilly, K. (1981). Dick and Jane in basic training. Newsweek. \nhttp://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,953209-\n2,00.html#ixzz0fYEyTybe \nRichards, T. (n.d.) What is comprehensive cognitive-behavioral therapy? \nRetrieved 10 \nFebruary 2010 from \nhttp://www.socialanxietyinstitute.org/ccbtherapy.html.\nSegura, L. (2009). Veterans Decry Institutional Sexism in Military, retrieved 11 February 2010 \nfrom http://www.alternet.org/reproductivejustice/79877/ .
In the aftermath of the war, these acts would be called into
question given America's ultimate and necessary abandonment of the war.
Accordingly, Hickman reports that "on January 15, 1973, after pressuring
South Vietnam to accept the peace deal, Nixon announced the end of
offensive operations against North Vietnam." (Hickman, 1) And with Nixon's
scandalized resignation in 1973 and the passage of Congressional
legislation forbidding American military intervention in Southeast Asia,
the North Vietnamese were free to pursue the unification which the U.S. had
sacrificed so much to prevent.
And consideration that the United States might continue to support its
overall goals in Vietnam at least through aid to the South Vietnamese
forces that it had propped up for a decade would ultimately be fully
dismissed when "in 1975, Congress refused President Gerald Ford's last-
minute request to increase aid to South Vietnam by $300 million, just weeks
Hickman, K. (2008). Vietnam War: End of the Conflict. About Military
History. Online at
Kamps, C.T. (2003). Operation: Linebacker II. Air and Space Power
Journal. Online at
Using Hersey-lanchard leadership theory to analyze LeMay's strengths and weaknesses as a leader
Situational leadership theory and LeMay
The Japanese campaign
The Cold War
Contrasting military and civilian leadership
How first, personal successes influence leadership
Four-star General Curtis LeMay is one of the most controversial figures in the history of the modern U.S. Air Force. LeMay's philosophy can be summed up as follows: it is more advantageous and ultimately more compassionate to use massive levels of force against the enemy. This results in a quicker victory and ultimately preserves more civilian lives. However, LeMay's legacy as a military leader is complex. On one hand, he is credited with speeding the end of World War II, thanks to his superior leadership style, tactical ability and boldness. However, as a political leader and advocate of U.S. interests, his legacy is mixed. "When he retired in 1965, LeMay was widely…
Blanchard, Ken. "Situational leadership II: The article."
http://wed.siu.edu/faculty/BPutnam/566/Situational_Leadership_Article.pdf (accessed 7 Sept 2013)
Coffey, Thomas M. Iron Eagle: The Turbulent Life of General Curtis LeMay. New York: Crown
However, these poor, landless and mercenary men, despite the fact they worked for hire still frequently exhibited selfless behavior for their fellow soldiers in the face of adversity, such as at Valley Forge.
One of the most unique aspects of this book is its methodology. It attempts to integrate evidence about battles, armaments, military technology and the history of the early army into the greater social and political history of the revolution. However, it is not merely an analysis of battles and tactics. It is a truly integrative approach of social and military history. The dual backgrounds of Martin in history and Lender in military strategy enable them to merge what often are competing disciplines, namely the political struggles of why and how a nation goes to war, and the day-to-day struggles in fighting that war. Martin and Lender are also willing to highlight unflattering aspects of the early American…
e felt that it was the responsibility of the military generals to execute the war in accordance with the policies set by the political leaders. "War is nothing but the continuation of policy with other means," said Clausewitz
. Jomini, however, took a contrary view. Jomini had little concern with political implications. Jomini's suggestion was that a government should choose its ablest commander and then leave him alone to wage the war according to scientific principles.
Clausewitz and Jomini developed their theories of war in a world that was much different than today's world. Their world was dominated by monarchial style governments that participated in warfare for reasons different from the reasons that modern democratic governments choose to pursue military options. Policies in the dynastic period were formulated by monarchs and had more to do with familial relationships and the acquisition of territory than for pure political considerations. In modern…
Hew Strachan, European Armies and the Conduct of War. (Boston: George Allen and Unwin 1983), 94.
Carl von Clausewitz, On War (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1976), 479.
Azar Gat, The Origins of Military Thought: From the Enlightenment to Clausewitz (Oxford, Oxford University Press, 1989).
institute such strict military controls?
Sparta's militarism and commitment to maintaining a standing army was no accident. "Sparta seems to have developed gradually as a practical response to unusual circumstances," ("History of Sparta," n.d.). "The evolution of the Spartan army began during the heroic Mycenaean age (1600 BCE to 1100 BCE), a time in Greek history when tactics were simple and warriors sought individual glory (and fought out of formation)," ("The Spartan Military," 2010). Moreover, the Dorians staged frequent invasions into the area. Sparta needed to protect its borders. By the 8th century B.C.E., Spartan leaders realized the value of a standing army and implemented one in the interests of what can be called national security. Later, Spartan militarism would threaten Athenian dominance. Sparta found itself in the situation of needing to institute strict military controls as a matter of self-preservation.
One reason why Sparta instituted strict military controls was…
Gill, N.H. (n.d.). Sparta: A Military State. Retrieved online: http://ancienthistory.about.com/cs/sparta/a/spartamilitstat.htm
"History of Sparta," (n.d.). History World. Retrieved online: http://www.historyworld.net/wrldhis/PlainTextHistories.asp?historyid=ac44
Sekunda, N. (1998). The Spartan Army. Osprey.
"The Spartan Military," (2010). Ancient Military.com. Retrieved online: http://www.ancientmilitary.com/spartan-military.htm
Disruptive Technologies for the Military
Disruptive technologies are innovations that aid in creating new markets, eventually going on to disturb or even dismantle the current value networks and market, and to displace an older technology. Clayton M. Christensen, a professor at Harvard Business School, coined this term, now used frequently in technology and business literature for describing innovations that bring about improvements to any service or product, in ways not expected by the market (Lucas, 2012). The Professor first made use of the term in his best-seller "The Innovator's Dilemma" (published in the year 1997), wherein he classified new technologies into two groups: disruptive and sustaining. The former category refers to novel, inadequately refined technology, typically associated with performance issues, known only to some group(s), and normally lacking any proven practical use. Meanwhile, the latter category includes familiar technologies undergoing successive improvements. Disruption may be viewed from another perspective, if…
Brimley, S., FitzGerald, B., Sayler, S. & Singer, P.W. (SEPTEMBER 2013). Game Changers: Disruptive Technology and U.S. Defense Strategy, Center for American New Security
Christiansen, C. (1997). The Innovator's Dilemma: When New Technologies Cause Great Firms to Fail, Boston: Harvard Business Review Press.
FitzGerald, B., Sayler, K., Lynn III, W.J. & Stavridis, J. (JUNE 2014). Creative Disruption Technology, Strategy and the Future of the Global Defense Industry, Center for American New Security.
Fonseca, M. (03/02/2014). Guide to 12 Disruptive Technologies. IntelligentHQ.com digital, retrieved from http://www.intelligenthq.com/technology/12-disruptive-technologies / on 20 February 2016
hile not as sexy and "politically correct" as a direct confrontation of homophobia in the military, the author thinks that a pragmatic, gradual expansion of the "don't ask, don't tell" policy is in order. It is probably the best way to preserve the lives of gay servicemen and to protect and expand their rights.
Bateman, Geoffrey. Don't Ask Don't Tell. London: Lynne Riener Publishers, 2003. 2, 12.
Grener, Richard. "Colonel Redl: The Man Behind the Screen Myth." New York Times 12
October 1985: n. pag. eb. 7 Apr 2010. .
"Hephaestion." Heritage Key. N.p., 2010. eb. 7 Apr 2010. .
Pacion, Stanley. " Sparta: An Experiment in State-Fostered Homosexuality." Sex and History. N.p., June 27, 2008. eb. 7 Apr 2010. .
Plutarch. "The Sacred Theban Band." Plutarch's Lives. Ed. J.S. hite. New York:
Biblio and Tannen. 1966. 416.
Bateman, Geoffrey. Don't Ask Don't Tell. London: Lynne Riener Publishers, 2003. 2, 12.
Grener, Richard. "Colonel Redl: The Man Behind the Screen Myth." New York Times 12
October 1985: n. pag. Web. 7 Apr 2010. .
This also has major implications for military operations, both within a military unit and in the interaction between the military unit and another culture. Essentially, the problem of ethnocentrism can be seen at the root of the other cultural problems discussed in this context; it implies both a lack of understanding about the impacts of the unit's culture on the people of a foreign culture, as well as a lack of appreciation and understanding for that culture (Hoskins 2007).
Culture is strange, in that it is both constant and always changing. The only static culture is a dead one; as the various elements and generations of a culture interact, change is bound to happen. When there is no longer any interaction within a culture or between a given culture and other cultures, there is no longer any point to that culture, and indeed that culture could not realistically exist…
DiMarco, L. (2003). Traditions, changes, and challenges: Military operations and the Middle Eastern city. Diane Publsihing.
Harrison, D.; Light, L. & Rothschild-Boros, M. (2008). Cultural anthropology: Our diverse world. New York: Wadsworth.
Hoskins, B. (2007). "Religion and other cultural variable in modern operational environments." Accessed 16 October 2009. http://www.dtic.mil/cgi-bin/GetTRDoc?AD=ADA470675&Location=U2&doc=GetTRDoc.pdf
O'Neil, D. (2007). "Characteristics of Culture." Accessed 16 October 2009. http://anthro.palomar.edu/culture/culture_2.htm
military readiness intrinsically declines the longer a military encounter is prolonged due to the wear and tear exacted by war. As such, it is important to gauge a country's level of military preparedness at the outset of any martial encounter to truly assess its readiness for protracted combat situations. There are a number of sources that attest to the fact that at the end of the 20th century, the United States' military preparedness -- which would soon be tested in the new millennium by a number of martial engagements, the most eminent of which include Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom, were insufficient. A thorough examination of the results of the former operation (which is still ongoing) and certain key factors relating to military size, personnel availability and training, equipment, and most saliently funding, as compared to those near the end of the 20th century in Operation Desert Storm…
Kaufmann, W. (1994). "Hollow forces': Current issues of U.S. military readiness and effectiveness." The Brookings Institution. 12 (4): 24-29.
Kreisher, O. (2013). "U.S. military funding cuts are eroding readiness to a level that may be difficult to overcome." Naval Forces. 34 (3): 4. Retrieved from Paige, S. (2001). "Under siege one reason our military's readiness is down: We won't let them train." American Enterprise. 12 (7). Retrieved from http://ehis.ebscohost.com.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/eds/detail?sid=3ccf5fe4-0b95-48eb-90aa-de33c85a6438%40sessionmgr111&vid=2&hid=101&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWRzLWxpdmUmc2NvcGU9c2l0ZQ%3d%3d#db=bth&AN=5151435
Ray, D. (2000). "Is the U.S. military prepared to fight?" Insight on the News. 16 (41): 18. Retrieved from http://ehis.ebscohost.com.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/eds/detail?sid=c1e995c8-da05-4b40-bcc4-1f5c7bb02e7c%40sessionmgr114&vid=1&hid=101&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWRzLWxpdmUmc2NvcGU9c2l0ZQ%3d%3d#db=bwh&AN=3740770
Spencer, J. (2000). "The facts about military readiness." www.heritage.org. Retrieved from http://www.heritage.org/research/reports/2000/09/bg1394-the-facts-about-military-readiness
Military in Less Developed Countries
From archaeological records, we can tell that warfare and aggression have been part of human history for thousands of years. Since the rise of urbanization about 5,000 years ago, war has been part of most every civilization. One source, in fact, notes: " . . . 14,500 wards have taken place between 3500 BC and the late 20th century, killing 3.5 billion people and leaving only 300 years of peace" (Henderson, 2010, p. 212). Psychologically, humans seem predisposed to war and conflict for a variety of reasons: economic conflict, political conflict, violent crime, conquest, or power. Marxian theory says that war takes place due to competition for resources, yet the Malthusian theory says wars occur because of either a power vacuum or as expanding populations encounter scare resources. Yet neither of these theories explains one of the odd facts of the 20th century -- that…
Cashman, G. (2010). What Causes War? Lanham, MD: Lexington Books.
Haas, M. (2008). International Human Rights: A Comprehensive Introduction. New York: Routledge.
Henderson, C. (2010). Understanding International Law. New York: Wiley.
Institute for Strategic Studies. (2009). The Military Balance 2008. Retrieved from: http://www.iiss.org
Sports-elated Military ecruiting Initiatives Today
armed forces have traditionally had a lot to offer for new entrants into the job market, but in recent months, these benefits have increasingly been insufficient to sell the idea of military service to young people during a time of war. In response to this shortfall in recruiting levels, military recruiters have resorted to a number of alternative approaches to marketing military service as a viable option to qualified candidates. To determine the current initiatives being used by military recruiters today, this paper will provide a review of the military's use of sports, specifically racing such as NASCA and NHA for recruiting purposes. An examination of the effectiveness, associated costs, and the history of these sports-related initiatives will be followed by a summary of the research and an assessment of current and future trends in the conclusion.
eview and Discussion
Background and Overview.
Air Force Sports program. (2005). Official Site of the U.S. Air Force Sports Program.
Retrieved July 16, 2005 from http://usmilitary.about.com/gi/dynamic/offsite.htm?
zi=1/XJ& sdn=usmilitary& zu=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.usafsports.com%2F.
About Us. (2005). The National Association for Stock Car Racing. Retrieved July 16, 2005
Evolution and Development of Combat Air Support
The Origins of Military Aviation:
World War I introduced the horrors of mechanized warfare with its unprecedented potential for human destruction. Four years of war decimated the populations of the European powers, accounting for as many as 10 million combatant deaths and about an equal number of civilian casualties. England and Germany both lost at least sixteen percent of their adult male populations to the war effort and left such a devastating emotional effect on those who survived the war that historians have often referred to them as "the lost generation (1).
Aviation was only eleven years old when war broke out in 1914, but the obvious military potential of aircraft inspired a tremendous acceleration in aviation technology during the next four years. Initially, the only practical use for the flimsy, underpowered balsa wood and fabric biplanes was aerial reconnaissance, which had previously…
Ambrose, Steven. The Good Fight: How World War II Was Won
New York, NY: Simon & Schuster, 2001.
Commager, Henry, S. The Pocket History of the Second World War. New York: Pocket Books, 1945.
Jackson, Robert. Modern Military Aircraft. New York: Barnes & Noble, 2003.
military experience relates to HR concepts
Most of the organizations that adopt a classic approach in their management tend to follow a comprehensible, coherent, planned and premeditated strategy in their running. This is the case of a Military camp. Most of the lessons and trainings involved illustrate a close link with Human Resource concepts. This is in terms of employment skills, leadership qualities and the connection between power and politics. Having worked in a military camp for a couple of years, I can strongly link my military experience with the Hr concepts. In terms of Leadership and followership, the military has played a larger role in improving my leadership skills, since; currently I have confidence in making crucial decisions and offering potential solutions (Armstrong, 2008, P.11)
Furthermore, through motivation and engagement, I experience a new personality in my career path and I am capable of improving my relation with others…
Billsberry, J. (Ed.) (2008) Discovering Leadership. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
Boxall, P. & Purcell, J. (2011) Strategy and Human Resource Management (3rd ed.). Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
Jackson, B. & Parry, K. (2011) a Very Short, Fairly Interesting and Reasonably Cheap Book about Studying Leadership (2nd ed.)London: Sage.
Berrone, P. & Gomez-Mejia, L.R. (2009) the pros and cons of rewarding social responsibility at the top. Human Resource Management, 48(6), 959-971.
trategy -- Rulers, tates and War
It is very difficult to look at the history of humanity and define a number of common, yet intangible philosophies of action that seem to be part of the overall human condition. One of these intangibles is the human capacity to produce both incredible beauty and horrific evil -- both of which occur during war. In fact, we may ask -- what is war? Every historical period from Ancient Mesopotamia to the present has added a new meaning to the word, but the very essence remains the same. War is a conflict between groups, a way to solve a political or social disagreement through force. Because war has been part of the human condition for millennia, however, we can look at it from both a theoretical and practical aspect of a way to use violence as a solution to problems. One of the most…
Clausewitz, C. On War. Edited by M. Howard. New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1984.
Keegan, J. A History of Warfare. New York: Vintage, 1994.
Murray, W., et al., eds. The Making of Strategy: Rulers, States and War. Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press, 1996.
ut it does not come without cost to the local school system." (National Military Family Association, 2006) This report relates funding is provided through the U.S. Department of education Impact Aid Program that go to district who are educating military children to support the districts in educating large numbers of military children including their frequent movements and the need for counseling and other resources. (National Military Family Association, 200;, paraphrased)
III. RECOMMENDATIONS of JOHN HOPKINS UNIVERSITY
John Hopkins University researchers state recommendations for schools who educate military children which include the following: (1) Know your students: Children of military families tend to be hard-working, focused, and goal-oriented; (2) Schools need to provide opportunities for them to excel; (3) Set up strategies to welcome new students; (4) e flexible when students move in or out to assist them in fulfilling graduation requirements and becoming involved in school activities; (5) Engage parents:…
Pre-K for Military Families: Honoring Service, Educating Children (2007) Pre-K Now Research Series July 2007. McCormick Tribune Foundation. Online available at http://www.pewcenteronthestates.org/uploadedFiles/Pre-K%20for%20Military%20Families.pdf
Month of the Military Child (2008) Connections April 2008 Army Reserve Family Programs. Online available at http://www.arfp.org/skins/ARFP/display.aspx?ModuleID=8cde2e88-3052-448c-893d-d0b4b14b31c4&CategoryID=92d19fef-3459-40de-8f84-dbde04b1a1a1&ObjectID=b8080813-c5c2-4c0b-a59f-3a4f894b834c&AllowSSL=true
Military Children and Families (2008) Center for the Study of Traumatic Stress. Online available at http://www.centerforthestudyoftraumaticstress.org/aboutyou.militarychildren.shtml
Kids Serve Too (2005) a Salute to America's Military Children. 13 Apr 2005. Online available at http://www.firebrandstudio.com/ks2/doc/KS2presskit.pdf
Terrorism is a 21st century' problem to the entire world. It has led to many lives lost eventually. Global instability in of the world in terms of social, economic, and political spectra has also been witnessed because of terrorism. For this reason, the world's nations have come together to devise methods and means of countering the problem. However, on top of the global stand that courtiers adopt a similar and coordinated approach to fighting terrorism, there are still instances where specific countries adopt unique strategies to fight the menace (Sisk, 2011). Counterterrorism strategies among the most hit countries thus differ. In this paper, an analysis of the similarities and difference between the counterterrorism strategies among the three European nations is put forth. The countries under focus here are Spain, Sweden, and The Netherlands. Each of these countries has been facing similar terror threats and has devised ways to…
Haberfeld M.R., King, J.F., & Lieberman C.A. (2009). Terrorism within Comparative International Context: The Counter-Terrorism Response and Preparedness. New York: Springer DOI 10.1007/978-0-387-88861-3
Hammond, P. (2014). Slavery, terrorism, & Islam: The historical roots and contemporary threat. Cape Town, South Africa: Christian Liberty Books.
Sisk, T. (2011). Between terror and tolerance religious leaders, conflict, and peacemaking. Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Press.
military tactic, the United States Department of Defense authorized the use of chemical warfare during the Vietnam ar. It was a radical strategy: to eradicate all foliage and ground cover in the war zones in order to prevent guerillas from hiding and therefore sabotaging American troops. The Department of Defense called its chemical warfare program Operation Ranch Hand. Companies like Monsanto and Dow Chemicals designed compounds and named them after the colored drums they were shipped in, and the most famous of these compounds was Agent Orange. Agent Orange left a devastating impact not only in Vietnam but also in the American troops exposed to its deadly chemical compounds like dioxin. Because of the extreme health and environmental ramifications of exposure to Agent Orange, the United States government needs to take responsibility for its actions and offer financial and structural support for the victims at home and in Southeast Asia.…
Department of Veterans Affairs. "VA History." Retrieved: http://www.va.gov/
Farberov, Snejana. "Generation Orange." Daily Mail. 24 Aug 2013. Retrieved online: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2401378/Agent-Orange-Vietnamese-children-suffering-effects-herbicide-sprayed-U.S.-Army-40-years-ago.html
Fuller, Thomas. "4 Decades On, U.S. Starts Cleanup of Agent Orange in Vietnam." The New York Times. 9 Aug, 2012. Retrieved online: http://www.nytimes.com/2012/08/10/world/asia/us-moves-to-address-agent-orange-contamination-in-vietnam.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0
Lefler, Dion. "Vietnam veterans speak on effects of Agent Orange." The Witchita Eagle. Aug 13, 2014. http://www.kansas.com/news/article1169345.html
How should allied operations in Afghanistan be pursued?
In order for the operation in Afghanistan to be effective, there are several ways that can be opted for. The allied forces should be trained aptly for the terrain that is in Afghanistan, the training should as well cover the entire insurgents possible pockets. This however may prove difficult since the insurgents have their protected areas that they would not allow the allied forces to intrude into.
The allied forces should as well try as much as required to penetrate the Taliban and know each plan they make, never to underestimate the Taliban however trivial or temporary their plan may be. It should be noted that the Islamic policy that the Taliban have is way more long-term focused that immediate action and stopping. The allied troops should have a long-range plan of dealing with the Taliban. A plan which will possibly stretch…
Gopal & Anand (2009 December 1).Karzai Aides, Tribal Leaders Say Surge is Wrong Strategy.
The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved from online.wsj.com/article/SB125960550353170023.html?mod=WSJ_hpp_MIDDLENexttoWhatsNewsTop.
Robert G, (2009). Rethink Afghanistan. Retrieved April 1, 2010 from http://www.nytimes.com/2009/03/23/movies/23gree.html .
Robert, (2008, August, 26). Taliban was "Underestimated." Retrieved April 2, 2010 from www.jihadwatch.org/2008/08/taliban-was-underestimated.html
Both World War I and II were world events that left territories, countries, nations, and individuals exhausted from the effort and from loss. These wars proved ultimately ironic when the term "the war to end all wars" proved tragically inaccurate with the outbreak of World War II. In addition to the devastation, however, were significant changes, developments and effects on the world and its paradigms. Decolonization, for example proved to be one of the most important effects. Whereas colonization was a mainly European paradigm as means of transport and new discoveries enabled increasing voyages across the world, the World Wars created the ability of territories to become autonomous, searching for their own identity rather than identities that were associated with those of their colonizers. For Italy, World War II also held its own specific events and paradigm shifts as the country became a territory affected by war and…
Terrorism elated Disaster Preparation Exercises
Terrorism-elated Disaster Preparation Exercises
In the recent years, terrorism has changed with the global sophistication, to complex and unmanageable standards. A country may consider itself a haven for its people, only to be surprised by a terrible terrorism attack. From these terror trends observed in different countries, governments must equip themselves with the necessary disaster management skills and equipment. Various disaster preparation activities can be undertaken to fight terrorism attacks. These disaster preparation exercises are meant to avoid or reduce terrorism casualties.
The foremost exercise should involve civic education on terrorism attacks. The public should be aware of what to do on receiving information on a planned terrorist activity, when in the midst of a terrorist attack or when in the aftermath of a terrorist activity (Bloomberg, Scoppetta, & Cassano, 2007). For instance, the public should be aware of the need to avoid an area…
Bloomberg, M.R., Scoppetta, N., & Cassano, S.J. (2007). Terrorism and Disaster Preparedness Strategy. Fire Department City of New York, 21-39.
Vasterman, P., Yzermans, C.J., & Dirkzwager, A.J. (2004). The Role of the Media and Media Hypes in the Aftermath of Disasters. Oxford Journals, 3-7.
Archives are a great way to research topics of interest pertaining to historical events and people of interest from the past. Depending on how extensive the archives are, they can truly help any aspiring researcher or historian to discover a new angle or new story within the countless archives and microfiches. Some archives do not possess variety. Some do. Some even have excellent and varied online access. The site used for this assignment is the Civil War Archives: http://www.archives.gov/research/military/civil-war/.
These archivers belong to a much larger grouping of archives concerning American history. They have many online links and online information easily in view. The website itself is easy to navigate for the user. Everything has references so research can pinpoint where the information originated.
The documents come from a series of areas such as the Union and Confederate army. Archives from this topic of interest come from Lee D. Bacon's…
Archives.gov,. (2015). Civil War Records. Retrieved 18 February 2015, from http://www.archives.gov/research/military/civil-war/resources.html#where
Air Force runs its supply chain, in particular with respect to supplier relationship management. The Blanchard article covers the same topic, but in a two page listicle sort of format. However, since they both cover roughly the same topic, they can be compared on the basis of the ideas that they put forth.
Chenoweth outlines some best practices in supplier management. These include managing suppliers on the basis of total business, not individual products; measuring supplier performance; involve key suppliers at early stages of design; host high-level meetings with suppliers; recruit skilled personnel and develop personnel so that they have knowledge of suppliers.
Blanchard has a slightly different take. It begins with an overall understanding of the supply chain as holistic entity, where decisions made in one aspect of the supply chain affect other aspects. There is some overlap with taking the approach that Chenoweth recommends of measuring suppliers on…
Blanchard (2009). 10 strategies for managing suppliers. Industry Week. In possession of the author.
Chenoweth, M., Moore, N., Cox, A., Mele, J., & Sollinger, J. (2012). Best practices in supplier relationship management and their early implementation in the Air Force Material Command. RAND Corporation.
Negotiation & Conflict esolution Successfully
Summarize the main points Fisher is making in each of these three chapters.
In these chapters, Fisher sets forth the Principled Negotiation concept. This section summarizes the main points Fisher is making in each of these three chapters. Fisher's recommends that an aggressive negotiator adopt principles in the most appropriate way to the opponent. The principled negotiator should inquire about the opponent's concerns, display he or she is aware of these issues, and asks the opponent to identify all issues. After discovering all interests, Fisher suggests inducing the aggressive negotiator to discuss options and to think from the angle of objective criteria in making decisions.
In the chapters, Fisher provides that another way of propelling a principled or integrative negotiating is to think from the perspective of pacing, matching, modeling, and leading. To convince the competitors to change orientations, they must feel as completely understood…
Fisher, R., Ury, W., & Patton, B. (2011). Getting to yes: negotiating agreement without giving in (3rd ed., rev. ed.). New York: Penguin.