Mind Body Connection Essays (Examples)

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Mind-Body Problem- Descartes the Discussion Over the

Words: 801 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14397867

Mind-Body Problem- Descartes

The discussion over the relationship between mind and body that has been intriguing philosophers for a long time is divided into two broad categories: dualism and monism. According to dualism mind and body are two separate substances. There are several types of dualist views including parallelism, epiphenomenalism, occassionalism and interactionism. John Locke and ene Descartes are among those who laid the foundation of this idea. Whereas Locke and Descartes believed in Dualism, there were other famous philosophers and thinkers who supported monism. Monism refers to the theory that mind and body are inseparable and thus one is influenced by the other.

Aristotle, Hobbes, Hegel and Berkeley were some of the well-known theorists who believed in monism though their views differed slightly. Monist arguments were in direct contrast with dualist views but it is Philosophical writings of ene Descartes (1596-1650) and his dualism theory that paves the way…… [Read More]


Flew A. (1979): A Dictionary of Philosophy, London: Pan Books Ltd.

R. Rorty,(1980) Philosophy and the Mirror of Nature: Princeton.
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spirituality mind body'spirit and transpersonal psychology

Words: 1264 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14949061

A: Integration of Mind/Body/Spirit
The integration of body, mind, and spirit can create harmony and healing. In fact, the integration of body, mind, and spirit can also take into account culture and ethnicity to provide holistic care. There is no one way to integrate body, mind, and spirit, but multiple modalities that each person can choose to use at different points to address their own needs. Some body-mind-spirit integration practices like yoga or tai chi can also be divorced from their religious and cultural contexts to provide all people with access to their benefits (Luskin, 2004). Although there is some evidence starting to emerge showing how these types of practices lead to measurable or at least observable outcomes in patients, it is important for healthcare practitioners to focus more on phenomenological approaches and qualitative methods than on the potentially futile quest for quantitative data proving the efficacy of practices like…… [Read More]

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Mind Freedom and Konwledge

Words: 1709 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53706534

Mind, Freedom and Knowledge

Descartes argued that that all humans had both a body and mind, and that the mind was eternal while the body was subject to physical and material laws. The universe was divided between the mind and matter, and the physical world could be explained by mathematical and scientific laws. Hobbes, Locke and other political and philosophical theorists of the 17th Century were also influenced by the new scientific thought of Descartes, Galileo and William Harvey to one degree or another, and had to incorporate them into philosophy (Ryle, p. 251). Ryle denied that any "ghost in the machine" existed, of that the immortal soul somehow operated the physical body. He admitted that explaining the link between bodies and minds was very difficult, although behaviorists had come to understand that expressions indicate moods and emotions, while vision, hearing and motion are all based on sensory inputs being…… [Read More]

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Relationship of Mind and Body

Words: 1482 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52159162

Much as in Mary Shelly's Frankenstein, the Monster has no memory of who he was in parts, only of who he is as a whole distinct person, although that abnormal brain certainly didn't help his feedback system.

Shelly, not our Shelly but Frankenstein's', reminds us that human beings are not just machines and trying to simply piece them together as if the parts are the only concern rarely works out well. However, is Frankenstein the ubermensch that Neitize talked about? If so there are certainly some problems. Of course this is metaphorical, in our experiment Smelly has been pieced together a bit, but more from a teleological standpoint in trying to ascertain the meaning of personality rather than the meaning of life. But in a sense there is also some reality to this metaphor. The scientific breakthroughs in cloning organisms and genetic manipulation, as well as this Smelly situation, certainly…… [Read More]

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Educating Mind Educating Heart Educating the Heart

Words: 753 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44612731

Educating Mind Educating Heart

"Educating the Heart and Mind"

The legacy of the philosophy of Aristotle is a significant one that traverses many traditions and messages both ancient and modern (Buckingham & Finger 1997) (Sarah 2001). One of the most significant and enduring of his messages is that associated with the quote, "educating the mind without educating the heart is no education at all." This message is particularly resonate within the helping professions of health care and particularly important for the education of physicians. The reasons for this are many but most significantly learning the materials that make it possible to become a physician is a formidable task as the massive amount of knowledge required dominates one's education. There is so very much knowledge that must be obtained and much of it is extremely scientific and cerebral leaning such education toward people with an aptitude to think scientifically and apply…… [Read More]


Buckingham, H, & Finger, S 1997, 'David Hartley's psychobiological associationism and the legacy of Aristotle', Journal Of The History Of The Neurosciences, 6, 1, pp. 21-37, MEDLINE, EBSCOhost, viewed 27 October 2011.

Illing, RB 2004, 'Humbled BY HISTORY', Scientific American Special Edition, 14, 1, pp. 86-93, Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost, viewed 27 October 2011.

Sarah, B 2001, 'G E.M. Anscombe, 81, British Philosopher', New York Times, 13 January, Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost, viewed 27 October 2011.
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Mozart and the Mind

Words: 1924 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97930149

Mozart Effect by Don Campbell, published by HarperCollins in 1997 and again in 2001, posits the theory that listening to Mozart's music can help to boost one's IQ. The theory is based on interviews and studies conducted by researchers, from which Campbell produces the general notion that music has a "healing" quality to it and can be used to improve one's overall life.[footnoteRef:1] Campbell points to the 1993 study by psychologist Francis Rauscher, who showed that listening to Mozart's sonata for two pianos helped to improve the spatial-temporal skills of the listener for about the next ten to fifteen minutes after listening to the music.[footnoteRef:2] Rauscher's study spurred more researchers to examine the relationship between music and intelligence. Campbell's book is essentially an overview of these studies with some analysis about the way that Mozart and music in general can improve one's ability to think, reason, and enjoy mental health.…… [Read More]


Campbell, Don. The Mozart Effect. NY: HarperCollins, 2001

Jenkins, J.S. "The Mozart Effect," Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, vol. 94, no.

4 (2001): 170-172.

Kyziridis, Theocharis. "Notes on the History of Schizophrenia," German Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 8 (2005): 8-24.
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Mind and the Brain There Are Several

Words: 2513 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51475426

Mind and the Brain

There are several theories that have been proposed for explaining the relationship between one's mind and brain. If truth be told, it can be said that it is one of the most talked about philosophical fields.

Mind vs. Brain

Mind and brain are interrelated. For a majority of people, there is no difference between the two. Many scientists and philosophers hold the belief that the brain and the mind are one and are inseparable. These two words are mostly used as alternatives of each other. In general, brain is regarded as a physical object whereas mind is considered as a mental thing (Prabhat, 2011).

The brain is made up of hundreds and thousands of nerve cells and blood vessels. On the other hand, mind being an unseen item is not composed of any cells or vessels. Whilst the brain has a distinct shape of its own,…… [Read More]


Brain. (2009). In The Columbia Encyclopedia (6th ed.). New York: Columbia University Press. Retrieved July 23, 2012, from Questia database:  http://www.questia.com/ PM.qst?a=o&d=117007959

Carreira, J. (2011, November 03). Mind is not Brain. Retrieved July 23, 2012 from http://evolutionaryphilosophy.com/2011/11/03/mind-is-not-brain/

Clark, T. (n.d.). Is there Any Difference between the Mind and the Brain?. Retrieved July 24, 2012 from  http://www.scribd.com/doc/2451851/Is-There-a-Difference-Between-the-Mind-and-Brain 

Gyatso, V.G.K. (2012). What is the Mind?. Retrieved July 23, 2012 from  http://kadampa.org/en/reference/what-is-the-mind/
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Body Art Among Men and

Words: 1465 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5493

Clinicians who are aware of these findings are better able to treat pierced patients without any social biases, and they are more aware of the need to provide counseling in relation to the importance of not relying on lay opinion on medical issues and in relation to the fact that patients with one piercing should be made aware that they may regret subsequent piercings.

The connection between impaired urine flow in connection with penile piercings suggests the need for additional studies in relation to specific procedures and piercing placement to minimize that potential complication. Other areas of further study include the possible connection between different types of sexual experimentation, risk-taking behavior, and earlier onset of first sexual experience among those with intimate body piercings.

Caliendo, C., Armstrong, M., & oberts, a. (2005). "Self-reported characteristics of women and men with intimate body piercings." Journal of Advanced Nursing, 49(5), 474-484.

Article Summary…… [Read More]


Armstrong, M., Roberts, a., Owen, D., & Koch, J. (2004). "Toward building a composite of college student influences with body art." Issues in Comprehensive Pediatric Nursing, 27(4), 277-295.

Caliendo, C., Armstrong, M., & Roberts, a. (2005). "Self-reported characteristics of women and men with intimate body piercings." Journal of Advanced Nursing, 49(5), 474-484.
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Soul and Body in Plato

Words: 2790 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66086048

In other words, like Plato, the body is inferior and its substance is irrelevant for true and certain knowledge. The intellect with its faculties (judgment, imagination, memory, free will, etc.) is most important.

The sixth meditation is the crucial one. He shows the body as "an extended, non-thinking thing" (VII: 78). This is accepted as being close to who he is, but not as close as the mind part. "And accordingly," he says, "it is certain that I am really distinct from my body, and can exist without it" (VII: 78). In other words, the mind and the body are separate, not dependent on each other. This is not exactly an argument for the immortality of the soul in the Platonic way. but, as Wilson says, "He now determines that there is no reason why the death or destruction of the body should entail the death or destruction of the…… [Read More]


Annas, Julia. Plato: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003.

Descartes, Rene. Meditations on First Philosophy with Selections from the Objections and Replies. Trans. And ed. John Cottingham. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996.

Kim, Jaegwon. "Mind-body problem, the." In the Oxford Companion to Philosophy, ed. Ted Honderich, 579-580. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1995.

Plato. Republic. Trans G.M.A. Grube. Rev C.D.C. Reeve. Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing, 1992.
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Mental Representations and the Mind-Brain

Words: 2282 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16628063

Mental epresentations and the Mind-Brain elationship


The Dualism Argument

Pure Materialist Viewpoint


Visual Stimuli vs. Speech stimuli

Descartes Point-of-View

Neurons and Synapses

Mental epresentations and the Mind-Brain elationship

In cognitive (neuro) science all through the last few decades, as in philosophy in the last 100 years, the issue of the mind-body (or mind-brain) occurrences is still open to discussion. Illogically, ever since Descartes nobody has suggested a workable alternate view of this problem. esearchers and thinkers have offered some approaches, yet none has gained the assent of the majority of thinkers. During a person's daily toils the separation that goes on between an individual mind and consciousness is hardly ever thought about or talked about. But then again it is the primary cause for the majority of your existence problems. This separation is not even a recognized fact, as consciousness and mind seem to…… [Read More]


Baars, J.B. (2013). An architectural model of consciousand unconscious brain functions: Global workspace theory and IDA. Neural Networks, 20, 955-961.

Bartels, A. (2010). Visual perception: Converging mechanisms of atten-tion, binding, and segmentation. Current Biology, 7(9), 56-78.

Gabbard, G.O. (2013). Mind, Brain, and Personality Disorders. American Journal of Psychiatry, 34-45.

Sevush, S. (2013). Single-neuron theory of consciousness. Journal ofTheoretical Biology, 21(9), 704-725.
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Body and or Its Senses in

Words: 1846 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6375494

We always find that personal library embraces its distinct structures as well as meanings, which can be either through mental traces or highlighting the answers and the questions that happens to thread through it. However, the bulk of an individual's reading such as newspaper will never form a personal library not unless an individual posses the foresight and the discipline to copy or clip it. Intellectual life will be more aided by a digital personal library.

Generally personal library will always be made up of documents that have been read by the owner, maybe using annex for the documents that he might wish to read. There could be an amplified intellectual life in case somebody finds it easy to the materials they once read, by use of non-specific sketchy summary of it (in addition to a single striking point of a distorted memory) finds its way back to the mind.…… [Read More]


Aristotle, the Nicomachean Ethics ('Ethics'), Harmondsworth: Penguin (1976). Retrieved July 1, 2013.  http://infed.org/mobi/aristotle-on-knowledge/ 

GE.M. Anscombe, "Modern Moral Philosophy" (1958) .Retrieved July 1, 2013.  http://www.philosophy.uncc.edu/mleldrid/cmt/mmp.html 

Philip E. Agre, Supporting the Intellectual Life of a Democratic Society. (2001). Retrieved July 1, 2013.  http://polaris.gseis.ucla.edu/pagre/intellectual.html 

Tad Beckman, "Aristotle" Harvey Mudd College, (1999). Retrieved July 1, 2013. http://www4.hmc.edu:8001/humanities/beckman/philnotes/arist.htm
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Mind Baby Contrary to Popular Belief Sex

Words: 1078 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33939667

Mind, Baby

Contrary to popular belief, sex and sexuality has been present in popular music for at least the past 60 years. Since the age of "oldies" -- which in this discourse is defined as the "doo wop" period of the 1950's and the 1960's and which hearken to tunes such as "Blue Moon" and "Angel Baby" -- the lyrics of songs have included elements of sex. However, in much the same way that other forms of art -- particularly those with a pervasive appeal as disseminated through media such as film and television -- have modified their presentation to go from subtle implications to overt displays of a graphic nature, the tendency to portray sex in popular music has gone from what began as implicit references that required the upper reaches of the imagination to fully understand, to blatant references of a carnal nature that oftentimes are noticeably deficient…… [Read More]


Pac. (1996). "How Do You Want It." All Eyez On Me. Los Angeles: Death Row.

Klein, M. (2010). "When Music Turned To Sex -- And Changed The World." Psychology Today. Retrieved from  http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/sexual-intelligence/201004/when-music-turned-sex-and-changed-the-world 

Goffin, G., King, Carol. (1961). "Will You Love Me Tomorrow" [Recorded by The Shirelles]. Backtrackin'. Manhattan: Scepter.
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Mind and Human Behavior Theories

Words: 4187 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33968140

Mind and Human Behavior

Define and discuss a particular theory of consciousness

Consciousness can be best grasped in context as a facet of an interactive wakeful state wherein most cognitive processing occurs non-consciously. However, on combining non-conscious and conscious processing in the wakeful state, how can we differentiate one from the other, how can consciousness be defined, and what purpose does it serve? The conclusions drawn with respect to the former question critically influence how the latter question is answered. What property makes a state non-conscious rather than conscious? This section will support the argument that, out of all possible answers commonly put forth (i.e., accessibility, intentionality, reflexivity, subjectivity), the element-- reflexive, auto noetic-consciousness -- is the only one observed solely in the state of consciousness (Peters, 2013).

The Quantum Theory of Consciousness

The consciousness issue has opposed traditional approaches, in which the human brain is perceived as a computer…… [Read More]


Albensi, B.C. and Janigro, D. (2003).Traumatic brain injury and its effects on synaptic plasticity. Brain Inj. 17(8): p. 653-63.

Anderson, J. R. (1990). Cognitive psychology and its implications. New York: Freeman.

Cerasoli, C. P., & Ford, M. T. (2014). Intrinsic Motivation, Performance, and the Mediating Role of Mastery Goal Orientation: A Test of Self-Determination Theory.JournalOf Psychology, 148(3), 267-286. doi:10.1080/00223980.2013.783778

Eccles, J. S., & Wigfield, A. (2002).Motivational beliefs, values, and goals.Annual Review of Psychology, 53, 109-132.
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Stress and Exercise

Words: 619 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43324416

Managing Stress Exercise

Managing Stress through Physical Exercise

hat is the importance of flushing stress hormones out of the body according to Seaward? hat are the specific effects of physical exercise on managing and preventing stress?

During a period of exercise, the body is responding to stress hormones the way it was intended to. Stress hormones on the body generally prompt something of a fight or flight trigger. Using exercise to burn out the energy caused by the stimulus to the stress can be an effective method of dealing with stress. Exercise has been shown to reduce the level of cortisol in the body and even effect mood. Exercise attacks stress in two ways, according to Matthew Stults-Kolehmainen, Ph.D., a kinesiologist at the Yale Stress Center (Menlinck, 2013):

He says "that raising one's heart rate can actually reverse damage to the brain caused by stressful events: "Stress atrophies the brain…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Mayo Clinic Staff. (2012, July 12). Exercise and stress: Get moving to manage stress. Retrieved from Mayo Clinic:  http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-living/stress-management/in-depth/exercise-and-stress/art-20044469 

Menlinck, M. (2013, May 21). How Does Exercise Reduce Stress? Retrieved from The Huffington Post:  http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2013/05/21/exercise-reduces-stress-levels-anxiety-cortisol_n_3307325.html
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Emily-Rose Had Just Turned 36 and Was

Words: 870 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 640390

mily-Rose had just turned 36 and was in her first semester at university when her world began to crumble. This could not have come at a worse time as she has always looked forward to doing a Health Studies degree. Her friends and family were alarmed at the sudden moodiness, insomnia, fatigue, headaches, confusion, joint and muscle pain, nausea & #8230;and above all, the enduring feeling of tiredness she complained of.

mily-Rose has suddenly changed from a happy woman to someone who battled daily episodes of what she calls extreme tiredness and anxiety. In the first three weeks of starting university, her husband Harry and sons, Brian and Bob have put this down to overwork at university and firmly told her to "slacken up a bit." Although she tried a new relaxation regime suggested by her friend Anita, she still complained of daily episodes of overwhelming tiredness and general malaise.…… [Read More]

Even in the west we have a relatively new field, psychoneuroimmunology (PNI) that suggests a connection between mind and body. In 1964, psychiatrist George Solomon noticed that patients with rheumatoid arthritis got worse with depression. His reasoning was that the mind has an impact on inflammation and on the general immune system.

Another physician, Herbert Benson, later showed how medication could affect blood pressure and he coined the term "relaxation response." Mind -- body connection was becoming increasingly popular and reached further publicity when Robert Ader in 1975 showed the impact that the mind (and cognitions as well as mental state) had on the immune system.

Today, the mind has achieved a larger place in Western medical practice, although conventional medicine still battles with its principals and, in many places, denies its exclusive veracity. There are some areas that are still in doubt
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Daily Hassles Scale Beck Depression Inventory and

Words: 1266 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82418322

Daily Hassles Scale; Beck Depression Inventory; and Ways of Coping Questionnaire

The Daily Hassles and Uplifts (HSUP) scale, created by ichard S. Lazarus and Susan Folkman, measures participants attitudes about daily events characterized (by them,) as either "hassles" or "uplifts." Instead of focusing on potentially stressful events as overwhelming and frustrating, the tool provides participants with a way in which they can regard them as life-changing thereby growth producing, and positive. The Uplifts scale suggests positive aspects of daily life and counteracts stress and consists of three scales: the Hassles scale, the Uplift scale, and the Combined scale.

The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI, BDI-II), created by Dr. Aahron Beck, is a 21-question multiple choice self-inventory (each item scored on a scale of 0-3) and one of the most widely used instruments for measuring depression. It believes that depression stems from cognitive attitudes and breaks depression into three categories: affective, physical,…… [Read More]


Beck AT, Steer RA, Ball R, Ranieri W (December 1996). "Comparison of Beck Depression Inventories -IA and -II in psychiatric outpatients." Journal of personality assessment 67 (3): 588 -- 97.

Lazarus, R. & Folkman, S. Hassles & Uplifts. Mind garden  http://www.mindgarden.com/products/hsups.htm 

Lazarus, R. & Folkman, S. Ways of Coping Questionnaire Mind garden  http://www.mindgarden.com/products/wayss.htm 

Pearson. BDI-II. Assessment & Information
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Joint Commission to Determine the Spiritual Needs

Words: 1152 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93194028

Joint Commission

To determine the spiritual needs of patients and the impact it is having on their treatment options requires focusing on four different questions. These include:

What are the long-term effects of using spiritualism with modern medicine?

Is there some kind of balance that must be maintained during this process?

How can health care professionals incorporate these ideas into their overall philosophy of improving treatment options?

What are the possible drawbacks of using these solutions in conjunction with each other?

These different areas are important, as they will provide specific insights about the long-term effects of spirituality with modern medicine. It is at this point, when key insights can be used to enhance the quality of care patients are receiving.

Write a brief summary of your assessment findings

The different resources that were examined are illustrating how there are conflicting opinions about the best approaches for combining spirituality and…… [Read More]


Bradshaw, A. (1994). Lighting the Lamp: The spiritual dimension of nursing care. London: Scutari Press.

Draper P. (1998). The debates emerging from the literature surrounding the concept of spirituality as applied to nursing. Journal of Advanced Nursing. 27 (4), pp. 683-691.

Hay, D. (2002). The spirituality of adults in Britain: recent research. Scottish Journal of Healthcare Chaplaincy. 5

(1), pp. 4-10.
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Sartre or Descartes Theory

Words: 783 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84547484

Sartre or Descartes Theory

Descartes' Theory on Mind and Body

Descartes thought that the mind and body were two different substances. He supported that by proclaiming that he could doubt the existence of his body (physical reality), but he could not doubt the existence of himself (Clarke, 2006). He believed that indicated that he was not identical to his body, and that they were two separate things. The reason he could not doubt his existence as a being of some type who could think was due to the fact that the very act of considering the issue meant that he had to be some type of thinking being (Duncan, 2008). The issue here is that Descartes is focused o how the mind and the body have to be two different substances because they are not identical to one another. If they were identical, all of the properties they share would…… [Read More]


Clarke, Desmond (2006). Descartes: A Biography. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Duncan, Steven M. (2008). The Proof of the External World: Cartesian Theism and the Possibility of Knowledge. Cambridge: James Clarke & Co.
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Somatic Psychology the Somatic Relationship

Words: 4540 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41758563

This was a clear gap in the research that was examined. The proposed research study will attempt to fill this gap by examining the importance of the adult child and parent relationship and its affect on the physical body.

Methodologies found

A number of different study methods were found amongst the studies in the literature review. Many of the studies that examined the use of psychotherapy with the treatment of a condition used a comparative study method. Clinical trials used a comparative study method in most cases. However, studies that were found to be theoretical in nature tended to use either a qualitative interview method or quantitative study methods.

No single method of study was found to be more prevalent in the group studied during the literature review. The method selected was highly dependant on the subject matter and the research question being asked in the study. no single method…… [Read More]


Baranek, G. (2002). Efficacy of Sensory and Motor Interventions for Children with Autism.

Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. 32 (5): 397-422).

Birditt, K., Miller, L., Fingerman, K., and Lefkowitz, E. (2009). Tensions in the parent and adult child relationship: Links to solidarity and ambivalence. Psychol Aging. 24(2):287-95.

Burkhardt a, Rudorf S, Brand C, Rockstroh B, Studer K, Lettke F, & Luscher K. (2007). When
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Psychological Factors in Health Traditional

Words: 1772 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80328946

Ultimately, it may be the greatest measure of humanity that we recognize that the relevance of animal sentience in relation to our needs is not a function of their similarity to us or of our chosen relationships with them.

orks Cited

Coren, Stanley. (1995). The Intelligence Of Dogs: A Guide To The Thoughts, Emotions,

And Inner Lives Of Our Canine Companions. New York: Bantam

Gatchel, Robert J.; Polatin, Peter B.; and Kinney, Regina K. "Predicting Outcome of Chronic Back Pain Using Clinical Predictors of Psychopathology: A Prospective Analysis." Health Psychology, 1995 14 (5): 415-420.

Hoffman, Benson M.; Papas, Rebecca K.; Chatkoff, David K.; and Kerns, Robert D.

"Meta-Analysis Of Psychological Interventions For Chronic Low Back Pain."

Health Psychology, 2007 26 (1): 1-9.

Jensen, Maureen C.; Brant-Zawadzki, Michael N.; Obuchowski, Nancy; Modic, Michael

T. Malkasian, Dennis, and Ross, Jeffrey S. "Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Lumbar Spine in People without Back…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Coren, Stanley. (1995). The Intelligence Of Dogs: A Guide To The Thoughts, Emotions,

And Inner Lives Of Our Canine Companions. New York: Bantam

Gatchel, Robert J.; Polatin, Peter B.; and Kinney, Regina K. "Predicting Outcome of Chronic Back Pain Using Clinical Predictors of Psychopathology: A Prospective Analysis." Health Psychology, 1995 14 (5): 415-420.

Hoffman, Benson M.; Papas, Rebecca K.; Chatkoff, David K.; and Kerns, Robert D.
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Nurse Training in Cardiac Procedures

Words: 9322 Length: 30 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74651339

The procedure itself and the hospital stay associated with it is only one small chapter in the patient's life. They will eventually go home and will have many years after the procedure. It is important for the nursing staff to make a positive impact on how they feel about the procedure. The procedure will represent a lasting memory to the patient. If the patient perceives this to be a time of strength and care from nurturing individuals then it will help them to be able to develop the coping mechanisms necessary to learn to live with the after-effects of the procedure.

If the patient sees this as a negative experience, then it could produce unwanted effects such as depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, or other emotional problems that could have an effect on their ability to cope with the life changes. Those that develop appropriate coping mechanisms will be more likely…… [Read More]


Knoll, N., Rieckmann, N., & Schwarzer, R. (2005). Coping as a mediator between personality and stress outcomes: A longitudinal study with cataract surgery patients. European Journal of Personality, 19, 229-247.

Lippke, S., Ziegelmann, J.P., & Schwarzer, R. (2004). Initiation and maintenance of physical exercise: Stage-specific effects of a planning intervention. Research in Sports Medicine, 12, 221-240.

Lippke, S., Ziegelmann, J.P., & Schwarzer, R. (2004). Behavioral intentions and action plans promote physical exercise: A longitudinal study with orthopedic rehabilitation patients. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 26, 470-483.

Lippke, S., Ziegelmann, J.P., & Schwarzer, R. (2005). Stage-specific adoption and maintenance of physical activity: Testing a three-stage model. Psychology of Sport & Exercise, 6, 585-603.
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The Psychology of Adolescents

Words: 1507 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65106667

Yoga to Psychology

List your goals for the activity undertaken.

My goals for the activity undertaken are to come up with a study design whereby I can target the efficaciousness of introducing a yoga class -- or the very least a series of yoga exercises -- into the adolescent psychology unit that I am tasked with maintain. I need to determine if implementing such a measure can help to assist with the recurring problem in which the students are too inactive.

What is the problem and the problem statement?

The principle problem is that the students I work with in my psychology unit are much too inactive. These students face lengthy days at the facility in which they are treated. However, the majority of their days do not involve any sort of true activity. The problem statement is: the students I work with in my adolescent psychology unit are frequently…… [Read More]


Archer, S. (2015). Mind-body personal training. IDEA Fitness Journal. 12(7), 72-81.

Otto, V. (2014). Yoga for P.E.: engaging high school students physically and mentally. The Journal of Physical Education, Recreation and Dance. 85(2), 19-23.

Ridhwan, R., Singh, C.A. (2014). Effect of yogic activities on the aggression of secondary school students. International Journal of Sports Sciences & Fitness. 4(2), 193-200.
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Unresolved Stress Corrections Unmitigated and Unresolved

Words: 6020 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72863211

Our findings show that social and psychological aspects of work situations are indeed significant risk factors for coronary heart disease, but not in the manner that might initially be supposed. While the psychological demands of work, along with time pressures and conflicts, are found to be significant sources of risk in many of our studies, work that is demanding (within limits) is not the major source of risk. The primary work-related risk factor appears to be lack of control over how one meets the job's demands and how one uses one's skills. In many cases, elevation of risk with a demanding job appears only when these demands occur in interaction with low control on the job. Other research has shown that regular physical exertion has positive effects on cardiovascular health in many situations (although physical hazards can of course pose major health threats beyond our stress perspective). Thus, in our…… [Read More]


Black, S. (2001, October). CORRECTIONAL EMPLOYEE Stress & Strain. Corrections Today, 63, 83.

Black's work demonstrates a great introduction to stress in general, as it applies to the individual and community as well as specific information about stress in the field of corrections. This article is an excellent introduction to the material of this research as well as to a better understanding of how stress is playing out all over the field of corrections.

Devito, P.L. (1994, July). The Immune System vs. Stress. USA Today (Society for the Advancement of Education), 123, 27.

Devito offers a great description of the history of stress, its definitions and the fundamental and seminal research and ideology that applies to stress. The mind/body connection is traced through this work to give the reader and researcher a good idea of the holistic expression of unresolved stress in one's health and well-being.
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Perception Seeing and Knowing Beauty

Words: 854 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96330257

This "seeing" of something that was not there, and that was of course absolutely known to be missing to the subject, helped the brain reconcile itself to the body's new shape and thus remove the need for the pain centers of the brain to continue to send phantom waves of pain. In just a few minutes, amachandran's subjects could overcome pain that had in many cases haunted them for years and even decades.

amachandran based this breakthrough on an established understanding that "that there's a complete map of the body's surface on the surface of the brain." However, the way in which the body is mapped on the surface area of the brain is not as straightforward as scientists had once expected, as amachandran explains:

So every point on the body's surface has a corresponding point in the brain. Now the curious thing about this map is, even though it's…… [Read More]


Ramachandran, V.S. (2011). The Tell-Tale Brain. New York W.W. Norton & Co.

V.S. Ramachandran's Tales of the 'Tell-Tale Brain'. Retrieved from  http://www.npr.org/2011/02/14/133026897/v-s-ramachandrans-tales-of-the-tell-tale-brain
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Self-Learning Style Assessment

Words: 1447 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29165613

1983, Howard Gardner challenged conventional views of teaching and learning styles with his book, Frames of Mind. Gardner hypothesized that the skill-sets of different people are directly correlated to their learning styles. It was from this that he developed the theory of multiple intelligences. Within this theory there are seven intelligences, linguistic intelligence, musical intelligence, logical-mathematical intelligence, spatial intelligence, bodily-kinesthetic intelligence, and what are known as intra and inter-personnel forms of the personal intelligences.

The following paper is an assessment of the intelligence which represents my personal learning style. It is clear this style is best represented by the bodily-kinesthetic intelligence.

This intelligence is related to physical movement and the knowing/wisdom of the body. Including the brain's motor cortex, which controls body motion. ody/kinesthetic intelligence is awakened through physical movement such as in various sports, dance, physical exercises as well as by the expression of oneself through the body, such…… [Read More]


Tutoring Strategies to Use with Tactile/Kinesthetic Learners. Retrieved February 24, 2003, from Cedar Crest College Academic Advising Center. Website: http://www2.cedarcrest.edu/acadadvising/tactile_strategies.html

Kinesthetic Learners. Retrieved February 24, 2003, from Berkshire.org. Website: http: / / www.cc.berkshire.org/studentlife/ssas_kinesthetic_learners.html

Learning Styles: A Multiple Intelligences Approach. Retrieved February 24, 2003, from Learning Style Inventory. Website: http://pss.uvm.edu/pss162/learning_styles.html

Kinesthetic Learning Style. Retrieved February 24, 2003, from girlsite.org. Website: http://www.girlsite.org/Html/minds/quiz/kinesthetic.htm
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Psychology and Health Problems Psycholgy

Words: 812 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19379167

In that study, women who suffer from migraines were determined to be much more likely than women who did not suffer from migraines to maintain more self-critical attitudes, and to magnify negative perceptions, as well as to be less inclined to solicit support from others.

Dr. John Sarno describes his own experience with the link between psychological factors, in particular, repressed anger and hostility, in the onset of migraine headaches.

According to Sarno, he suffered from migraines for six years at a time when his medical responsibilities and family life caused him a great deal of stress. After reading about the possible connection between repressed anger and migraines, he began focusing on conscious recognition of possible sources of his anger whenever he experienced the visual disturbances that normally precipitated his own migraines. To his surprise, his migraines never again materialized, even though he still experiences the visual disturbances to this…… [Read More]


Pavoratti, L. (1982) Pavoratti: My Own Story.

Warner Books: New York

Sarno, J. (1998) the Mindbody Prescription: Healing the Body, Healing the Pain.

Warner Books: New York)
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Psychiatric Diagnosis in This Chapter

Words: 849 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91457325

16), an indication that the brain and the body are sorts of partners when it comes to thought, emotion and psychopathology.

The next section discusses descriptive syndromal diagnosis, "a complex of signs and symptoms resulting from a common cause or in combination" (Lambert, 2005, p. 332) versus a well-established and knowable disease. For example, an illness like Alzheimer's has a "sufficiently well-established pathogenesis," while the symptoms of an illness/disorder like a specific phobia is often circumscribed, i.e., a mixture of various traits and characteristics (DSM-

IV Guidebook, 1995, p. 16). Following this section, the guidebook goes into exploring seven specific modes of diagnosis -- "Nosology: Categorical vs. Dimensional Diagnosis," "Polythetic vs. Monothetic Criteria," "Multiple Diagnoses and Comorbidity," being "a combination of abnormal condition and quality" (Glanze, 2000, p. 770), "Clinical vs. esearch Criteria," "Core vs. Discriminating Features," "Level of Clinical Inference in Criteria Sets," and lastly, "Diagnostic Tests as Criteria."…… [Read More]


(1995). Conceptual issues in psychiatric diagnosis. Chapter 2. DSM-IV Guidebook. American Psychiatric Press.

Denison, M.J. (2003). The science of knowledge and knowing. New York: Blackwell


Glanze, Walter D. (2000). Mosby's medical, nursing and allied health encyclopedia.
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Wishing to Pursue Graduate Study Dr Paul

Words: 1820 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79455352

Wishing to Pursue Graduate Study

Dr. Paul Farmer of Partners in Health was asked in an interview if he knew at a young age what he wanted to do or if it was an idea that evolved over time. He replied: "You can…grow into what you want to do…grow into your aspirations." I took that to mean that personal experiences can open our eyes to possibilities and that small successes can focus our attention on goals that once seemed too lofty. I have learned the importance of taking one step at a time and striving to excel in every stage before reaching for the next level. Like a rock climber, I have also learned to visualize my next handhold -- and picture myself achieving that goal even as I reach for it.

Despite some difficult life circumstances, I have been graced by my origins and my experiences as an immigrant.…… [Read More]

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Embodied Cognition Movement What Is it and What Is Its Significance

Words: 713 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76205955

Cogition Movement

The embodied cognition movement

The embodied cognition movement: What is it and what is its significance?

The embodied cognition movement in psychology and philosophy seeks to challenge the conventional ways in which the mind-body connection is viewed. "The kind of embodied cognition we advocate is the claim that the brain, while important, is not the only resource we have available to us to generate behaviour. Instead, the form of our behaviour emerges from the real-time interaction between a nervous system in a body with particular capabilities and an environment that offers opportunities for behaviour and information about those opportunities" (Thompson 2012). Embodied cognition theory can thus be distinguished from previous movements in psychology such as psychoanalysis, with its tendency to emphasize the mind alone and behaviorism, which tends to emphasize the 'shaping' influences of stimuli in the environment upon the mind. Advocates of embodied cognition theory, in other…… [Read More]


Cowart, M. (2015). Embodied cognition. Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved from:


McNerney, S. (2011). A brief guide to embodied cognition: Why you are not your brain.

Scientific American. Retrieved from:  http://blogs.scientificamerican.com/guest-blog/2011/11/04/a-brief-guide-to-embodied-cognition-why-you-are-not-your-brain/
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Environmental Theory and Emancipatory Knowledge

Words: 5800 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66395592

Nightingale met a friend Richard Monckton Miles in 1842. Then in 1844, Nightingale asked Dr. Howe if she could do a charitable job in a hospital like the catholic nuns, and refused her marriage to her cousin, Henry Nicholson. By 1845, Nightingale started training herself in the nearby Salisbury Hospital, but her parents were not happy about it, seeing nursing as an inappropriate job for a well to do woman like their daughter. In the next year, Nightingale began teaching herself from the government blue books. In the meantime, Monckton Miles wanted to marry her, but soon she travelled to Rome, Italy with friends to avoid him. Britain unlimited, 2009). Finally, after she attended the Herbert's Charmouth convalescent home, her knowledge was recognized. In 1849, after refusing finally to Miles proposal, she decided to go to Egypt while accompanying her friends, the Bracebridges. They then travelled through Europe, and ended…… [Read More]

(Source: Cody, 2006, p. 259).

Differences Between Nightingale's Theory and Emancipatory Knowing -- When Nightingale thought about the benefits of a well-ventilated room, she was not basing her view on previous knowledge. Emancipatory progress is now evident in the way world healthcare approaches a patient's room -- typically well-ventilated and clean (Beck, 2005, pg. 140). Nightingale was born in an era were by women has very little voice most of the work done by women were in-house work so most of Nightingale's major innovation was providing place for women to work with and for women (Selanders, 2005, pg., 83). Today with Emancipatory knowledge we see a more educated workforce of both men and women in nursing. Although in the late 19th century there were still arguments regarding Nightingale's visions, today's theorists use her broad-based knowledge as a best -- practice template for modern conceptions (Attewell, 2005).

The Legacy of Nightingale Part 1 -- Nursing Ethics -- Most modern ethical theorist are based on traditions dating back as far as Ancient Greece. However, medical, and in particular nursing, ethics are clearly a post-Nightingale logical evolution (never a conclusion). The philosophical combination of advocacy and ethics, while still remaining true to the realities of budgets and the need for a medical institution to
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Managing Mental Illness Variations of

Words: 1875 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9189453

One aspect of a goal attainment program researched within the content of an article by Ng & sang, is group therapy work, where individuals are offered the opportunity to self-reflect through the group process to help assimilate "normal" behaviors and reasonable goals into their own hoped for future.

raditional psychiatric rehabilitation programs focus on 'problems' and 'negatives' of individuals and tend to ignore strengths and assets (Hagedorn, 1992). Unlike the traditional approach, this program uses a holistic and client-centered approach (Rogers, 1984) which helps individuals establish future directions in home and work resettlement. he Goal Attainment Program focused on the participants' future expected life roles and social functioning in relation to the environmental context (i.e. their 'participation level', according to the International Classification of Impairment, Disability and Handicap (ICIDH-2) of the World Health Organization). he program emphasized the needs and positive aspects of individuals (Rogers, 1984), as well as the…… [Read More]

Traditional psychiatric rehabilitation programs focus on 'problems' and 'negatives' of individuals and tend to ignore strengths and assets (Hagedorn, 1992). Unlike the traditional approach, this program uses a holistic and client-centered approach (Rogers, 1984) which helps individuals establish future directions in home and work resettlement. The Goal Attainment Program focused on the participants' future expected life roles and social functioning in relation to the environmental context (i.e. their 'participation level', according to the International Classification of Impairment, Disability and Handicap (ICIDH-2) of the World Health Organization). The program emphasized the needs and positive aspects of individuals (Rogers, 1984), as well as the attainment of self-esteem in the self-actualization hierarchy (Maslow, 1970). The program is based on the belief that each individual has the potential to control his/her life and to choose what he/she wishes to become. With this belief, change can only take place when the individual finds the meaning in himself/herself. Positive change can occur throughout life. The role of therapist is to facilitate the willingness to change (Hagedorn, 1992). This study also used Frankl's (1946/1992) belief that the most basic human motivation is the will to meaning. (Ng & Tsang, 2002, p. 59)

Self-control and self-esteem cannot be learned in a vacuum, as individuals have little if any comparison models, which given them hope for their own future, if they are isolated from society. Group therapy settings can allow the individual to create a reasonable set of hopes that can build social health and help the individual learn how to develop coping skills for their positive, rather than negative future in the community where they live. Group therapy is an essential tool for this attainment, as the intense interaction within groups helps individuals see and feel what it might be like to confront the steps and stages of social growth while commiserating with others who have the same or similar obstacles, i.e. mental illness management, as they themselves have.

Managing Mental Illness: Variations of Group Therapies in the Literature
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Bach Flower Dr Edward Bach and the

Words: 2226 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38012005

Bach Flower

Dr. Edward Bach and the Bach Flower emedy System: Background

Edward Bach devised and compounded a system of plant-based homeopathic-style tinctures for emotional and psychological healing. The Bach flower system was the first of its kind and remains the most thorough set of homeopathic remedies for mental and emotional distress. Falling within the umbrella of complementary medicine, Bach flower remedies can and often should be a part of the professional healer's arsenal of interventions. The 38 different remedies have been used in a number of different health care settings, from nursing and midwifery to psychiatric care (Mantle, 1997). "There is no scientific evidence that any Bach flower remedy produces a medicinal effect, and there is some evidence that the method does not work," ("Bach Flower emedies," 2013). esearch on the Bach flower remedies has been disappointing. One study tested the impact of Bach flower remedies on pre-test anxiety…… [Read More]


The Bach Centre (n.d.). Retrieved online:  http://www.bachcentre.com/centre/remedies.htm 

Bach, E. & Wheeler, E.J. (1997). The Bach Flower Remedies. Essex: The Bach Flower Centre.

Bach, E. (1936). The Twelve Healers and Other Remedies. London: C.W. Daniel.

"Bach Flower Remedies," (2013). Sahara Surgery Center. Retrieved online:  http://saharasurgery.com/your-health/?/37428/
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a'skin condition called vitiligo

Words: 632 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92982591

Vitiligo is a skin condition characterized by loss of pigmentation in blotches. The cause of vitiligo is the death of melanocytes, the cells that are responsible for producing melanin. According to the National Institutes of Health and the National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (NIAMS, 2014), the cause of vitiligo remains unknown. There is some speculation that vitiligo is an autoimmune system disorder, but the condition may also be caused by genetics (NIAMS, 2014). According to the American Academy of Dermatology (2017), the vitiligo is correlated with autoimmune diseases, and a person is at a higher risk for vitiligo if a family member also has the condition. Exposure to the sun may also be an issue, as the skin areas affected by vitiligo tend to be those that are most exposed such as hands and face.

The primary signs of the disease are visible. The most noticeable…… [Read More]


American Academy of Dermatology (2017). Vitiligo: An overview. Retrieved online:  https://www.aad.org/public/diseases/color-problems/vitiligo 

NIAMS (2014). What is vitiligo? Retrieved online:  https://www.niams.nih.gov/health_info/vitiligo/vitiligo_ff.asp
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APN Compare the Scope of

Words: 2900 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2876012

Summarize Complementary Therapies and the APNs ole in guiding their Inclusion in Treatment Plans.

Complimentary therapies are a part of the practices which are utilized to help patients to improve their underlying state of health and reduce the need for long periods of hospitalization. In most cases, this allows them to receive continuous treatment on an outpatient basis. Some of the most notable include: chemotherapy, kinesiology, nutrition / diet, focusing on the mind / body connection and psychological treatment options. These different areas are important, as they will help patients to understand other tools they can utilize in dealing with their condition. This is giving them a sense of empowerment by comprehending what is occurring and the best approaches for addressing these challenges over the long-term. (Mezey, 2003) (Naylor, 2010)

The APNs role is to suggest other therapies they can use during the process and help to supervise the patient.…… [Read More]


Cronenwett, L. (2009). Quality and Safety Education. Nursing Outlook, 57 (6), 338 -- 348.

Fitzpatrick, J. (2003). Managing Your Practice. New York, NY: Springer.

Hughes, R. (2008). Patient Safety and Quality. Rockville, MD: Agency for Research and Health Care Quality.

Jansen, M. (2010). Advanced Practice Nursing. New York, NY: Springer.
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Behavioral Health Changes

Words: 997 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17130032

Behavioral Health Changes

Behavioral health, rehab, and detox diagnoses: eimbursement and treatment philosophy

Although mental and physical health statuses are clearly interrelated, mental health diagnoses are treated differently both on a social and institutional level. According to the AHA Task Force on Behavioral Health (2007) one-fifth of patients who suffer a heart attack are also found to suffer from major depression. Depression after a heart attack significantly increases the likelihood of a patient dying from a second attack and mental health issues and heart problems are often co-morbid (Behavioral health challenges, AHA2007:1) However, despite this 'mind-body' connection, reimbursement services have been problematic, particularly for case management services and services provided by non-physicians, but also for more standard forms of mental health care for many patients (Mauch, Kautz, & Smith 2008:2).

Patients with all forms of health insurance have faced considerable obstacles in accessing high-quality mental health care. The privately-insured often…… [Read More]


ARMS. (2013). MGH-Harvard Center for Addiction Medicine (CAM). Retrieved from:


Barkil-Oteo, A. (2013). The paradox of choice: When more medications mean less treatment.

The Psychiatric Times. Retrieved:
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Efficacy of Unexpected Interventions

Words: 918 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24803293

Psychological Interventions Chronic Pain

Medical science is increasingly aligning with a biopsychosocial treatment perspective that understands pain and symptoms as coming from multifaceted experience characterized by the complexity that is inherently human (oditi & obinson, 2011). Many vectors come together in this biopsychosocial perspective: the physicological and emotional state of the individual tend to dominate, garnering most of the medical attention these variables align with conventional medical and behavioral training (oditi & obinson, 2011). In addition, the influence of culture, ethnicity, and society on the interpretation of health and disease are important considerations (oditi & obinson, 2011). The literature on mind-body connection provides strong evidence of the impact that an individual's emotions can have on their behavior and, interestingly, provides findings that the reverse can also be true (oditi & obinson, 2011).

Chronic pain is considered to be an illness from a biopsychosocial perspective, and not a disease (oditi &…… [Read More]


Bishop, S.R. (2002). What Do We Really Know About Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction. Psychosomatic Medicine, 64:71-84.Bishop, (2002).

Elkins, G., Jensen, M.P., & Patterson, D.R. (2007). Hypnotherapy for the Management of Chronic Pain. Int J. Clin Exp Hypn, 55(3):275-287.

Guzman, J., Esmail, R., Karjalainen, K., Malmivaara, A., Irvin, E. & Bombardier, C. (2007). Multidisciplinary bio-psycho-social rehabilitation for chronic low-back pain. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 2.

Goossens, M.E.J.B., Vlaeyen, J.W.S., Hidding, A., Kole-Snijders, A. & Evers, S.M.A.A. (2005). Treatment Expectancy Affects the Outcome of Cognitive-Behavioral Interventions in Chronic Pain. Clinical Journal of Pain, 21(1): 18-26.Kjellgren, A., Bood, S.A., Axelsson, K., Norlander, T. & Saatcioglu, F. (2007). Wellness through a comprehensive yogic breathing program -- a controlled pilot trial. BMC Complimentary and Alternative Medicine, 19, 7: 43.
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Beautiful Mind a Film

Words: 981 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96225476

Beautiful Mind" -- a Film

John Forbes Nash, Jr., an American Nobel Prize-winning mathematician, is such a notable individual that he is the subject of a book, a PBS documentary and a film. The film A Beautiful Mind (Crowe, et al. 2006) eliminates aspects of Nash's life and rewrites other aspects revealed in the book and documentary, possibly to make Nash a more sympathetic character for the audience. However, the film remains true to a consistent theme: in an individual's quest for satisfaction through self-fulfillment, the abnormal can also be the extraordinary.

The book and PBS documentary tell John Forbes Nash, Jr.'s story "from the outside looking in," immediately noting his abnormality in that he is a paranoid schizophrenic. The film takes a different approach, "from the inside looking out," so we experience the world as Nash experiences it and do not realize until half-way through the film that he…… [Read More]

Works Cited

A Beautiful Mind. Directed by Ron Howard. Performed by Russell Crowe, Jennifer Connelly, Ed Harris and Paul Bettany. 2006.
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Philosophy of Mind Consciousness Is

Words: 2529 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62642592

A reductive explanation of consciousness will explain this wholly on the basis of physical principles that do not themselves make any appeal to consciousness. According to materialism, consciousness is the direct result of brain activity. Nonreductivism admits the existence of consciousness as part of the explanation. Nonmaterialism, on the other hand, views consciousness as an essential but nonphysical part of the human being. In order to emphasize the nonphysical nature of consciousness, Chalmers offers a number of convincing arguments against materialism.

The Explanatory argument holds that at most, structure and function can be explained by physical arguments relating to the brain and its connections, and as seen above, these do not sufficiently explain the manifestations of consciousness. It follows that consciousness cannot be explained by physical account. The conceivability argument holds that entities without any consciousness - such as zombies, for example - could exist. All their physical functions would…… [Read More]


Chalmers, David J. (2002). Consciousness and its Place in Nature. Research School of Social Sciences: Australian National University.  http://consc.net/papers/nature.pdf 

Knapp, Stephen. (no date available). Consciousness: The Symptom of the Soul. How it interacts with but is separate from the body.  http://www.stephen-knapp.com/consciousness_the_symptom_of_the_soul.htm
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Armstrong Arguing Mind Brain Disticntion a

Words: 827 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37948325

rmstrong arguing mind . brain disticntion a distinction a difference (akin a distinction a kleenex a tissue)? Does adequately explain human conduct?

rmstrong - mind theories

There is much controversy regarding the difference between mind and brain, as while some support the belief that the mind has nothing to do with the brain because there is nothing physical about the former's functioning, others consider that the mind and the brain are basically the same thing. ccording to ustralian philosopher David Malet rmstrong, it is safe to say that the mind and the body are one and the same, particularly when considering each of them to be "that in which mental processes occur' or 'that which has mental states'" (rmstrong, 1993, p. 1). People are typically inclined to believe that the mind is not physical because it is seen (through history) as an entity that has no physical shape, being the…… [Read More]

All across the twentieth century, a number of philosophers shifted their attention from the belief that the mind had actually been immaterial and came to think of it as being material and actually being physically connected to the body, given that it is part of it. Armstrong in particular lobbies for people to accept that mental processes should be associated to psychico-chemical statuses present in the nervous system. Exemplifying this through the connection between DNA molecules and living cells, Armstrong demonstrates that mental processes can be likened to DNA molecules, physically influencing the body (Armstrong, 1993, p. 358).

If mental processes are equivalent to physico-chemical processes in the central nervous system, it means that they are also responsible for human behavior. People are generally inclined to believe that there is no connection between the mind and the brain because they cannot understand how a process that is purely physical is capable to determine complex thinking (Armstrong, p. 358).

In general, people who are reluctant to accept materialist theories do so because they have not yet been acquainted with a machine that is capable to produce processes like the ones generated by the mind. However, once they are aware that such mechanisms exist, they are likely to abandon their mentalist convictions and embrace materialist theories, certain that there is nothing more to the mind than purely physical processes (Armstrong, p. 358).
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Asian Thought Psychologically Minded Responses to Asian Thought Readings

Words: 4657 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54314097

Western civilization has been developing according to a set of coordinates that are entirely separated from the ones of its Eastern counterpart. The focus of this paper is to propose subjective psychologically-minded interpretations to a series of Asian stories and poems extracted from the traditions of Hinduism, Buddhism and Taoism.

The storyline of Searching for Buddha begins with the account of a monk's lengthy and arduous journey towards finding Buddha. When he finally locates Buddha's whereabouts, he finds that he needs to cross a river in order to reach the region of destination. Therefore, he solicits the help of a boatman. On waiting to get across, the monk notices something floating on the river, right towards the boat. As it gets closer, the floating object is revealed to be the monk's very own dead body, and the shock of the realization sends the traveler into a fit of distress. The…… [Read More]

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Subtle Body Simple Straightforward Definition

Words: 1039 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25982819

Meditation is clearly a way not necessarily to get in touch directly with the subtle body, but to level up with spirits that can give you access to it.

G. Seeman, quoting Henry Corbin, refers to "three worlds of experience in the teaching of Shiite philosophers Qadi Sa'id": the phenomenal world, the suprasensible world 9 unperceptive to senses) and the cognitive imagination world. From a bodily perspective, these correspond to the physical, subtle and absolutely physical levels. A visit to the Temple of the Ka'bah is essential in order to coordinate the three subtle body levels in one's existence. Again Corbin explains that "for the mystical pilgrim, the pilgrimage and the rites of pilgrimage performed at the Temple of the Ka'bah have a direct configurative action on the formation of his body of light, on his body's malakut."

However, according to the Islamic medieval mystic thinker and alchemist, Shaikh Ahmad…… [Read More]


1. Seeman, Gary. INDIVIDUATION and SUBTLE BODY - a Commentary on Jung's Kundalini Seminar. PACIFICA GRADUATE INSTITUTE. September 2001.

2. The Trikaya or Three (or Four) "Bodies" (Dimensions of Existence) of the Buddha-State. On the Internet at http://www.kheper.net/topics/Buddhism/trikaya.htm

3. Wolf, Jason. The Subtle Bodies. On the Internet at http://www.kheper.net/topics/subtlebody/the_subtle_bodies.htm

4. Completing the Global Renaissance:the Indic Contributions. On the Internet at  http://www.infinityfoundation.com/indic_colloq/colloq_mission_long.htm
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Hurting the Body for the

Words: 1059 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50968970

Glucklich also stresses that these examples of "sacred pain" are not limited to time or geography.

In a more in depth analysis of the phenomena Glucklich quickly demonstrates that unlike is commonly believed, by people who are not entirely aware of the current religious lives of many different cultures would like to believe, all this "sacred pain" is not sheltered by the past, as if we are far to intelligent a world to continue with such a practice.

A few years ago I visited Israel during the Passover holiday. I was watching television one night with a friend and the staterun network ran a show on several Easter practices. One practice that caught our attention was a ritual crucifixion in a small Philippine town. e were shocked to see volunteers being nailed to crosses, then lifted high up above a crowd of devoted onlookers. My friend, Jacob Goren, who is…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Flagellants" The Catholic Encyclopedia online at  http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/06089c.htm 

Glucklich, Ariel. Sacred Pain: Hurting the Body for the Sake of the Soul. New York: Oxford University Press, 2001.

Glucklich, Ariel, "Sacred Pain and the Phenomenal Self" Harvard Theological Review, Vol. 91, No. 4 (Oct., 1998), pp. 389-412.
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Beautiful Mind by Silvia Nasar The Real

Words: 3030 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42354423

Beautiful Mind by Silvia Nasar: The Real Story Of Schizophrenia

For anyone who has seen the film A Beautiful Mind John Nash comes across as a man troubled by schizophrenia, yet able to achieve success in his life. hile his illness does cause him significant problems, he is still able to achieve greatness via his game theory, to manage a long-lasting relationship where his wife loves him unconditionally, to achieve social acceptance where his colleagues accept his condition, and to receive the ultimate career achievement in winning the Nobel prize. The film even shows Nash succeeding over his schizophrenia and become able to control it and cure himself. This depiction presents Nash's story as one full of positives where his struggle with schizophrenia and his life is seen in a romantic light. To see the real truth of schizophrenia, it is better to read Sylvia Nasar's biography of Nash titled…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Herbert, R. "Drama in four acts: 'Beautiful Mind' author follows tragedy." The Boston Herald January 18, 2002: 14-15.

Nasar, S. A Beautiful Mind: The Life of Mathematical Genius and Nobel Laureate John Nash. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2001.

Nash, J. The Essential John Nash. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2001.

Seiler, A. "Beautiful' movie skips ugly truths." Chicago Sun-Times January 26, 2002: 71.
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How Anger Affects the Brain and Body

Words: 718 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86883808

Anger and Its Effects

Anger is a very intense feeling, and can be characterized by a number of behaviors. These include grinding teeth, an increased heart rate, rising blood pressure, clenched fists, and other signs of aggravation or frustration (Hendricks, et al., 2013). Each person reacts to anger in a different way, and some of the manifestations of anger may not be outwardly apparent. ises in blood pressure and heart rate, for example, are not easily noticed by others, but they can still be very damaging to the person who is struggling with the anger itself (Hendricks, et al., 2013). People also get angry for a number of different reasons, and they may react in an angry manner when they feel hurt, threatened, frustrated, or disappointed (Hendricks, et al., 2013). This is a relatively natural reaction for the majority of people, but that does not mean it is healthy or…… [Read More]


Hendricks, L., Bore, S., Aslinia, D., & Morriss, G. (2013). The effects of anger on the brain and body. National Forum Journal of Counseling and Addiction, 2(1): 2-11.
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Dwellings Body Home City The

Words: 1824 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73452688

If they can change the fundamental beliefs of the tribe, then they can control the natives more easily: "The white man is very clever. He came quietly and peaceably with his religion. e were amused at his foolishness and allowed him to stay. Now he has won our brothers, and our clan can no longer act like one. He has put a knife on the things that held us together and we have fallen apart" (Achebe 152). Confronted with change, individual members of Ibo society react differently. Those who stand to gain from change -- the outcasts, the oppressed -- welcome it. Those who have risen to positions of authority by following the old way -- Okonkwo, for example -- resist change. The battle between the old and the new is highlighted by the arrival of Christian missionaries and colonial authority. Okonkwo and Obierika recognize that many of their clansmen…… [Read More]

Works cited:

1. Achebe, Chinua. Things Fall Apart. Anchor, 1994.

2. Conrad, Joseph. Heart of Darkness. Dover Publications, 1990.

3. Plato. "Apology." The Collected Dialogues of Plato: Including the Letters. Princeton University Press, 2005.

4. Plato. "Crito." The Collected Dialogues of Plato: Including the Letters. Princeton University Press, 2005.
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How Every Body Matters Helps Make Us Better Healthier Christians

Words: 1635 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2657115

Gary Thomas shows how taking care of the body can assist in developing the spiritual strength and characteristics that Christians require for a strong relationship with God. The book consists of 15 chapters and an epilogue. Throughout, Thomas uses different individuals as examples of how improving one's body is a first step towards a more healthy spiritual life. For example, Thomas uses the example of the obese preacher, who realizes his unhealthy body weight is actually turning people off from the message of God. He also uses the example of the woman suffering from a terrible divorce who begins to develop her spiritual strength by training for a marathon. In every example, there is a direct relationship between how individuals treat their bodies and how they treat their spiritual life. What Thomas suggests is that the spiritual life needs to be worked out just as the body does, and that…… [Read More]


Thomas, Gary. Every Body Matters. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 2011.
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Powerful Connection Between Visuals and Words in

Words: 964 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34260010

powerful connection between visuals and words in storytelling. Before doing the research to write this essay, it never occurred to me place words in a hierarchy above images, so I confess to some surprise at the debate over which should be considered more important. I began my research with the premise that the two are equal; different yes, but equal certainly. And nothing that I discovered in my survey of literature on the subject has changed my mind.

The saying "A picture is worth a thousand words" sums up the debate over the relative importance of images vs. words. This statement was clearly made by someone who believes in the primacy of images. Based on my research, however, it would seem that proponents of the position that images are more important to communication than words appear to be in the minority.

There is no question that Sandra Martin believes that…… [Read More]

Works Cited

"A Bridge Falls: I-35W Bridge Collapse." Star Tribune Feb. 2008.

Lester, Paul Martin. "Syntactic Theory of Visual Communication." California State University, Fullerton. 5 August 2011

Moriarty, Sandra. "Visual Communication as a Primary System." Journal of Visual Literacy 14:2 (1994): 11-21. 5 August 2011 <  http://spot.colorado.edu/~moriarts/primelang.html >
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Media Negatively Effects the Body Image Concerns of Adolescent Girls

Words: 1518 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68105579

Media Negatively Affects the Body Image Concerns of Adolescent Girls

Among adolescent girls, body image concerns are not uncommon. The hypothesis of this paper believes that media negatively affects the body image concerns of adolescent girls. The independent variable is the adolescent girls and the dependent variable is the media. This is because adolescent girls can be affected by a lot of other things when it concerns body image, this can come in the form of their peers, society and even history. These variables can affect the concerns on body image of adolescent girls in both a positive and a negative way. However, this paper will only discuss the negative affects which body images are supplied by media to adolescent girls with.

The theoretical approach which best suits this study is the Psychodynamic Approach. This is because the concerns regarding body images are implanted in the minds of these adolescent…… [Read More]


Anschutz, D.J., Van Strien, T., & Engels, R.C. (2008). Exposure to Slim Images in Mass Media: Television Commercials as Reminders of Restriction in Restrained Eaters. Health Psychology. 27(4); 401-408.

Cheng, H.L. & Mallinckrodt (2009). Parental Bonds, Anxious Attachment, Media Internalization, and Body Image Dissatisfaction: Exploring a Mediation Model. Journal of Counseling Psychology. 56(5); 365-375.

Clark, L., & Tiggemann, M. (2008). Sociocultural and Individual Psychological Predictors of Body Image in Young Girls: A Prospective Study. Developmental Psychology. 44(4); 1124-1134.

Dohnt, H. & Tiggemann, M. (2006). The Contribution of Peer and Media Influences to the Development of Body Satisfaction and Self-Esteem in Young Girls: A Prospective Study. Developmental Psychology. 42(5); 929-936.
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Hopfield Networks Anns and Mind Maps

Words: 1749 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99962517

Hopfield Network and Human Learning

[Author Name(s), First M. Last, Omit Titles and Degrees]

The Hopfield network exists as an idealized, yet simple model of what is called attractor neural net dynamics. It translates well to mathematical examination. However, it is not compatible with practical computational intelligence or detailed neural modeling. Nevertheless, just like with everything, it can be modified. With modifications, the standard Hopfield net can then be used to implement continual learning through placing a cap on absolute values of link weights allowing effective functioning of the Hopfield net. There are of course some drawbacks, meaning it may be required for maintenance of the network for a large number of neurons to continually shift windows of memories.

A Hopfield network is a type of continuing artificial neural network made popular in 1982 by John Hopfield. Although Hopfield made it popular, it was described by Little, earlier in 1974.…… [Read More]


Chemero, A. (1998). A Stroll Through the Worlds of Animats and Humans: Review of Being There: Putting Brain, Body and World Together Again by Andy Clark. The Philosophical Review, 107(4), 1-10. Retrieved from  http://www.theassc.org/files/assc/2369.pdf 

Cromley, J. (2000). Learning To Think, Learning To Learn: What the Science of Thinking and Learning Has To Offer Adult Education. NIFL Literacy Leader Fellowship, Program Reports, Volume IV, Number 1. ED Pubs, P.O. Box 1398, Jessup, MD 20794. Tel *** (Toll Free); E-Mail: - --; Web Site:  Http://Www.Ed.Gov/Pubs/Edpubs.Html . For Full Text: Http://Www.Nifl.Gov/Activities/Cromleyb.Htm., 4(1), 1-226. Retrieved from  http://eric.ed.gov/?id=ED440258 

Kasabov, N. (2014). NeuCube: A spiking neural network architecture for mapping, learning and understanding of spatio-temporal brain data. Neural Networks, 52, 62-76.  http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neunet.2014.01.006 

Maurer, A., Hersch, M., & Billard, A. (2005). Extended Hopfield Network for Sequence Learning: Application to Gesture Recognition. Proceedings Of ICANN"05. Retrieved from  http://infoscience.epfl.ch/record/60062
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Plea to the Hearts and Minds of

Words: 4130 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42448624

plea to the hearts and minds of people who are being knowledgeable of the distinctive qualities and assert from the Episcopal Church. The charm from the Church tends to be realized all over our land. Its extensiveness of empathy for every situations of people, the highly convincing perspective regarding the joys of life, the liberty from peculiarity of practice and faith, have unveil the Episcopal Church to the awareness of a lot of people whose religious association have been interfered with or destabilized. e always come across some evident problem, Steve Klein (2007), which makes a lot of people not to join the Episcopal Church. The Church tends to be rather odd, or cold, or complex. It tends not to fulfill the condition that training which is done earlier results to majority anticipation in a church. The services are somehow rigid and obscure; the ways are complex; it has strange…… [Read More]


Episcopal Church "The Columbia Encyclopedia" sixth edition, Columbia University Press 2001.

Episcopal Church "Encyclopedia Britannica" Enclopedia Britannica. Inc. Retrieved. 2007

Steve Klein," The solution to Episcopal Church Problems" by Vista Church of Christ. 2007.

Sydnor William,"Looking at the Episcopal Church" USA. Morehouse Publishing.1980
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Reducing Stress Through Intentional Measures

Words: 1419 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12125227

stress conjures up different things for different people, yet stress is a universal: everyone experiences stress throughout their life. Stress can be both good and bad depending on how it impacts the person who is experiencing the stress, and what other variables are present in the person's life at the time. Stress can result from positive happy events in people's lives, such as when a new baby is born. Stress can also result from negative contexts or conditions over which people do not have control. Some types of stress and some ways of responding to stress are associated with higher levels of disease. Naturally, on the flip side, some ways of responding to stress actually serve to reduce the stress and the negative impact that the stress has on the individual person. Regardless of what people would like to believe or deny, stress impacts every aspect of people's lives: emotional,…… [Read More]

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Descartes and Aquinas

Words: 3378 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40140722

Aquinas and Descartes

The discourse on the relationship between mind and matter and between human being and nature has been a pervasive theme throughout the history of Western philosophy. The philosophical views of Thomas Aquinas and Rene Descartes represent diametrically opposed aspects of this problem.

From Aristotle, Aquinas derived the concept of matter, not as an inert subject but having the potential to attain form. Aquinas does recognize the distinction between form and matter and stated that all physical creations have these two aspects. However, matter is not something separate and distinct but has the potentiality for actualization. In his commentary on Aristotle's De Anima he stated that, "Matter is that which is not as such a 'particular thing,' but is in mere potency to become a 'particular thing. " (K. Foster et al. 215)

In order to understand the often complex issue of Aquinas and the relationship between humanity…… [Read More]


Anscombe E. And Geach P. ( Trans) Rene Descartes .'Reply to the Fourth Set of Objections," reprinted in Descartes' Philosophical Writings, (Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill,1971).

Brinton, Crane. Ideas and Men: The Story of Western Thought. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1963.

Blackburn, Simon. The Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 1996.

Boas, George. Dominant Themes of Modern Philosophy, a History. New York: Ronald Press Co., 1957.
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Bruner's Constructivist Theory and the Conceptual Paradigms

Words: 3441 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3905232

Bune's constuctivist theoy and the conceptual paadigms of Kolb's Expeiential Leaning theoy dawing on the associated theoies ae Kinesthetic and Embodied Leaning. As also noted in the intoductoy chapte, the guiding eseach question fo this study was, "What ae the caee paths fo teaching atists seeking to deploy into the field of community at and development?" To develop timely and infomed answes to this eseach question, this chapte povides a eview of the elevant pee-eviewed and scholaly liteatue concening these theoetical famewoks to investigate the diffeent caee paths teaching atists seek to deploy into the field of community at and development, including ceative community building and adult community centes such as woking with Alzheime's Disease and stoke victims.

Adult Leaning Theoies

Kolb's Expeiential Leaning Theoy. Thee ae a wide aay of theoetical models that can be used to identify and bette undestand teaching and leaning pefeences by educatos and students,…… [Read More]

references to improve coaching and athletic performance: Are your players or students kinesthetic learners? The Journal of Physical

Education, Recreation & Dance, 80(3), 30-34.

Fowler, J. (2013, March). Art rescue in a troubled world. Arts & Activities, 153(2), 36-39.

Kerka, S. (2002). Somatic/embodied learning and adult education: Trends and issues alert. ERIC

Kessler, R. (2000). The soul of education: Helping students find connection, compassion, and character at school. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum
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Spiritual Care Practices

Words: 639 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88018180

Spiritual Care Practices

Mitchell, Andrea. (2011), Focusing on mind, body, and spirit while caring for patients and their families. Critical Care Nurse, (31), 69-70.

How did the transport nurse manage the patient's physical needs?

What is so extraordinary about the story of the transport nurse, as related in Mitchell (2011) is the degree to which the nurse, even while dealing with the emotionally-fraught situation of a critically ill patient going to view the body of his dead wife, was able to be mindful of Mr. L's physical needs. For the journey, the patient Mr. L was initially switched to a travel ventilator. However, when he did not tolerate this, the nurse suggested a manual resuscitation bag instead, although the travel ventilator was still brought along during the transport. The transport nurse carefully monitored the patient throughout the visitation. During the ceremony at the chapel where his wife's body was present,…… [Read More]

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Complementary and Alternative Therapies the

Words: 681 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88901352

In addition to this situation, a variety of situations exist in which the spirit may influence illness. Asian philosophies often discuss the spirit's relation to the body and illness, suggesting that those who can maintain their spirits also do a service to their bodies. For example, the ancient art of Shiatsu teaches that the body, mind, and spirit are all connected by energy, and that the Hara, located in the abdomen, is the center of the body that connects it to the spiritual world. Thus, by "centering" oneself, illness, pain, and even mental anguish can be overcome. Asian medical and spiritual arts like Shiatsu have come to influence the modern movement based on what is termed the law of attraction. This theory suggests that all living things are made of energy, and so the creation of positive energy through positive thoughts and an open spirit leads to better health.

While…… [Read More]

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Enduring Concern and Its Historical Conceptions

Words: 1891 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85204314

Conceptions of an Enduring Issue

elationship between Body and Mind/Soul - Aristotle and Descartes

Aristotle modeled hylomorphism as a fusion of form and matter or soul and body as two elements of one solid being. Aristotle viewed the body's form to be the soul and the soul's matter to be the body. Descartes' dualism separates matter and mind (also soul) and recognizes that the two constitute a person. The two philosophies both subscribed to the view that the mind or soul was located centrally in a person. Aristotle believed that the soul resided in the heart while Descartes believed that the mind was located in the brain. The mind and soul were seen to be interacting with the rest of the body, albeit not clearly in Descartes' case. Aristotle's theory advanced a deep connection between the two and it is probable that he considered the faculty of the soul called…… [Read More]


Chaffee (2011).The philosopher's way: thinking critically about profound ideas. Retrieved from  http://www.pearsonhighered.com/showcase/chaffee3e/assets/chaffee_ch3.pdf 

Cohen, S.M. (2008). Aristotle on the Soul. Retrieved from  http://faculty.washington.edu/smcohen/433/PsycheDisplay.pdf 

Eltagouri, M. (2009). Immanuel Kant: Last Influential Philosopher of the Theory of Knowledge of the Enlightenment Era. Retrieved from  http://condino-gruppsaplitcompclass.wikispaces.com/Immanuel+Kant 

Fleming, J.S. (2008). The Nature of Human Nature: Philosophical Perspectives on Human Development. Retrieved from  http://swppr.org/Textbook/Ch%203%20Philosophy.pdf
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Gcc-Usc Organizational Meeting Report Global

Words: 2666 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22860242

He reacted perfectly appropriately and looked around behind him for a place to lean them on his other side that would not obstruct anybody else. Since he was sitting in an isle seat, he leaned them against the outer edge of his own seat. However, I could tell that more than one person nearby notice that the crutches were now almost certain to slide and eventually come crashing down on the floor or hit someone else nearby as they fell. Another person politely tapped the owner of the crutches and whispered something while gesturing and then he gently laid them down on the floor and slid them so that they were underneath the row of seats underneath their owner. From the combination of the verbal exchange, head nods, and hand gestures, I realized that the person who had alerted the student with the crutches had indicated to him that he…… [Read More]

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Psychology Throughout Its History Psychology Has Undergone

Words: 946 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9514623


Throughout its history, psychology has undergone a number of evolutions. As the study of mind, the discipline has necessarily been subject to change as new research revealed information about the functions of the mind and its effect upon behavior. elatively simple conclusions drawn by those who are currently considered the founding fathers of psychology have been challenged and modified to become the various subdisciplines in psychology that we know today. Along with what can be considered the "mental" trends in psychology such as the behaviorist, psychoanalytic, the cognitive, and the evolutionary approaches, it has also been recognized that psychology has a firm basis in physiology.

In about 1913, the focus of psychology up-to-date profoundly changed as a result of work by the American psychologist John B. Watson. In an effort to bring more scientific merit to psychology, Watson advocated that the study of behavior should be used to draw…… [Read More]


The Journal of Evolutionary Psychology (2006). Evolutionary Psychology. Retrieved from:  http://www.evolutionary-philosophy.net/psychology.html 

Oracle ThinkQuest. (2011) History of Psychology. Retrieved from: http://library.thinkquest.org/C005870/history/index.php?id=historyp1

Rossman, J. (2007, Dec 3). Biological Psychology: Foundations of Biopsychology. Associated Content. Retrieved from:  http://www.associatedcontent.com/article/428842/biological_psychology_foundations_of.html