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Comparing the Dominant Mixed Economy Models
Most of the world's economies today operate according to some form of mixed capitalism. The two extremes of the past centuries' world economies (Adam Smith's free-market economy and the Marxist-Leninist communist economy) have exerted enough pressure on the middle to create to some degree a mixed economy in nearly every nation. There are numerous terms for and ways to describe these mixed economies. One may call them socialist, fascist, corporatist, welfare states, command capitalist, etc. The fact is that no single term really captures the essence of today's main economic models. This paper will compare the dominant models of mixed economies that nations of the world have adopted.
The dominant models of mixed economies may be seen in the American School (or "National System"), the Nordic Model (or "universal" system), the French Dirigisme Model, and the Japanese Post-ar Model. Each of these…
"American School." Answers. Web. 12 Feb 2013.
"Dirigisme." Answers. Web. 12 Feb 2013.
"Japanese Post-War Economic Miracle." Answers. Web. 12 Feb 2013.
Because of the free-price system, trading exists in various degrees thus causing a lack of organized trading system. Issues also indicate that market economy creates monolopies that threaten the competitiveness of goods and services. Therefore, the solution to such problem that market economy critics find is to support mixed economy because they need a structured and organized system of trading. But what can a mixed economy provide to the economic condition of a nation? To the proponents of mixed economy, this system can prevent unstable economic conditions because the economic system is controlled. A mixed economy presents both the faces of a free-market and capitalism where people have the right to choose which type of economic system they wish to implement in trading. Additionally, even if free-market also exists in a mixed economy, it is still limited which therefore continues to present a controlled economic condition.
These convergences lead to mixed economies.
Globalization and the U.S. Economy
Outsourcing is a result of the current globalization rate, due to rise of internet users and communication through broadband. In actual sense, outsourcing is inevitable, and no one is going to eliminate it any time soon, including the United States. However, outsourcing will mean loss of jobs in the United States, leading to a position where these jobs need to be replaced. This is because outsourcing results into competitive businesses, leading to profit and export increase and also increases the opportunities for investments in other countries, different from the source country such as the U.S. In the last decade manufacturing jobs have been moving out of the United States, and this can hardly be prevented. In fact, outsourcing of manufacturing jobs has greatly destroyed the middle class Americans, hence undermining the performance of their economy in general. Competition is…
Economy Status in 12 Months
In each economic system, entrepreneurs and managers combine together natural resources, labor, and technology to create and supply goods and services. Nations' political principles and civilization is replicated by the way in which these different elements categorize themselves. Karl Marx, the 19th century German economist and social theorist invented the term capitalist economy, by which United States is often referred to and this term depicts a system in which a small group of people manage large quantities of money or capital and make the most significant economic verdicts. Natural resources are the first elements of a nation's economic system. The second element is effort, which changes natural resources into goods. As both privately owned businesses and government play major roles, United States is said to have mixed economy. In fact, some of the most continuing discussions of American economic history concentrate on the virtual tasks…
Continuity and Change. U.S. Department of State's Bureau of International Information Programs. Retrieved from http://usinfo.state.gov/products/pubs/oecon/chap1.htm Accessed on 12 March, 2005
Fed official sees 2005 economy to grow 4%. 9 March, 2005. Retrieved from http://english.sina.com/business/1/2005/0309/23950.html Accessed on 12 March, 2005
How the U.S. Economy Works. U.S. Department of State's Bureau of International Information Programs. Retrieved from http://usinfo.state.gov/products/pubs/oecon/chap2.htm Accessed on 12 March, 2005
Kane, Tim; Hederman, Rea. Past. Present! Future? Economic growth in America. October 29, 2004. Retrieved from http://www.heritage.org/Research/Economy/wm601.cfm?renderforprint=1 Accessed on 12 March, 2005
"Both the U.S. side and the Mexican side replicate the political, economic, social, and cultural systems of their respective nation-states. At the same time, borderlanders have blended the structures, institutions, and life expressions of the two societies to create something novel and entirely theirs -- the ambiente fronterizo, or borderlands milieu. Today the area stands as a prime example of binational interdependence, providing striking evidence of the trend toward closer ties among the world's nations and societies" (Martinez, 1994)
Coleman, M., 2005, U.S. Statecraft and the U.S. - Mexico Border as Security/Economy Nexus, Political Geography, Volume 24, Issue 2, pp. 185-209
Hackenberg, ., 1997, the U.S.-Mexico Borderland in Century XXI, Culture and Agriculture, Volume 19, Number 3
Longley, ., December 2004, Illegal Immigration Costs California Over Ten Billion Annually, About U.S. Government Info
Martinez, O.J., 1994, Human Interaction in the Texas - Mexico Borderlands, University of Arizona, http://www.humanities-interactive.org/borderstudies/text/essay.html. Ast…
Coleman, M., 2005, U.S. Statecraft and the U.S. - Mexico Border as Security/Economy Nexus, Political Geography, Volume 24, Issue 2, pp. 185-209
Hackenberg, R., 1997, the U.S.-Mexico Borderland in Century XXI, Culture and Agriculture, Volume 19, Number 3
Longley, R., December 2004, Illegal Immigration Costs California Over Ten Billion Annually, About U.S. Government Info
Martinez, O.J., 1994, Human Interaction in the Texas - Mexico Borderlands, University of Arizona, http://www.humanities-interactive.org/borderstudies/text/essay.html. Ast accessed on March 28, 2008
Aside these impacts however, more salient effects are observable, such as a necessity to change internal practices of business. A relevant example in this sense is given by Wal-Mart, in its quality of America's largest retailer, which decided, unlike within the U.S., to allow Chinese employees to unionize (Dessler, 2006). The official approach of the Chinese leaders was that of implementing reforms which further capitalize on the low cost labor force advantage in order to continually attract investors.
5. The Market of Exchange ates
The final step of this analysis is constituted by the look at China's currency policies, in an attempt to reveal if the policies implemented have played any part in the country's competitiveness within the global market. China's currency, the yuan, was pegged to the United States Dollar in 1997, but the link only lasted until 2005. Since then, the mechanism of resetting the value of the…
Brasher, K., 2005, China's Opaque Currency Policy, the New York Times, http://www.nytimes.com/2005/07/22/business/worldbusiness/22assess.html last accessed on October 21, 2009
Bruton, G.D., Ahlstrom, D., Chan, E.S., 2000, Foreign Firms in China: Facing Human Resources Challenges in a Transnational Economy, SAM Advanced Management Journal, Vol. 65
Buckley, P.J., Clegg, J., Wang, C., 2002, the Impact of Inward FDI on the Performance of Chinese Manufacturing Firms, Journal of International Business Studies, Vol. 33
Cavanaugh, J., Mander, J., 2004, Alternatives to Economic Globalization: A Better World Is Possible, 2nd Edition, Berrett-Koehler Publishers, ISBN 1576753034
Important Insights Gained during Principles of Microeconomics
The principles of microeconomics deal with how houses, organizations and governments spend their money—and how their decisions and transactions impact the overall market economy. One of the principal assumptions of microeconomics is that people are rational and make rational decisions by weighing the pros and cons, costs and benefits of their financial decisions. This is straight out of rational choice theory (Frank, 2008), which states that people make decisions in their economic lives by comparing the costs with the perceived benefits. This is why consumers and organizations tend to respond favorably to economic incentives. The incentive to make a purchase or an investment decision appears like a greater benefit than the cost of doing so: they recognize that they are getting something positive in return for their transaction. Incentives help, whether it is a tax credit from the government for consumers who purchase…
ANOVA: Mixed Design ANOVA
Mixed Design ANOVA: ANOVA
Mixed Design ANOVA
None of the questions used in the week 1 assignment qualify for the mixed-design ANOVA; for this reason, I have selected an entirely new question from an entirely different subject -- back pain. Chronic back pain has become a serious problem for the health fraternity in America -- it is estimated that approximately 31 million Americans experience chronic back pain at any given time, and that over 80% of adults are poised to experience some form of backache at some point in their lives. Currently, back pain stands as the leading cause of disability in the country, with the economy losing over 450 billion dollars as a direct result of the same every year. In this paper, we focus on the treatment aspect of back pain. Acupuncture and massage are the two leading treatment modalities for back pain --…
Sukal, M. (2013). Research Methods: Applying Statistics in Research. San Diego, CA: Bridgepoint Education Inc.
4P's Marketing Mix
Nike Marketing mix
Nike as a company was initiated by two visionaries from Oregon, Bill Bowerman and a runner at that time for the University of Oregon Phil Knight. They were then working together in athletic with Knight being the runner supervised by Bill. Bill saw the endless possibilities that existed within people in terms of sports potential and it was with this that they set the tone for the company in 1972. This has remained the inspiration that runs the company to date and keeps the employees of the company from one generation to the other motivated to uphold the motto of the company (Nike, 2011). The company has grown from being a U.S. based footwear distributor to a mega world supplier of athletic shoes, equipment and apparel whose dominance is unrivalled in the entire globe.
The goal of the company is to have a legacy…
China CSR Map, (2011). Nike Sports (China) Co., Ltd. Retrieved November 23, 2011 from http://www.chinacsrmap.org/E_OrgShow.asp?CCMOrg_ID=737
Matthew Forney at.al., (2004). Marketing: How Nike Figured Out China. Retrieved November
23, 2011 from http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,995462,00.html
Marketing Mixx, (2011). Marketing Plan for Nike. Retrieved November 23, 2011 from http://marketingmixx.com/marketing-plan-2/164-marketing-plan-of-nike.html
" (Paczkowski, p. 1) This is possible because Merril Lynch will pay a subsidy of an additional 1200 shekels per handset in order to help initiate penetration of telecom service plans. In Saudi Arabia, iPhones start at roughly SAR 3499, a staggering $933.
As the price differentials show, Apple must make considerable adaptations according to that which each market will bear. That being said, Israel has already proven itself a promising site for fast expansion. According to Paczkowski (2009), "though Apple hasn't yet brought the iPhone to Israel, it's estimated that some 80,000 of them are in use in the country today. That's a remarkable metric and one that suggests Apple's super-smart phone should do quite well when it officially arrives at market in Israel this week." (Paczkowski, p. 1)
Reports suggest that Egypt's market will not be as inherently welcoming of the product. According to Inskeep (2012), competitors…
comScore. (2012). omScore Reports December 2011 U.S Mobile Subscriber Market Share. comScore.com.
Farivar, C. (2009). iPhone Coming to United Arab Emirates and Saudi Arabia. MacWorld.
Inskeep, S. (2012). And Now for the Lighter Side of Egypt's Revolution. NWPR.org.
Kee, E. (2011). Saudi Arabia bans iPhone and Samsung Galaxy Tab at security institutions. Ubergizmo.
Principles of Marketing
Anthony L. Hamilton Sr.
Dr. Kay Green
Establishing a New Business
The business name will be "Bird Wise" and provides a pet-related service. It will be located in Florida with the plan to expand services to new markets in the regional area as well as to develop a national online presence.
The mission statement of the company is: "To help people improve their relationship with their companion birds by providing the people the skills to reduce unwanted behaviors and increase wanted behaviors in their birds."
The primary objectives of the business are as follows. First, develop a professional network of referrals through vets, pet shops, bird breeders, humane societies, and bird clubs. The second objective will be to develop a web presence using direct promotion and social media. A third objective will be to generate an effective price structure for the various services…
This proposed match-up can free needy people from their dependence upon self-interested bankers, the Altruists state. But to call this a 'gift economy' seems to deny the fact that even when no money exchanges hands, there is always some sort of an exchange of value. The giver may wish to gain some sort of power over the recipient, may want to get a tax deduction, or at the very least, the giver desires to enhance his or her self-esteem. Even tribal gift exchanges served a political purpose. Moreover, although this type of gift economy may encourage some philanthropists to give without 'strings attached,' it is unlikely many people will give, without some assurance of some sort of return. Even online, the spirit of altruism is hardly universal and has its limits. Few people can afford to be so generous.
The Altruists would counter that the Internet itself began as a…
"The Internet Gift Economy." Altruists International. October 29, 2009
Suarez, Maria. "Athanor: Gift giving in the net." The Gift Economy. 2001. October 29, 2009
DQ #1. An economy's output is also its income because its output is calculated as the measurement of all the goods and services produced by the economy, and also being channeled back into the economy in the form of purchases in other economic sectors, savings, and investments. Expenditures measured in the form of GDP tally the production of goods and services on U.S. soil while GNP measures the production of goods and services produced anywhere by the U.S. residents. Both can generate income for U.S. companies and consumers that can be funneled back into the economy in exchange for other durable and nondurable goods, and services, as well as reinvested into other sectors. However, imported goods are subtracted out of the calculation of a national income, because the funds generated by the foreign production companies will be funneled back to the base, foreign nation. U.S. consumers may buy foreign goods,…
State Domination and Financial Markets
The Chinese government has characterized its involvement in economic development as "serving rather than supervising the private economy" since 2008 (Xinhua, 2009). ith this shift in focus a number of changes to Chinese management can be expected. The paternalistic approach will remain, as it is part of Chinese culture, but there will be further estern influences, particularly with respect to the desire outcomes of management behavior.
In their efforts to serve business, the Chinese government will inevitably work harder to attract foreign investment and to allow business to set the terms by which they can seek investors. This will shift the desired outcomes of management behavior towards those sought by a wider range of investors, both domestic and foreign. Asia Aluminum provides an example of this, as foreign investor outcry over the bond scandal forced the company to consider other options. Management at that point…
Gang, Fan. (2005). China is a Private Sector Economy. Business Week. Retrieved June 8, 2009 from http://www.businessweek.com/magazine/content/05_34/b3948478.htm
Zhu, Cherrie Jiuhua. (2005). Human Resource Management in China. Retrieved June 8, 2009 from http://books.google.com/books?id=mOBwfLzp7boC&pg=PA1&lpg=PA1&dq=china+management+economic+reform&source=bl&ots=NRJMQ-pIY-&sig=rIgeR5smWqFufALsTdK5P8AHZxY&hl=en&ei=uHktSuLtHo6fsgb2m6meDA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=10
Green, Stephen. (2003). 'Two-thirds privatization': How China's listed companies are -- finally -- privatizing. Royal Institute of International Affairs. Retrieved June 8, 2009 from http://se1.isn.ch/serviceengine/FileContent?serviceID=ISN&fileid=0C55BCE1-85E3-F567-3F79-E6B47296364E&lng=en
Foley, John & Beales, Richard. (2009). A Hard Lesson for Foreign Investors in China. New York Times. Retrieved June 8, 2009 from http://www.nytimes.com/2009/03/02/business/worldbusiness/02iht-views03.1.20523651.html
These semi-private companies are co-owned by the local government and workers. They are not officially in the private category, but they are essentially operated like private companies.
The differences among these four types of companies in China put them into two groups: WFOEs and JVs positioned to the front line of globalizing China, while SOEs and private companies try to stand firm to protect their territory, with some aggressively extending their operations overseas.
According to industry sources there is a total of 196,222 manufacturers in China, which includes all SOEs and non-SOEs with revenue more than 5M RMB, with 1 USD = 8.1 RMB as of October 14, 2005. (Note: All quantitative data in this report is from the National Bureau of Statistics of China (National Bureau of Statistics China, Manufacturing Statistics). The increasing number of multinationals and private companies already surpasses the total number of SOEs in the Chinese…
The global economy overall is mending from the 2008 crisis. Many key metrics over the past 5 years have improved materially relative to the crisis years. The S&P 500, for instance, after reaching its low in 2009 has recovered more than 150%. The financial markets are now more stable through the enactment of various legislation including Dodd-Frank and Basel III. Even unemployment has rebounded steadily as consumers are more confident of their future prospects. These trends bode very well for the furniture retailing industry which was devastated by the financial crisis. As such, I believe many companies within this sector are poised for a strong and sustained recovery. Of the many companies and competitors within the sector, Ethan Allen Interiors, Inc. is best positioned for sustainable long-term growth (Gray, 1977).
To begin, the company is fortunate enough to have a strong economic tailwind behind it. The housing sector, which…
1) Gray, Channing. "Haute and cool: Fine Furnishings show branches out in 10th year with a bigger spread of classic and cutting-edge pieces." The Providence Journal (1977)
2) Evens, P. And Wurster, T. "Strategy and the New Economics of Information," Harvard Business Review, Sept/Oct 1997.
3) Robert J. Gordon (1988), Macroeconomics: Theory and Policy, 2nd ed., Chapter 22.4, 'Modern theories of inflation'. McGraw-Hill.
feature of the contemporary workplace is the convergence of, and collision among, traditional and new talents from four different time zones: the Greatest Generation of World War II in the 40s and the 50s; the aby oomers born between 1946 and 1964; Generation X individuals born between 1964 and 1976; and Generation Y individuals born between 1976 and 1995. With different orientations and meeting in common grounds, the problem is how to set them together to produce their generational best without sacrificing corporate objectives and hurting anyone's rights or point-of-view. In other words, how to manage the generations' wide differences in the workplace without tilting the balance towards any particular side or sector.
Let us take a good look at these generations in the labor market. The Greatest Generation on top of the ladder consists of those born before 1946 are the brave souls of World War II who very…
Gawel. Richard. Survey Shatters Workplace Stereotypes. Electronic Design:
Penton Media, Inc., 1999
Gomolski, Barbara. Managing Age Diversity in the Workplace. Computerworld, 2001
3. Martin, Carolyn. Managing the Generation Mix. Top Echelon Network, Inc.:
Marketing Mix in Successful usiness
According to the Oxford Dictionary of usiness, marketing is defined as "the process of planning and executing the conception, pricing, promotion, and distribution of ideas, products, and services to create exchanges that will satisfy the needs of individuals and organizations." (Dictionary of usiness) The marketing of a product concerns itself with such responsibilities as foreseeing changes in the demand for the product, promotion of the product, quality assurance, accessibility, and the price of the product must also accommodate the needs of the market. (Dictionary of usiness)
Marketing is a quintessential part of the business world and crucial to the success of any firm.
For the purposes of this discussion we will explore the four parameters of the marketing mix. We will also investigate the various methodologies of marketing. Finally we will provide the results and conclusions drawn from the research.
The Marketing Mix
Cross, Lisa. "Segmentation: When Less is More." Graphic Arts Monthly. June, 1999. http://www.findarticles.com/cf_0/m0GAM/6_71/55727420/p1/article.jhtml?term=Multiple+market+segmentation
Dictionary of Business, Oxford University Press, © Market House Books Ltd. 1996
Glaskowsky, Peter N. "Truth counts -- even in Marketing." Electronic Business. December 2001. http://www.findarticles.com/cf_0/m0GSY/12_27/80683957/p1/article.jhtml?term=marketing
New eMarketer research looks at e-mail marketing methods." Telecomworldwide. Jan. 30, 2002. http://www.findarticles.com/cf_0/m0ECZ/2002_Jan_30/82348001/p1/article.jhtml?term=marketing+methods
6 billion cu m in 2005; natural gas export - 0 cu m in 2004; natural gas imports - 21.73 billion cu m in 2004; natural gas proved reserves - 8.495 billion cu m in 2005; current account balance - -$25.99 billion in 2006; exports - $85.21 billion f.o.b. In 2006; exports commodities - apparel, foodstuffs, textiles, metal manufactures, transport equipment; imports partners - Germany 11.7%, ussia 11%, Italy 6.5%, China 5.9%, France 5%, USA 4.6%, UK 4% in 2005; reserves of foreign exchange and gold - $53.42 billion in 2006; external debt - $193.6 billion in 2006; exchange rates - Turkish liras per U.S. dollar: 1.4286 in 2006, 1.3436 in 2005, 1.4255 in 2004, 1.5009 in 2003, 1.5072 in 2002 (CIA, 2007).
Turkey's agricultural sector
Turkey's agriculture is not one of the modernized sectors of the country's economy. In fact, agriculture is the traditional part of Turkey's economy that…
Chapin Metz, Helen (1995). Turkey: A Country Study. Washington: GPO for the Library of Congress. Retrieved July 4, 2007 at http://countrystudies.us/turkey/53.htm .
Economy of Turkey (2007). Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retrieved July 5, 2007 at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Economy_of_Turkey .
The World Factbook: Turkey (2007). Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved July 5, 2007 from https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/tu.html .
Krueger, Anne O. (2005). Turkey's Economy: A Future Full of Promise. International Monetary Fund. Retrieved July 5, 2007 at http://www.imf.org /external/' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Surging Oil Prices on the U.S. Economy
Although the lingering effects of the Great ecession of 2007-2009 continue to dissipate and economic growth resumes, volatile global oil prices remain a source of concern for economists and consumers alike. While the experts debate the precise date at which peak oil will be reached and the search for alternative energy sources has assumed new importance and relevance, it is clear that the world's commercial infrastructure will depend on fossil fuels well into the foreseeable future. Indeed, some authorities caution that unless drastic steps are taken today, the world will deplete its fossil fuel resources long before commercially viable alternatives become available. In this environment, determining how surging oil prices affect the U.S. economy represents a timely and valuable enterprise. To this end, this paper provides a review of the relevant peer-reviewed and scholarly literature to determine the impact of surging oil prices…
Casey, W.H. & Murray, M.M. (2009). Import and export price trends, 2007: Prices for imports and exports increased in 2007 as global demand for raw materials expanded faster than supply and the U.S. dollar lost value against the currencies of trading partners. Monthly Labor Review, 132(2), 15-17.
Cohan, P. (2011, February 23). What do rising oil prices mean for U.S. economic growth? Daily
Finance. Retrieved from http://srph.it/fQZOLe . Retrieved from http://188.8.131.52/oiaf / economy/energy_price.html.
Earley, R. & Smith, K. (2011). Energy price impacts on the U.S. economy. U.S. Department of Energy: National Energy Information Center.
Iraq War Has Affected the U.S. Economy
Since 9/11, Americans have been defending their country. Unfortunately the war in Iraq has severely damaged the quality of life of many American citizens. Many people (Americans and otherwise) feel that the war effort has gone on long enough. In fact, it's believed that it's being dragged out, causing the American economy to suffer further. The intentions of this essay are to discuss the affect the war is having on the U.S. economy.
Many Americans are losing their homes and prices are out of control. ather than increasing the average income in order to support the cost increase throughout the United States, incomes have remained the same, if not have decreased slightly. It's hard for many Americans to find a job, so most are keeping the one they have. For the unfortunate individuals who are jobless, that means the job market is not…
Gwertzman, B. (n.d.). U.S. 'Winning' Unpopular War in Iraq, but 'Losing' Popular War in Afghanistan - Council on Foreign Relations. Council on Foreign Relations. Retrieved November 22, 2010, from http://www.cfr.org/publication/17111/us_winning_unpopular_war_in_iraq_but_losing_popular_war_in_afghanistan.html
Haass, R. (n.d.). Academic Module: War of Necessity, War of Choice - Council on Foreign Relations. Council on Foreign Relations. Retrieved November 22, 2010, from http://www.cfr.org/publication/20633/academic_module.html
Teslik, L.H. (n.d.). Iraq, Afghanistan, and the U.S. Economy - Council on Foreign Relations. Council on Foreign Relations. Retrieved November 22, 2010, from http://www.cfr.org/publication/15404/iraq_afghanistan_and_the_us_economy.html
Teslik, L.H. (n.d.). Debating the Cost of the Iraq War - Council on Foreign Relations. Council on Foreign Relations. Retrieved November 22, 2010, from http://www.cfr.org/publication/15694/debating_the_cost_of_the_iraq_war.html
In my opinion, leaders should be an example for their team regarding work. They should promote increased enthusiasm towards work, in order for their example to be followed by other members of their group.
However, when assessing an individual's leadership potential it is necessary to take into consideration its emotional intelligence level. People's emotional intelligence refers to their ability of understanding motions and feelings and their attitudes and reactions in different situations (Chapman, 2009). The emotional intelligence level reveals how we read people, how we tend to use our emotions, how we understand and manage these emotions, and impressions.
The results of my EIQ 16 test have revealed interesting aspects about myself that I was not really aware of. For example, on the reading people aspect I rated level 3, which means that I am competent in this field. This means that I am normally aware of my feelings and…
1. Bolden, R. et al. (2003). A Review of Leadership Theory and Competency Frameworks. Center for Leadership Studies. Retrieved February 2, 2011.
2. Guardian Portrait of the Supervisor (2010). Keirsey. Retrieved February 3, 2011 from http://www.keirsey.com/4temps/supervisor.asp .
3. Chapman, a. (2009). Emotional Intelligence. Retrieved February 3, 2011 from http://www.businessballs.com/eq.htm .
Marketing eport Summary & Approach
The author of this report has been asked to prepare a report central to some marketing concepts and questions. The first question asks the author to compare and contrast the promotional strategies that are used by two different companies for a similar product within the category that has been selected. The second question asks for there to be two recommendations via which the companies can use the marketing information to differentiate itself in the marketplace so as to gain an advantage over its competitors. There will be a rationale provided for those recommendations. The third question asks the author of this report to provide two uses for customer-oriented promotions that could assist a company in both the short- and long-term for the product group that has been selected. Fourth, there will be an analysis of the strategic manner in which a leading company in the…
BusinessWeek. (2015). Americans Should Buy U.S. Cars, Period - BusinessWeek. Businessweek.com. Retrieved 10 June 2015, from http://www.businessweek.com/debateroom/archives/2009/02/americans_should_buy_us_cars_period.html
EERE. (2015). Clean Cities: Alternative Fuel Market Project Awards. Www1.eere.energy.gov. Retrieved 10 June 2015, from http://www1.eere.energy.gov/cleancities/alternative_fuel_market_projects.html
Hyundai. (2015). Retrieved 10 June 2015, from https://www.hyundaiusa.com/
Ingram, D. (2015). The Advantages of Advertising on the Internet. Small Business - Chron.com. Retrieved 10 June 2015, from http://smallbusiness.chron.com/advantages-advertising-internet-4028.html
An economic system is basically described as specific set of principles that addresses the production, distribution, and consumption of products and services. The involved parties in the production, distribution, and consumptions processes are usually determined by or dependent on the economic system. Throughout the history of humanity, different types of economic systems have evolved because different societies have placed varying emphasis on distinctive goals and priorities as part of their efforts to obtain answers to certain economic questions. In addition, the difference in economic systems is fueled by the tendency by different societies to develop very broad economic approaches to manage their resources. One of the main reasons for the development of different economic systems is to address the challenge of scarcity. The challenge of scarcity is an essential problem that confronts individuals and nations. hile there are four major types of economic systems recognized by economists, there…
"Economic Systems." Hilliard Bradley High School. Hilliard Bradley High School, n.d. Web. 18 Mar. 2013. .
"Factors of Production." Enotes.com - Study Smarter. Enotes.com, Inc., n.d. Web. 18 Mar. 2013. .
"Types of Economic Systems." Economic Systems. Shmoop University, Inc., n.d. Web. 18 Mar. 2013. .
The economic environment of Greece is that of a capitalist economy, but with significant public sector contribution – about 40% of total GDP is from government activity. This speaks more to the relatively small size of the Greek private sector than to excessive government ownership of industry. Tourism is one of the major drivers of the Greek economy, accounting for 18% of GDP (CIA World Factbook, 2017). Thus Greece would be characterized as a mixed economy with some government-owned entities. Greece is a member of the EU, but has also received several bailouts in recent years, and struggles with tax collection, and overall economic development. Tax evasion ranges between 6-9% of total GDP in Greece, which makes it a significant economic problem (Georgakopoulos, 2016).
Recent Macroeconomic Data
In recent years, Greece\'s economy has flatlined. The country has received several infusions of capital from other EU countries, but there…
Economic Decision Making
Economic decisions are first and foremost influenced by the dividends an individual stands to lose or gain with the choices they make. Because economics are the basis of individual well-being, people must prioritize time and spending, weigh the intensity of wants against the implications of needs, and carefully consider disruptions to earning potential as this most directly impacts each of the aforementioned categories. As detailed by N. Gregory Mankiw, the four basic principles of economic decision making include that all individuals face trade-offs; In order to make gains, some commodity or quality is often lost -- the most common loss includes the trading of money for goods. Next, Mankiw exerts that the cost of something is what you give up to get it, implying that all gains come at a price that extends beyond their monetary value to include time and effort spent. Third, Mankiw explains that…
Gregory, N. (2008). Principles of macroeconomics. South-Western Pub. 5-13
American verses Vietnam culture. It include History,( events impacted culture); Political (system governs culture); Economy (current economical system, producing distributing goods services; receives, profit transaction, (Capitalism, Socialism Mixed Economy).
Vietnamese culture largely differs from North American culture: firstly because of the influences that each of the countries have had over the years and secondly because of the form of government administering each state. oth the U.S. And Vietnam were at a certain point colonies and while the 1775-1783 Independence War made it possible for colonists to achieve autonomy, it was not until 1954 that the Vietnamese managed to remove French leadership.
The Independence War was the principal factor in installing a democratic system and the First Indochina War had Vietnam divided into two parts: one led by communist forces under the leadership of Ho Chi Minh, and the other under the ruling of emperor ao Dai. Although democracy dominated the…
Dinh Te, Huynh, "Family Relationships," Retrieved October 1, 2011, from the Vietspring Website: http://www.vietspring.org/values/family.html
"Vietnam," Retrieved October 1, 2011, from the CIA Website: https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/vm.html
"United States," Retrieved October 1, 2011, from the CIA Website: https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/us.html
Economic Final Report
Types of economic systems
Economic systems vary from one nation to another. Traditional economic systems refer to an economic system founded by tradition. The services and goods that people provide through the work they do, how people exchange and use the resources are trends that follow permanent patterns. These are not dynamic economic systems because there are minimal changes. In this economic system, people live on static standards. They do not enjoy much occupational mobility and financial mobility (Gregory and Robert 19). However, it is possible to predict economic relationships and behaviors. People are aware of what they are expected to do, why they trade, they know what others should give to them. In traditional economic systems, the interests of the community are of great priority than individual interests. People collaborate at work and labor proceeds are shared equally. However, in some traditional economic systems, individuals respect…
Conklin, David W.; Comparative Economic Systems: Objectives, Decision Modes, and the Process of Choice. Cambridge [England: Cambridge University Press, 2009. Print.
Gregory, Paul R, and Robert C. Stuartl; Comparative Economic Systems. Boston: Houghton
Mifflin Co, 2010. Print.
Keese, Mark, Pete Richardson, and Ge-rard Salou. The Measurement of Output and Factors of Production for the Business Sector in OECD Countries: (the OECD Business Sector Database). Paris: OECD, 2011. Print.
Development is a general concept that includes many different aspects. The definition of development is improvement in human welfare, quality of life, social well-being, and satisfying the population's needs and wants. There are many different measurements for development, such as GDP, GNI, Human Development Index, Gender Inequality Index, Gini coefficient, and etc. Since each nation has its own culture, history, tradition, religion, and etc., the measurement of a successful development varies for different countries. As a result, although the general development concepts apply to all countries, each country needs to find their own specific way to develop. China has led the world its development among many various measures; especially economic growth. This analysis will consider some of the factors that are associated with China's exception development trajectory and what option it may hold in the future.
China's History of Development in the Twentieth Century
To understand China's rapid…
Davies, M. "HOW CHINA IS INFLUENCING AFRICA'S DEVELOPMENT." April 2010. OECD Development Centre. Web. 5 December 2012.
Jason, B. "China's Development Plans Lead World, BRICs." 10 January 2011. Global Sherpa. Web. 4 December 2012.
Kanter, J. "European Finance Ministers Deadlock on Plan to Oversee Banks." 4 December 2012. The New York Times. Web. 5 December 2012.
Orlik, T. "China's Inequality Gini Out of the Bottle." 17 September 2012. The Wall Street Jounal China. Web. 6 December 2012.
Shift from Central Planning to Market Economy
The Turkish economy is in what might be termed semi-precarious health. It could certainly be worse, but also certainly be better. Since its birth as a nation-state into its current shape in 1923 in the wake of World War I, Turkey has operated a mixed economy, in which both state and private enterprise have contributed to economic development. (Indeed, it is arguable that all country's in the world today have a mixed economy; the United States may be a bastion for private enterprise but many workers also benefit from government money, such as the money awarded by the federal government to private companies in the form of defense industry contracts.) Since the end of World War II, the economy has been transformed from a predominantly agricultural one to one in which industry and services are the most productive and rapidly expanding sectors even…
Abramowitz, M. (ed.) (2001). Turkey's transformation and American policy. New York: Century Foundation.
Hershlag, Z.Y. (1998). The contemporary Turkish economy. New York: Routledge Kegan & Paul.
Howe, M. (2001). The Kurdish conflict in Turkey: Obstacles and chances for peace and democracy. London: Palgrave. http://apps.nccd.cdc.gov http://www.imf.org http://www.immigration-usa.com/wfb/turkey_economy.html http://www.rt66.com/~korteng/tudemog.htm
Ibrahim, F. (ed.) (2000). Turkey today: A nation divided over Islam's revival.
Prevent Competitive Markets in the United States
The United States follows a system of "free market economy" in which most businesses are privately owned and where individual producers and consumers determine the kinds of goods and services produced as well as the prices of such products. Competition is a key factor in market economies as it keeps the prices of products in check, forces the competitors to enhance the efficiency of their production process, and drives the inefficient producers out of the market. However, "perfectly competitive market" is largely a theoretical economic concept which does not exist in any country and most countries, including the U.S., follow a system of mixed economy. In such 'mixed economies,' there are several factors which prevent the existence of a perfectly competitive market and the U.S. is no exception to this rule. In this paper, we shall discuss some of the factors that work…
Karier, Thomas. Beyond Competition: The Economics of Mergers and Monopoly Power. Armonk, NY M.E. Sharpe, 1993.
United States (Economy)" Article in Encyclopedia Encarta. CD-ROM Version, 2003
Such markets are known as 'oligopolies.'
As long as it is not created specifically to monopolize commerce in interstate trade
The local and regional councils that administer the Porirua City metropolitan area have different, but interrelated responsibilities that must be taken into account in formulating effective economic developmental initiatives as described in Table 1 below.
espective esponsibilities and Areas of Interest for egional and Local Councils in New Zealand
Description of esponsibilities and Areas of Interest
esponsible for the integrated management of natural and physical resources, management of natural resources such as water and soil.
esponsible for carrying out multiple functions that enable them, among other things, to promote development projects with the private sector; also responsible for land-use planning, subdivision, service delivery, etc.; however, local councils are not involved in educational, health and welfare matters and these remain in the domain of national government.
Source: Gouldson & oberts, p. 54
Therefore, local councils would be best suited for establishing priorities for…
Blair, J.P. & Carroll. (2009). Local economic development: Analysis, practices, and globalization. New York: Sage Publishing.
-. Social capital in local economic development. In Theories of local economic development:
linking theory to practice, J.E. Rowe (ed.) (2009), Auckland: Ashgate Publishing.
Colbert, E. (1997). The Pacific Islands: Paths to the present. Boulder, CO: Westview Press
They also cannot be arbitrarily sold by users as an individual in a pure market economy, for instance, can, when he wishes to sell his good another.
Further, in a pure market economy all goods and services are produced by business and forces of supply and demand inevitably and conclusively determine prices. In a mixed economy, on the other hand, government purchases land or housing (for instance), requiring others to pay for these purchases, and then uses these purchases to produce further goods which it makes accessible to the public. Prices, rather than being implemented by forces of supply and demand, are charged by government to businesses and households often at rates below market price.
There is also a differnce between the categories of services offered by a mixed market enterprise and that of pure market where the mixed market sectors offer both transfer payments where government provides benefits to…
Social Revolution 1945 to 1990
Eric Hobsbawm's writing style was that of a historian. Nevertheless, his objective was always: adding to political action and thought, which he accomplished more effectively through this book than all his other works. Retrospectively, the author discovered that global socialism's challenge to the capitalist idea had a strength which was its opponent's weakness. Also, in truth, a large number of individuals who backed socialism sincerely to the very end held a belief, for long, that socialism's political yzantinism, bureaucratic rigidities, and mass murders would eventually be overcome, and that the above horrors were responsible for ensuring capitalism remained afloat. The weaknesses of the socialist theory were underrated, while those of the capitalist theory were overvalued. In effect, the world was convinced in its belief that capitalism was unable to solve issues, while socialism could tackle their own issues. However, the latter issues were deep-rooted rather…
Araghi, F. A., 1995. Global Depeasantization, 1945-1990. The Sociological Quarterly, 36(2), pp. 337-368.
Berman, S., 2011. Understanding Social Democracy. Columbia University, pp. 2-38.
Freedman, L., 1997. Review of The Age of Extremes: The Short Twentieth Century, 1914-1991. [Online]
Available at: http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/28
This aspect of the study were inclusive of works of "economic historians on the development of financial systems" most particularly the "banking systems" worldwide and exactly what the resulting impact will be. (Rousseau & Sylla, 2001) hile the two identified "strands of literature" one dealing with domestic and the other international developments, are no always related to one another" but are however, both elements of the story called financial globalization." Definition of a "Good Financial System" states that there are five key components which are: (1) Sound public finances and public debt management; (2) Stable monetary arrangements; (3) a variety of banks, some with domestic and others with international orientations, and perhaps some with both orientations; (4) a central bank to stabilize domestic finances and manage international financial relations; and: (5) ell-forming security markets."
Impacts of Globalization on National Economies
Impacts on the economies of the world have been stated…
Rousseau, Peter L. And Sylla, Richard (2001) "Financial Systems, Economic Growth and Globalization"
Financial Systems, Economic Growth and Globalization" 2001 Oct 15 Online available at http://www.nber.org/~confer/2001/globes01/sylla.pdfr.org/~confer/2001/globes01/sylla.pdf
Bruno, Giovanni S.F. et al. (2003) Measuring the effect of globalization on labor demand elasticity: An empirical application to OECD Countries ISBN 1616-4814. FLOWENLA Discussion Paper 2 available Online at http://www.eastwestmi gration.org retrieved from the Internet 26 May 2006
Gartzke, Erik (2003) War, Peace, and the Invisible Hand: Positive Political Externalities of Economic Globalization International Studies Quarterly Volume 47 Issue 4-Page 561 - December 2003 doi:10.1046/j.0020-8833.2003.00279.x Quan Li21Columbia University, 2 the Pennsylvania State University
Principal-Agent Model in Economics and Political Science
The international political perspectives of free trade
A Global Analysis
International Trade Impact on Tunisia
The Export of agricultural products
International trade and development of Tunisia
Balance in the Trade egime
Imports and exports of Tunisia
Coping With External and Internal Pressures
The Common External Tariff (CET)
Anti-Dumping Duties (ADDs) and Countervailing Duties (CVDs)
ules of origin
The New Commercial Policy Instrument
Sector Based Aspects
GATT/WTO's Main Principles
Multilateral negotiation and free trade
The Trading Policies of European Union
Critical Political Economy
The Gross Domestic Product of Tunisia
The eal Data Analysis of Import Export Companies in Tunisia
The Smith Co Company
The Softkim and Lovers Limited
The Impact of Free Trade on Tunisia Trading 43
Africa, the Caribbean, and the Pacific
Alternative Mediterranean Conference
Bhagwati, J. (2002). Free Trade Today. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. Retrieved August 15, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=99509776
Bhote, K.R. (2002). The Ultimate Six Sigma: Beyond Quality Excellence to Total Business Excellence. New York: AMACOM. Retrieved August 15, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=111931454
Campbell, B. (1993). 3 A Canadian Labor Perspective on a North American Free Trade Agreement. In The North American Free Trade Agreement Labor, Industry, and Government Perspectives, Bognanno, M.F. & Ready, K.J. (Eds.) (pp. 61-68). Westport, CT: Praeger. Retrieved August 15, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=24509387
Conti, D.B. (1998). Reconciling Free Trade, Fair Trade, and Interdependence: The Rhetoric of Presidential Economic Leadership. Westport, CT: Praeger. Retrieved August 15, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=15432294
The economic policy tools that were employed just after the war subsequently underwent some changes. From 1947 to 1950 direct controls on wages and distribution were eliminated followed by removal of trade controls in 1958. However, the government continued to maintain its hold over prices and credit distribution which made it different from many of its neighboring states in the postwar period. The French Ministry of Finance exerted greater control over the economy than the Bank of France. This led to a greater predilection to resort to devaluation when external equilibrium resulted due to the state failure to control incomes. In France, the period between 1945 and 1975 was known as the "thirty glorious years" because of the phenomenal economic performance. During this period, the average growth rate of GDP was around 6.8% which was quite remarkable considering that Britain's average GDP growth rate was 2.4% and Germany's…
Bathelt, Harald; Wiseman, Clare; Zakrzewski, Guido. Unit 1: Post-war development and structure of the German economy.
Buchanan, Tom. Europe's troubled peace, 1945-2000.
DeLong, J. Bradford. Grasping reality with both hands: A Fair, Balanced, Reality-Based,
" (2003) During the 1850s ilbao was drastically changed by rapid industrialization and by the 1860s planned was a new city in which the former method of building houses without a design for the streets was changed and "the new area of planned prosperity was more orderly." (Zulaika, 2003) Zulaika states that the:
central economic ideology was utilitarian laissez-faire - industry should be self-regulated and government reduced to a minimum. The maximum good would come through the unregulated, self-aggrandizing effort of every individual. With the pecuniary reward the only measure of social value, and with profit the only controlling agent, gross social inequalities took root." (Zulaika,2003)
It is related by Zulaika, that these "techniques of agglomeration" stretched across all sectors of life at work including the English factor waterpower system to the steam engine of Watts and the transportation system of the railroad with ilbao and other port cities playing…
Trask, Robert Lawrence (1997) the History of Basque. Routledge. Google Books. Online available at http://books.google.com/books?id=ZZo2gW3fJKgC&dq=Bilbao:+Basque+cultural+history&lr=&source=gbs_summary_s&cad=0
Zulaika, Joseba (2003) Guggenheim Bilbao Museoa: Museums, Architecture and City Renewal. University of Nevada Press 2003.
Wolf, Eric (1982) Industrial Revolution (Chapter 9, Europe and the People without History) University of California Press, Berkeley, 1982: in Zuliaka
Wolf, Eric (1982) Industrial Revolution (Chapter 9, Europe and the People without History) University of California Press, Berkeley, 1982: in Zuliaka, Joseba (2003) Guggenheim Bilbao Museoa: Museums, Architecture and City Renewal. University of Nevada Press 2003
The holistic theory of health, "Therefore... looks for the signs of disharmony in the external and internal environment of a person in order to understand, treat and prevent illness and disease." (Traditional Chinese Medicine: NHS)
It is also important to note that the Chinese medical theory is closely linked to their ways of thinking or philosophy. This includes the theory of complementary opposites such Yin-yang, the Five Elements, the human body Meridian system and others. (Traditional Chinese medicine) the following quotation clearly shows the way in which Chinese medicine attempts cures and better health by looking at the overall situation of the individual. This is a very different approach to the conventional estern method focusing only on the central area of illness or concern.
Traditional Chinese medicine has a "macro" or holistic view of disease. For example, one modern interpretation is that well-balanced human bodies can resist most everyday bacteria…
China. July 12, 2006. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/China
Chinese Art. July 13, 2006. http://library.thinkquest.org/26469/contributions/artintro.html
Chinese cuisine. July 13, 2006. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chinese_cuisine
Chinese Herbal Medicine. July 13, 2006. http://library.thinkquest.org/26469/contributions/harbalmedicine.html
Indigenous peoples thus contributed to educational policies set in the last two decades. The last ten years have been even more essential in drafting an educational agenda meant to guarantee that minorities are provided with equal opportunities. In spite of all efforts, however, progress was slow and little has changed when considering education opportunities. hereas most people would be inclined to consider that the government is solely responsible for this, the truth is that minorities have actually contributed to this situation. Having been used to centuries of discrimination, most minorities were unenthusiastic about the benefits that they would be provided with as a result of reform in the educational system.
Many individuals in charge of educational programs directed at educating minorities express lack of interest in their field of work and can be held accountable for the fact that a great deal of individuals gradually develop distrust in public officials…
Argy, Fred, "Equality of opportunity in Australia Myth and reality," Retrieved August 25, 2011, from the Australia Institute Website: http://www.tai.org.au/documents/downloads/DP85.pdf
Argy, Fred. "Education inequalities in Australia," Retrieved August 25, 2011, from the University of Western Australia Website: http://www.ias.uwa.edu.au/new-critic/five/educationinequalities
Keane, Bernard, "Australia's mixed economy -- why health and education reform matters," Retrieved August 25, 2011, from the Crikey Website: http://www.crikey.com.au/2011/03/22/australias-mixed-economy-why-health-and-education-reform-matters/
Kennedy, Steven, "The Relationship between Education and Health in Australia and Canada," Retrieved August 25, 2011, from the McMaster University Website: http://socserv.mcmaster.ca/sedap/p/sedap93.pdf
The general problem of the social assistance concept is the eligibility issue. Conditions are very restrictive, and so they should. Too much benefits would lead people into thinking that the Government will provide for them, at the expense of others, which is not what politicians desire (maybe communist rulers do, but this is not the object of this paper). On the other hand, few benefits or no benefits at all would mean that the purpose of the program - i.e. social protection - is not achievable.
One other aspect of the way U.S. citizens (and people from other countries, for that matter) look at the social assistance programs is the stigmatization such a program brings to an individual. No one likes to admit that he/she is in desperate need of help, so people are reluctant to apply. Perhaps some media campaigns against that perception would make a difference.
1. Wineman, Steven. Power-Under: Trauma and Nonviolent Social Change.," Cambridge, 2003 http://www.gis.net/~swineman/Power_Under.pdf
He writes, "The rise of the radical Right after the First World War was undoubtedly a response to the danger, indeed to the reality, of social revolution and working-class power in general, to the October revolution and Leninism in particular" (Hobsbawm 124). The right-wing backlash against labor unions was crucial in setting up the rise of those fascist leaders who would be responsible for initiating the Second World War. As such it was partially responsible for creating the conditions for violence, but also, later, for unification between anti-fascist forces to defeat them. Socialist resistance to fascism was always strong, starting out peacefully until "resistance to fascism which did not envisage the use of arms could not succeed" (Hobsbawm 152). They were not that successful and went against the Stalin's Soviet view of a symbiotic alliance between capitalism and communism against fascism. Yet paradoxically, it was the strength of communism coming…
Hobsbawm, Eric. The Age of Extremes: A History of the World, 1914-1991. New York: Vintage Books, 1996.
Star Gold Coast Hotels
The Gold Coast sector is on the top 66 est Luxury Hotels in Australia list (The 66 est Luxury Hotels in Australia). It is popular for the surf beach, rain forest, golf, theme parks, as well as other attractions (Gold Coast Hotels) and specializes in vacation and holiday getaways (Gold Coast 5 Star Accommodation). The Gold Coast 5 star Hotels are also popular to businesses for meeting, conferences, and other business events. Some of the tourist attractions include the hump back whale tours, theme parks, wildlife sanctuaries, hot air ballooning, kayak paddling, snorkeling, and entertainment at hospitality places with spectacular views (Tourism Queensland, 2010). Australians enjoy a laid back lifestyle with river activities and watching horse racing at the irdsville Races.
The PEST Analysis includes analysis in political, economic, socio-cultural, and technological (Manktelow). The Australian government is a constitutional monarchy with a parliament system…
Australia: September 2002. (2002, Sep 25). Retrieved from World Trade Organization: http://www.wto.org/english/tratop_e/tpr_e/tp202_e.htm
Tourism Queensland. (2010). Retrieved from Tourism Queensland: http://www.tq.com.au/newsroom/
Technology Pioneers 2013: Pushing New Frontiers. (2012). Retrieved from World Economic Forum: http://www3.weforum.org/docs/WEF_TP_PushingNewFrontiers_Report_2013.pdf
Australia Economy and Politics. (n.d.). Retrieved from AsiaRooms.com: http://www.asiarooms.com/en/travel-guide/australia-economy-and-politics.html
Since they had so much invested in South Africa, they were in a position of power, and they could have used that power much more effectively. They might even have been able to bring change about sooner than it occurred. While they did not take their responsibility seriously, companies do have a moral and ethical responsibility to themselves, their communities, and their shareholders. The companies that do not recognize this should not gain support or business from their consumers. It is up to the shareholders to hold the companies responsible for their ethical behavior and to how they manage their investments. The company has a responsibility to make money and to stay healthy, but not at the expense of morals or ethics. It does not have to be difficult to act morally and responsibly. It can become a part of the everyday actions of the business, and it should be…
Author not Available. Case study: Investment in South Africa.
Velasquez, M.G. (2006). Chapter two. Ethical principles in business. Business ethics: Concepts & cases, Sixth Edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc.
Velasquez, M.G. (2006). Chapter three. The market and business. Business ethics: Concepts & cases, Sixth Edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc.
U.K. Government: Social Policy Theory & Practice
The objective of this study is to answer all four questions stated as follows: (1) What is the social administrative tradition? (2) What is meant by liberal welfarism? (3) Explain the parliamentary policy- making process? In addition (4) Detail the New Right critique of the welfare state?
Social Administrative Tradition
Grover Starling, administration scholar is reported to have described six characteristics of government's public administrative responsibility: (1) responsiveness; (2) flexibility; (3) competence; (4) due process; (5) accountability; and (6) honestly. (Shiguang, nd) Traditional government responsibility is noted to be that of maintaining public order. (Shiguang, nd) The World Bank identifies four primary administrative traditions as being those of: (1) Anglo Saxon (minimal state); (2) Continental European: Germanic (organicist); (3) Continental European: French (Napoleonic); and (4) Scandanavian: (mixture of Anglo-Saxon and Germanic). The most fundamental difference is reported to be "between the Anglo-Saxon and…
The following review of current literature is categorized by a number of variables. Statistics and Data initiate the report and is quickly followed up with Policy Literature. From there, an Academic Literature Review focusing on five articles (with corresponding studies and citations) takes place. After the Academic Review comes a Relevant Campaigning Review and a Media Review. Finally, a quick conclusion ties the literature together in a neat little bow.
The charts below provide data that allows researchers to understand exactly how significant the problem is. Chart A (see below) shows the rates of pregnancies in the UK broken down by age. As is evident, since 1990 pregnancy rates for older women have been rising significantly, while the rates for those woman under 29 years of age (including teenagers) have been holding steady, or slightly declining for the most part. Since current public policy was first initiated in…
Arai, L.; (2003) British policy on teenage pregnancy and childbearing: The limitations of comparisons with other European countries, Critical Social Policy, Vol. 23, Issue 1, pp. 89 -- 102
Bingley, P.J., Douek, I.F., Rogers, C.A. And Gale, E.A.M. (2000) Influence of maternal age at delivery and birth order on risk of Type 1 Diabetes in childhood: Prospective population-based family study, British Medical Journal, Vol. 321, pp 420 -- 424.
Brewer, M.; Ratcliffe, A.; dSmith, S.; (2011) Does welfare reform affect fertility: Evidence from the UK, Journal of Population Economics, Vol. 25, Issue 1, pp. 245 -- 266
Doling, J. & Ford, J.; (2007) A union of homeowners? European Journal of Housing Policy, Vol. 7, pp. 113 -- 127.
eligion played an important role in the lives of many of the Northern colonists as well, but by the time of the evolution it was not nearly so prevalent in the politics of the day as it had been during the earlier times of the Puritan and Pilgrim settlements. This was, in fact, one of the main societal -- and ultimately political -- differences between the Northern colonies and the rest of the British colonies. The quiet reserve and stoicism that was a strong part of the Puritan tradition persist even to this day, however, and was if anything stronger then than it is now. In certain ways, then, religion did play an important role in shaping New England society. Though its direct effects were muted by the time that the evolutionary action was beginning, the puritan streak influenced the personality of the culture and many of its individuals.
Bonomi, Patricia U. "Hippocrates' Twins': Religion and Politics in the American Revolution." The History Teacher, 29 (2), pp. 137-44.
Bushnell, Amy Turner. "Review: Another's Country: Archaeological and Historical Perspectives on Cultural Interactions in the Southern Colonies," J.W. Joseph and Martha Zierden, eds. The Journal of Southern History, 2002. Pp. 889-91.
Kierner, Cynthia A. "Hospitality, Sociability, and Gender in the Southern Colonies." The Journal of Southern History, 62 (3) pp. 449-480
Pagliassotti, Druann Lynn. "Apparel and attribute: The social construction of status in New England colonies and the United States." Ph.D. dissertation, University of Southern California, United States -- California.
He believed asylums should be planned to encourage work, both physical and mental. To get away from the stress and turmoil of the city, an asylum should be erected out in the country where there was space for patients "to work, walk, and congregate. He called for plenty of large windows, one central building, separate buildings for the genders, and separate wings for wards" (Haller & Larsen, 2005, p. 262).
The Kirkbride asylum had a central administration building with a dome that was flanked by two wings of tiered wards. esidents were separated according to sex and the symptoms of their illnesses, with "excited patients" on the lower floors farther away from the administrative center. Well-behaved, more rational patients were placed on uppers floors closer to the administrative section. Fresh air, natural light, and scenic views of the park-like grounds were available to all wards.
Kirkbride asylums were designed to…
Curran, J. (2006). Psychiatric wards as permeable institutions. Mental Health Practice, 10 (2), 29-30.
Dowbiggin, I. (1997). The most solitary of afflictions: Madness and society in Britain, 1700-1900. Victorian Studies, 40 (2), 360-363.
Haller, B. And Larsen, R. (2005). Persuading sanity: Magic lantern images and the nineteenth-century moral treatment in America. Journal of American Culture, 28 (3), 259-272.
Hughes, W. (2002). "Cure, Comfort and Safe Custody:" Public lunatic asylums in early nineteenth-century England. Victorian Studies, 44 (2), 328-332.
British Parliamentary System of Government with the United States Federal System of Government
The British Parliamentary system of government is one of the oldest political systems in the world that has evolved over a period of centuries. The British model has influenced the system of governments in many countries of the world including the United States. On the other hand, the U.S. system of government is a Federal system that came into existence when the United States (the former American colonies) rebelled against British rule and declared its independence in the latter part of the eighteenth century, followed by the adoption of its own constitution in 1787. Although having some similarities with the British System of government, the U.S. system of government is unique in several aspects, having its own characteristics. In this paper we shall look at some key features of the two systems of government and compare and…
Baker, Jean H. "The United States Government." Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia, 2003. CD-ROM Version
The British Constitution -- an Introduction." April 22, 2002. December 10, 2002. http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/british_constitution1.htm
The British Parliamentary System." BBC Web Site. 2002. December 10, 2002. http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/classic/A591383
Judicial Independence" April 2002. December 10, 2002. http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/judicial_independence.htm
The Federal reserve realized the big negative impact of MBS and announced a 600 billion program in November 2008 to purchase these securities and this helped to bring back some liquidity into the market. In March 2009, it added another $750 billion to bring the total to $1.25 trillion.
The Fed has the power to create or print more money to increase money supply in the market and this is exactly what it did. Though the downside of this measure is inflation and an increased balance sheet for the Fed, Ben Bernanke, the chairman of the Federal eserve felt it was imperative to boost the economy. Through this tool, the Fed generated money and provided it to large corporations that depend on loans to ensure that their growth was not drastically affected. The Fed executed this policy through the lending institutions to increase economic activity and the dependent employment numbers.…
Spriggs, William; (June 2006). Getting to Know the Nation's Central Bank. Crisis. Vol 113(4). pp17-19.
Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. (2012). Retrieved from: federalreserve.org
Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2012). Retrieved from: http://www.bls.gov
No author. (June 8, 2009). Ben Bernanke's Greatest Challenge. CBS News. Retrieved from: http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2009/03/12/60minutes/main4862191.shtml
International expansion is one of the growth strategies that are embraced by companies in order to improve their bottom-line/profitability. In this paper, we present an elaborate international marketing strategy for ed Bull energy drink. The marketing plan begins with an introduction into the concept of international expansion and marketing and a brief overview of the company. A review of the main conclusions and recommendations is then presented. This is then followed by a discussion of internalization strategy. In this section, the context as well as context and reasons for the firm's internationalization initiation or expansion decision, as well as a discussion of the stage of internationalization at which your chosen firm finds itself. The next section is a discussion of the foreign market segmentation and targeting strategies. Under this section, we justify our choice of a market concentration or diversification strategy, incremental vs. simultaneous entry, the number of countries you…
Doodle, I. And Lowe, R., 2004. International Marketing Strategy: Analysis, Development and Implementation, ThomsonLearning, London.
EastBridge Import & Export Co., LTD, The Import Procedure of Food and Drink, Viewed 14 March 2012, http://www.eastbridgechina.com/En/Show.asp?id=33.
Encyclopedia of the Nations, China Country overview, Viewed 30 April 2012, http://www.nationsencyclopedia.com/economies/Asia-and-the-Pacific/China.html .
Euromonitor International, Red Bull plans Asian expansion, Viewed 14 March 2012, http://www.marketresearchworld.net/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=1232&Itemid=77
Shareholder Capitalism as a Model for Economic Development
The idea that shareholder capitalism may serve as a powerful type of economic progression model has been made practical with the growth of credit along with a large marginal tax that delivers a security net for Americans, but additionally has its own limits.
Shareholder capitalism, and also the American structure of corporate governance which can serve as its main-operating-system, continues to be held out like a replica of economic growth and development for up and coming markets within the last era. This document reveals the roots of the model inside the U.S. And argues that this model has already established, in the best scenario, mixed success beyond the U.S. borders. Furthermore, the after-effects in the two financial bubbles in the early Twenty-first century shows that shareholder capitalism might not function as publicized even inside the U.S. During the economic crisis, sensible policymakers…
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K-12 Curriculum and Instruction: Changing Paradigms in the 21st Century
This is not your grandfathers' economy or his educational paradigm however; today's curriculum still appears as such and therein lays a very significant and challenging problem that presents to today's educators and leaders. According to Sir Ken Robinson, "We have a system of education that is modeled on the interest of industrialism and in the image of it. Schools are still pretty much organized on factory lines -- ringing bells, separate facilities, specialized into separate subjects. We still educate children by batches." (rain Pickings, 2012) Make no mistake in the opinion of Robinson who believes that divergent thinking most emphatically is not "…the same thing as creativity" because according to Robinson in his work proposing a new educational paradigm. Indeed this is also spoken of in the work of Zeng-tian and Yu-Le in their work "Some Thoughts on Emergent Curriculum"…
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business proposition business competition chain. Word count: 400 words B) Based idea produced question 1 part A, explain main difficulties/barriers? Word count: 400 words Question 2 A) eflect possibility finance business.
In the current context of the unstable economy, more and more people and firms have come to lose their activity and their savings. In such a context, they seek to become engaged in new opportunities, to create new business ventures and to ensure their functioning and living. In other words, despite the still ongoing effects of the economic crisis, fact remains that some business ideas could turn into successful ventures. One example in this sense is that of providing child care services.
The small firm would operate in its own facility, but would provide a series of services outside its facilities, as well. For instance, the company could pick the children up in the morning and drive them to…
Longenecker, J.G.. Moore, C.W., Palich, L.E., Petty, W.J., (2006). Small business management: an entrepreneurial emphasis. Vol. 1. Cengage Learning.
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Customer Value Equation of the Product
Product Marketing Mix
Product Promotion Process
Target Market Analysis
Global Ethical Marketing Considerations
The globe and its entire human race in the twenty first is witnessing revolution in many facets of life and technological boom in communication is one of the immense transformations that have changed the standard and ways of living. Quite a few of the technological brands and products are surging ahead even to the leading economies as well as underdeveloped and developing nations. Apple iPhone is one of those brands that have become widely accepted and well-known, and has captured numerous consumers ranging from U.S. To Europe to Asia (White, 2012).
Apple iPhone is one of the U.S. based brands that offers hi-tech communication product (mobile phone) to its customers with a wide variety of features such as games, music, videos, web connectivity and many…
Baum, B., Hackstein, M., & Mehling, M. (2012). Strategic Marketing: Assessment of why the Sony Walkman brand lost out to iPod in terms of its position and level of demand in the marketplace. USA: GRIN Verlag.
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Kline, J.M. (2010). Ethics for International Business: Decision-Making in a Global Political Economy. 2nd Edition. New York, USA: Taylor & Francis.
Globalization has become a ubiquitously word in the last few decades. Much of the globalization trend is driven by the fact that many organizations operate internationally and supply chains have become sophisticated, complex, and spans the entire globe. As a result of globalization, many organizations have tried to proactively create a level of homogenization and standardization internationally of markets, resources, and labor. hen international companies can have access to foreign resources and labor it often helps them achieve business objectives. It can also help to develop the local economy at it is working to create more middle class citizens in developing countries. Yet, the results are deeply mixed and often the result of newly introduced capitalism further stratifies the society. Therefore, even though the trend has been primarily measured by economic activities it also has had many other consequences as well in regards to social and political issues.
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Because the home country is not required to reimburse foreign depositors for losses, there is no corresponding financial penalty for lax supervision; there is, though, a benefit to the country with lenient regulatory policies because of increased revenues generated and the employment opportunities these services provide (Edwards 1999). Furthermore, banks seeking to conduct multinational business are attracted to countries where incorporation laws and the regulatory framework offer less regulatory oversight (Edwards 1999). The quid pro quo nature of offshore financial services is clearly indicated by Edwards's observation that, "Multinational banks provide the offshore financial centre with increased tax revenue and employment for its citizens. Because the benefits outweigh the costs, offshore financial centres have a powerful incentive to maintain lenient regulatory policies. As a result, multinational banks incorporated in an offshore financial center successfully avoid supervision by an effective home country regulator" (1999, p. 1267). Given the scope of the…
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Intermediation: the Saga of the Netherlands Antilles.' Texas International Law Journal, vol. 45,
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Bush implied unemployment figures were declining and Kerry touted very high unemployment figures. In hindsight, it appears that the labor department statistics concurred with the Kerry camp. When Bush still won, unemployment trend indicators seem to be coming true now and there seems to be more problems on the horizon for the economy. The Bureau of Labor Statistics indicated recently that new jobs being created in the economy were the types of jobs that cannot fuel economic growth. Thus, the economy is and will continue to lose jobs to cheaper labor markets around the globe.
The Federal eserve has dictated the cost of capital for businesses to borrow. Trends show that cash shortages in corporate American are increasing and borrowing heavily will be a likely result. Therefore, future actions of the Federal eserve impacts a major aspect of America's future. Trends to observe by the Fed relate to consumer consumption…
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Political & Economic Differences
The author of this paper is asked to answer to five major questions. The first is why there is a difference in terms of political systems from country to country. The second question is how the legal systems of different countries differ. The third question asks the author to explain the economic differences of different countries. The fourth question asks the author to discuss and explain different macro-political and economic changes that occur around the world. Finally, the author is asked to explain how transitioning economies are moving towards market-based systems.
As for why there are different political systems in different countries, the reasons depend on the actual situation at hand. The system in place in the United States fairly closely matches the way things were set up at its inception and a lot of that was based on escape from brutal government rule…
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international emphasis on education, including the study of languages and foreign cultures, is today still very limited and biased, creating a gap between the job skills and competencies acquired during studies and the international component increasingly present in every work environment, where the young graduate will have to travel or relate to foreign clients, suppliers and several stakeholders. De Wit, Jaramillo, and Knight (2005) report that the development of advanced communication, new technology, increased labor mobility, market economy and trade liberalization, increased private investment, decreased support of higher education, and the development of lifelong learning, are all key drivers for universities to have to internationalize their curricula. They also add that on the government side, the only attention given to this need is for educational programs preparing for government departments, and not for business and the industry at large. Therefore, it is evident that with an increasing global environment, the…
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