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Herman Melville's novel Moby Dick has been read in countries and language from all over the world. It has been picked apart and analyzed from a plethora of analytical theories and contexts. In terms of the four functions of mythology, the story can be read in any perspective: mystical, cosmological, sociological, or pedagogical. Analysts and literary scholars could make the case that Moby Dick could be interpreted through any of these four lenses. Above the other three, it is easy to perceive and observe that the narrative is a definite comment on the lives of seafaring men during the 1800s. The story is an interesting example of one of history's most dangerous and fascinating periods and professions. As an example of a sociological text, Moby Dick not only informs the reader of the daily life of men on a whaling boat and the dangers that they face, but…
Melville, Herman. Moby Dick. New Delhi, India: Campfire, 2010. Print.
Moby Dick or, The Whale is a book that can be read on a number of levels. On the surface it is an adventure story and a mine of information about whaling and the whaling industry. However, the novel also explores the depths of the human psyche and cardinal philosophical questions relating to the meaning of life, religion and good and evil. Sociologically, the novel explores the tension between enlightened thought and the tenets of eighteenth-century Calvinism.
The central theme of the work, which is clearly referred to in the quotation for this essay, is search for meaning and reality. This is implied by Captain Ahab when he says, "How can the prisoner reach outside except by thrusting through the wall? To me, the white whale is that wall, shoved near to me. Sometimes I think there's naught beyond." (Mansfield and Vincent 162) The white whale is a reality and…
Baird, James, Ishmael. Baltimore: John Hopkins Press, 1956.
Chase, R., Melville: A collection of Critical Essays. New York:Prentice-Hall Inc.,1962
Howard, Leon, Herman Melville. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1951.
Mansfield, Luther S. And Howard P. Vincent, eds. Moby Dick Or, the Whale. New York: Hendricks House, 1952.
Moby Dick and Nature, How Nature Displays an Indomitable Force
Moby-Dick provides different conducts of human beings towards nature. Melville presents a sea animals' world with a white whale as the focus of the narrative and a society represented through the Pequod. Through underlining the conflict between the Pequod, and the white whale, the author of the novel makes a unique, thorough and intensive check out into the link amid human beings and nature. The different attributes and behaviors of the main characters and diverse ethical ideas demonstrated through these characters highlight the relationship between man and nature.
Ishmael and Captain Ahab different fates help the reader in discovering Melville's ethical leaning. Captain Ahab is a tragic hero and the conflict between Ahab and Moby-Dick sets off the reader's tension. Some innermost motive on nature makes an irreconcilable contraction between Moby-Dick and Ahab. The tragedy of Ahab represents human failures…
Bloom, Harold. Moby-Dick. New York: InfoBase Publishing, 2007. Print
Melville, Herman. Moby Dick: New York: Cricket House Books LLC, Nov 16, 2012. Print
Thomson, Shawn. The Romantic Architecture of Herman Melville's Moby-Dick. Madison [u.a.:
Fairleigh Dickinson University Press [u.a., 2001. Print.
In Herman Melville's Moby Dick, the character of Captain Ahab is repeatedly referred to as a "monomaniac" (Melville Chapter 41). In other words, he is a man obsessively devoted to and possessed by a single idea -- to get revenge upon the white whale, Moby Dick. To some extent, Ahab views his long-sought encounter with the whale as his own personal fate: it is clear from Melville's depiction that no trials or tribulations undergone during the Pequod's journey would be capable of stopping Ahab's strange quest. Yet it is clear from Melville's novel that the hunt for Moby Dick is not something Ahab could undertake on his own -- it requires a whaling-ship and it requires a crew. As a result, Ahab's journey to find the white whale can be viewed as a depiction of society in microcosm -- the difficulties that he faces along the way are…
Dubnick, Randa. "Melville: American Romantic." In Bloom, Harold (ed.) Herman Melville. New York: Chelsea House, 2006. Print.
Fiedler, Leslie A. Love and Death in the American Novel. Chicago: Dalkey Archive, 1997. Print.
Matthiessen, F.O. American Renaissance: Art and Expression in the Age of Emerson and Whitman. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1968. Print.
Melville, Herman. Moby-Dick, or The Whale. Project Gutenberg. Web. Accessed 2 April 2012 at: http://www.gutenberg.org/files/2701/2701-h/2701-h.htm#2HCH0036
" p. 162 Ahab has taken the power and autonomy given to him as a ship's captain and set himself against God and nature over the loss of his leg. It is this hubris that will bring the Pequod to her doom.
By the end of the novel, Captain Ahab seems to realize that even as great as he apparently thinks he is, he may not be able to master Moby-Dick. Even at this point, he cannot humble himself and admit that some forces may be greater than him. He says, "By heavens man, we are turned round and round in this world, like yonder windlass, and fate is the handspike." (p. 536) He has shown a belief in fate, bringing on board a man who seems to be a sooth-sayer, and who predicts Captain Ahab's death, and the predictions seem to be coming true. his is convenient for Captain…
The book suggests that it is his towering ego that is the problem. He dwells on neither pain nor terror. He complains of the insult. At the dramatic end, Moby-Dick turns and rams the Pequod, splintering it. Ahab, in the whaling boat, shouts,.".. from hell's heart I stab at thee; for hate's sake I spit my last breath at thee... let me then tow to pieces, while still chasing thee, though tied to thee, thou damned whale! Thus, I give up the spear!" (p. 565) Ahab expects to have the whale tow him away from the wreck. He realizes he will die, but doesn't care as long as he takes the whale with him. Instead, the rope from the harpoon tangles, wraps around his neck, and pulls him under.
Captain Ahab wasn't the only whaler attacked by Moby-Dick. Other captains realized the whale was dangerous and resolved to avoid him in the future. Only Ahab became so obsessed with vengeance that he lost the ability to be rational about the whale. Because of his driven hatred, everyone on his ship died except Ishmael. Ironically, Ishmael survives by clinging to a coffin, reminding the reader of the Mr. Coffin at the beginning of the book. That a symbol of death should save his life reminds the reader of the Christian belief of death leading to salvation, but it also demonstrates that death by itself is not any gain. Ahab dies because he cannot accept the limits of the real world, that he is only one man and that there are forces greater than he.
Melville, Herman. Moby-Dick, or, The Whale. Electronic Text Center, University of Virginia Library. Accessed via the Internet 1/2/05. http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/etcbin/toccer-new2?id=Mel2Mob.sgm&images=images/modeng&data=/texts/english/modeng/parsed&tag=public&part=all
Additionally, the holy ritual of anointing the selected things for God's intentions is discussed as well in Moby Dick -- where Queequeg come to a decision that the whaling ship must be anointed and as a result, he alone come to a decision to anoint the ship which permits Queequeg the sacred right of personal participation in the anointing procedure, something usually referred to a religious person; Queequeg did not succeed to match this portrayal for he is a pagan as well as his deeds undermine traditional religious principles; anointing happens via the involvement of God as well as the anointing of the Pequod fails to be a sacred or spiritual communion with the Lord (Peretz, 2003).
The author's conclusions are certainly more than just mischievous fun because of the dominance of religious statements all over Moby Dick; for he is writing at an particularly religious era in American history…
Breejen, J. (2000). Melville's Moby-Dick -- the Megalomanic Character of Captain Ahab. Retrieved March 31, 2009 from: http://www.9types.com/movieboard/messages/5954.html
Coviello, P. (2005). Intimacy in America: Dreams of Affiliation in Antebellum Literature. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
Dagovitz, a. (2008). Moby Dick's Hidden Philosopher: A Second Look in Philosophy and Literature.
Davey, M. (2004). A Routledge Literary Sourcebook on Herman Melville's Moby-Dick. New York: Routledge.
And like a human being "owing to his marked internal structure which gives him regular lungs, like a human being's, the whale can only live by inhaling the disengaged air in the open atmosphere" (Chapter 85). And who knows, the whale may even be superior to us, as "this great monster, to whom corporeal warmth is as indispensable as it is to man; how wonderful that he should be found at home, immersed to his lips for life in those Arctic waters! where, when seamen fall overboard, they are sometimes found, months afterwards, perpendicularly frozen into the hearts of fields of ice, as a fly is found glued in amber" (Chapter 68).
By treating Moby Dick as if the whale were an intelligent creature, Ahab overcomes the threat or fear of nothingness that all characters in the novel, indeed all human beings must grapple with. Ahab knows that his quest…
Melville, Herman. Moby Dick. Complete e-Text from the Online Library. 8 May 2007. http://www.online-literature.com/melville/mobydick
You cannot hide the soul... I saw the traces of a simple, honest heart; and in his large, deep eyes, fiery black and bold, there seemed tokens of a spirit that would dare a thousand devils. And besides all this, there was a certain lofty bearing about the Pagan, which even his uncouthness could not altogether maim. He looked like a man who had never cringed and never had had a creditor. " (p. 45). Ishmael is a man who is able to look at "the deep things of God" and see the soul of man. He has developed spiritual sense.
Ishmael follows a line of Christian reasoning that allows him to unite with a "heathen," that is a person that knows nothing about the Christian religion. He reasons that to obey the Golden Rule ("Do unto others as you would have them do unto you"), he must do for…
From the viewpoint of Melville scholar Lawrence Cleveland, the character of Captain Ahab, the sole master of the whaling ship the Pequod, "lost his leg to Moby Dick" which makes him "the victim of an attack by a vicious animal" ("Captain Ahab," Internet) in the form of a giant albino sperm whale. Yet by the time one reads Chapter 36 of the novel, it becomes clear that Ahab, named after a biblical figure that was married to Jezebel "who sponsored false prophets and gods, killed true ones and destroyed altars devoted to the Lord or Jehovah" (Smith, 267), is now a man possessed and "obsessed with destroying Moby Dick," due to the having lost his leg to the mighty jaws of the mysterious and terrifying white whale, humped with a crooked back and pierced by lances from past attempts to kill him.
y Chapter 37, the reader is convinced that…
Bryant, John. Ungraspable Phantom: Essays on Moby Dick. OH: Kent State University Press, 2006.
Cleveland, Lawrence. "Captain Ahab and Moby Dick: A Study in the Self and Others."
1997. Internet. Retrieved at http://www9.georgetown.edu/faculty/bassr/218/projects / lawrence/lawrence.htm.
Gleim, William S. The Meaning of Moby Dick. New York: Kessinger Publishing Group, 2002.
In Job, the character of Job is presented as a virtuous individual who lives sinless and in accordance to the will of God. In order to test this, God sends his messenger down to strike Job and his life with a slew of calamities, including boils and loss of money. Job has no reason to blame himself for this punishment, yet refuses to curse god. In the end, he is rewarded for his ongoing faith.
This allegory of the ook of Job can be found in other literary works besides just Moby-Dick. For example, the struggle of an essentially good person against unreasonable evil in the ongoing pursuit of goodness is a common theme in almost all of Emily Dickinson's poems. A prevalent theme in many of her poems is the a struggle with depression without any reason. Like Job, Dickinson is an otherwise virtuous individual but for no explanatory…
Bloom, Harold. Moby Dick: Or, the Whale. New York: Chelsea House Publishers. 1986.
Brodhead, Richard. New Essays on Moby-Dick. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 1987.
Davey, Michael J. A Routledge Literary Sourcebook on Herman Melville's Moby Dick. New York: Taylor & Francis, Inc. 2003.
Higgins, Brian. Critical Essays on Herman Melville's Moby Dick. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company, Inc. 1992.
Starbuck's religious affinities do not assist him in preventing his captain from abandoning the campaign that he got involved in. In spite of his love for God, he is a very loyal individual and he is actually surprised to see the extent of his devotion, as he practically disregards God and all the factors pointing toward the belief that the ship's crew will experience a catastrophic end in favor of following Ahab. Starbuck himself is unable to explain the reason for which he would rather subject to his captain instead of subjecting to God's will, especially considering that he appears to be aware of the futility of their mission even before they begin their journey. Starbuck acknowledges the fact that it is irresponsible to try and get revenge on an animal that lack reason and that attacks only when it feels threatened, thus the reason for which he relates to…
Mellvile, Herman, Moby Dick, (Richard Bentley, 1851)
Melville continues, "Ahab, without speaking, was slowly rubbing the gold piece against the skirts of his jacket, as if to heighten its lustre, and without using any words was meanwhile lowly humming to himself" (Melville 159). Ahab may be mad, and the author combines all of these details to give the reader a picture of a man who is unique, different, and just a bit frightening as well. As the novel progresses, so will Ahab's madness, which is another way the author portrays him as a very different and frightening man throughout the novel.
Ahab is also very singular in his actions and his thoughts. Melville shows he is behaving more oddly as the voyage progresses, especially during his daily walks on deck. The author states of the captain, "[H]e was won't to pause in turn at each spot, and stand there strangely eyeing the particular object before him. When…
Melville, Herman. Mansfield, Luther S., and Howard P. Vincent, eds. Moby Dick or, the Whale. New York: Hendricks House, 1952.
.. (is) blasphemous!" (pg. #). This is yet another foreshadowing device, for it shows that Moby Dick is nothing but an animal with no conscience and that Ahab's need for revenge will inevitably lead to his own death and that of the entire crew aboard the Pequod.
In a very moving moment in the chapter "The Musket," Starbuck's moral ethics are put to the supreme test, for after a severe typhoon, goes below deck to inform the sleeping Ahab that the dangerous weather has subsided. He finds a loaded musket just outside Ahab's door and in that instant "there strangely evolved an evil thought" in his head -- "Shall this crazed old man be... suffered to drag a whole ship's company down to doom with him?" (pg. #). Yet Starbuck, as a result of his religious/moral beliefs, finds it impossible to kill Ahab in order to save the crew from…
Melville, Herman. Moby Dick. 2nd. ed. New York: Norton & Company, 2002.
There are a thousands different ways for a man to lose himself and his soul - and a number of ways for him to be saved. Herman Melville presents us over the course of his work with a dozen different ways in which men find and lose and sometimes find themselves again. For Ishmael, the narrator of Moby Dick, the way to life and to perhaps even hope is by death, or at least by an emblem of death, for it is by a coffin that he is - to steal a Dickensian phrase - recalled to life.
The first line of the novel is, of course, one of the best-known opening lines in English literature - but it is also a clue to the character of the narrator as well as a clue to the intent of Melville in writing this book. e are meant, as soon…
Point ONE: Billy Budd: Critic Eugene Goodheart is the Edythe Macy Professor of Humanities Emeritus at Brandeis University. He writes that while critics are generally divided between those who see Captain Vere as "an unwitting collaborator" with Claggart and those who feel Vere was correct to have Billy sent to the gallows. In his piece Goodheart explains that Billy is "…variously seen as Adam before the fall, as a noble barbarian, as Isaac the sacrificial victim…and as a Christ figure" (Goodheart, 2006, p. 81).
Point TO: Goodheart makes the most of his assertion that no matter what allegorical link to Billy, the protagonist is symbolic of innocence. hen Billy lashes out at Claggart, it is due to his innocence. He is first of all innocent of the charge that he was leading a mutiny, Goodheart explains. Secondly, Billy is innocent when it comes to the existence of evil (Goodheart, p.…
Claviez, Thomas. "Rainbows, Fogs, and Other Smokescreens: Billy Budd and the Question of Ethics." Arizona Quarterly: A Journal of American Literature, Culture, and Theory. 62.4
Donoghue, Denis. "Moby-Dick' after September 11th." Law and Literature 15.2 (2003): 161-
Goodheart, Eugene. "Billy Budd and the World's Imperfection." Sewanee Review 114.1 (2006):
Definition of Modernism and Three Examples
Indeed, creating a true and solid definition of modernism is exceptionally difficult, and even most of the more scholarly critical accounts of the so-called modernist movement tend to divide the category into more or less two different movements, being what is known as "high modernism," which reflected the erudition and scholarly experimentalism of Eliot, Joyce, and Pound, and the so-called "low modernism" of later American practitioners, such as William Carlos Williams. Nonetheless, despite the problems of reification involved with such a task, I will attempt to invoke a definitions of at least some traits of modernism, as culled from the Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics:
First, [in modernism] "realization" had to replace description, so that instead of copying the external world the work could render it in an image insisting on its own forms of reality... [and] Second, the poets develop…
Preminger, Alex and Brogan T.V.F. The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics.
Princeton, NJ: Princeton UP, 1993.
Myths - "The Other Side of Wonder"
Like the empty sky it has no boundaries, yet it is right in this place, ever profound and clear.2
So run the lines from Cheng Tao, describing signifying, identifying myths - always there explaining existence and every facet of life, explaining the reason behind every man's actions:
For what is a myth? Lillian Hornstein3 describes it best. "A myth is the traditional tale common to the members of a tribe, race, or nation, usually involving the supernatural and serving to explain some natural phenomena. Given as an example is the tale of Persephone, daughter of Demeter, abducted by Hades and brought to the underworld but allowed to return to earth and visit her mother for six months. Thus, we have the varied alternations of the season on earth.
Shall we consider the social-cultural effects of myths positive or negative?
13 Mervill pp. 8-9
14 Mervill on Aristotle, pp. 25-30
15 Beehler, Roger and Alan, Drengson. The Philosophy of Society. London: Methiren and Co., 1978
Roots of the Feeling of Moral Superiority in the U.S.
The United States has been criticized in recent years for assuming an air of moral superiority and for trying to impose their opinions on the rest of the world. Even when the tragedy of September 11 happened, some countries were happy to see America suffer. hy would they hate us? Partly it might be because they envy the wealth and freedom that American citizens have. It is also because they think Americans believe they are always in the right, (my country, right or wrong). Did this attitude emerge with the founding fathers? e can see American attitudes to ourselves and also to other countries in non-fiction and fiction of the first two centuries, from the 1770's to the 1970's.
In "Common Sense," 1776, Thomas Paine declared "Neither can ye reconcile Britain and America...The Almighty hath implanted in us these inextinguishable…
The Norton Anthology of American Literature, vol. 1, 5th ed. Nina Baym
De Crevecoeur, J. Hector St. John. Letters From An American Farmer. New York, Fox, Duffield, 1904. www.xroads.virginia.edu/~HYPER/CREV/letter04.html.
Melville, Herman. Moby Dick. New York, W.W. Norton and Company, 1967.
Paine, Thomas. "Common Sense" and "Epistle to Quakers." 1776. New York, Bartleby.com, 1999. http:www.bartleby.com/133/
Teaching, I believe, is a vocation that should be pursued by those who can help students to not just master required subject matter but develop skills for critical thinking, so that, they in turn, will be able to contribute to and further build on the accumulated body of knowledge in their chosen fields. To successfully achieve the aforesaid objective requires personal commitment; mastery of the subject being taught; originality and creativity; and the ability to make students relate to the subject matter.
Given my own views on 'teaching,' I was naturally pleased to find that the objectives of my course had been carefully structured and defined to meet precisely the above-mentioned requisites. This has been particularly meaningful for me as both a student today, and hopefully, as a teacher of high schools students tomorrow.
The personal importance of successfully achieving the stated goals of the English program led to my…
Scarlet Letter" by Nathaniel Hawthorne, "Moby-Dick" by Herman Melville, and "The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn" by Mark Twain. Specifically, it compares and contraststhese three characters in relation to the evil that dominates them, indicate what the attitude of the author is regarding each one, discuss the source of their evil nature or acts, the nature of the evil deeds they commit, and the results of these evil designs.
It will also select the character that should be the most strongly condemned and fully justify why. Each of these novel's characters is dominated by the evil influence of another character, and each of them faces this domination in a different way. Each character grows stronger from this evil influence, and learns how to remove the evil influence from their lives.
Evil is present in all of these novels, and much of each novel's theme revolves around the age-old premise of good…
Hawthorne, Nathaniel. "The Scarlet Letter." Bartleby.com. 2004. 6 April 2004. http://www.bartleby.com/83/index.html
Melville, Herman. Moby-Dick Or, the Whale. New York: Hendricks House, 1952.
Twain, Mark. Adventures of Huckleberry Finn. New York P.F. Collier & Son Company, 1912.
But 'tis enough."(Melville, 161-162) the comparison of the whale with a wall emphasizes Ahab's maddening endeavor to break the ultimate resistance of truth and conquer it. Thus, he is not fascinated like Ishmael by the metaphysical, he wants to own it and vanquish it: "That inscrutable thing is chiefly what I hate; and be the white whale agent, or be the white whale principal, I will wreak that hate upon him. Talk not to me of blasphemy, man; I'd strike the sun if it insulted me."(Melville, 162) in Ahab's struggle with the inscrutable, he never ceases to be a personality himself, refusing to be daunted by its overwhelming force. The ultimate desire to kill the whale shows Ahab's obsession with obtaining an absolute victory over the unknown. The captain is obviously haunted by the same high perception of reality as Ishmael is, with the addition that his strife is extremely…
Melville, Herman. Moby Dick. New York: Penguin Classics, 1972
Standards and Assessments
The Common Core Standard used for this project is Common Core State Standards Initiative, English Language Arts 7.7. This is in accordance with New Jersey State Standards. This standard is designed for 7th graders. The standard states "Compare and contrast a written story, drama, or poem to its audio, filmed, staged, or multimedia version, analyzing the effects of techniques unique to each medium (e.g., lighting, sound, color, or camera focus and angles in a film)."
It is important that students remember how to identify different interpretations of a similar wording or story. It is important that students remember that there is more than one way to communicate an idea. It is important that students remember that different media presents different effects on learning and knowledge.
Explain: Explain who medium affects a story?
Interpret: How would you interpret a story from one medium to another ?
Explain: Explain who medium affects a story?
Interpret: How would you interpret a story from one medium to another ?
Application: Give a few examples of books being turned into movies.
Perspective: How do you feel about a good book being turned into a bad movie?
Melvilles Spouter Inn
Some of the best descriptive essayexamples can be found among the writings of the greatest authors. Consider a chapter in Moby-Dick by Herman Melville: every chapter of that book is like a mini-descriptive essay. Look at the way Melville uses description to create atmospheric effect in the first line of Chapter 3: The Spouter Inn from Moby-Dick: Entering that gable-ended Spouter-Inn, you found yourself in a wide, low, straggling entry with old-fashioned wainscots, reminding one of the bulwarks of some condemned old craft. Melville uses words like condemned to convey a sense of foreboding and doom, and the adjectives wide, low, straggling produce a claustrophobic effect on the readerone that pulls him in with force. Melville also uses consonance, assonance and alliteration to make the words flow more enjoyably and give the description a kind of musical quality. Go to any chapter in Moby-Dick and you will…
Overall, this type of reading lesson on the part of the teacher may inspire students to explore other types of reading material, thus expanding their reading horizons and their ability to think creatively.
esides having the teacher read aloud passages from a text, one reading project which undoubtedly would benefit everyone involved would be to have the class read the text aloud, either as individuals or as Zullo suggests, as a whole class reading with the text enlarged to poster size on a screen which would enable the teacher to include comments on the text by the students. In this way, all of the students would be encouraged to verbalize their thoughts on the text, make new connections between one passage and another, listen and appreciate different perspectives on certain passages and come to a more fuller understanding of the text. In addition, this method would benefit those…
Zullo, Rebecca L. (2004). Literacy for Learning: Reading and Writing Across the Curriculum. Canton, OH: Communicate Institute.
Frequent interception of American ships to impress American citizens was a major cause of the ar of 1812. ("Impressments." The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia. 10 Aug. 2005, (http://www.factmonster.com/ce6/history/A0825052.html)
The enforced and arbitrary nature of the fate of impressment, and Budd's fate of facing the code of military law, which was different from the life he was accustomed to, did not understand, and had not agreed to, was thus the result of Billy being forced to obey a social contract in an environment that necessitated individuals obey without question to fight an armed enemy. This differing social contract is not necessarily 'worse' than life upon a non-military ship. The problem is not necessarily the innocent civilian Billy is good and that the military men are bad, but that two orders of individualism and the collective good are clashing on a ship -- it is through impressment that this has occurred, not because…
Barbour, James. "All My Books Are Botches': Melville's Struggle with The Whale." Writing the American Classics. Ed. James Barbour and Tom Quirk. Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 1990.
Franklin, Bruce H. "Billy Budd and Capital Punishment." From American Literature. June 1997.
Impressment." The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia. Fact Monster.
Pearson Education, publishing as Fact Monster.
According to J.P. De Caussade, God speaks "today as he spoke in former times to our fathers when there were no directors as at present, nor any regular method of direction."
In other words, Fr. De Caussade asserts that God maintains and has always maintained a personal relationship, or a providential relationship, with mankind. However, the exact way in which God exercises control over the world and the lives of humans in the world has been debated for many centuries. Indeed, in the realm of God's providence, there are numerous variables and nuanced positions, which have been argued by Christians since the time of the Apostles through to the Protestant Reformation right up to today. This paper will consider the two broader views of recent centuries -- the Arminian and the Calvinist -- and evaluate whether there might be alternative views that incorporate both perspectives of how Providence…
Aquinas, Thomas. Summa Theologiae, Benziger Bros, ed. [trans. Fathers of the English
Dominican Province]. Christian Classics Ethereal Library. 1947.
Chang, Andrew D. "Second Peter 2:1 and the Extent of the Atonement," Bibliotheca
Sacra, Jan-Mar, 1985, 52.
Trade Books and Content Literacy
The content are is English.
Tools to read
Reading/Comprehension Skills. Students use a flexible range of metacognitive reading skills in both assigned and independent reading to understand an author's message. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater depth in increasingly more complex texts as they become self-directed, critical readers. The student is expected to:
(A) establish purposes for reading selected texts based upon own or others' desired outcome to enhance comprehension;
(B) ask literal, interpretive, evaluative, and universal questions of text;
(C) reflect on understanding to monitor comprehension (e.g., summarizing and synthesizing; making textual, personal, and world connections; creating sensory images);
(D) make complex inferences about text and use textual evidence to support understanding;
(E) summarize, paraphrase, and synthesize texts in ways that maintain meaning and logical order within a text and across texts; and make connections…
Ligeia and the Theme of Reincarnation
That the narrator of "Ligeia" is one who is frequently called "unreliable" by critics is nothing new (Sweet, Blythe), as he is an admitted opium addict, often susceptible to hallucinations in which he would imagine the lost Ligeia. Like the maddened narrator of "The Raven" sorrowing for his "lost Lenore," the unreliable narrator of "Ligeia" tempts the reader to doubt the transformation of Rowena into the narrator's lost love by reason of his habit of indulgence in the opium drug. Indeed, the night of his vigil is not without his cup of mind-altering elixir; therefore, the literal minded critic would suggest that it cannot be stated with any certainty whether the Ligeia whom he sees in Rowena is real, hallucinatory, or a result of reincarnation. There is, however, plenty of evidence to suggest that a close reading of the text gives enough clues for…
Melville, Herman. Moby-Dick. NY: Barnes Nobles, 2008. Print.
Poe, Edgar Allen. "Ligeia." Virginia.edu. Web. 5 Feb 2016.
Poe, Edgar Allen. "The Raven." Bartleby. Web. 5 Feb 2016.
Sweet, Charlie; Blythe, Hal. "Teaching the Unreliable Narrator in Ligeia." Eureka
San Francisco is a place of greater opportunity than anywhere in the South offered her; there are fewer freedoms than she discovered in Mexico or in the junkyard, perhaps, but these restrictions are attendant on the opportunities afforded her. Angelou's ability to imagine those opportunities carried on the sea breeze or just over the crest of each successive hill of the San Francisco marks her successful journey in the book to a woman of confidence.
I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings tells a true tale, but it does so in such a way that each of the elements is just as important as they would be in a work of fiction. The setting of each scene in Angelou's life story neatly matches the plot points and the character development, not through literary contrivance but through necessity -- it is how the story happened. Had her story unfolded in…
Angelou, Maya. I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings. New York: Random House, 2009.
Boyatzis, Chris. "Let the Caged Bird Sing: Using Literature to teach Developmental Psychology." Teaching of psychology 19(4), pp. 221-2.
Ingman, Heather. Mothers and Daughters in the Twentieth Century. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1999.
Walker, Pierre. "Racial Protest, Identity, Words, and Form in Maya Angelou's I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings." College Literature 22(3), pp. 91-108.
Thus, Melville clearly portrays Billy as the greatest of innocents, infused with godlike looks and a pure heart. As this type of a character is realistically unlikely, many readers can quickly interpret Billy to be, therefore, a symbol of innocence. Indeed, even in his hanging Billy's image remains intact, as his last words are: "God Bless Captain Vere" (1426).
This innocence, however, meets with the harsh ruling of justice. Indeed, as Billy leaves the merchant vessel, the Rights of Man, during his impressment, the author foreshadows that Billy, will, indeed loose his rights. As innocent as Melville paints Billy, he paints justice as gruesome. The circumstances that lead to Claggart's murder at Billy's hands are no fault of Billy's, and are planned by Claggart himself. From their first acquaintance, Billy finds himself "getting into petty trouble" because Claggart does not like Billy (1377). Furthermore, Claggarrt's determination to taint Billy's name…
Goldman, Eric. "Bringing out the Beast in Melville's Billy Budd: The Dialogue of Darwinian and "Holy" Lexicons on Board the Bellipotent. Studies in the Novel. 36.4 (2005): 430-442.
Melville, Herman. "Billy Budd, Sailor." Literary Classics of the United States: Melville.
Ed. Harrison Hayford. New York: Literary Classics of the United States, 1984. 1351-1435.
These refer to the characteristics of the political and regulatory environment (P), the economic environment (E), the socio-cultural environment and finally, the technological environment. The analysis of the climate in which an organization activates is also known as the PEST analysis.
Starbucks offers a wide selection of coffee-based beverages, with both caffeine and without caffeine. Aside their coffee beverages, they also offer whole-bean coffees, food items and coffee-related products and hardware equipment. "Starbucks stores offered a choice of regular or decaffeinated coffee beverages, a special "coffee of the day," and a broad selection of Italian-style espresso drinks. In addition, customers could choose from a wide selection of fresh-roasted whole-bean coffees (which could be ground on the premises and carried home in distinctive packages), a selection of fresh pastries and other food items, sodas, juices, teas, and coffee-related hardware and equipment."
About 61% of the sold items…
2008, Starbucks Corporation, Hoovers, http://www.hoovers.com/starbucks/--ID__15745 -- /free-co-factsheet.xhtmllast accessed on September 12, 2008
Moon, Y., Quelch, J., July 10, 2006, Starbucks: Delivering Customer Service, Harvard Business School
2008, Analysis of Starbucks, KNOL Beta - a Unit of Knowledge, http://knol.google.com/k/-/analysis-of-starbucks/ow5jbvr76bz9/8#last accessed on September 11, 2008
This helps tarbucks to retain an image of the young, exciting company that attempts to break the convention with its strategy and its products. The company does this with a policy of continuous innovation and honesty.
Another policy is never to compromise the customer's experience for the sake of profit, as seen above. Not only employees, but also customers are seen as the primary stakeholders in the company and as such are treated well. In this, the company focuses on the little touches that make the customer experience something exceptional. The policy is that small things add up to connect the customer with the company, and this ensures returning customers.
Another insight that tarbucks profit from is the fact that they do not attempt to cultivate loyalty with lower prices, but rather a basis of fans with products that are excellent and meaningful to the particular customers it serves. Hence,…
Allison, Melissa. 2006. Starbucks takes unique approach to marketing. Seattle Times. Oct. 12. http://seattletimes.nwsource.com/html/businesstechnology/2003300353_events12.html
Hanft, Adam. 2007. What you can learn from Starbucks. Inc.com. http://www.inc.com/resources/marketing/articles/20050401/starbucks.html
Moore, John. 2006. Marketing lessons from Starbucks. Nov. 7. http://www.hear2.com/2006/11/john_moore_auth.html
The only material similarity between Prynne's scarlet "badge" and Faith's pink ribbons is that both are made of cloth and adorn some type of clothing, i.e., Faith's ribbons are part of her cap while Prynne's "badge" is sewn into her dress as needlework.
The reader is first introduced to Prynne's "badge" in Chapter Two of the Scarlet Letter when she emerges from jail -- "On the breast of her gown, in fine red cloth, surrounded with an elaborate embroidery and fantastic flourishes of gold thread, appeared the letter a." Upon being led to her "place of punishment" for committing adultery with Arthur Dimmesdale, all eyes are immediately drawn to the scarlet "A" which "had the effect of a spell, taking (Hester) out of the ordinary relations with humanity and enclosing her in a sphere by herself" (ell, 163-164). Obviously, this scarlet emblem upon Hester's dress seems to emit a life…
Bell, Millicent, Ed. Nathaniel Hawthorne: Collected Novels and Short Stories. New York: The Library of America, 1983.
Richardson, Robert D., Jr. "Ralph Waldo Emerson." Dictionary of Literary Biography. Vol. 59: "American Literary Critics and Scholars, 1800-1850." Ed. John W. Rathburn. Farmington Hills, MI: Gale Research, Inc., 1987, 108-129.
hat you do in life, good, bad, otherwise, comes back to haunt you. And the suicide of Robert X is an embodiment of that lesson.
In reading about this book, in preparation for this essay, I came across a conversation the author had with John Lowe concerning the tight narrative quality of the book, and I think in commenting about it, Gaines underscores one of the book's major themes:
P: There's nothing wasted in that book. It's totally honest and almost foreordained from the beginning, from the first page.
Gaines: A great man falls, and what he's going to do when he gets up. He feels that even God had failed him. He could not even please God any more (Lowe 184).
This theme, or question rather, of how does one deal with failure is an important one, on the individual level as well as on the group level. How…
Gaines, Earnest J. In My Father's House. New York: Vintage, 1992. Print.
Lowe, John. Conversations With Earnest Gaines. Mississippi: University Press, 2008.
Miller, Arthur. Death of a Salesman. New York: Penguin, 1996. Print.
2010 MOST ETHICAL RESTAURANT
Starbucks Coffee Company was chosen Most Ethical Restaurant for 2010, according to strict screening methods and criteria (Ethisphere, 2010). These criteria were corporate citizenship and responsibility, corporate governance, innovation in public well-being, industry leadership, executive leadership, regulatory and reputation track record and internal systems and ethics or compliance program. Starbucks is the lone recipient of the award in the restaurant and cafe category (Ethisphere).
Starbucks Coffee Company started as a single an narrow store at the Pike Place Market in Seattle in 1971 (Starbucks, 2010). Its name was inspired from the novel, "Moby Dick," which describes the romance of the high seas and the traditions of the early coffee traders. From the start, the company offered and served some of the world's finest fresh-roasted whole bean coffees. Current chairman, president chief executive officer Howard Schultz first entered a Starbucks store in 1981 and…
CRO Corporation LLC (2009). Corporate responsibility. Corporate Responsibility
Magazine: Shared Expertise Media LLC. Retrieved on October 16, 2010 from http://www.thecro.com/?qnode
DeLoitte Consulting LLP (2009). Organizing for corporate responsibility and sustainability. Case Study- Starbucks. DeLoitte Development LLC. Retrieved on October 15, 2010 from http://www.chicagolandchamber.org/YourChamber/greenbusforum/Documents/DeloitteCorpResponsibility.pdf
Ethispere (2010). 2010 world's most ethical companies. Ethisphere Magazine. Retrieved on October 16, 2010 from http://ethisphere.com/wme2010
Frankenstein -- illy udd
ILLY UDD & VICTOR FRANKENSTEIN:
TWO TRAGIC FIGURES
After a close reading of Mary W. Shelley's Frankenstein; Or, the Modern Prometheus, first published in 1818, and Herman Melville's novella illy udd, published around 1855, it is quite clear that the main characters, being Victor Frankenstein and illy udd, share some common attributes. oth are young, adventurous and full of curiosity and are caught up in a world that through their eyes is indifferent and hostile. ut most importantly, both of these characters are tragic figures, meaning that their lives end in nothing but death and disillusionment as a result of their own misfortune and emotional immaturity.
With illy udd, Melville created a very strange world similar to his earlier Moby Dick, but in illy udd, the main character experiences true tragedy based on the extremes found in human nature; illy udd is thus rather complex, being…
Melville, Herman. Billy Budd. New York: Penguin Books, 1986.
Shelley, Mary W. Frankenstein. New York: Barnes & Noble Books, 1993.
Melville and rving
The dawn of the American nation brought with it a need for a decidedly American culture, one depicted with careful precision by many of the authors that came to paint the literary landscape of the new magnate across the Atlantic. Washington rving, the first American great, told the story of the nascent, colonial United States through youthful folklore limned with great detail and attention to the inner workings of the human spirit in its new land. Half a century later, Herman Melville entranced the same people with his swashbuckling narration of pirates, whales, and sailors; America's best, who, against all odds, battled sea, spray, and monster to find their way back home. While Melville declared his preference for creative genius over adept imitators like rving, he could not escape rving's influence, from which he learned that realistic details of rural life in American can be worked memorably…
Ibid, p. 23.
Irving, Washington. Rip Van Winkle. New York: Black Dome Press, 2003.
American Ethnic Literature
Analyzing the Nature of American Ethnic Literature
America has a distinct history: like ancient ome, its inhabitants have come from all over and few of them can truly say to be natives of the place. This fact alone makes American Literature a compelling label: what makes American Literature American? This paper will attempt to answer the question by showing how many ethnicities have converged in one nation allowing various writers with different ethnic, social, political, economical, and social perspectives to define and/or illustrate a time and place.
As Morris Dickstein states, "When America was merely a remote province of world culture, its educated elites were Anglophile, Francophile, or broadly cosmopolitan. Education was grounded in classical learning, a respect for the ancients over the moderns, and a deeply ingrained respect for old Europe's artistic heritage" (p. 155). This type of background made American letters similar to European. What…
African-American Literature. (n.d.). Introduction, pp. 1-11.
Asian-American Lliterature. (n.d.). Introduction, pp. 2-12.
Casey, J.G. (n.d.). Canon Issues and Class Contexts. Radical Teacher 86, pp. 18-27.
Dickstein, M. (n.d.). Going Native. The American Scholar.
graphic novel Watchmen by Alan Moore. It is basically about what inspired Watchmen's themes, story, and characters. As well as what Watchmen has influenced and how it has been influenced by other comics and heroes like Batman and uperman among others. Watchman and its influences
Watchman, authored by Alan Moore, artist Dave Gibbons, and colourist John Higgins was created in 1986 / 1987 in response to contemporary anxieties and as means of critiquing the superhero concept.
Watchman recreates history where superheroes emerged in the 1940s and 1950s who helped the U..A. win the war against Vietnam and later is involved in preventing nuclear war with the U...R. Most former superheroes have retired or are working for the government, so contumely freelance vigilantes are arbitrarily and voluntarily doing the job of protecting the country. The protagonists actively fight and strategically plot to help retired superheroes survive and they work to stave…
Amaya, Erik. (September 30, 2008) Len Wein: Watching the Watchmen. Comic Book Resources..
Cooke, J.B. (August 2000) Alan Moore discusses the Charlton-Watchmen Connection. Comic Book Artist.
Contino, Jennifer M. (December 28, 2008. ) Who Watches Rich Johnston's Watchmensch. Comicon.com.
Kavanagh, B. (October 17, 2000.) The Alan Moore Interview: Watchmen characters. Blather.net.
O rother, Where Art Thou?
Homer in Hollywood: The Coen rothers' O rother, Where Art Thou?
Could a Hollywood filmmaker adapt Homer's Odyssey for the screen in the same way that James Joyce did for the Modernist novel? The idea of a high-art film adaptation of the Odyssey is actually at the center of the plot of Jean-Luc Godard's 1963 film Contempt, and the Alberto Moravia novel on which Godard's film is based. In Contempt, Prokosch, a rich American dilettante film producer played by Jack Palance, hires Fritz Lang to film a version of Homer's Odyssey, then hires a screenwriter to write it and promptly ruins his marriage to rigitte ardot. Fritz Lang gamely plays himself -- joining the ranks of fellow "arty" German-born directors who had earlier deigned to act before the camera (like Erich von Stroheim in Wilder's Sunset oulevard, playing a former director not unlike himself, or…
Peter Biskind, Easy Riders, Raging Bulls How the Sex-Drugs-and-Rock'N'Roll Generation Saved Hollywood. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1999. Print.
Cavell, Stanley. Pursuits of Happiness: the Hollywood Comedy of Remarriage. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1984. Print.
Connors, Catherine. Petronius the Poet: Verse and Literary Tradition in the Satyricon. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998. Print.
Doom, Ryan P. The Brothers Coen: Unique Characters of Violence. Santa Barbara, Denver and Oxford: Praeger / ABC-CLIO, 2009. Print.
Starbucks, a Market Analysis
Starbucks is a major, world wide coffee retailer specializing in a variety of brands of blend coffee and iced beverages, among other related products. Within the market sector Starbucks exists stands several competing companies such as The Coffee Bean & Tea Leaf and Caribou Coffee. Each company shares similar strategies, appealing to a similar demographic, and hails themselves as the high-end of coffee-based shops/cafes. They also share a similar promise of quality ingredients and service. The difference is, while a company like Starbucks focuses on the behavior of consumers to market their product, a company like Caribou coffee relies on the taste and quality of their product, and The Coffee Bean & Tea Leaf rely on location and ease of access.
Starbucks was selected as the primary company to analyze due to its immense popularity and success over the last decade. It has become one of…
Mayo, E.J. (1977). The impact of the consumer's psychographic and demographic characteristics on buyer behavior: A comparative analysis of psychographics and demographics as segmentation variables in a rail passenger market. Ann Arbor, Mich: Xerox University Microfilms.
Morrison, M. (2013, September 20). Starbucks Launches Campaign Focused on Bean Quality | News - Advertising Age. Retrieved from http://adage.com/article/news/starbucks-launches-campaign-focused-bean-quality/244263/
Starbucks Coffee Company (2011). Starbucks Company Profile. Retrieved from http://globalassets.starbucks.com/assets/F62C45CD8A8B4699BEFC60A2618F0431.pdf
Weinstein, A., & Weinstein, A. (2004). Handbook of market segmentation: Strategic targeting for business and technology firms. New York: Haworth Press.
Client server systems are a group of inter-related subsystems which collaborate together to provide a specific solution or service. This computing model structures diverse and distributed applications, which separates tasks between the providers (servers) and service seekers (clients). Keeping the purpose of this paper in view, the provider-server is the Geographical Informative System and the client is the U.S. government. This paper analyzes Geographical Informative System (GIS) as its client server system. GIS are quite pricey with respect to installation. The primary concern while setting up GIS is:
Attaining the data
Performing quality assurance tests
Quality checks on data
Syncing hardware and software
This case study will go through many GIS projects implemented over the years by various U.S. government agencies. It has tremendous benefits to U.S. organizations, which have gone ahead and implemented them successfully. There are tons of benefits can attained from GIS, by both public and private…
Freeman, M. (2008). Government Technology, available from http://www.govtech.com/gt/392026?Id=392026&topic=117676&full=1&story_pg=1
Giglierano, J. (2009). Iowa Geographic Information Council, 20 May 2009, available from http://docs.google.com/Present?docid=dfpg82pj_5hjtxs5c7&skipauth=true
Leidner, A. (2007). American City & County: Payback Figures, available from http://americancityandcounty.com/mag/government_payback_figures/
Maguire D. et al., eds. (2008). The Business Benefits of GIS: An ROI Approach (Redlands, CA:ESRI Press), 3-10.
Figure 1. epresentative Starbucks' Logo
Source: Hoots, 2010
Starbucks' Pricing Strategy
The company's pricing strategy varies from country to country (Andrews & Chompusri, 2003) but generally speaking, Starbucks uses a sales-oriented pricing strategy based on careful market research and customer analyses to identify pricing levels that the majority of their consumers are willing to pay for their products (Dawson, 2013).
Product Life Cycle of Starbucks
The company's product life cycle has expanded significantly over the past 45 years to include the wide array of products and brands noted above; however, when the company opened its first store in Seattle's Pike Place Market in 1971, the company only sold packaged roasted coffee beans (oos, 2013). The company has also made three unsuccessful sorties into the publishing world as well, including efforts to sell books and publish its own literary magazine (oos, 2013). The life cycle of these Starbucks' products are set…
Abhinandan, K.J. & Ashok J. (1999). Marketing information products and services. Ottawa:
International Development Research Centre.
Andrews, T.G. & Nartnalin, C. (2003). The changing face of multinationals in Southeast Asia.
New York: Routledge.
Starbucks Coffee Company Introduction & Overview
Starbucks came into being in 1971 and was named after the first mate in Moby Dick by Herman Melville. The first store of Starbucks was opened in Seattle's Pike Place Market. Gordon owker, Jerry aldwin, and Zev Siegl were the first three owners of Starbucks. It is Starbucks' mission to be "an inspiration as well as nurturing force for the human spirit." The coffee beans roasted and later on sold by Starbucks are of very high quality. These beans are also used in making Italian style espresso beverages. The store also sells equipment and accessories associated with coffee, pastries and other edible items that compliment coffee. Usually all these products are sold by the company through retail stores that are operated by the company. The main objective of the company is to make Starbucks the most respected and popular brand around the globe (Nielsen…
Bussing-Burks, M. (2009). Starbucks. U.S.: ABC-CLIO.
Deresky. (2006). International Management: Managing Across Borders And Cultures, 5/E. India: Pearson Education India.
Warrington. (2012). CASE 35: Starbucks Coffee Company. Accessed from: http://warrington.ufl.edu/centers/retailcenter/docs/TeachRetail_CaseNoteExample.pdf
Fellner, K. (2008). Wrestling with Starbucks: Conscience, Capital, Cappuccino. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press.
persuasion to successfully convince someone to see things your way.
In a discussion with a colleague about the merits of a certain political leader, I repeated the colleague's concerns back to him to show that I had been listening and that I understood what his issues were. Then I used my knowledge of the subject to answer the objections and to correct some inaccuracies in what he said. I did not do so in a judgmental or affronting manner, but rather intimated that he himself could check up on what I was saying to see for himself. I encouraged him to do just that in a friendly manner, he agreed to do so, and when he returned he agreed that my perspective had been correct because it was based on actual evidence.
Describe a time when you were faced with a stressful situation that demonstrated your coping skills.
Blade Runner: Genre, Conflict and Ambiguities
The conflict at the heart of Blade Runner is like that in most noir, neo-noir and detective films -- a fight between good and evil. In Blade Runner, this conflict is particularly compelling because the distinction between these two forces is ambiguous at best. The film uses the man vs. monster motif put forward in Shelley's gothic masterpiece Frankenstein (in Blade Runner it is updated to man vs. machine to fit the futuristic setting), and this motif allows the film to explore the question of what makes us human, intelligent, sentient, and mortal. The film's underlying philosophical tone is not used in a pedantic manner but rather to elicit sympathy for the film's most interesting characters -- the replicants themselves -- as well as the individuals responsible for creating them and destroying them. The hero of the film, Deckard, is one of the latter…
A fourth foundational element is the strength of the Starbucks brand itself and is ubiquity globally. As a result of rapid and well-defined strategies for opening up retail stores, Starbucks is now considered one of the most preeminent and strongest brands globally.
Starbucks has generated the strength of their brand through combining high-quality coffee and tea beverages with the third-place concept to generate customer loyalty and world-of-mouth among customers and their friends. It is common to hear students mention they will have a team meeting at the local Starbucks, for studying or completing projects.
In summary the Starbucks model is strengthened by the company's coffee expertise, impressive new product development record, and the development of Starbucks locations as "third places" where friends can meet and enjoy coffee and pastries. Underscoring all these points is the strength of the Starbucks brand.
What were the key issues and the decision by Starbucks…
Patrick Burnson (2002, December). Amsterdam's key role in Starbucks' global strategy. World Trade, 15(12), 40-41. Retrieved December 7, 2007, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 241805271).
Deutsche Bank (2006) - Starbucks Overview. Deutsche Bank Securities Research. New York, NY. 10 July 2006.
Geoffrey a. Fowler (2003, July 14). Starbucks' Road to China; Prime Locations Are the Key, but So Is Using Snob Appeal to Lure Nation of Tea Drinkers. Wall Street Journal (Eastern Edition), p. B.1. Retrieved December 7, 2007, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 369860271).
Jeffrey S. Harrison, Eun-Young Chang, Carina Gauthier, Todd Joerchel, et al. (2005). Exporting a North American Concept to Asia: Starbucks in China. Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly, 46(2), 275-283. Retrieved December 7, 2007, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 832085141).
Man of the Crowd
By Edgar Allan Poe (1840)
The story significantly depicts not only the preoccupation of the 17th hundred London issues and a trend brought by the progressive industrialization of time, but speaks so much relevance in our modern time as well. The epigraph which sums up the very essence of the story explains the dynamic of a human being too busy to mingle with the crowd for fear of facing the haunting memory of a disturbed self, the lonely person, the conscience and the unsettling disturbances deep within. The epigraph "Such a great misfortune, not to be able to be alone" is rich in context within the story, but also a rich source of reflection of a human and societal struggle. I firmly believe in the relevance of the story not only in its significance to the theme and era when this story was written, but for…
Anxiety Care UK. Fear of Being Alone-Monophobia. 2012. 10 November 2012
Auster, Paul. The New York Trilogy. New York: Penguin, 1990. Gerald, Kennedy J.
"Poe, Death, and the Life of Writing." Yale University Press (1987): 118.
Youth: A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man
In James Joyce's A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man, the main character Stephen says that great art carries the qualities of Wholeness, Harmony, and Radiance. Yet Stephen is making this statement as an adolescent, one who is not yet whole nor harmonious, but one who is still developing and adapting to himself and his world. As literary art, the problem this leads to is how an adult reader can create an adolescent character honestly, a character less developed then they are. The reader then has the same challenge, to read about this character and judge them on who they are, without directing their own biases on the character. The writer and the reader can both be guilty of viewing the adolescent character either condescendingly or sentimentally. As well as this, the writer and reader either creating or…