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The Development of Modern Medicine
How did Greek and Galenic notions of health and disease differ from the work of Morgagni and the practitioners of French Clinical medicine?
The Greek and Galenic notions of health and disease differed from the Morgagni in that they viewed disease as being caused by an imbalance in the body. Galenic notions were intertwined with philosophy, which was aimed at answering the Socratic question "How should a person live a good life?" Therefore, the Galenic physicians were required to have mastered philosophy and this meant that they employed more of philosophy on their diagnosis, prognosis, and therapy. It is for this reason that most of the physicians believed that a disease was caused by an excess or deficiency in the body. The main goals for treatment were to restore the proper balance of the patient's body. The physicians were not meant to treat an ailment…
3. The current emphasis on wellness as the overall goal of health care has placed considerable pressure on the health care educational system (Kreitzer, 2009). The wellness emphasis has caused the health care educational system to focus its attention on treating the entire patient and to provide the patient with the maximum amount of choice, quality, convenience, and personal care while maintaining affordability. This means that medical schools must begin to train more physicians interested in performing primary care services and to direct these physicians to areas of the country that have been traditionally poorly served. In order to develop an overall system where preventive medicine is practiced so that more serious medical difficulties can be avoided a solid network of primary care providers is necessary. Ideally, these providers would be in the form of licensed physicians but a system that utilizes a hybrid mixture of physicians, physician assistants, and…
Cullen, T.J. (1997). The National Health Service Corps: Rural physician service and retention. Journal American Board Family Practice, 272-279.
Intitute of Medicine. (2001). Crossing the Quality Chasm: A new Health System for the 21st Century. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.
Kreitzer, M.J. (2009). Health Professions Education and Integrative Health Care. Washington, D.C.: Institute of Medicine Integrative Medicine and the Health of the Public.
Krystal Knight, e. a. (2010). Health Centers' Contributions to Training Tomorrow's Physicians. Washington, D.C.: Division of Public Policy and Research National Association of Community Health Centers, Inc.
To achieve these objectives, ealth Care Corporation, Inc., will collect opinion data from medical professionals and consumers regarding their use of and the effectiveness of alternative forms of medical care and the desirability of each form. This data will be collected through paper surveys of both medical professionals and customers who work with institutions affiliated with ealth Care Corporation, Inc., and interviews of medical professionals by members of ealth Care's Research and Development team. This data should be gathered in a relevant sample size, roughly 10,000 patients, by June 5, 2011.
ealth Care Corporation, Inc., will additionally collect data regarding the state of health of customers who have used alternative forms of medicine both prior to and posterior to receiving alternative forms of treatment and compare this data with relevant, archived data concerning the health of customers prior and posterior to receiving modern Western health treatments. This data will be…
Health Care Corporation, Inc., will additionally collect data regarding the state of health of customers who have used alternative forms of medicine both prior to and posterior to receiving alternative forms of treatment and compare this data with relevant, archived data concerning the health of customers prior and posterior to receiving modern Western health treatments. This data will be collected by a market research team who will survey patients regarding their blood tests and numerical medical data. This should be completed no later than June 19th, 2011.
Health Care Corporation, Inc., will then collect price averages for alternative forms of treatment as stated by practitioners of these forms on their websites, flyers, brochures, and other forms of advertisement. This should be completed no later than May 19th, 2011, and should be verified as up-to-date (and corrected if not) when the entire process is completed, which should be no later than July 5, 2011.
The following proposal, which will be considered complete when the number and share of resources which should be transferred to coverage of alternative forms of medicine are discerned, will be executed starting at the current date and research will be completed no later than July 5, 2011.
" Prescription drugs invade the markets today only to mask the symptoms of disease instead of preventing disease from happening. In this back-end approach to fighting disease instead of preventing it from occurring in the first place, pharmaceutical companies have profited at the expense of society." (Karel M.)
There is therefore also the feelings and the growing suspicion that prescription drugs are controlled by large pharmaceutical corporations and these influence practitioners and the health care industry. Modern medical practitioners are also "... subject to persuasion from drug manufacturers and rely on them for their information, despite their obvious bias to use their drugs." (Karel M.) This is an area that has been severely critiqued in allotropic health care; namely the fact that modern medicine is dominated by large drug companies which to a large extent are more concerned with their profit margins than with the quality and the ultimate effectives…
Bawaskar H.S. Non- allopathic doctors form the backbone of rural health.
Retrieved March 8, 2007, at http://www.issuesinmedicalethics.org/044ed112.html
Death by Modern Medicine. Retrieved March 8, 2007, at http://www.ashtreepublishing.com/bookshop/carolyn-dean.php
Definition of Allopathic. Retrieved March 6, 2007, at http://www.medterms.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=33612 www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5010938986
It is of extreme importance in medicine to know accurately the anatomical changes that take place in a certain disease for diagnosis and treatment. The man who created this science was Morgagni who taught us to think anatomically in our approach of a disease. Morgagni studied at Bologna under Valsalva and Albertini, who are notable persons themselves in the history of medicine. Morgagni did this in the form of letters to an unknown friend who inquired about Morgagni's thoughts and observations in the diseases he had seen. These included affections of the pericardium, diseases of the valves, ulceration, rupture, dilation and hypertrophy of the aorta which were detailedly described clinically and anatomically. Of all his entires, the section on aneurysm of the aorta is one of the best he had written. A good example of his letter was about angina pectoris.
The aorta was considerably dilated at its curvature; and,…
1. Evolution of Medicine.Online. Available from Internet, http:://www.worldwideschool.org/library/books/tech/medicine/theEvolutionofmodernmedicin/legalese.html, Accessed May 12, 2007.
History of Anatomy. Online. Available from Internet, http://www.wikipedia.com Accessed May 12, 3007
Mayeaux, E.J. Jr. 1989. A History of Western Medicine and Surgery. Online. Available from Internet, http://www.lsumc.edu.com, Accessed May 12, 2007
Medieval Medicine. Online. Available from Internet,
The dilemma associated with this case study suggests that little is known or can be done with serious illness with any great confidence. At the heart of the issue is who is responsible for the sick child as it appears, but may not be true, that he cannot take care of himself and that his immune system needs to be guided by someone else.
The lack of a formal family and the unnatural formation of this family also contributes to the confusion of this ethical problem. The Christian Scientist mother of the child holds no biological claim to the child and is demanding a unique spiritual procedure to be used to the heal the child. Although this method is controversial and not based in traditional science, the laws allowing for this type of treatment are allowed in reasonable circumstance in many areas of the world.
Dean, M. (2010). Comparative evaluation of homeopathy and allopathy within the Parisian hospital system, 1849 -- 1851. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, 103(1), 34-36.
Flamm, B.L. (2004). Faith healing confronts modern medicine. Scientific Review of Alternative Medicine, 8, 9-14.
Starfield, B. (2000, July 26). Is U.S. health really the best in the world? Journal of the American Medical Association, 284(4), 483-485
Health Care Communication
Background- Within the modern nursing paradigm, there must be a clear link between a health outcome and the process that helps ensure those outcomes. Typically, outcomes are classified in terms of preventability, impact, severity and an overall holistic view of the client's safety issues. Positive behaviors that impact individuals either rescue or protect patients from potential or actual events. This is also part of the issue with modern communication and dissemination of information to patients, stakeholders, and the community (Burns and Grove, 2005).
At the heart of healthcare as an institution is, of course, the need to care for the sick and the injured. However, in the contemporary model of healthcare, effective communication during a crisis is not only important, but also vital. Communication by healthcare professionals takes the concern and worry out of the situation; offers a quicker resolution, makes better control of information possible, earns…
Alligood, et.al. (2002). Nursing Theorists and their Work. Philadelphia: Mosby.
Burns, N. And Grove, S. (2004). The Practice of Nursing Research. St. Louis:
D'Antonio, P., et al., eds., (2007). Nurses Work: Issues Across Time and Place. New York:
Healthcare & Faith
The author of this report has been asked to answer a few questions pertaining to faith and healthcare. The first question will be a compare and contrast of Christianity and Buddhism using the seven worldview questions as a prism. The second question asks the author to do a comparative analysis of the two faith systems and religions. Next, the author will explain the author's personal spiritual perspective on healing. The author will then explain the critically common religions/beliefs when it comes to healing, prayer, meditation and so forth. Next, there will be a description of what would be important to patients of a faith that is delivered by healthcare providers that are of a different religious persuasion. Lastly, the author of this report will explain what was learn as part of this project. While the religions of the world are quite similar in many respects when it…
Bratcher, S. (2015). Why Do We Suffer? Buddhism vs. Christianity. Reformed Perspective. Retrieved 9 June 2015, from http://www.reformedperspective.ca/resources/55-christian-living/196-why-do-we-suffer-buddhism-vs.-christianity
Christianity.com. (2015). 8 Questions Every Worldview Must Answer. Christianity.com. Retrieved 9 June 2015, from http://www.christianity.com/theology/other-religions-beliefs/8-questions-every-worldview-must-answer.html?p=0
FFE. (2015). What is a worldview?. Retrieved 9 June 2015, from http://www.faithfromevidence.org/what-is-a-worldview.html
The advent of modernity has wrought massive changes in human society. New forms of transportation and communication, for example, have changed the way people work, learn, conduct business and organize into communities. Technological advances in medicine have resulted in new forms of treatment for disease and longer life spans. Upheavals such as the women's movement and the civil rights movement have challenged prevailing norms and transformed social relations.
The field of architecture is no exception. The modern architecture movement is also largely a response to the availability of new technologies and the changing social needs. The first part of this paper looks at the various definitions of what constitutes "modern" architecture. The next part then looks at how the various styles sought to take advantage of new material and to address changing social needs.
In the last part, the paper examines how modern architecture is responding to new concerns,…
Cannon-Brookes, Peter. "Modern architecture, modern materials and modern technology." European Business Review. 14(3). Proquest Database.
Kuipers, Marieke. "The modern movement." The Unesco Courier. September 1997. Proquest Database.
Lacayo, Richard. "Buildings that breathe." Time Magazine. August 26, 2002. Proquest Database.
Larkin, David. Frank Lloyd Wright: The Masterworks. New York: Rizzoli, 1993.
USA vs. New Zealand
All civilized and industrialized countries have some form of healthcare system. Even so, countries that meet the standard just mentioned are different in one or more ways. When it comes to healthcare systems, there are factors like public/private blend, whether there is single payer/universal healthcare in play, how much the government has to pay or fund, how much people have to contribute when it comes to the same and so forth. There are also the perceived strengths and shortcomings that are inherent to each system and what those precisely are can differ based on priorities, ideology and worldviews. When the healthcare systems of New Zealand and the United States are similar, there are also some stark differences that can be identified and discussed.
When it comes to New Zealand, the complexity of the system rivals the United States. Even with that, the system is quite…
Healthcare.gov. (2016). Get 2017 health coverage. Health Insurance Marketplace. healthCare.gov. Retrieved 23 November 2016, from https://www.healthcare.gov/
HHS. (2016). HHS.gov. United States Department of Health & Human Services. Retrieved 23 November 2016, from http://www.hhs.gov/
New Zealand. (2016). New Zealand's comprehensive health system is built on Kiwis -- ™ inbuilt need to see that everyone gets 'a fair go' in life.. New Zealand Now. Retrieved 23 November 2016, from https://www.newzealandnow.govt.nz/living-in-nz/healthcare
New Zealand. (2016). The structure of the New Zealand healthcare & disability sector.
Translational medicine is a new discipline, which covers studies on basic science, on human investigations, non-human investigations, and translational research (Mankoff et al. 2004). asic science studies address the biological effects of medicines on human beings. Studies on humans discover the biology of disease and serve as foundation for developing therapies. Non-human or non-clinical studies advance therapies for clinical use or use in human disease. And translational research refers to appropriate product development for clinical use. Translational research looks into the identity, purity and potency of a drug product during early clinical trial (Mankoff et al.). Translating the knowledge derived from basic sciences into clinical research and treatments is the task of translational medicine (Nagappa 2006). There is a groaning need for this type of research on account of voluminous information in the information age. Using this information is the challenge encountered by scientists and healthcare providers everywhere in the…
Hersh, William. A Stimulus to Define Informatics and Health Information Technology.
Vol 9 BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making: BioMed Central Ltd., 2009.
Retrieved on November 24, 2010 from http://www.biomedcentral.com/1472-6947/24
Mankoff, Stacey P. et al. Lost in Translation: Obstacles to Translational Medicine Vol 2
Some sources also offer a different insight for the emergent increase in need of this technology. Bernike Pasveer follows the idea that it was because there was a need for efficient diagnosis methods (Pasveer, 1993, p89). It was only after the introduction of X-rays that there was a determination of the nature of tuberculosis. The need for an efficient method that disputed the myths was necessary, and that was achieved on the introduction of X-ray technology. This is supported by Andrew Warwick who claims that the reason why this technology is still significant was due to its diagnostic properties. However, Andrew differs from Bernike by instead using fractures as his example. Andrew explains the role of X-ray technology especially in Germany where the surgeons undertook this process to determine fractures and diagnose bone discrepancies (Warwick, 2005, p4). Incidentally, this is a role of the technology that is still in practice.…
Andrew Warwick (2005), X rays as evidence in German orthopedic surgery.
Anja Hiddinga (1992), X-ray technology in obstetrics: Measuring pelvis at the Yale School of Medicine, in J.V Pickstone ed.
Bernike Pasveer (1993), Depiction in medicine as a two way affair: X -- ray Pictures and Pulmonary Tuberculosis in the early Twentieth century, in Ilana Lowy ed. (Pasveer,
Standard Construction of Modern High Field Magnets Used in Modern Nuclear Magnetic esonance Devices
Nuclear magnetic resonance devices are playing an increasingly important role in healthcare and research today. As the term implies, magnets, specifically high field magnets, are an essential part of these sophisticated devices with important implications for a wide range of valuable healthcare and research applications. To gain additional insights into how these devices operate, this paper provides a discussion concerning the standard construction of modern high field magnets used in nuclear magnetic resonance devices, including a detailed graphic illustrated the different components of a representative magnet. An examination of the effects of transitions to higher magnet strengths on cooling systems is followed by an analysis of the superconducting materials used and a brief description of magnet construction. A discussion concerning the differences between shielded magnets and non-shielded magnets and innovations in technology that may allow room…
Carlisle, R. (2004). Scientific American Inventions and Discoveries: All the Milestones in Ingenuity -- From the Discovery of Fire to the Invention of the Microwave Oven. Hoboken,
NJ: John Wiley & Sons.
Depalma, A. (2003, August 25). 'Mass Spectrometry and Proteomics.' The Scientist, vol. 17, no.
16, pp. 44-47.
Apart from this, further developments will be made in the fields of physics, medicine and engineering. Sensors will be seen everywhere and people will be able to go towards the space with the elevator and this will be made possible by just clicking on a single button. All these developments are in process are will come into view in the future (Kaku, pg. 45).
As it is mentioned above that the all the drawbacks of technology are not negligible and many people are now fully aware that how techn ology is harming the society as well as the environement in which we all survive. but, in spite of being aware about this fact, a number of organizations, nations and individuals are using technology in every moment of their life. The reason behind is that people are only thinking of their personal motives and well-being . They completely ignore the benefit…
Chiang, Jong-Tsong. "High-technology targeting: its modes' strategies and paradigms." Technology in Society (1998): 1-23.
Kaku, Michio. Physics of the Future: How Science Will Shape Human Destiny and Our Daily Lives by 2100. NY: Knopf Doubleday., 2011.
McKibben, Bill. Staying Human in our Engineered Age. Henry Holt & Co., Inc., 2004.
Teich, Albert H. Technology and the Future. NY: St. Martins Press, 2008.
The rapidly increasing demand of healthcare needs and preventions methods along with newer forms of diseases being discovered each day, extensive investments have been made in researching the field of medicine to revolutionize the future of medicine. Medical practitioners are looking up to a promising future proposed by the studies being carried out in the fields of genetics. This has open doors for a new and one of its kind form of medicine, namely 'Personalized Medicine.' As the name suggests, this type of medicine is patient specific and involves carrying out diagnosis and treatment plans that is customised to suit individual needs.
With the increase in demands of health care needs and with the discoveries of newer and more mysterious diseases, researches are being carried out at rapid rate to discover newer methods of health care needs. These health care services includes a wide variety of medication practices…
Gilbert, S. (2011). Medicine That's a Little Too Personalized. The Hastings Center Report, 41(4), 49. Retrieved February 3, 2012, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5051546477
Meadows, M. (2005, November/December). Genomics and Personalized Medicine. FDA Consumer, 39,. Retrieved February 3, 2012, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5017147700
Woodcock, J. (2005, November/December). Pharmacogenomics: On the Road to "Personalized Medicine." FDA Consumer, 39,. Retrieved February 3, 2012, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5017127506
Yurkiewicz, S. (2010). The Prospects for Personalized Medicine. The Hastings Center Report, 40(5), 14+. Retrieved February 3, 2012, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5045643374
Personalized medicine as a field started developing in response to the recognition that every person is different in terms not only of genetic and genomic information, but also in terms of his or her clinical and environmental information. The fact that all these areas are different for each person means that each person would respond to illness in a different way, including the onset and duration of the condition. For this reason, many professionals have begun to promote this type of medicinal practice as preferable to more traditional, general methods.
According to the U.S. News (2012), personalized medicine functions on the premise that each disease is treated on an individualized level. Because the disease manifests itself in an individualized way, it is believed that the treatment should receive sufficient attention to also be individualized. Logic suggests that such a method of treatment would be more effective. To do this, the…
Saha, S. And Labs, R. (2010). Is healthcare industry moving towards personalized medicine? Retrieved from: http://toostep.com/debate/is-healthcare-industry-moving-towards-personalized-medicine
U.S. News (2012). Personalized Medicine. Retrieved from: http://health.usnews.com/health-conditions/cancer/personalized-medicine
Tanacetum Parthenium, Feverfew
Tanacetum Parthenium, which is also known as Feverfew (i.e. botanical name), is an attractive perennial herb that is found sporadically growing in several part of North America as well as Australia, Tasmania, and New Zealand. Since this attractive herb is mostly found cultivated, it is usually planted around the house because its believed to have a purifying impact on the atmosphere. Additionally, the plant is grown around the house in these regions because its associated with abilities to ward off disease. This perennial herb grows with relatively little attention once established and can be grown from its seeds, cuttings or root division though root division is the simplest method for growing this herb (Petersen, 2016). Given its significance as medicinal plant, Feverfew (Tanancetum Parthenium) was used by traditional societies and is still used in the modern society. There are some variations in the historical and contemporary use…
Where, the traditional foods of the Middle East (such as: honey, dates and the black seed) have became a part of Islamic culture and traditional practices. As a result, the positive effects of taking these different foods and supplements; have been shown to be effective at natural dealing with a variety of conditions. Evidence of this, can be seen by looking at how each of the different remedies can cure a number of ailments, with limited side effects. (Fealy, G. 2008)
When looking at the different traditional Islamic foods of: honey, dates and black seeds; it is clear that each food can address specific ailments / conditions that affect the underlying levels of health. Honey contains: amino acid, B complex vitamins, as well as vitamins C, D and E. Where, it is used to promote energy and healing. The only side effects of using honey, is that it can cause…
Since the 9th century A.D. Islamic traditions have provided a natural way for people to be able to have a safe and effective procedure, in controlling / maintaining general levels of health. This is because; traditional Islamic medicine is often based on the using herbal remedies, to deal with a variety of ailments. Over the centuries these different practices, became a common part of the culture of tradition (Sunnah). Where, the traditional foods of the Middle East (such as: honey, dates and the black seed) have became a part of Islamic culture and traditional practices. As a result, the positive effects of taking these different foods and supplements; have been shown to be effective at natural dealing with a variety of conditions. Evidence of this, can be seen by looking at how each of the different remedies can cure a number of ailments, with limited side effects. (Fealy, G. 2008)
When looking at the different traditional Islamic foods of: honey, dates and black seeds; it is clear that each food can address specific ailments / conditions that affect the underlying levels of health. Honey contains: amino acid, B complex vitamins, as well as vitamins C, D and E. Where, it is used to promote energy and healing. The only side effects of using honey, is that it can cause the blood sugar level in diabetics to increase. This is because the large amounts of natural sugars can cause blood sugar levels to spike, if the honey is not taken in balance. Beyond, this side effect, the use of honey on a daily basis can help to promote a healthy lifestyle. (Zamzam, W. n.d.)
Dates are often used to: increase sexual desire, promote testosterone production and help to battle the effects of the cold. The reason why; is because dates have been known to turn into a liquid once they are in the stomach, which causes the temperature of the blood to increase. When this occurs, it will help to cleanse the body of different toxins. The negative side effect is: that those who are not use to eating dates; can feel dizzy
Medicine is designed to treat the sick and the injured. Its function is to either treat a condition or to better severe symptoms from a medical or physical condition. Some medicines, when first introduced, are controversial because of the ingredients that are used. In the modern era, Marinol has become the subject of heated debate over whether or not it should be provided to patients. Despite the fact that it has been proven to help people when other medications have failed, there are still some places where the medication cannot be gotten simply because it contains a synthetic form of a substance which is illegal in most states. Marinol is not made from an illegal material, but a synthetic version which replicates the effects of that illegal substance. The drug Marinol is a brand name of a medication which is a synthetic form of tetrahydrocannabinol, or THC which is…
Armentano, P. (2005). Marinol vs. natural plant. NORML.
Institute of Medicine (2002). Marijuana and Medicine: Assessing the Science Base. National Academy Press: Washington, D.C.
Loughlin, K. & Generali, J. (2006). The Guide to Off-Label Prescription Drugs. The Philip Lief
Group: Princeton, NJ.
One of the studies Halm reviewed, for instance, found an immediate reduction in respiratory rate during and immediately after aromatherapy treatment, but two hours after the treatment occurred there was no discernable effect (Halm 2008). This suggests that the commercial applications of aromatherapy, which tend to be long-term environmental applications rather than time- and person-specific treatments. Because the evidence shows that the calming effects of aromatherapy are really only present during the treatment and immediately after, long-term environmental applications of aromatherapy might be best.
There are problems with such an application in a medical setting, however. Chief among these is the entirely subjective nature of the sense of smell. Certain aromas which might be very pleasant -- and therefore presumably stress reducing -- for some might be particularly unpleasant for others. For these latter people, who do not enjoy a particular given aroma, stress might actually be increased by the…
Reduction of stress in nurses and medical staff will have a direct and casually and consciously observable effect on the treatment of patients. Speech and action both tend to be abbreviated during periods of stress, which can and most likely will have a direct effect on the way that patients perceive the quality of care they are receiving. This in turn will have an effect on the patient's stress level; if they feel that they are receiving a less-than-adequate level of care, their stress level is likely to rise, negatively impacting their recovery. On the other hand, if the nurses and medical staff are less stressed, this will also be communicated to the patient, and might have the opposite effect of improving patient attitude and enhancing their recovery.
Stress can be communicated subconsciously, too, perhaps to an even greater degree in subtle situations than the overt and conscious communications presented by alterations in observable attitude and action. This fact can only enhance the positive effects of the above suggestions of an available environmentally pervasive aromatherapy break room. Calmer people tend to help calm other people; if the nurses and medical staff are calm and less stressed, this will be unconsciously communicated to the patients as well, reducing their stress levels. Thus, it can be seen that pervasive aromatherapy might be even more efficacious in the treatment of patient stress and anxiety when provided to nurses instead of or in addition to the patients themselves.
All of this talk of environmentally pervasive aromatherapy is not to suggest that direct and patient-specific applications of aromatherapy not be utilized. The evidence clearly shows that such applications can be remarkable efficacious in the short-term as a stress reduction technique for patients and medical staff alike, even going so far as to reduce respiratory rates (Halm 2008). The evidence that aromatherapy can actually reduce levels of pain in critically ill patients has yet to be verified, but this is another avenue of aromatherapy application the merits further research (Halm 2008). In fact, aromatherapy in general is underutilized in this country, and the reports studied herein suggest that these practices should be changes if for no other reason than it will at least partially and temporarily reduce stress levels among patients and medical staff. The increase of the use of aromatherapy will also provide more evidence for further applications.
Features of Modern / Post-Modern Period
Most historians term the era after the Middle Ages and the Early Modern Period, i.e., after the mid-18th century as the Modern Period in history; a period that has seen tremendous changes in politics, sciences, economics, commerce, society and technology. Some of the salient features of the Modern / Post-Modern period have been explained in this essay.
New Standards for Governance:
The American Revolution (1776) and the French Revolution (1789) were significant political and social developments in the later part of the 18th century, which signaled the weakening of powers of monarchies and ushered in new standards for governance and society such as democracy, liberty, equality and fraternity -- standards that have empowered the people and symbolize the Modern Age. Such a new form of government is typified by the nited States of America which adopted a constitution that guaranteed the inalienable rights of…
Unprecetended developments in the communication technologies (the computer and the Internet) in the last few decades and the eclipse of controlled economies has opened up an age of globalization which has contracted distances, promoted world trade and given rise to a global culture. It also has its downsde -- as it threatens to exacerbate social and economic inequalities and provides new opportunities for global terrorists.
The Post-Modern period generally refers to the period after 1960 but there is no clear cut-off point between the Modern and the Post-Modern eras.
Fascism was successful in gaining power in Italy, Spain and Germany during the period between the two World Wars and Fascist movements also emerged in other European countries.
Defined as “the process of seeking a problem's solution from a wide community, often online,” crowdsourcing is common in almost every sector (Sanghavi 1). However, many patients may be unaware that they can also crowdsource their healthcare decisions. Referred to as “a second opinion writ large,” crowdsourcing medical diagnoses is now possible through many different online platforms including CrowdMed and the more artificial intelligence (AI)-driven HumanDx (Arnold 1). The way medical crowdsourcing works is a little more complicated than asking for fine dining tips in Tokyo or even asking the general public for clues to solving a crime. With crowdsourced medicine using the CrowdMed model, doctors, nurses, and other healthcare workers essentially compete for whoever offers the most accurate diagnosis, and receive financial compensation for accurate hits. Compensation is higher for difficult to diagnose problems. The HumanDx platform is different, available only to physicians at the moment and uses AI…
The ranks of male nurses may be growing, but social perceptions have not. Thus, while much has changed in terms of expanding the ranks of the healthcare profession to nontraditional gender roles in all fields of medicine, perceptions that females are less committed to being physicians remain, and males continue to face social barriers in nursing.
Arnst, Catherine. "Are There Too Many Women Doctors?" usinessweek. April 17, 2008.
Accessed December 1, 2010.
Gorgos, Diana. "Why are there so few male nurses?" Dermatology Nursing. October 2002,
Accessed from FindArticles.com, December 1, 2010.
Nainggolan, Lisa. "Female doctors provide best HF care." The Heart. January 23, 2009.
Accessed December 1, 2010. http://www.theheart.org/article/936839.do
Nye, Robert a. "Medicine and Science as Masculine "Fields of Honor" Women, Gender, and Science: New Directions, 2nd ser., 12 (1997): 60
Westbrook, Mary T., and Lena a. Nordholm. "Characteristics of Women Health Professionals
with Vertical, Lateral, and…
Arnst, Catherine. "Are There Too Many Women Doctors?" Businessweek. April 17, 2008.
Accessed December 1, 2010.
Gorgos, Diana. "Why are there so few male nurses?" Dermatology Nursing. October 2002,
The issue of grey and black markets often arose as a result of the shortages of experienced health care personnel. The system could not adapt to a flexible environment as it was led by rigid official procedures and the mentality of the people who controlled it was commanding, their vision short-sighted and hardly beneficial in such a situation (Barr and Mark, 1996).
The breaking up of Soviet Union which brought crippling economic and political problems to the countries also aggravated the health care situation making it reach an all-time low. The collapse of the health care system ran by the government led to the belief that turning towards a market economy or more capitalistic notions and perceptions would have been a better idea. The competition in the private sector would have had improved efficiency and averted an inevitable collapse of the health care system in the Soviet Union. This transformation,…
Balabanova, D., Haerpfer, C., McKee, M., Pomerleau, J., Rose, R. (2004). Health service utilization in the former Soviet Union: evidence from eight countries. Health Services Research
Barr, D.A. And Mark G. (1996). The Current State of Health Care in the Former Soviet Union: Implications for Health Care Policy and Reform. American Journal of Public Health. 86, 3.
Lewis, M. (2002). Informal Health Payments in Central and Eastern Europe and the Former Soviet Union: Issues, Trends and Policy Implications. In Funding Health Care, European Observatory on Health Care Systems Series, edited by E. Mossialos, a. Dixon, J. Figueras, and J. Kutzin, pp. 184-205. Buckingham: Open University Press.
Mikesell, J.L. And Mullins, D.R. (2001), Reforming Budget Systems in Countries of the Former Soviet Union. Public Administration Review. 61. 5.
Criminal Justice in Todays SocietyAbstractThe modern-day society has evolved, and so are the security and social issues that face it. To determine the specific challenges that face todays society and thus, the criminal justice system, it requires a critical and analytical research study that will filter through the information available and determine the thematic areas that emerge as critical for modern-day criminal justice. Research for this study was done through a systematic literature review method. This research method was considered to be the most appropriate for the current research and the research question. Analysis of the information presented through the reviewed materials showed that several issues are characteristic of todays society that the criminal justice system has to address or factor in its operations to realize its mandate. These issues emerged as common from the reviewed materials; i) rehabilitative and restoration, not just punitive criminal justice, ii) racial equality, iii)…
BibliographyArgun, U. & Daglar, M. (2016). Examination of routine activities theory by the property crime. Journal of Human Sciences, 13(1), 1188.Bennett, M. W., & Plaut, V. C. (2017). Looking Criminal and the Presumption of Dangerousness: Afrocentric Facial Features, Skin Tone, and Criminal Justice.UCDL, Rev.,51, 745.Daly, K. (2012). Aims of the criminal justice system.Crime and justice: A guide to criminology, 289-406.Epperson, M., & Pettus-Davis, C. (Eds.). (2017).Smart decarceration: Achieving criminal justice transformation in the 21st century. Oxford University Press. LeClerc, B., & Savona, E. U. (Eds.). (2016).Crime Prevention in the 21st century: insightful approaches for crime prevention initiatives. Springer.Lee, N., & Loton, D. (2019). Capstone purposes across disciplines.Studies in Higher Education,44(1), 134-150.Manaliyo, J.C. (2016). Barriers to community participation in crime prevention in low-income communities in Cape Town. International Journal of Social Sciences and Humanity Studies, 8(1).Matthews, R. (2020). New times, new crimes: Notes on the depillarization of the criminal justice system. Critical Criminology.Owusu-Bempah, A. (2017). Race and policing in historical context: Dehumanization and the policing of Black people in the 21st century.Theoretical Criminology,21(1), 23-34.Ransley, J., & Mazerolle, L. (2009). Policing in an era of uncertainty.Police Practice and Research: An International Journal,10(4), 365-381.Schmalleger, F., Donaldson, S., Kashiwahara, K., Koppal, T., Chase, S., Brown, A., ... & Marash, D. (2014).Criminal justice today. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Tompson, L., & Belur, J. (2016). Information retrieval in systematic reviews: a case study of the crime prevention literature.Journal of experimental criminology,12(2), 187-207.
By treating genetic disorders, natural selection is interrupted -- these individuals do not die as they naturally would have, and so their genetic disadvantage no longer selects against them. iT could be argued, however, that humans have stopped evolving as biological creatures anyway; technology has provided the "cure" to many issues of natural selection, both from the species end of things and from the supply side (i.e. In making more resources more available to more people). Therefore, it is not really detrimental to the species as a whole to save the individuals with lethal alleles. Since we are no longer really evolving, and the prevalence of most lethal alleles is incredibly low anyway, the species as a whole is not made less healthy by the presence of these individuals or their alleles, despite the increased chance they have at procreating.
This means that traditional medical ethics, which demand that an…
Piscidia piscipula formerly known as Piscidia erythrina and commonly known as Jamaican dogwood or Florida fishpoison tree, is a tropical, deciduous, medium-sized tree endemic to the Caribbean, Texas, southern Florida and the Keys, and Latin America. Historic use of the herb details West Indies Natives using the extracts from the tree to sedate fish (Fetrow & Avila, 2000). The sedated fish became easy to catch by hand leading to the common name of fishpoison. In modern times, scientists have discovered use for the herb as a sedative and analgesic.
The historic use of Jamaican Dogwood has been to catch fish by hand by sedating them and other traditional uses. Because the herb has sedative and analgesic properties, people of the Caribbean used it for pain relief, aid for labor, menstruation pains, toothaches, migraines, insomnia, and asthma. They would consume it either as a tincture, as a dried product, or as…
Herpes: An Insidious Disease of Modern Times
Herpes is considered one of the most insidious and pervasive viral diseases to affect the world population today. Conservative studies suggest that as many as 39% of men and nearly 1/2 of all women are expected to contract herpes in the U.S. alone by the year 2025 (Wetstein, 2002). Already nearly 1 in 5 people will have some form of herpes by the time they reach adolescence or early adulthood (Herpes, 2004).
In light of such dire statistics and information, it is important to examine the disease and its implications for the future. esearchers and scientists are working diligently to uncover new avenues for treatment of this incurable disease, and studies are underway for uncovering potential and promising vaccines to halt the spread of this increasingly common problem affecting millions.
There are many different forms of therapy that have been introduced in recent…
ASHA. "National Herpes Resource Center." (2001). American Social Health
Association. 27, October 2004, http://www.ashastd.org/hrc/index.html
CDC. "Epstein Barr Virus." (October 26, 2002). National Center for Infectious Diseases.
28, October 2004, http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/diseases/ebv.htm
Moreover, the specific cause of transmission are the low compliance rates of hospital personnel with basic antiseptic protocols such as simple hand washing. Surprisingly, the worst offenders were those with the highest degree of formal training: namely physicians and registered nurses. In some studies, compliance rates among hospital personnel were only between fifteen and thirty percent. Finally, empirical studies have also concluded that compliance rates are lowest in high-volume institutions and among understaffed medical units.
The solution is rather obviously quite simple. Among the most important aspects of reducing hospital-acquired nosocomial hospital infections is increasing the rates of hand washing among hospital personnel. Naturally, the more direct patient contact individual personnel have, the more important adherence to strict hand-washing policy is. Since physicians and nurses routinely care for many patients during a typical shift, it is crucial for them to become the most compliant rather than the least compliant…
Sheridan-Leos, Norma. "Oncology care setting design and planning Part II: Designing healthcare settings to prevent fungal infections and improve handwashing."
Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing (June 1, 2008).
Full Text of Article Below
This is the second in a two-part series on designing healthcare settings to improve patient safety. Part I addressed concepts of error theory and evidence-based practice as they relate to planning safe care environments (Sheridan-Leos, 2008). Part II describes the design and planning of oncology care settings to prevent fungal infections and improve provider handwashing.
Folk Beliefs: Health and Healing
There are many different kinds of “folk”—and they are typically defined by regional or geographical background, which determines to some extent their heritage, culture, traditions, norms, customs and beliefs. For example, the Appalachian folk have different customs and beliefs when it comes to health and healing than “folk” from Deep South or “folk” from the rural Eastern European countryside.
Some similarities in cross-cultural folk / traditional healing practices are the tendencies to self-medicate and to use homeopathic drugs—i.e., home-made ointments or treatments for illnesses that more modern patients would go to a doctor for. These include using an onion for an ear ache or using food to treat an illness of the body. Food is actually a treatment method that spans many cultures and can be found in traditional Asian culture as well as in folk culture in the U.S. Variations exist but they are…
Anasazi are the ancestors of the modern Pueblo Indians of New Mexico and Arizona and occupied that region of the southwest west for well over a thousand years. They were avid farmers, using modern dry farming methods, "relying on water in the soil from melted snow, summer rainstorms and occasional springs" (Ancestral pg).
Their crops included beans, squash, and corn. Modern day dry farming produces roughly 14 bushels of corn per acre, archaeologists estimate the Anasazi produced up to 40 bushels per acre. Huge storerooms for surplus food were prominent features of Anasazi communities. Although, the garden plots attracted game such as rabbits, birds, and mice, they "also hunted deer and elk in the mountains, and antelope and bighorn sheep at lower elevations" (Ancestral pg). Aside from farming and hunting the Anasazi also supplemented their diets with pinon nuts, sunflower and other seeds, and yucca plants.
The Anasazi were industrious,…
The Ancestral Pueblos: The Anasazi." The Anasazi Heritage Center. http://www.co.blm.gov/ahc/anasazi.htm#Who .(accessed 11-11-2002).
Choice # 2: I also made the decision to make citical thinking a pat of this couse, instead of meely focusing on the histoy o technical aspects. I want students to be able to fom thei own opinions about folk medicine based on what they have leaned.
Name and descibe one of you pojects stengths.
One of the main stengths of this poject is that it combines fun with fact. In othe wods, it is not just a dy look at the histoy of folk medicine, but it will include inteesting anecdotes and some bizae and funny ituals and pactices as well. I went this diection because I want to keep things inteesting and keep the students engaged.
Name and descibe one of my pojects weaknesses.
The main weakness of this poject is that it may be difficult to include all of the many aspects of folk medicine in detail…
Additional Source #3: UCLA's Online Archive of American Folk Medicine. Web. http://www.folkmed.ucla.edu/
This online searchable database will provides students with access to thousands of articles and texts related to the course topic.
Two Guest Speakers
Guest speaker #1: D.C. Jarvis, author of the book Folk Medicine. Having him as a guest speaker would be an excellent supplement to the book. It would also allow students to ask questions related to his book.
Salvia Officinalis a Literature eview
Introduction and History of Use
Salvia officinalis, or sage, is also called garden sage or common sage. It is a perennial, evergreen shrub (Clebsch & Barner, 2003). The leaves are grayish in color, and the flowers are purple or blue (Watters, 1901). Stems are woody, and the plant is native to the Mediterranean (Clebsch & Barner, 2003). However, it has now been naturalized in a number of places throughout the world. Its history is long, mostly detailing both culinary and medicinal uses. Modern times have also seen its popularity rise as an ornamental garden plant (Kintzios, 2000). There are many other species that also carry the common name "sage." Some are related and some are not. Sage was first described in 1753 by Carl Linnaeus, and has been grown for centuries (Sutton, 2004). Its healing properties are impressive, and it is also used in the…
Akhondzadeh, S., Noroozian, M., Mohammadi, M., Ohadinia, S., Jamshidi, A.H., & Khani, M. (2003). Salvia officinalis extract in the treatment of patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease: a double blind, randomized and placebo-controlled trial. Journal of Clinical Pharmacological Therapy, 28(1): 53 -- 9.
Clebsch, B. & Barner, C.D. (2003). The New Book of Salvias. NY: Timber Press.
Dos Santos-Neto, L.L, De, V., Toledo, M, Medeiros-Souza, P, & De Souza, G. (2006). The use of herbal medicine in Alzheimer's disease -- a systematic review. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: eCAM 3(4): 441 -- 5.
Iuvone, T., De Filippis, D., Esposito, G., D'Amico, A., & Izzo, A. (2006). The spice sage and its active ingredient rosmarinic acid protect PC12 cells from amyloid-beta peptide-induced neurotoxicity. The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 317(3): 1143 -- 9.
Thomas also addresses what he perceives to be shortcomings in the modern approach to advance medical education provided to medical students. Specifically, he argues that substantial portions of the contemporary medical school curriculum of the first two years of medical school should be replaced by courses detailing the many fundamental gaps in medical knowledge of human disease. Second, Thomas recommends that much more medical research should be devoted to diseases that are still insufficiently understood to be prevented despite the impressive ability of modern medicine to treat their symptoms.
In that regard, Thomas makes a cryptic reference to the fact that, in some respects, medical science has now progressed to the point where it sometimes causes pain by virtue of its extensive focus on symptoms: he suggests that extending our life expectancy into our eighties may, in fact, be "for the worse" as much as for the better. Likewise, Thomas…
There are many estern doctors who do not accept the traditional views and system of acupuncture but they have realized that it has certain effective aspects. estern doctors have therefore adapted acupuncture and used it as a way of regulating the nervous as well as the endocrine systems. There has also been widespread recognition of the painkilling aspects of acupuncture. hile there is still a general resistance to the deeper implications and world -view that acupuncture represents, yet there is no doubt that it is having an increasing impact on estern forms of medicine and healing praxis.
Acupuncture. May 4, 2007. http://skepdic.com/acupunc.html
American Academy of Medical Acupuncture: General Information. May 4, 2007. http://www.medicalacupuncture.org/acu_info/generalinfo.html
Definition of Allopathic. May 6, 2007. http://www.medterms.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=33612
Frequently asked questions. May 4, 2007. http://www.markgoulding.com/gpage.html
Pulse Diagnosis. May 4, 2007. http://www.answers.com/topic/pulse-diagnosis
The Fairbourne Clinic. May 4, 2007. http://www.fairbourneclinic.co.uk/therapies/acupuncture-Newbury-Berkshire.htm
Traditional Chinese Medicine: NHS. May 4, 2007. http://www.nhsdirectory.org/default.aspx?page=TCM&t=y…
Acupuncture. May 4, 2007. http://skepdic.com/acupunc.html
American Academy of Medical Acupuncture: General Information. May 4, 2007. http://www.medicalacupuncture.org/acu_info/generalinfo.html
Definition of Allopathic. May 6, 2007. http://www.medterms.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=33612
Frequently asked questions. May 4, 2007. http://www.markgoulding.com/gpage.html
Personal Statement: Regarding My Future Pharmacy Career
Even a casual reader of today's newspapers will know that the modern drug industry has been subjected to increasingly rigorous scrutiny and litigation. In the current climate, it is easy to forget what it is like to live in a land where antibiotics are not a phone call to the doctor away, and research dollars for drug research are scarce, not the subject of a highly theoretical media debate about ethics. In the country I grew up, the rare sight of the face of a pharmacist was always a welcome one. I remain infused with my childhood faith, now grounded in study and experience, of the power of drugs to heal the human body, not to harm them.
As a young girl in Southeast Asia I suffered from acute bronchitis. I was profoundly grateful for the relief that pharmaceuticals could bring to my…
popularity of Chinese Traditional acupuncture in the United Kingdom.
Acupuncture is a form of alternative medicine that treats people by insertion and handling of solid, usually thin needles into the body. Through its beginnings, acupuncture has been deep-rooted in the notions of Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Its general theory is based on the idea that bodily functions are synchronized by the flow of an energy-like entity called qi. Acupuncture tries to right inequities in the flow of qi by stimulus of anatomical locations on or under the skin called acupuncture points, most of which are linked by channels known as meridians. Scientific study has not found any bodily or organic correlate of qi, meridians and acupuncture points, and some modern practitioners needle the body without using an academic structure, instead choosing points because of their tenderness to pressure (Acupuncture: An Introduction, 2011).
Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) is becoming…
Acupuncture: An Introduction.2011. [online]. Available at:
BAcC responds to NICE guidelines re acupuncture for back pain on the NHS. 2009. [online].
Available at: http://www.acupuncture.org.uk/the-news/press-statements/312.html
ETHNOBOTANY (Biology Class).
John's Wort (Hypericum perforatum) is increasingly used as a natural way of treating mild to moderate depression. "Hypericum has a thymoleptic action which results in an improved sense of well-being. It has long been used as a nerve healer in melancholic conditions, depression, exhaustion and convalescence. It is also used to treat conditions where there is a degree of overtension, such as insomnia, cramps and colic of the viscera and uterus, epilepsy, diarrhoea, and enuresis in children" (Haughton 2014). Although it has been used in many different ways in the past as an all-natural remedy, today it is primarily used as a mood enhancer. The effect is mild and the supplement must be taken consistently over time for the individual to feel its benefits.
St. John's Wort must be taken with some caution: although overdoses are rare, it can negatively interact with a number of…
Ehrlich, S. (2007). Possible Interactions with St. John's Wort. UMMC. Retrieved from:
Haughton, C. (2014). St. John's Wort. Purple Sage Botanicals.
I was also inspired by the communication skills and dedication pharmacists showed in making my aunt's course of treatment comprehensible, so my aunt understood why she was taking certain medications, the possible side effects that she should be aware of, and also of possible drug interactions. The pharmacists involved my aunt's nurses and family in their interactions with my aunt, and I began to envision myself in a similar role, combining chemistry with communication, compassion, and caring.
The future of pharmacy, in a world where medication's side effects and interactions are often dangerous, and treatment schedules because of drug interactions can be quite complex, requires pharmacists who are caregivers and teachers, not mere dispensers of prescriptions. A pharmacist is part of a patient's plan of care, right along with the patient's doctors and nurses. The sick, confused, and elderly, depend upon their pharmacist to ensure that their prescriptions are correct,…
Technology and the Development of Modern Medicine
The 20th century saw a seismic change in the perception of the human body, and the relationship of patients to physicians and other aspects of modern medicine. With the recent coronavirus pandemic, of course, the focus upon technology and medical developments has become a matter of global importance. Vaccines and innovative drugs were not solely innovations of the past century, but they extent to which they were proven safe and effective is relatively new. The relationship between providers and patients has likewise changed, as well as expectations about treatment.
Vaccination and Immunization Technology
Infectious disease was once an accepted part of modern life. However, the first smallpox vaccines were developed as early as the late 18th century. Safety of vaccines could not always be guaranteed, however. Inactivation of bacteria via heat or chemical treatment to confer immunity status was developed by the very…
Earl, Leslie. “How Sulfa Drugs Work.” National Institute of Health. March 12, 2012. Web. December 20, 2020. https://www.nih.gov/news-events/nih-research-matters/how-sulfa- drugs-work
Gaynes, Robert. “The Discovery of Penicillin—New Insights After More Than 75 Years of Clinical Use.” Emerging Infectious Diseases vol. 23, 5 (2017): 849–853. Web. December 20, 2020. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5403050/
Palca, Joe. “The Race For A Polio Vaccine Differed From The Quest To Prevent Coronavirus.” NPR. May 22, 2020. Web. December 20, 2020. https://www.npr.org/sections/health - shots/2020/05/22/860789014/the-race-for-a-polio-vaccine-differed-from-the-quest-to- prevent-coronavirus
Plotkin, Stanley. “History of vaccination.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America vol. 111, 34 (2014): 12283-7. December 20, 2020. Web. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4151719/pdf/pnas.201400472.pdf
Quianzon, Celeste C, and Issam Cheikh. “History of Insulin.” Journal of Community Hospital Internal Medicine Perspectives, vol. 2, 2 10.3402/jchimp.v2i2.18701. July 16, 2012. Web. December 2020. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3714061/
Nursing Process to Deliver
Application of the Nursing Process to Deliver Culturally Competent Care: Malay culture
Each society has devised its own methodology of dealing with diseases. As per the old Manuscript MSS1292 KitabTib (Book of Healing) (a 19th century Malay manuscript), people of Malay have successful and strong healing practices which work wonderfully well in case of integrative and complementary medicines (Baharuddin & Sidik, 2010). An analytical approach is required to study the contents of the Malay manuscript for understanding it deeply. As per the research, there are three kinds of methods in case of healing diseases (Baharuddin & Sidik, 2010). These are as follows:
Wafak (written symbols)
Quranic verses for healing purposes and offering respect to prophet (P.B.U.H)
It is quite evident that these traditional practices were ecological and holistic in origin, which is stressed upon even today (Baharuddin & Sidik, 2010).
The roots of…
Baharuddin, A., & Sidik, R. (2010). The Case of Malay Manuscript of the 19th Century. Traditional Healing In Malay Culture:, 1-7.
Farooqui, M. (2013).The Current Situation and Future Direction of Traditional and Complementary Medicine (T&CM) in Malaysian Health Care System. Alternative and Integrative Medicine, 1(1), 1.
Ghani, R., & Hamid, M. (2011).Traditional and Complementary Medicine Programme in Malaysia. Traditional and Complementary Medicine, 1-6.
Jamal, A. (2006). An overview of scientific and technological progress. Malay Traditional Medicine, 37-46.
Verhey, Allen. "Playing God and Invoking a Perspective." Journal of Medicine and Philosophy, 20 (1995): 347-364.
Any physician of a moral and ethical frame of mind would be reflexively offended if a patient, or the loved one of a patient, accused that physician of 'playing God.' But what does this phrase mean? According to Allen Verhey's essay on medicine, modern bioethics, and "Playing God and Invoking a Perspective," the phrase "humans should not play God" has been used quite often by individuals of a particular, naturalistic ideological frame of mind to argue against using of supposedly unnatural forms of medicine, technology, and the use of related forms of biotechnology to sustain human life, or to ameliorate the sufferings of human life. The idea that physicians, scientists and medical practitioners should not play God has even been used to argue against such processes as cloning and genetically modified food because these…
Lammers, Stephen E., and Allen Verhey, Eds. On Moral Medicine: Theological Perspectives in Medical Ethics (1998) [essays by C.S. Lewis, Allen Verhey, Joseph Fletcher, all on reserve in Skillman] Allan Verhey's "Playing God and Invoking a Perspective," first published Journal of Medicine and Philosophy, 20 (1995): 347-364.
Chapter 10: Direct to Consumer Advertising
Television advertising has caused a rift in traditional doctor-patient relationship.
Patients arriving for doctor visits with a firm, fixed idea of outcome -- prescribe me the drug because I saw it on television! Encourage consumers to think buying drug like buying soap.
End of expectation that individual doctor knows best and best medical care emerges from open discussion of patient symptoms, concerns, and exam and consideration of the options, some of which may involve lifestyle changes not drugs
1. Even in car, hear about medical miracles that can change your life. Unending assault on consumer ears through various media.
There are financial ties between many of the supposedly most trusted medical experts and the medical industry
Medical 'news' or advertising masquerading as news
Studies on real news shows, funded by drug companies are presented as objective
Inadequate medical coverage and…
Still, getting the right kind of care, at the right time, is often a struggle for patients. My friend passed away from her illness, but her experience opened my eyes to the need to mesh the personal needs of the patient with more effective diagnostic and treatment solutions. I had always wanted to embark upon a financial career, but now I knew what type of entrepreneurship I wished to devote my life to -- biotechnology.
Early detection must become a vital component of the war on cancer. Improving screening as well as the quality of treatment, pharmaceuticals, and care are critical components of the emerging 21st century heath care paradigm. Finding a way to financially contain costs, dispense care in a comprehensive and ethical fashion, and creating an effective strategy of prevention will all become the focus of the business of medicine. By becoming part of this graduate program, I…
Society at large does not and would not permit risking harm to humans in order to avoid using animals for research (Animals pp).
The pharmaceutical industry uses animals only when research cannot be accomplished in other ways, and always with care (Animals pp). If society wants to relieve conditions such as epilepsy, asthma, multiple sclerosis, and heart disease, then animals will continue to be need for research (Animals pp).
Although it is important and morally right to minimize the use of animals for research, it would be morally wrong to place the concern for animals above the concerns and needs of people who are dying from and/or living with incurable and untreatable conditions that could benefit from such research (Animals pp).
Animals in Medicines Research Information Centre - AMRIC. http://www.abpi.org.uk/amric/introduction.asp
Animals in Medicines Research Information Centre - AMRIC. http://www.abpi.org.uk/amric/introduction.asp
It is my belief and the underlying purpose of this
correspondence to make the argument that our children's health and well-
being is far too important to leave subject to a question of economic
As many ordinary citizens can certainly attest, "far too many people
who are not poor enough to be on social assistance and certainly not
wealthy enough by any definition to afford the cost of these drugs are left
to fend for themselves." (Gillis, 1) The idea that any of our citizens
could slip through the cracks of the public system is suggestive of some
disconnect between these citizens and their government. Therefore, I
believe that you have to do more to reach out directly to those who in the
areas of greatest need. A good way to do this might be to channel the
selected message of access universality needed through an effective
CNW Group. (2008). Ontarians Trust Pharmacists Most for Prescription Drug
Info, Survey Shows. CNW Group.
Gillis, J. (2008). Catastrophic Drug Plan Promised. The Chronicle
Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care. (2007). Ontario Public Drug
People From History That Impacted the World in a Positive Way
Three People from History
Three People from History who impacted the World in a Positive Way
Ross Granville Harrison (1807 -- 1959)
Ross Granville Harrison was an American zoologist. He is known for his discovery of a method of growing cells outside of the body. In his famous experiment carried out in 1906 he placed a piece of a frog's embryonic nerve tissue into a drop of frog lymphatic fluid, and saw that the nerve tissue did not die, but rather continued to grow. (Ross Granville Harrison) The method that Harrison developed from this experiment was to form the foundation of the tissue culture technique used in modern medicine and in medical research. This technique has become an extremely important part of contemporary medical research as it allows for "…the study of isolated living cells in a controlled environment."…
Alexander Fleming (1881-1955). Web. 18 Nov. 2010.
Beale, Norman, and Elaine Beale. "Evidence-based Medicine in the Eighteenth Century: the Ingen Housz-jenner Correspondence Revisited." Medical History 49.1 (2005): 79+. Questia. Web. 18 Nov. 2010.
Edward Jenner (1749-1823). Web. 18 Nov. 2010.
List any topics on which this lecture / web site expanded your knowledge:
Briefly describe the way in which the lecture / web site expanded your knowledge:
This information will impact my decision to vaccinate because:
This information will not impact my decision to vaccinate because:
Please list below any questions about the information contained in this lecture/web site"
DeStefano, Frank, Mullooly, John, Okoro, Catherine, Chen, obert T., Marcy, S.
Michael, Ward, Joel I. et a. (2001). Childhood Vaccinations, Vaccination Timing, and isk of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus. Pediatrics 108 (6), 112.
Life-Cycle of an Immunization Program. (April 20, 2007). etrieved August 14, 2008, from the Centers of Disease Control and Prevention Web Site: http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/vac-gen/life-cycle.htm
Madsen, Meldgaard, Haviid, Anders, Vestergaard, Morgens, Schendel, Diana, Wohlfahrt,
Jan, Thorsen, Poul, et al. A Population-Based Study of Measles, Mumps, and ubella. The New England Journal of Medicine. 347 (19).
DeStefano, Frank, Mullooly, John, Okoro, Catherine, Chen, Robert T., Marcy, S.
Michael, Ward, Joel I. et a. (2001). Childhood Vaccinations, Vaccination Timing, and Risk of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus. Pediatrics 108 (6), 112.
Life-Cycle of an Immunization Program. (April 20, 2007). Retrieved August 14, 2008, from the Centers of Disease Control and Prevention Web Site: http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/vac-gen/life-cycle.htm
Madsen, Meldgaard, Haviid, Anders, Vestergaard, Morgens, Schendel, Diana, Wohlfahrt,
Essay 2: In what collegiate extracurriculars did you engage? (400 characters)
As Vice President of Phi Kappa Sigma, I co-managed the annual $30k budget, participated in 100+ hours of community service, volunteered for the Rutgers Dance Marathon, raised funds for the Embrace the Kids Foundation, and organized the annual Phi-Esta fundraiser for the Eric Legrand’s Foundation with several other fraternities. I also volunteered for the Leukemia Lymphoma Society.
Essay 3: Did you work for compensation during college during the year or the summer? (300 Word limit)
Yes, every summer I worked full-time. During the summers of my undergraduate career, I worked at Selco Associates, a distribution and warehousing company. There I coordinated with management personnel to provide high quality customer service. I also managed apparel and footwear inventory for major companies and assisted in opening new accounts. This experience helped me to develop communication, organization, and problem-solving skills that I…
History Of Hospitals
The combined arts and sciences responsible for how society cares for its sick and ill has transformed much throughout recorded history. The greatest and most dramatic changes occurred alongside other historic eras that complimented the changes seen in medicine and health care. The purpose of this essay is to examine the metamorphosis of hospitals from the 18th century until today. In this examination I will focus on the extent of these changes being forced by the ideas of professionalism, medical therapy or technology and the overall character of the changes and how they related to greater historic transformations.
Modern medicine was ushered in with modern times, and revolutionary society changes complemented those which occurred within medicine and health management. The 18th century in historic Europe was ripe with ideas of liberty and freedom, contrasting the previous century's of closed and restricted ideas. The Power Point Slide Presentation…
Brunton, D (2004). "The Emergence of a Modern Profession?" In Medicine Transformed. Health, Disease and Society in Europe 1800-1930 (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2004), pp. 119-150.
Marland, H. (2004).The Changing Role of the Hospital, 1800-1900, in Medicine Transformed. Health, Disease and Society in Europe 1800-1930 (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2004), pp. 31-60.
"Modern Medicine." Power Point Presentation.
" The New Hospital." Power Point Presentation.
To determine the spiritual needs of patients and the impact it is having on their treatment options requires focusing on four different questions. These include:
What are the long-term effects of using spiritualism with modern medicine?
Is there some kind of balance that must be maintained during this process?
How can health care professionals incorporate these ideas into their overall philosophy of improving treatment options?
What are the possible drawbacks of using these solutions in conjunction with each other?
These different areas are important, as they will provide specific insights about the long-term effects of spirituality with modern medicine. It is at this point, when key insights can be used to enhance the quality of care patients are receiving.
Write a brief summary of your assessment findings
The different resources that were examined are illustrating how there are conflicting opinions about the best approaches for combining spirituality and…
Bradshaw, A. (1994). Lighting the Lamp: The spiritual dimension of nursing care. London: Scutari Press.
Draper P. (1998). The debates emerging from the literature surrounding the concept of spirituality as applied to nursing. Journal of Advanced Nursing. 27 (4), pp. 683-691.
Hay, D. (2002). The spirituality of adults in Britain: recent research. Scottish Journal of Healthcare Chaplaincy. 5
(1), pp. 4-10.
To what extent do you think cultural beliefs, values, and traditions may impact health education efforts? Please provide examples that apply to the case studies from the video.
For first generation immigrants, I believe that the influence of cultural beliefs, traditions, and values is very strong. When dealing with complex medical issues that may not be well understood within their cultural context, it is normal coping behavior to fall back on what is familiar and what those people who are valued believe in or pressure their family members to comply with what the traditions and beliefs to which they cling. The religious belief that surgery would mutilate Justine for all eternity is a tough challenge for a medical team to address, particularly when the underlying belief is that avoiding the scarring that surgery would cause, even if it meant a shorter natural life, was the preferred choice.
Defend or reject: Buchanan and Brock would rightly defend the decision of the court to remove Lia Lee from the custody of her parents and place her in a foster home
Deciding for others: competency
This essay involves defending or rejecting the statement that Buchanan and Brock (2008) would rightly defend the decision of the court to remove Lia Lee from the custody of her parents and place her in a foster home. Although the statement might seem clear, the term "rightly" introduces an ethical twist to the whole discussion and the need to have an ethical theory to qualify right and wrong within the decision.
Plan for the Essay
The essay first defines the incidents surrounding the circumstances of Lia Lee and the verdict of the court. The dispute of competency follows next and the essay analyzes the issues at hand incorporating the views of Buchanan and Brock (2008).…
Fadiman, A. (1998). The Spirit Catches You and You Fall Down. New York: Macmillan
Buchanan A.E., Brock DW. (2008). Deciding for others: Competency, in Steinbock, B., Arras, J., London, A.J. (eds.), Ethical Issues in Modern Medicine. McGraw-Hill.
Freeman, J.M. (2007). Ethical theory and medical ethics: a personal perspective. Teaching and Learning Ethics, 617-618.
Beauchamp, T.L. (2003). Ethical Theory and Bioethics, Contemporary issues in Bioethics, 6th ed., New York: Wadsworth.
Johnson and Johnson issued a public relations response immediately naming their number one priority: to aggressively protect any consumer from the potential hazards that may be present in any of their family of products.
Symptoms of the Problem -- Quickly, the crisis reached epic nationwide coverage. The panic that ensued, somewhat as the result of the twenty-four hour media coverage, fueled this panic into a frenzy. One hospital in Chicago, for instance, received 700 calls in one day; while Johnson and Johnson received averaged almost 150 calls per day. Across the country people were admitted into hospitals on suspicion of cyanide poisoning (Tifft, 18). Johnson and Johnson worked rapidly and decisively with the media to disseminate information. When the news spread, copycat criminals began to tamper with the products on the shelves of stores, which only deepened the crisis. ndeed, the FDA confirmed more tampering had taken place, but this…
Identification of Goals - in 1982, Tylenol controlled 37% of the pain killer market, approximately $1.2M and was the leading painkiller in the American market, outselling Anacin, Bayer, Bufferin, and Excedrin. Seventeen to eighteen percent net earnings of Johnson and Johnson were from Tylenol sales. Profits placed Johnson and Johnson in the top half of the Fortune 500 (Berg, 1998). The company had been doing well for years. Stock analysts had actually predicted that Tylenol's market share was poised for up to a 15% growth. In fact, Tylenol was to the product that would lead this company to further success- hat is until the Tylenol laced cyanide crisis came to be. This calamity changed the strategic plan, management goals, and parent to subsidiary goals across the organization -- within a 24-hour period. Instantly, an immediate crisis mode was assumed and a reassessment and reprioritization of their goals and immediate actions required jolted every executive, manager and employee in the organization (Mikkelson, 2004).
Immediate Goals once Crisis was Revealed-
Reacting to the news, when Johnson and Johnson was faced with the initial situation; it had to make some tough decisions that would severely impact the future of the company. Rather than think in financial terms only, CEO James Burke immediately turned to the
Medical Advancements in Medicine and Health
Write a three-page paper on what you believe is the most significant medical advancement (s) in medicine and health and support your argument.
Genetic engineering is one of the most significant medical advancements of the century and will have a major impact on medicine, health, politics and church and state relationships.
Genetic engineering. A controversial issue or a blessing in disguise? The Human Genome Project (HGP), sponsored in the United tates has created the field of genomics --understanding genetic material on a large scale.
But what actually is genetic engineering? Genetic engineering in theory, allows cells to grow in a petri dish, with the end result of creating the type of genetic alteration you want. Imagine the medical ramifications of being able to genetically create the characteristics we want in a species. Think of the benefits to mankind and the enhancements that would be…
Sources of Information:
Publications www.ornl.gov/hgmis/publicat/genechoice/index.html" Your Genes, Your Choices --a downloadable booklet describing the Human Genome Project, the science behind it, and the ethical, legal, and social issues raised by the project
Books www.ornl.gov/hgmis/publicat/hgn/v9n1/15cshl.html" Toward the 21st Century: Incorporating Genetics into Primary Health Care
Human Genome News --the newsletter of the HGP sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy Biological and Environmental Research Program
onnie Steinbock Down's Syndrome
ETHICALLY DEFENSILE OR NOT
onnie Steinbock and Down's Syndrome
Prenatal genetic testing is a medical procedure, which detects genetic abnormalities early, to enable the mother or parents to make appropriate decisions about the condition (Khasin, 2013). Unlike prenatal genetic screening, which requires only a blood test, prenatal genetic testing obtains a direct sample of the amniotic fluid through a needle. The result is, therefore, more reliable. Prenatal genetic testing has been commonly used in detecting genetic abnormalities, such as Down Syndrome, Trisomy 18 and Trisomy 13. Trisomies are extra chromosomes, which are not compatible with life. This means that children with these chromosomes die shortly after birth (Zieve et al., 2013). The main ethical issue against the procedure is that a finding of Down's Syndrome or another genetic abnormality leads women to seek abortion. Since there is no cure for these diseases, the discovery can only…
Arras, J.D. et al. (2007). Ethical issues in modern medicine: contemporary readings in bioethics. 7th edition. McGraw-Hill Education -- Europe.
Asch, A. (1999). Prenatal diagnosis and selective abortion: a challenge to practice and policy. Vol 89 # 1 American Journal of Public Health: Pubmed. Retrieved on February 22, 2013 from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1508970/pdf
Khasin, M. (2013). Prenatal genetic testing ethics. eHow: Demand Media, Inc.
Retrieved on February 22, 2013 from http://www.ehow.com/about_6597554_prenatal-genetic-testing-ethics.html
The writer of this article, Victor David Hanson, states that since earlier times, this sort of disparity in power has been in evidence, and it is a fact that the others have been attempting to build up their innate strength and power by merely imitating the West. This is sometimes referred to as a type of 'military parasitism', wherein those who were weak would often try to steal or buy or clone those weapons of the West that they found to be powerful. One example of this phenomenon is that of Japan. This country had no munitions manufacturing unit, no organized naval fleet, yet she managed to defeat a ussian Armada during 1905. (Post-Modern War)
The main reason for this success was that Japan had been sending thousands of her students to foreign universities and to military academies to study, and this resulted in the gaining of certain knowledge in…
Best of Counter terrorism and Security" Counter Terrorism and Security International. Retrieved at http://www.iacsp.com/a4.html . Accessed on 17 January, 2005
Clements, Kevin. (2002) "The War on Terrorism and its Aftermath" The Second eSymposium on Conflict Prevention Dialogue Session 2. February. Retrieved at http://www.dwcw.org/e-symposium/cgi/wwwbbs.cgi-Symposium_2&88Accessed on 17 January, 2005
Corera, Gordon. (2004). "War on Terror vanishes from agenda" 24 November. Retrieved at http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/americas/4034833.stm . Accessed on 17 January, 2005
Hanson, Victor Davis. (2005) "Post-Modern War." Free Republic. 10 January. Retrieved at http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/f-news/1317714/postsAccessed on 17 January, 2005
Complementary and Alternative Medicines (CAM) Systems
Complementary and alternative medicine systems are health care approaches that are characterized by a history of use or origins that are external to mainstream medicine or health care practices. These health care systems or approaches have lasted for centuries since different kinds of complementary and alternative medicines have been reported. According to the World Health Organization, different types of complementary and alternative medicines have acted as the basic health practice in developing countries and are increasingly used in countries with predominant conventional medicine (Kramlich, 2014, p.50). CAM therapies have become common in the recent past and are used for treating various conditions including chronic pain conditions. Actually, several CAM therapies and practice interventions such as acupuncture and massage therapy are increasingly used in chronic pain management.
Naturopathic medicine, which is also known as naturopathy or alternative medicine, is a term that is…
"History of Naturopathic Medicine." (n.d.). North Carolina Association of Naturopathic Physicians. Retrieved August 17, 2015, from http://ncanp.com/about-ncanp/history-of-naturopathic-medicine/
Kramlich, D. (2014, December). Introduction to Complementary, Alternative, and Traditional Therapies. Critical Care Nurse, 34(6), 50-56.
Pongparadee et. al. (2012, August). Current Considerations for the Management of Musculoskeletal Pain in Asian Countries: A Special Focus on Cyclooxygenase-2 Inhibitors and Non-steroid Anti-inflammatory Drugs. International Journal of Rheumatic Diseases,15(4), 341-347.
Schulenburg, J. (2015). Considerations for Complementary and Alternative Medicine Interventions for Pain. AORN Journal, 101(3), 319-326.
There are exceptions, where legal ramifications are employed and individuals are held to account for their inaction. For most people, including myself the idea that faith is the only solution to medical concerns, and especially emergent ones is unfathomable. Medical care is congruent with faith, as even for the most ardent believer in God if God had not meant for children to be cured of preventable a treatable disease he would not have developed treatments to do so. For the broader population this is a reasonable tenet and most people report taking themselves and their children to a doctor or hospital when they feel it is necessary. It is also clear that modern people are even more involved in their own wellness and may even be able to treat some injuries and illnesses at home, without medical intervention. Furthermore most know when they need to seek care for themselves and…
Barnes L.L. & Sered, S.S. (2005). Religion and Healing in America. New York: Oxford University Press
Hamer, D. (2004).The God Gene: How Faith is Hardwired Into our Genes.
Koenig, H.G. (2005). Medicine, Religion, and Health: Where Science and Spirituality Meet. West Conshohocken, PA: Templeton Foundation Press.
Nord, W.A. (1999). Science, Religion and Education. Phi Delta Kappan, 81(1), 28.
History Of Modern American Nursing
When the Crimean War ended in 1856, patient mortality at British hospitals was forty-two percent. Despite the fact that Joseph Lister introduced the concept of antisepsis as early as 1867, the germ theory of disease would not be adopted for another several decades. Nevertheless, already by the end of the American Civil War in 1865, Union hospitals had treated over one million battlefield casualties, with only eight percent mortality. Mainly, historians credit Florence Nightengale, whose campaign for cleanliness and hygiene in hospitals fortuitously predated the crucial implementation of medical antisepsis in modern medicine (Starr, 1984).
Women in Early American Medicine:
Throughout the first half of the nineteenth century, admission to formal medical education was largely restricted to males until Quakers in Philadelphia founded the Woman's Medical College of Pennsylvania in 1850. While more than a dozen women's medical schools were subsequently founded by the turn…
Caplan, A.L., Engelhardt, H.T., McCartney, J.J. Eds. (1981) Concepts of Health and Disease: Interdisciplinary Perspectives.
Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley
Starr, P. (1984) The Social Transformation of American Medicine.
New York: Basic Books