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Modernization in the United States and the Global Community
How does modernization manifest itself in U.S. society?
Truly, modernization in the United States began in earnest with the inception of the Industrial Revolution in the late 19th and early 20th century. Accordingly, it would manifest in direct concordance with the imperatives of a laissez faire economy. The technological and commodity oriented production boom that, nearing the turn to the 20th century, instigated the period known as the Industrial Revolution, would initiate the widespread modernization of America's urban centers. These would be the basis for a mode of expansion that enabled capitalism to ultimately achieve its intended pale of influence over the world. The growth of the world's economy came to include formerly imperialist colonial powers, independently thriving former colonies and massive commercial operations, creating a direct association between the capitalist principle of 'open competition' and the flourishing of modern infrastructure,…
IMF Staff. (2000). Globalization: Threat or Opportunity? International
Medoff, P. & Sklar, H. (1994). Streets of Hope: The Rise and Fall of an Urban Neighborhood. South End Press.
Smith, Adam. (1776). An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations. London: Methuen and Co., Ltd.
Modernization of Russia and Japan
Russia and Japan, were among the only dominant powers in Asia, still were states with declining feudal economics and feudal survivals in the middle of 19th century. Feudal system of relations prevented countries from a gradual and progressive development, made unable the development of market relations and establishment of equal opportunities for international trade. he growing class of businessmen or bourgeoisie in both countries felt those limitations and wanted to break outdated system of relations. he contradictions of monarchic governments with the interests of bourgeoisie and common people came to the turning point nearly at the same time in both countries: in Japan in 1867-1868 and in Russia several years earlier in 1860-1861. he Crimean war of Russia against urkey and coalition of France and Britain showed its inability to resist to the main European powers, showed the failure, bankruptcy and great crisis of the…
The development of capitalism in Russia was rapid as well. In fact Russia achieved nearly the same results as "old Europe" but in several decades, while for European states it took centuries. The reforms that occurred in state's system had liberalized the country, made it open for foreign investors and established civil liberties. Still peasants didn't get any advantages from the reform, if not taking into consideration personal liberty, but still they were dependent as their land belonged to landowners, former serf-owners. Feudal survivals in agricultural sphere prevented developed of farming, and progress in agriculture was not so obvious as it was in industry. In fact, Russia, which was known as "granary" of Europe, lost its positions, as it had to compete with cheap wheat of Argentina, Canada and the U.S.A. From another side rapid development of industry was not gradual, as it divided country into predominantly industrial regions and predominantly agricultural. Southern part of Russian Empire (Ukraine) and coastal regions of the Black sea were rapidly industrialized as they were rich in coal and iron. The development of metallurgy, machine building was the main article of country's export, industry was developed in St. Petersburg region and Moscow as well. In all the rest regions the development of industry was not observed in such rapid temper. Russia's capitalism was different from Japanese, as import of foreign capital to the country dominated over capital's export; most of Russian objects of industry belonged to German, French and English businessmen. The lack of effective means of communications and transportation system also prevented from general country's development, making Siberia and eastern borders of empire outdated and economically backward. Russian government didn't assist national business, which resulted Russia's dependence on European super-states, turning it into developing state, a raw materials supplier of the West.
That's why we can make a conclusion that even though capitalism and modernization in Japan were made by conservative methods, they achieved greater results both in economical growth and military strength. Japan's geographical position, it's relatively small territory and wide coastline caused it's favorable economic position as well making it open either for Asian markets or for developing pacific markets of the U.S.A. Russia had economical orientation only to Europe.
Military backwardness of Russian army, of state's ineffective government and isolation of its eastern territories caused it's defeat in the war with Japan in 1904-1905, making Japan the only dominant power in the region with permanent presence of the Asian continent.
(oach, 2002) The tourist associated IT bursts such as Advanced Traveler Information Systems -- ATIS entail the customer such as mobile passengers having tourist data digitally. The data may be constant of a previous record or flow of current data by real time. The subject matter may incorporate prices, routes, schedules, nobilities, time of arrival of the next vehicle, availability of particular location equipment. Data could be entailed on the tourist vehicle, at the tourist stop, accessible via the net or collected via phone. Automatically generated travel schedule consultants are incorporated in this group. ATIS system incorporates internet browsing, audible enunciators, digitalized cell phone and land telephones, kiosks as well as tourist targets having digitalized information. (Paniati, Hynes, 2006)
The automated electronic payment mode also has enhanced experiences of clients with regard to the advanced transportation which is under the impact of advanced IT. This permits the user or agency…
Baily, Martin N; Brian, James. 1994, "Information Technology: The Key to Service
Performance" Brookings Review, vol. 12, no. 3, pp: 32-38.
Daly, Nicholas. (1999) "Blood on the Tracks: Sensation Drama, the Railway, and the Dark Face of Modernity" Victorian Studies, vol. 42, no. 1, pp: 18-24.
HP News release. (2010) "Air Transport Specialist SITA Selects HP to Add New
Yet there was no smooth transition. Ohara designed a new penal system following the Western panopticon model in which prisoners were subject to pervasive surveillance. otsman analyzes Ohara's "Rules" to show how the subjectivity of prisoners was constituted.
Ohara laid out careful rules for the location and living grounds for inmates down to the material details. Inside the prison, otsman says, "complete and perfect order was to reign."
The building should be a cross design with a central watchtower, wings, and an interior clear of obstacles to enable easy inspection. There should be careful distribution of bodies, each "housed in his own separate cell."
What is important is that the "Rules" reflected broader social change. They mirror Edo's transformation through traffic flow, commerce, and clearing slums for air circulation and hygiene. Simultaneously, a new police force monitored the public. otsman writes, "Of greatest direct relevance for Ohara's vision of space…
Botsman, Daniel V. Punishment and Power in the Making of Modern Japan. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2005.
Burns, Susan L. "Contemplating Places: The Hospital as Modern Experience in Meiji Japan." In New Directions in the Study of Meiji Japan. Edited by Helen Hardacre and Adam L. Kern, 702-718. Brill's Japanese Studies Library. Vol 6. Leiden: Brill, 1997.
Gluck, Carol. Japan's Modern Myths: Ideology in the Late Meiji Period. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1985.
Hardacre, Helen. "Introduction." In New Directions in the Study of Meiji Japan. Edited by Helen Hardacre and Adam L. Kern, xiii-xlii. Brill's Japanese Studies Library. Vol 6. Leiden: Brill, 1997.
Modernization of the Chinese Government and Democracy
In the past 35 years, China has experienced significant transformation and modernization of its democracy and governance. This modernization process was brought by the death of Mao Zedong, the founding father of the People's epublic of China and the Chairman of the country's Communist Party since 1943. Prior to his death, Chairman Mao had started a Cultural evolution in 1966 in attempts to revive socialism in the country and eliminate capitalistic corruption and bureaucratic inflexibility. The initiation of the Cultural evolution was preceded by several political and social campaigns that urged Mao to propel the country towards the much anticipated socialism, which was regarded as a promised paradise. Following Mao's death, China has experienced considerable transformation due to socialism, which has in turn resulted in modernization of the Chinese government and democracy. The other changes brought by socialism include economic transformation to an…
Coase, R. & Wang, N. (2012). How China became capitalist. New York, NY: Palgrave
Coase, R. & Wang, N. (2013, February). How China Became Capitalist. Retrieved April 9, 2015,
The word "modernize" is defined in the American Heritage Dictionary as: to make modern in appearance, style or character; to accept or adopt modern ways, ideas or style. If we utilize this definition to explain modernization, we can assume that the term refers to the application of such an action in a particular instance. At any given point in time, "modern" pertains to the latest developments in the area of discussion.
The modernization of a culture is often a difficult undertaking; the degree of difficulty involved corresponds to the rate at which that culture has developed. One of the most incredible modernization processes in the world's history occurred over less than half a century, in the still-enigmatic country of Japan.
Long History of Tradition
hen Japan is mentioned to the typical esterner, it conjures images of Geisha girls and dragons; samurai and shogun. Japan remained shrouded in mystery,…
Busch, Noel F. The Horizon Concise History of Japan. New York: American Heritage Publishing Co, Inc., 1972
Christensen, Maria. "The Meiji Era and the Modernization of Japan." (article on Suite101.com)
Clough, Ron. "Samurai, Shoguns & the Age of Steam." History Today. Nov99, Vol. 49 Issue 11, p. 35
Modernization is rooted in the needs of human existence and is the embodiment of human beings' desire to pursue a high level of existence. Modernization is a tendency toward rationalization, that is, various uses of reason to control and overcome nature and the environment. The process of modernization begins in the Western world; it is a broad historical process of changes that takes the birth of industrial civilization as its origin and impetus, and contains political, economic and social contents. The needs of human life have different spheres, which are finite in quality but infinite in quantity. The realization of the needs of a lower sphere will arouse the needs of a higher one and the realization of the latter will give birth to the needs of a yet higher sphere; the process is endless. We can treat history, in this sense, as the process in which the needs of…
Heyman, J.M. (1999). Consumption in Developing Societies. Retrieved June 15, 2005, from Encyclopedia of Life Support System
Web site: http://www.library.arizona.edu/ej/jpe/consumpt.htm
Pipes, D. (1991). Taiwan in Japan's Footstep. Retrieved June 15, 2005, from Daniel Pipes
Web site: http://www.danielpipes.org/article/208
Modernization, industrialization, and urbanization transformed the geographic and cultural landscape of America. One of the most visible changes to American society during the late 19th century came about in the form of race relations. Whereas slavery itself represented the antithesis of modernity, modern industrial technology fueled the slave-based cotton industry and further entrenched slavery in the American South. Whereas the North capitalized on modern industrial technologies to diversify its economy and create a more competitive and highly skilled labor force the South focused on the cotton gin almost exclusively. The South did not embrace the social, political, or philosophical tenets of modernization and this was a fundamental reason for the Civil War. Ultimately, modernization helped to dismantle the slave-based economy in the South, allowed African-Americans to enter the labor force, and created a more socially diversified nation.
The initial phase of modernization was tough on African-Americans. The cotton gin made…
"Industrialization and Dominant-Minority Relations." Chapter 4. Retrieved online: http://www.sagepub.com/upm-data/13174_Chapter4.pdf
In this regard, Latham (2000) emphasizes that modern societies such as the United States "could actively create institutions affecting the social life of an 'emerging' country. In addition to providing external investment, the "advanced" state could furnish scientific technology and training, provide instruction in the virtues of democratic systems, help produce more efficient forms of business organization, and even instill a new spirit of rationality" (p. 66). The downside of such assistance, though, is that, "Countries on the receiving end have little choice in the matter" (Latham, 2000, p. 66). Consequently, the people of developing nations who are on the receiving end of modernization initiatives may view such interventions with a great deal of ambivalence. According to Snyder (2004), there is a great deal of ethnocentrism involved in the efforts by developed nations to enforce modernity on developing countries. In this regard, Snyder advises, "People in the West regard the…
Huffman, W.E. (1999). Modernizing agriculture: A continuing process. Daedalus, 127(4), 159-
Latham, M.E. (2000). Modernization as ideology: American social science and 'nation building' in the Kennedy era. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press.
Mirsepassi, a. (2000). Intellectual discourse and the politics of modernization: Negotiating
modernity in Iran. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.
Kemal Ataturk, founder of modern Turkey and its first elected president, was born as Mustafa on March 12, 1881 in Salonika or Thessaloniki, in Greece which was then under the Ottoman Empire. His father, Ali eza Efendi, was a customs official who wanted his son's education to take place in a secular school. However, his father died while he was still a child. It was his mother Zubeyde Hanim who brought him up at his uncle's home in the countryside and later in his aunt's house in Salonika. While in primary school, one of his teachers gave him the surname "Kemal" meaning "perfect, by which we know him today. Mustafa Kemal joined military school in Salonika and later on in Manastir from where he finished his high school. In 1899, he joined the infantry division of the Military Academy at Istanbul. On completion of his training in 1902,…
Atabaki, Touraj and Zurcher, Erik Jan. Men of order. (I.B.Tauris, 2004), 45.
Banani, Amin. The modernization of Iran, 1921-1941. (Stanford University Press, 1961), 27.
Boroujerdi, Mehrzad. Triumphs and Travails of Authoritarian Modernization in Iran.
[Online]. Available from: http://www.fis-iran.org/en/irannameh/volxx/authoritarian-modernization 5 April, 2009.
This makes the modernization of ports to better handle the growing number of containers a priority for many private as well as public concerns, and ports themselves can no longer remain competitive if they cannot make these modernizations (Peters 2001).
This brings up a final point about the need for port modernization. The availability of fast domestic ground transportation, both on rail and truck transport systems, has made port competitiveness increasingly important in modernization efforts. Container shipping ensures that no matter where a shipment enters a country, it can move on to other destinations reliably, and this has served to make non-modernized ports obsolete through their lack of necessity. When a somewhat farther port can offer a faster, cheaper, and more reliable way of moving cargo from a ship to ground transportation or vice versa, companies will choose this option. The move to containers is excellent news for ports that…
Furukawa, H. (2005). "Douala Port Container Terminal Modernization Project." Mitsubishi UFJ Research and Consulting Co., Ltd. Accessed 19 September 2010. http://www.jica.go.jp/english/operations/evaluation/oda_loan/post/2006/pdf/project50_full.pdf
Hillestad, R.; Van Roo, B. & Yoho, K. (2009). "Fast forward: Key Issues in Modernizing the U.S. Freight-Transportation System for Future Economic Growth." RAND Corporation. Accessed 19 September 2010. http://www.rand.org/pubs/monographs/2009/RAND_MG883.pdf
IDB. (2008). "Port of Montevideo Modernization Program." Inter-American development bank. Accessed 19 September 2010.
Levinson, M. (2006). The box: how the shipping container made the world smaller and the world. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Wei employed a sarcastic attitude by making his essay appear to complete Deng Xiaoping's article "Four Modernizations." He indirectly made fun of the Chinese leader by denouncing his failure to address China's problems. When considering present-day conditions in China, it appears that Deng Xiaoping's proposals were especially successful while democracy is far from being a concept that the Chinese state will express interest in. The fact that living conditions in China are critical should influence many individuals in behaving similar to Wei. However, when considering the activist's determination and his experiences, it is only safe to assume that it would be absurd for someone in China to behave similar to him, especially now when the country is rapidly becoming the most powerful economy in the world.
With present-day China promoting the belief that communism is the key to success, it is more and more difficult for individuals like Wei to…
evolution, Education, And Modernization
evolution, Education and Modernization
Is revolution an acceptable way to change government? Why or why not?
In 1776 the founding fathers of the United States faced a situation where this question was paramount among the interests of their fellow countrymen:
"When in the course of human events, it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another, and to assume among the powers of the earth, the separate and equal station to which the Laws of Nature and of Nature's God entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the separation" ("The Declaration of Independence," 1776).
History shows that when the needs of a society are not being met revolution is generated from outside the existing system since it is that system that is perceived as…
"Egypt news -- Revolution and aftermath." (2011, June 2). The New York times. World. Retrieved February 26, 2013, from http://topics.nytimes.com/top/news/international/countriesandterritories/egypt/index.html
Kanalley, C. (2011, January 30). Egypt revolution 2011: A complete guide to unrest. The Huffington Post. Retrieved February 26, 2013, from http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2011/01/30/egypt-revolution-2011_n_816026.html
McElroy, W. (2005). Henery Thoreau and 'civil disobedience'. Future of the freedom foundation. In The Thoreau Reader. Retrieved February 26, 2013, from http://thoreau.eserver.org/civil.html
Rathbone, E. (2011, March 15). Can social networking spur a revolution? The university of Virgina magazine. Retrieved February 26, 2013, from http://uvamagazine.org/only_online/article/can_social_networking_cause_revolution/
Deng Xiaoping and Modernization
During the Cultural Revolution, Mao Zedong led a tremendously aggressive and transformative movement within mainland China that would forever change the face of his country and the people within its borders. Since the beginnings of Mao's communist China, there existed a powerful will amongst his supporters to remove the liberal bourgeois from Chinese society; the Cultural Revolution took this agenda to further, far more frightening extremes, in order to achieve that goal. During Mao's iron grip on China, he led the country into a nightmarish world of flawed policies, persecution, and utter destruction of the economy. Originally intending to industrialize and develop the nation by means of a proletariat movement, Mao sought to lift the lower class out of their poverty, calling on farmers, small-time laborers, and other low-income citizens to band together in order to oust undesirable members of society. At many points throughout his…
1. "The People's Republic Of China: II," University of Maryland, accessed December 7, 2010, http://www-chaos.umd.edu/history/prc2.html .
2. "China Is a Private-Sector Economy," Bloomberg Business Week, accessed December 7, 2010, http://www.businessweek.com/magazine/content/05_34/b3948478.htm .
3. "Remembering Mao's Victims," Spiegel Online International, accessed December 7, 2010, http://www.spiegel.de/international/world/0,1518,483023,00.html .
4. "China -- "Socialist market economy" or just plain capitalism?," International Marxist Tendency, accessed December 7, 2010, http://www.marxist.com/china-socialist-market-economy200106.htm.
FISA's recent rise to fame has been due to attempts by the Bush Administration to apply the law as justification for warrant-less wiretaps of U.S. citizens in apparent disregard of their Fourth Amendment protections. This issue will be examined in more detail below, however, it is important to first discuss some of the key court cases that help establish the Constitutionality of FISA. Specifically, this report will address three cases that directly feed into the Constitutional requirements of FISA: Olmstead v. U.S. (1928), Katz v. U.S. (1967), and U.S. v. U.S. (1972).
Olmstead v. U.S. (1928)
For the civil libertarian, the case of Olmstead v. U.S. (1928) is a nightmare violation of constitutionally guaranteed Fourth and Fifth Amendment rights. In the case, oy Olmstead was convicted of bootlegging during the Prohibition years of U.S. history. Without obtaining any kind of judicial approval, federal agents placed wiretaps in the building Olmstead…
Fein, B. (2007, March). Presidential authority to gather foreign intelligence. Presidential Studies Quarterly, 37(1), pp. 23-36.
Katz v. United States. (1967). FindLaw for Legal Professionals. Retrieved March 25, 2008, at http://laws.findlaw.com/us/389/347.html
Malooly, D.J. (1998, Winter). Physical searches under FISA: a constitutional analysis. American Criminal Law Review, 35(2), pp. 411-424.
Olmstead v. United States (1928). The Oyez Project. Retrieved March 25, 2008, at http://www.oyez.org/cases/1901-1939/1927/1927_493/
Indeed, the comment cited above underscores the ire which Japan has earned
by functioning as one of the world's chief exporters while failing to
invest itself in any meaningful aspect of importing. Likewise, it has
resisted foreign investment and corporate assistance even as it has
actively pursued corporate ownership in other countries. The overarching
impact, most especially in the decades following western occupation, would
be a rapidly modernizing economy in Japan, a flooding of the world market
with more affordable Japanese-manufactured automobiles and electronics and
a continued closed-door policy to western goods or companies.
In a certain regard, it is reasonable to argue that modernization
under these terms has been very successful. In just 50 years, Japan
emerged from its role as an agriculturally-based military culture to serve
as one of the core industrialized nations defining the path of
technological and retail modernity. However, there are also myriad
The Economist Newspaper. (2003). Japanese Spirit, Western Things. The
Modernization on the technological front by the business sector during the nineties has transformed the manner in which Indian businesses are required to be performed. I.T. has launched novel business models and is more and more contributing a major part in enhancing the e-banking services in India. (E-Banking: An Emerging Perspective of the egulatory and Taxation Issues) The description of e-banking differs among the research fraternity since electronic banking pertains to various categories of services. Burr for instance, explains it as an electronic linkage between the bank and its customer so as to organize, deal with and regulate monetary transactions. Electronic banking can even be described as a diversity of the proposals: (a) Internet Banking or online banking (b) Phone Banking (c) T.V-linked banking (d) Mobile Banking and (e) PC Banking or offline banking. (E-Banking: An Emerging Perspective of the egulatory and Taxation Issues) The concepts 'Anywhere Banking', 'Tele-Banking',…
Berniker, Mark. 2003. Study: E-Banking Blooming, but Needs New Apps. Ecommerce News.
February 20. Retrieved from http://news.earthweb.com/ec-news/article.php/1588061 Accessed on 22 April, 2005
Dalal, Praveen. 2005. Internet Banking and its challenges in India. 26 March. http://mumbai.indymedia.org/en/2005/03/210298.shtml Accessed on 22 April, 2005
Dalal, Praveen. The Compulsive Mandates of Electronic era.
popular theatrical experience in New York City. It is written objectively and seeks to identify both the areas of success and areas of improvement that this production, and its holistic experience, entails for the viewer.
This event involved the author going to an a 1930's style hotel in New York City. Various aspects of the theatrical experience which is loosely based on Macbeth involved audiences getting acclimated to different perspectives and rooms in the residence in which the story takes place. In this regard the experience was truly interactive.
The most interesting thing about the event was the modernization of Macbeth. The fact that theater goers could actually follow various characters in this timeless tale in different rooms helped to add to this story, and emphasize some of the aspects of the play that are less emphasized in the original.
b.i. On the one hand, there was…
Import-Substitution and Industrialization is an economic policy that aims to promote the replacement of imports with locally produced goods, mainly industrialized goods. The main concept behind this policy is that a nation should try to minimize its reliance on foreign goods by domestically manufacturing industrialized goods. Usually, countries that tend to depend on importation of goods should start focusing on their production of goods that they previously imported. The goal is to not only make these nations less dependent on external goods but also to build their economy via industrialization.
The concept of import substitution and industrialization emerged in the Latin American region courtesy of the Second World War. Countries in this area sought to protect, grow and strengthen their domestic industries through various tactics such as subsidizing government loans, import quotas, and trade tariffs. Today, a great number of Latin American states have adopted import substitution and industrialization policy…
George's marriage to Ella is his second one; his first wife was from an arranged marriage in Pakistan that left him unhappy. Yet he was able to incorporate aspects of development theory within his own life to find a new wife who he is (mostly) pleased with in a Western environment, and even owns a successful fish and chips restaurant. In his romantic life and in his economic life, George is able to evince some of the best qualities of development theory and modernization by taking his best assets and (literally) marrying them with those from a Western society to update and contemporize his life and his source of income.
However, what George does not take account of is the fact that he must allow the same degree of leniency from his religion and tradition that he permitted himself in marrying Ella to his children. In this sense, East is…
Dubai should be thinking about sustainability, since the seaport expansion and modernization has been damaging to the environment over the past decade. AS more and more ships begin to use the Dubai port, and as commerce and economic activity return after the global economic recession, the environmental challenges surrounding the port will likely increase as well.
Bagaeen, Samer. (2007). "Brand Dubai: The Instant City; or the Instantly ecognizable
City." International Planning Studies. Vol. 12, No. 2. Pp. 173-197.
Balakrishnan, Melodena Stephens. (2008). "Dubai -- a star in the east: A case study in strategic destination branding." Journal of Place Management and Development. Vol. 1, No. 1. Pp. 62-91.
Betriebswirt; Dipl. And Noack, Sascha MBA. (2007). Doing Business in Dubai and the UAE. GIN Verlag: Berlin.
Burt, J; Bartholomew, A.; Usseglio, P; Bauman, A. And P.F. Sale. (2009). "Are artificial reefs surrogates of natural habitats for corals and fish in…
Bagaeen, Samer. (2007). "Brand Dubai: The Instant City; or the Instantly Recognizable
City." International Planning Studies. Vol. 12, No. 2. Pp. 173-197.
Balakrishnan, Melodena Stephens. (2008). "Dubai -- a star in the east: A case study in strategic destination branding." Journal of Place Management and Development. Vol. 1, No. 1. Pp. 62-91.
Betriebswirt; Dipl. And Noack, Sascha MBA. (2007). Doing Business in Dubai and the UAE. GRIN Verlag: Berlin.
They goal for globalization is to increase material wealth and the distribution of goods and services through a more international division of labor and then, in turn, a process in which regional cultures integrate through communication, transportation and trade. The overall theory is that if countries are tied together cooperatively economically, they will not have needed to become political enemies (Smith 2007). Notice the continuum here -- globalization, like modernization, is a process, but a process that insists movement from A to B. is not only desirable, but necessary to become part of the Global Club. hile this is primarily an economic determinant, nothing exists in a vacuum. Therefore, economics drive technological, social, cultural, political, and even biological factors. And, with this exchange of paradigms, there is transnational circulation of ideas, languages, popular culture, and communication through acculturation. Typically, we see the movement of globalization moving into the developing world…
Achebe, C 2000, Home and Exile, Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.
Adams, W 2006, The Future of Sustainability: Re-THinking Environment and Development in the 21st Century, viewed December 2011, http://cmsdata.iucn.org/downloads/iucn_future_of_sustanability.pdf
Aristotle VII, 'Politics', pp. 1339a 29-30.
Bartlovich, C, Mannur, A (eds.) 2001, Marxism, Modernity and Post-Colonial Studies, Cambridge University Press, New York.
138). Despite the contribution these SEZs have made to the Chinese state, Becker cautions that such meteoric growth is probably not sustainable over the long-term. For instance, Becker points out that, "Technology is changing assumptions about the future of industrial labor needs. ecent studies suggest that the link between high growth and job creation may not continue forever. In the 1980s it took a 3% increase in economic growth to produce a 1% increase in employment. By the 1990s, it took more than twice as much growth -- a 7.8% increase -- to achieve the same result. (2006, p. 154).
How has all of China's modernization affected rural China in places as Fengyang?
While the major urban centers of China have enjoyed spectacular growth in recent years, less prosperity (or none at all) has flowed to the country's rural regions such as Fengyang. Fengyang stands out because it was…
Becker, J. (2006). Dragon rising: An inside look at China today. Washington, DC: National
The already shaky relationship between the Qatar state and Iranian society was further undermined by the Western exploitation of Iranian resources during the second half of the nineteenth century.
From 1918 until 1921 "British subsidies kept the government afloat, and British military and administrative advisers attempted to reorganize Iran's army and to manipulate the various political factions within the country to British advantage" (Cleveland, 185)*. When Britain added insult to injury by offering Iran a loan in exchange for exclusive advisory privileges, anti-imperial demonstrations broke out in several cities. Widespread discontent grew further. The Qatar government was regarded as ineffective and pro-British. A determined military commander finally took action and put a stop to the chaos.
Reza Khan used the political climate to advance from the position of commander and chief of the army in 1921 to that of the shah of Iran in 1925. His election overthrew the Qatar…
New Face of Development," onald Inglehart and Chrisitan Welzel's article, "How Development Leads to Democracy: What We Know About Modernization," and Jack Goldstone's article, "The New Population Bomb: The Four Megatrends That Will Change the World." Essentially, each of these articles takes varying approaches in chronicling the history of development and the impact that it will have on the future. The overarching goal that is found in synthesizing each of these works is that the ultimate repercussion for development will involve a shifting of power from conventional Westernization to the emergence of developing nations leading the way in a host of vital areas such as population, workforce, and aspects of production including food and health care.
Lancaster's article alludes to this fact by examining the history of development since the close of World War II. One of the most vital factors during this nearly 70-year process is the Cold War,…
Goldstone, J. (2010). "The new population bomb: the four megatrends that will change the world." Foreign Affairs.
Inglehart, R., Welzel, C. (2009). "How development leads to democracy:what we know about modernization." Foreign Affairs.
Lancaster, C. (No date). "The new face of development."
Trani, E.P. (No date). "Dollar Diplomacy." Encyclopedia of the New Nation. http://www.americanforeignrelations.com/A-D/Dollar-Diplomacy.html#b
Nectar in a Sieve
Kamala Markandaya's 1954 novel Nectar in a Sieve can be read as a historical artifact that illustrates issues extant in the years immediately after Indian independence. Some of the issues that Markandaya addresses in Nectar in a Sieve including income disparity, still plague Indian social and political life. The ambitious industrialization and modernization programs that Nehru undertook during his tenure as India's first post-colonial Prime Minister did churn wealth in some sectors, while it also exacerbated the already existing divisions between classes throughout the subcontinent. In particular, the shift from a primarily agrarian and self-sustaining farming community life in rural areas towards urbanization created more problems than the process was intended to solve. Without a cohesive community infrastructure, peasant farmers were mainly worse off than they were before factories like the one depicted in Markandaya's novel employed leagues of workers.
Nectar in a Sieve does reveal…
Markandaya, K. (1954). Nectar in a Sieve. Signet.
The British created a well-educated, English-speaking Indian elite middle class d. new jobs were created for millions of Indian hand-spinner and hand-weavers
The Indian National Congress can best be described in which of the following ways:
a. An Indian Civil Service that administered British rule.
b. A group of upper-caste professionals seeking independence from Britain.
c. white settlers who administered British rule.
d. anglicized Indians who were the social equals of white rulers.
Under the Culture System, Indonesian peasants had to Answer:
a. learn to speak and read Dutch b. plant one-fifth of their land in export crops to be turned over to the Dutch colonial government c. convert to the Dutch Reformed Church d. join large state-run farms.
Modern Vietnamese nationalism traced much of its inspiration to Answer:
a. Japanese modernization.
b. China's "Hundred Days" Reform program.
c. The U.S. Declaration of Independence.
d. British Fabian socialism.
The mother is unable to adapt to the transitional period and unable to give up her values and traditions. In this new society, she feels out of place and finds some relief in preserving her old habits. Instead, her children find themselves forced to adapt to the social change and their behavior is deviant from the morals they were raised in. As a result, Naoji makes some mistakes in his attempt to succeed and he ends up in suicide due to his failure to understand what has happened to the world as he knew it.
What makes Naoji commit suicide is his inability to find his identity when he comes back from war. He discovers that the world as he knew had changed and he can no longer relate to it. He sees in his inability to adapt the failure of him and of the society he lives in and…
Dazai, Osamu, the setting sun, translated by Donald Keene, New Directions Publishing Corporation, revised edition, June 1968;
Institutions and symbols, Volume X, No. 43, October 23, 1957, available at http://www.manasjournal.org/pdf_library/VolumeX_1957/X-43.pdf ;
Osamu Dazai, 2002, available at http://www.kirjasto.sci.fi/dazai.htm;
The Setting Sun, November 2006, available at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Setting_Sun
190). The Act also helped to create a "too-big-to-fail" mindset (Walter, 2004) that would have profound implications during the economic downturn of 2008 and beyond.
Why did you include this piece of legislation in your list? The Act is described by Sammin (2004) as being "the biggest revision in financial services law since the Great Depression" (p. 653).
iegle-Neal Interstate Banking and Branching Efficiency Act of 1994
What were the problems/conditions giving rise to the legislation? apid consolidations among the nation's banks were creating the potential for diverting needed banking resources from communities (ose, 1997).
What were the major provisions of the Act? The iegle-Neal Interstate Banking and Branching Efficiency Act of 1994 (hereinafter "the Act") contained the following major provisions:
A. Bank holding companies that are adequately capitalized and managed can acquire a bank anywhere in the United States one year after this law is enacted.…
Alexander, K., Dhumale, R. & Eatwell, J. (2006). Global governance of financial systems: The international regulation of systemic risk. New York: Oxford University Press.
Coustan, H., Leinicke, L.M., Rexroad, W.M. & Ostrosky, J.A. (2004). Sarbanes-Oxley: What it means to the marketplace; from support to apprehension, accounting professionals express their thoughts. Journal of Accountancy, 197(2), 43-44.
Feinberg, R.M. & Reynolds, K.M. (2010). An examination of entry and competitive performance in rural banking markets. Southern Economic Journal, 76(3), 624-625.
Gup, B.E. (2003). The future of banking. Westport, CT: Quorum Books.
However, in the case of Sudan, it may be said that none of the above theories applies. This is largely due to the fact that there are specific internal factors which determine the orientation of the economy in a certain direction. These are most of the times related to the historical evolution of the country under discussion.
In the Sudanese case, the end of the war and the independence from the British rule marked the slow evolution of an autonomous economic system. However, the lack of experienced personal and the poor investment plans made these attempts fail. Also, the internal turmoil and conflicting situation between the North and the South aggravated the rift between the two regions of the country. Therefore, a sustainable development plan could not have been set in place because there was no cohesion both at the level of the political authority and the social one. (Country…
BBC. Country profile: Sudan. BBC World. 2007. Retrieved 4 September 2007, at http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/middle_east/country_profiles/820864.stm#facts
CIA. The World Factbook. Sudan. 2007. Retrieved 4 September 2007, from https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/su.html#Intro
CIA. The World Factbook. United States. 2007. Retrieved 4 September 2007, from https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/us.html
Country Studies. Sudan: Agriculture. N.d. Retrieved 4 September 2007, at http://www.country-studies.com/sudan/agriculture.html
The Madagascar population is quite dispersed (UNHCHR 1993). The urban centers and other vital sectors, such as the deltas and alluvial plains are populated. ut the rest of the land is thinly populated. Only a few regions are enclaved and have roads, but these are in a deteriorating state because of the lack of material and financial resources. The growth rate of Madagascar went up from 1.59 to 3.5% between 1960 and 1970. In 1990, the population was estimated at 11 million and evenly distributed. There are 171 live births per 1,000 women of child-bearing age. The crude mortality is 17.6 per thousand with life expectancy at birth at 54.5 years. The natural increase in population is 2.7 to 3.2% per year or to double within 22-26 years. The population is 46% for those below 15 years old and only 3% for those over 60. The dependency ratio is…
BRIDGE (1992). What about women? 4 pages. Institute of Development Studies: University of Sussex, Retrieved May 30, 2007 at http://bridge.ids.ac.uk/reports/R20%20What%20About%20Women%202c.doc
Ferraro, V. (1996). Dependency theory. 12 pages. Mount Holyoke College. Retrieved on May 31, 2007 at http://www.mtkolyoke.edu/acad/intrel/depend.htm
Hamilton, R. (2003). Madagascar mixes religion and politics. 5 pages. BBC News: British Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved May 30, 2007 at http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/2681011.stm
International Conference on Agrarian Reform and Rural Development (2006). The experience of the National Land Programme in Madagascar. 3 pages. Summary. Retrieved May 30, 2007 at http://www.icarrd.org/en/icarrd/_madagascar_Sum.doc
However, the country recovered well and has improved its GDP considerably in the past decade.
The economic performance of Iceland has been good in recent years, with a growth in GDP over the past decade of 4% per annum, significantly bettering OECD growth over that period. Because of this, per capita GDP has recovered most of the ground lost in a preceding period of sluggish growth, making the country the fifth-wealthiest in the OECD on that benchmark:
Most of the rise in trend growth reflects productivity gains following the implementation of widespread structural reforms, which opened the economy and enhanced competition. Financial-market liberalization and privatization have unleashed entrepreneurial dynamism. Many companies have expanded abroad, and the country now plays a role that belies the small size of its economy. Labor markets have been increasingly opened to foreign participants, helping to reduce labor market tensions. ("Economic survey of Iceland 2006" para.…
Economic Survey of Iceland 2006." April 23, 2007. http://www.oecd.org/document/39/0,2340,en_2649_201185_37217255_1_1_1_1,00.html .
Frank, a.G. Capitalism and underdevelopment in Latin America; historical studies of Chile and Brazil. New York, Monthly Review Press, 1967.
Gilbert, Alan and Josef Gugler. Cities, Poverty, and Development. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1990.
Iceland." The CIA World Fact Book. April 24, 2007. https://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/ic.html#Intro.
The most worrying aspect in this case is the fact that the Patriot Act seems to be endangering some of the fundamental liberties of the American individual. The motivation seems simple: the country is at war and, in any such conditions, it is allowed to resort to all means to achieve victory. On the other hand, the fact that certain governmental practices (many of which have probably been going on in the past, but had never been exposed) are now out in the open and even regulated.
The case of the American citizen Yaser Hamdi is quintessential for the application of policies in times of war. Yaser Hamdi was captured in Afghanistan, deemed to be a member of al Qaeda and was categorized as an "enemy combatant." He had been held imprisoned without being charged for almost two years, with no access to attorneys or trials.
His case brings about…
1. Cassel, Elaine. Yaser Hamdi gets a lawyer: he just can't do anything. December 2003. On the Internet at http://buffaloreport.com/articles/031207.cassel.hamdi.html
http://www.chargepadilla.org /' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Nowadays, students have to choose between different academic disciplines: maybe one student prefers to be a psychologist rather than a physician. And then once the student has decided on psychology, he must choose, for example, to be a psychology major, as opposed to a physician major. Further more, there are even different categories within disciplines: social psychology, organizational psychology, clinical psychology, educational psychology etc., each with its own concepts, terminology and methods. As in many other areas of activity, the division of labor in modern academia was a necessary phenomenon in the modern society given the economic and social conditions of the modern world, when the aim of education is to prepare students for different specializations and then, through working, interdependence and collaboration is necessary in order to reach the goal and obtain the wanted results. Durkheim's theory division of labor depicts the fact that in a society based…
Clyde Hudgins, Clyde, Richards, Michael. G. Individual, Family and Community: An Interdisciplinary Approach to the Study of Contemporary Life. Introduction. http://www.accd.edu/sac/interdis/2370/intro.html
Comparative Political Systems. Lecture #2 - Theoretical Antecedents - Marx, Weber, & Durkheim. www.towson.edu/~roberts/339/A02marx.doc
Durkheim, Emile. The Division of Labor in Society Translated by George Simpson. New York: The Free Press, 1933
Grabb, Edward G. Theories of Social Inequality: Classical and Contemporary
S. Backs Japan," 2007).
Cine the 1960s and well into the 1980s the overall economic growth skyrocketed to what has been called the "Japanese Miracle." As of 2009, Japan has the second largest economy in the world. Its major industries are banking, insurance, real estate, retailing, transportation, telecommunications and construction. Japan also serves the global economy with some of the most technologically advanced production of motor vehicles, electronic equipment, machine tools, ships, chemicals and textiles, with a service economy of about ae of its GDP ("Japan -- CIA Factbook," 2010).
Partially this has been the result of the economic partnership with the United States, Australia, and the European Union. Japanese products have gone from the merely imitative "cheap knock-offs" of the late 1950s and early 1960s to cutting edge, sought-after materials that are some of the finest made in the world. The Japanese consumer, too, embraces Western goods and culture…
"Japan." (2010). CIA World Factbook. Cited in:
"Japanese Spirit, Western Things." (2003). The Economist. 383 (8332):
All year-round, the smells of a coffin and coffin nails hover over her. Great-Grandmother does not brush her teeth. Great-Grandmother does not believe in airplanes. Great-Grandmother does not watch television
Great-Grandmother simply stands in front of the window of her Garret, or sits in the sun, a sun that does not penetrate her but simply casts a shadow behind her. She is very pale and does her hair in an archaic fashion, and has a face that the narrator describes as a set of wrinkles with archeological significance.
Each family treats the situation with different tactics but all show an inherent disdain for the very old, to the point of seeing and treating them as if they are inhuman, and with an irreverent lack of respect that is contrary to the culture from which they came. The only piece that offers a consoling look at the very old, throughout is…
Bi Feiyu, John Balcom, trans. The Ancestor in Goldblatt, Howard ed. Chairman Mao Would Not Be Amused. New York: Grove Press. 1996.
Su Tong, Howard Golblatt, trans. The Brothers Shu, in Goldblatt, Howard ed. Chairman Mao Would Not Be Amused. New York: Grove Press. 1996.
Kawabata Yasunari, George Seito' trans. The Moon on the Water in Sonu Hwi, Marshall, Pihl, trans. Thoughts of Home, in Peter Lee Modern Korean Literature, Honolulu, University of Hawaii Press, 1990, pgs 203-215.
Management of Continuum of Care Services
As the new director appointed for the Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS), I realize the climbing costs of payments of these two programs and have met with the other members to come up with a plan of that will help enforce the strategies and guidelines in the state of North Carolina that can help us follow a budget that will assist the overall national requirements for persistent care. In doing so fellow board members have met with me to look at the Medicare Modernization Act (MMA), Administration on Aging (AoA), and other parts of the medical services to help come up with an arrangement that will help us reduce costs in our particular area that will assist the national healthcare problems that we currently face.
After looking at the problems within our own area we have decided to enforce the guidelines of the current…
Department of Health and Human Services, (n.d.). Administration on aging. Washington, DC: Retrieved from http://www.aoa.gov/aoaroot/about/Budget/DOCS/FY_2012_AoA_CJ_Feb_2011.pdf
Revering, S. (2007). Update on medicare part d. Informally published manuscript, Department of Health, Massachusetts university, Boston, Retrieved from http://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:vFwR3GhqkgkJ:www.mass.gov/Eeohhs2/docs/dmh/prescription_fact_sheet.ppt+medicare+modernization+act&hl=en&gl=us&pid=bl&srcid=ADGEESj-oSY8OF2PkNp5h6mbuap2CtLuhDndi5ccDFVvjGqHqGhGux-tRa0s5PrbP7CSCvtILHI8AE86mRKjnUnetKPMIgY98MGCNV_PE5PG4ZCS7robDOijjRgzUo_mPol6_0rmXtnE&sig=AHIEtbS4whuLInutr1XLxYchmbqxo8OIRw&pli=1
Laura Hein's (2009) writing connects with this idea in terms of Japan's claim to what she refers to as the country's "uniqueness. This paradigm has persisted even through Japan's growing understanding that some acceptance of the global paradigm is necessary to ensure economic growth. The uniqueness viewpoint, according to Hein, took a background position during the 1950s and 1960s as a result of the post-war association with exceptionalism. However, the international climate during the 1970s once again brought about a rise in Japanese nationalism when the United States complicated its relationship with the country by entering diplomacy with China without informing Japan.
The viewpoint of current Japanese leaders, according to Hein (2009), remains both nationalistic and even somewhat resentful, not only towards foreigners, but also towards the country's own minorities and women. Leaders also still tend to operate on a hierarchical scale rather than a democratic one, further hindering the…
The Economist Newspaper Ltd. (2003). Special Report: Japanese Spirit, Western Things -- 150 Years after Commodore Perry.
Hein, Laura (2008, June 26). The Cultural Career of the Japanese Economy: Developmental and Cultural Nationalisms in Historical Perspective. The Asia-Pacific Journal: Japan Focus. http://www.japanfocus.org/-Laura-Hein/2792
Rostow, W.W. (2000, Dec). Modern Japan's Fourth Challenge: The Political Economy of a Stagnant Population. Proceeding of the American Philosophical Society, Vol. 144, No. 4. http://www.aps-pub.com/proceedings/1444/Rostow.pdf
(PREP Inc. 2012)
Allen, W. (1997). Replication of five types of married couples based on ENRICH. Unpublished dissertation. University of Minnesota. St. Paul, Minnesota.
rowning, DS (2003) Marriage and Modernization: How Globalization Threatens Marriage and What to do About it. Wm. . Eerdmans Publishing, 2003
Duvall, E.M. (1971). Family development, 4th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Co.
Fournier, D.G., & Olson, DH (1986). Programs for premarital and newlywed couples. In R.F.Levant (Ed.), Psychoeducational approaches to family therapy and counseling (pp. 194-231).New York: Springer.
Fournier, D.G., Springer, J. & Olson, DH (2010). Conflict and commitment in seven stages of premarital and marital relations. Unpublished manuscript, Dept. Of Family Social Science, University of Minnesota, St. Paul.
Fowers, .J., Montel, K.H., & Olson, DH (1996). Predictive validity of types of premarital coupes based on PREPARE. Journal of Marriage and Family Therapy, 22, 1, 103-119.
Fowers, .J. & Olson, DH (1992). Four types of premarital…
Allen, W. (1997). Replication of five types of married couples based on ENRICH. Unpublished dissertation. University of Minnesota. St. Paul, Minnesota.
Browning, DS (2003) Marriage and Modernization: How Globalization Threatens Marriage and What to do About it. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, 2003
Duvall, E.M. (1971). Family development, 4th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Co.
Fournier, D.G., & Olson, DH (1986). Programs for premarital and newlywed couples. In R.F.Levant (Ed.), Psychoeducational approaches to family therapy and counseling (pp. 194-231).New York: Springer.
Cold ar has brought renewed interest in civilizations as a source of identity and conflict. The Cold ar had allowed the world to be divided into two distinct camps: one directed by Communist philosophy and the other directed by democratic ideals. This division often resulted in considerable conflict but at least everyone occupied a definable position. All this changed, however, with the collapse of the Soviet Union.
The collapse of Communism presented the possibility of a more peaceful world. Gone was the constant state of tension between the two ideologies. Democracy was now the prevailing political ideology and the door was open for the growing trend toward globalization to progress in earnest. This feeling of euphoria, however, was short-lived and new barriers soon emerged to construct new walls and barriers between the various worlds' nation-states.
In some cases actual walls have been constructed such as the proposed wall between the…
Eksteins, Modris. Rites of Spring: The Great War and the Birth of the Modern Age. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1989.
Huntington, Samuel. The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of the World Order. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1996.
Lewis, Bernard. What Went Wrong?: Western Impact and Middle Eastern Response. New York:
Oxford University Press, 2001.
"The law banned commercial banks from underwriting securities, forcing banks to choose between being a simple lender or an underwriter (brokerage)" (PBS.org. N.D. PP. 1). The legislation was a direct response to the late 1920's Wall Street binge years in which "financial mismanagement and elite corruption ruined banks and destroyed public faith in American finance" (Departments. Washington.edu. N.D. PP. 1).
inancial Services Modernization Act
The repeal of Glass-Steagall in 1999 was not a one- time event; in reality the law had been chipped away at for decades prior. Decisions regarding product and service offerings for financial institutions (checking and interest bearing accounts), bank-holding company statutes, and financial institution underwriting guidelines all eroded the fundamental basis of Glass- Steagall as a protective barrier against money center financial influence.
Enter in Sandy Weill in 1998-1999 and the final dagger to the heart of Glass-Steagall is delivered.
On April 6, 1998, Weill and…
Following the merger announcement Weill and the financial services industry spend millions to influence Congress to repeal Glass- Steagall, because the 1933 legislation's rules "were implemented precisely to prevent this type of company: a combination of insurance underwriting, securities underwriting, and commercial banking" (PBS.org. N.D. PP. 1).
In late November of 1999, President Clinton signs the House- Senate bill which ushers in a new era of financial institution global activity.
Today, Congress voted to update the rules that have governed financial services since the Great
Once the children are of age, the parents' duty to take care of them reduces as the child takes charge to start a new life somewhere else. The parent usually has saved enough money through life insurance scheme and retirement savings to cater for himself after retirement. hen the child is grown, there is no dependence between the parents and children. Traits like hard work and honesty are encouraged towards children to ensure their survival in different societies when he grows up. In some cases when the parent is too weak and old to look after himself, he is taken to a home for the elderly since none of his children is available to take care of him (Stewart et al. 580).
The other model of family model is the model of psychological or emotional interdependence. In this model, the children are of less material help to the family. Parenting,…
Chou, K.L. Emotional autonomy and depression among Chinese adolescents. Journal of Genetic Psychology, pp 161-169, 2000.
Jose, P.E., Huntsinger, C.S., Huntsinger, P.R. & Liaw, F-R. Parental values and practices relevant to young children's social development in Taiwan and the United States. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 31, pp 677-702, 2000.
Misra, G., & Agarwal, R. The meaning of achievement: Implications for a cross-cultural theory of achievement motivation, from a different perspective: Studies of behavior across cultures, Lisse: Swets and Zeitlinger, pp 250-266. 1985.
Phalet, K. & Schonpflug, U. Intergenerational transmission of collectivism and achievement values in two acculturation contexts: the case of Turkish families in Germany and Turkish and Moroccan families in the Netherlands. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, Vol 32, pp 186-201, 2001.
Military in Less Developed Countries
From archaeological records, we can tell that warfare and aggression have been part of human history for thousands of years. Since the rise of urbanization about 5,000 years ago, war has been part of most every civilization. One source, in fact, notes: " . . . 14,500 wards have taken place between 3500 BC and the late 20th century, killing 3.5 billion people and leaving only 300 years of peace" (Henderson, 2010, p. 212). Psychologically, humans seem predisposed to war and conflict for a variety of reasons: economic conflict, political conflict, violent crime, conquest, or power. Marxian theory says that war takes place due to competition for resources, yet the Malthusian theory says wars occur because of either a power vacuum or as expanding populations encounter scare resources. Yet neither of these theories explains one of the odd facts of the 20th century -- that…
Cashman, G. (2010). What Causes War? Lanham, MD: Lexington Books.
Haas, M. (2008). International Human Rights: A Comprehensive Introduction. New York: Routledge.
Henderson, C. (2010). Understanding International Law. New York: Wiley.
Institute for Strategic Studies. (2009). The Military Balance 2008. Retrieved from: http://www.iiss.org
Privacy and Security in Housing
Men has learned different methods of building roads, buildings, houses, bridges and highways but the basics of architecture and the purpose is still same. The roads are for travelling and transportation while the houses are to provide shelter, security and privacy to the individuals and families. Houses save people from bad weather, vulnerabilities and privacy issues. While the basic need and purpose is same, there have been extra necessities that arrived with time as the lifestyle of the people changed (Building Basics: Architecture, 2013). The needs of security and decoration have increased over time thus the people want their residential buildings to be designed with much more care than they used to be in past. The design of houses comes into mind as collection of rooms, sitting areas, balconies, courtyards and garages. While the windows, doors, balconies and courtyards give a feeling of openness…
A-Frame Home Plans, (2010), Retrieved from:
Building Basics: Architecture, (2013), Retrieved from:
To facilitate effective communications, organizational managers must understand the social dynamics of all of these employee communications networks.
7. Understanding Cultural Diversity
Cultural diversity has emerged as one of the most significant social issues in the contemporary workplace. That is largely attributable to the increasing cultural diversity in society and especially to the increased globalization of business in general. Today, it is no longer possible to assume that business partners and other stakeholders will necessarily share the same cultural perspective. In many instances, the failure to appreciate and respond appropriately to cultural diversity can make the difference between success and failure of business negotiations, particularly those conducted across international borders.
8. Promoting and Inclusion by Acknowledging Dissimilarity
While the purpose of cultural sensitivity awareness training is always to reduce or entirely eliminate tensions resulting from cultural differences, the road to achieving that goal often starts with an open and frank…
The act contains a prescription drug entitlement. This is accomplished by providing subsidies for employers to convince them not to eliminate prescription drug benefits for retired workers. Further subsidies were made to prescription drugs for Medicare beneficiaries. Extra money was given to rural hospitals. The act also provided for a trial of partly-privatized Medicare.
Another result of the act was the creation of health savings accounts for workers. These replace company-run health reimbursement arrangements, and the HSAs offer advantages over flexible spending accounts, especially because the former rolls over where the latter does not. This part of the act was designed to replace the Medical Savings Account system. Lastly, there were internal changes such as with respect to the way claims are processed.
This law is a good law. hile expensive for the federal government because of its prescription drug provisions, it introduced the HSA system, which represents an improvement…
Ellig, Bruce R. (2001). Strategies for gaining a powerful edge in the executive talent wars. McGraw Hill Professional. Retrieved April 1, 2009 from http://books.google.com/books?id=hBPaskPAJUQC&pg=PA4&lpg=PA4&dq=intrinsic+extrinsic+compensation&source=bl&ots=2u2mESAWlv&sig=cxUlTaJEdvUidA_Omlpt7lTfcuE&hl=en&ei=xxjUSYDwHOKPmAeSk8SxDw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=6#PPA4,M1
Card, David & Krueger, Alan B. (1997). Myth and Measurement. Princeton University Press. Retrieved April 1, 2009 from http://books.google.com/books?id=VDNI0Uy86J8C&printsec=frontcover
Even "Porter Alexander, Lee's ordnance chief and one of the most perceptive contemporary observers of Lee and his Army of Northern Virginia, called his decision to stand at Antietam 'the greatest military blunder that Gen. Lee ever made'" (Owens 2004). Historians are divided as to the real purpose behind the Maryland campaign, which seems like an "isolated maneuver, another manifestation of Lee's innate aggressiveness as a commander. Some have gone so far as to suggest that Lee's forays into Union territory were undertaken primarily to maintain his claim on scarce Confederate resources that might have been used to greater strategic purpose in the est" (Owens 2004).
hether a demoralization strategy or an effort merely to show Confederate aggression, the focus on Lee in most historians' analysis shows how Lee dominated this conflict, and defined the terms of the battle. Thus, even if Lee acted unwisely, he was clearly 'in control,'…
The beginning of the American Civil War. (2009). BBC. Retrieved February 22, 2009. http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/A3245140
Bleeding Kansas 1853-1861. (2009). Africans in America. PBS. Retrieved February 22, 2009. http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part4/4p2952.html
Faust, Patricia. (2005, March 26). The Anaconda Plan. Historical Times Encyclopedia of the Civil War. Retrieved from Strategy and Tactics: Civil War Home on February 22, 2005 at http://www.civilwarhome.com/anacondaplan.htm
Owens, Mackubin T. (2004, September). September 17, 1862: High tide of the Confederacy?
Given the high attention paid to both customers and personnel, DLA can gain a positive brand image that will help it retain its valuable employees and attract new talents who are willing to join a company which is loyal to its people. As a matter of fact, the need to redefine the employer brand derives from breaking the original psychological contract existing between the employer and employee. This concept which was introduced in the early 1960s and which became popular in the early 1990s was defined as "the perception of the 2 parties, employee and employer, of what their mutual obligations are towards each other" (http://www.cipd.co.uk/subjects/empreltns/psycntrct/psycontr.htm).Consequently, unlike the legal employment contract, the psychological one is informal but is said to be much more influential. According to its traditional version, the psychological contract implied employee commitment in exchange for job security. Nowadays, its "job for life" frame is said to…
Lucyshyn, W., Young, S (2004). Defense Logistics Agency's Business Systems Modernization: Delivering 21st Century Logistics. In Gansler, J., Luby, R.E. (Ed.). Transforming Government Supply Chain Management. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, INC.
Change Management (2007). On the Internet at http://www.cipd.co.uk/subjects/corpstrtgy/changemmt/chngmgmt.htm?IsSrchRes=1Retrieved February 9, 2008.
Employee Communication (2007). On the Internet at http://www.cipd.co.uk/subjects/empreltns/comconslt/empcomm.htm . Retrieved February 9, 2008.
Employee Voice (2007). On the Internet at http://www.cipd.co.uk/subjects/empreltns/comconslt/empvoice.htm . Retrieved February 9, 2008.
Teams should be created that embrace a diversity of skills and workers from different areas of expertise, so there is no knowledge overlap, and thus less jockeying for position of who has the better qualifications within a certain field. If necessary, a clear leader should be established who understands the importance and the time table of the goal of the team. One problem with self-managed teams is that personality rather than goals can become the focus of team discussion. Because the goal is set externally, employees must become internally motivated to reach that goal. Having a clear leader selected beforehand, if the leader does indeed deserve his or her authority, may be a wise managerial move to limit grabs for power. If all members of the team are relatively similar in skills, however, giving the team more jurisdictions in selecting leadership roles might be considered.
The team must have a…
Technical Terms Used in Project Portfolio Management." (2005). Glossary.
Lee Merkhofer Consulting. Retrieved 1 Feb 2008 at http://www.prioritysystem.com/glossary2b.html
Utility analysis: An overview." (2004, April). Vital Enterprises. Retrieved 1 Feb 2008 at http://www.vitalentusa.com/learn/utility_analysis_overview.php#basic_assump
CDN Honey Industry
The Canadian honey industry is widely fragmented and largely undifferentiated. There are approximately 7000 beekeepers and 600,000 colonies in Canada, according to the Canadian Honey Council (2010). Canadian honey is widely exported, to over 30 countries. Annual production is around 28,000 tonnes of honey, of which 16,000 is exported, the export value being $37 million. In recent years, honey production has slipped, but the reputation of Canadian honey abroad remains high (Agriculture Canada, 2008).
This paper will examine the Canadian honey industry, providing not only an overview of the industry and its trends, but also an examination of the industry's key success factors. A complete competitive analysis will be provided, including a Five Forces Analysis and a Value Chain Analysis. There will also be a key success factor (KSF) analysis included in this essay. The paper is intended as an overview of the industry and therefore will…
Agriculture Canada (2008). Canada's honey industry. Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada. Retrieved November 29, 2010 from http://www.ats.agr.gc.ca/supply/3308_e.htm
Canadian Honey Council. (2009). Production and value of honey and maple products. Canadian Honey Council. Retrieved November 29, 2010 from http://www.honeycouncil.ca/documents/Honey%20and%20maple%20production%202009.pdf
Canadian Honey Council website, various pages. (2010). Retrieved November 29, 2010 from http://www.honeycouncil.ca/index.php/honey_industry
QuickMBA. (2010). Porter's five forces. QuickMBA.com. Retrieved November 29, 2010 from http://www.quickmba.com/strategy/porter.shtml
Nursing and the E
The Emergency oom is often one of the most visible parts of healthcare for political debate. It is also one of the most difficult environments for a modern nurse. It is interesting that one of the founders of modern nursing had emergency experience prior to developing her overall theories. Nightingale also looked at negatives and positives that are the conditions, which could help make people recover and reach their actual potential, as also noted by Maslow hierarchy of needs. She did not look or speak directly of the disease per se, but rather, looked at air, clean water, environment, and sanitation. She published her book in1860 with the title a "Notes on Nursing: What it Is and What it Is Not," connecting human beings and quality of human life, and comparing the stagnant sewage she saw in Scutari, as well as in London. She…
Americans at Risk. (March 2009). Families USA. Retrieved from:
Patient Perceptions in the Emergency Department: Physicians, Physician Assistants,
Nurse Practitioners. (30 August 2010). Retrieved from: http://idiopathicmedicine.wordpress.com/2010/08/30/patient-perceptions-in-the-emergency-department-physicians-physician-assistants-nurse-practitioners/
Today the outbound telephone marketing industry has given political campaigns the ability to reach out to a large group of targeted voters in a quick and quiet way, just below the radar. This notion went way beyond the small volunteer call centers that have existed for over forty years. It was essential for the technology to be in place and widely utilized. Political campaigns could not have put into production a complete industry of dissimilar companies, large and small, with many thousands of telephones in call centers. This was a revolution as one could target using any criteria from gender, age, vote propensity, income, level of education, to presence of children. One could shape the message even within a single calling agenda, so that they may be calling all women, but the script may be different for younger women in comparison to older women. And maybe most importantly, one can…
Bimber, B., and Davis, R. 2003. Campaigning Online: TheInternet in U.S. Elections, New
York: Oxford University Press.
Cornfield, M. 2005. Commentary on the Impact of the Internet onthe 2004 Election,
Washington, DC: Pew Internet and American Life Project, March 3.
The Evolution of the Chinese Film Industry
Contemporary Chinese Film Poster (Chinese Films)
For literally thousands of years, the Culture of China has inspired people and been a source of awe and excitement for people all over the world. The Chinese culture is rather unique and elegant with elements that are not commonly found in other cultures. Part of the cultures attraction is undoubtedly because it is one of the oldest cultures in the world and had has thousands and thousands of years to evolve into what it is today. It has drawn so much interest that it is integrating with other cultures. Although much of the ancient traditions have been somewhat overcome by various estern influences and modernization, traces of various aspects of the previous cultures still manage to stand the test of time and can still be seen today.
Many changes have occurred in the Chinese…
Chinese Films. "Chinese Films Meet Difficulties to Advance in Global Arena." 1 March 2012. Chinese Films. Web. 5 June 2012.
Cultural China. "Classic Movie and Stars." N.d. Cultural China. Web. 6 May 2012.
Kushner, B. "Is that really funny? -- humor and identity in Japan and China." 17 April 2009. Japan Society. Web. 5 June 2012.
Moses, L. "Chinese Embassy host film festival." N.d. Embassy of the Peoples Republic of China. Web. 6 June 2012.
She never learns to speak English well. She routinely embarrasses her patron (Jogi) by talking loudly and somewhat ignorantly in public. She never fully becomes the ideal vision of esternization that he initially attracts him to her (she is said to have a "physical similarity" that strongly resembles a popular American silent film actress of the time) (Schneider). Her failure to esternize, then, symbolizes that the notion of the Modern Girl will fail in that same endeavor. Regardless of how hard Jogi tries to modernize himself and his erotic love interest, he and her still remain Japanese and of that that nationality's culture.
The conception of the modern girl is largely viewed as a threat to the modern Japanese woman because of the desire for her to fully immerse (or rather lose) herself in estern culture. Such a full immersion would inevitably not leave enough room for true Japanese culture.…
Huang, Yiju. "A Man Awakened from Dreams: Rereading the Modern Girl Image in A Fool's Love by Tanizaki Jun'ichir?." Graduate Journal of Asia Pacific Studies. 2007. Print. 5(2): 77-87
No author. "Naomi By Junichiro Tanizaki." Kirkus Reviews. 1985. Web. https://www.kirkusreviews.com/book-reviews/junichiro-tanizaki-3/naomi-2/
Schneider, Jessica. "Book reviews: Naomi, by Junichiro Tanizaki." Helium.com. 2010. Web. http://www.helium.com/items/1878179-book-reviews-naomi-by-junichiro-tanizaki
Teaching Style of Lecturing
From the ancient Grecian sophists delivering rhetorical oratories to adoring throngs, to the staid scientists presenting analytical treatises to graduate students, vocalizing an organized lecture to a group of students has long been among the hallmarks of traditional educational delivery. The process of arranging complex subject matter within the relatively accessible framework of lecturing affords educators a number of distinct benefits, including the standardization of student exposure to learning material, the ability to customize lessons in accordance with the collective needs of a class, and the opportunity to inject creativity into dense and demanding instruction. Despite the historical reliance on lecturing to impart knowledge and skills to a wide audience, however, the modernization of educational communication which has occurred in conjunction with the digital age has exposed many of disadvantages inherent to the typical teacher-delivered lecture. The availability of online lecture series delivered directly from experts…
Coughlin, S. (2013, May 01). Jimmy wales: Boring university lectures 'are doomed'. BBC News. Retrieved from http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/business-22160988
Exley, K., & Dennick, R. (2009). Giving a lecture: from presenting to teaching. (Vol. 10). Newy York, NY: Taylor & Francis.
Knight, J.K., & Wood, W.B. (2005). Teaching more by lecturing less. Cell Biology Education, 4(4), 298-310. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1305892/
Morrison, G.R., Ross, S.M., Kalman, H.K., & Kemp, J.E. (2011). Designing effective instruction. (6th ed). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Beauty & Sadness in Japanese Literature
A modernization of the story "An Account of a Ten Foot Square Hut"
Many, many years ago, it is said that the Buddha went out into the world, seeking to free himself from his cloistered palace -- and saw sickness, old age, and death. Upon seeing this inevitable suffering, he resolved to free the world with his philosophy, and lead us all to Enlightenment. Although our land is filled with fine Buddhist shrines and many people pay for fine Buddhist funerals, we have forgotten the central truths of Buddhism, which stress the impermanence of all material things. The only thing which is permanent is the persistence of suffering and the truth of the Buddha's philosophy of non-attachment.
Because we can create great structures out of metal and wood; because we can prolong life slightly longer than before; because we can disguise the effects of…
Korteman, Jessica. "Fukushima Evacuees: 2 years on." 12 Dec 2013.
Hometown Deli -- Environmental Analysis
The Hometown Deli was established by grandfather in 1952 in our hometown. The Deli has a product mix that consists of many different kinds of specialized coffees, teas, a full service bakery, homemade soups, sandwiches, and salads. The Deli has been a local hotspot for many years and has served as a community gathering place. Unfortunately, business has been steadily declining over the last five years and there has been rumors emerge that another Deli, Wall Street Deli, might enter the market as a local competitor. Although grandfather was an expert at running the deli, it lacks any modernization and many of the orders were previously taken with pen & paper or even just memory; the Deli essentially still operates the same as it did in 1952. This analysis will be comprised of a Porter's Five Forces analysis that will help the Deli kwon more…
rise of the nationalist faction of Taiwan and enumerates on its implication on the Taiwan-U.S. political relations. It has 9 sources in APA format.
The evolution of the Taiwanese has policy ramifications not just for Taiwan but also for China and the U.S.
The evolution of Taiwanese nationalism and the process of modernization and democratization
Ever since the Chinese Nationalist Party declared Taiwan as a free province after the victory of the Chinese revolution, Taiwan has remained as a political flashpoint between countries like China and the U.S. The fact that the superbly growing economic status of the country has been a factor that elicits international support does not come as a surprise because in the new world order, economic or political hegemony over such 'profitable' countries is a factor that can be quite advantageous to the super powers like the U.S. Off late, the tensions between countries like the…
Taifa Y, (2004). Rise of Taiwanese Nationalism and Ramifications for Cross-strait Relations, retrieved at http://www.cnponline.org/Press%20Releases/Events/AbstractYu.htm. On March 5, 2004
Zeitlin A (2000). China-Taiwan conflict endangers Hong Kong free media, journalists charge, The Freedom Forum Online, retrieved at http://www.freedomforum.org/templates/document.asp?documentID=2964on March 6, 2004
Baker, WB (2003). Cross-Strait Paradox: The China - Taiwan Tensions," retrieved at http://students.washington.edu/wwbaker3/Documents/School/ChinaTaiwan.htm. On March 6, 2004
Leach, PT., (2003) "Bridge Across the Taiwan Strait"; ProQuest-Journal of Commerce
There is a sense of common tribal identity but every succeeding generation has seen this identity grown more fragmented. Even the purists and the traditionalists who try to define an essential core of the Mesquaki identity are themselves a kind of a splinter faction, rather than representatives of the core of the tribe.
The unity of the tribe now comes through the common economic support provided by the gambling on the reservation rather than from a common sense of culture and identity that links generations. The Mesquaki will likely survive in the future in the sense that the tribe will profit off of the casino and many tribal members will still remain on the reservation to live. But the culture will inevitably fragment and change, pulled in different directions from a number of competing forces. The first force is that of the outside white society which for many young Indians…
Foley, Douglas. The Heartland Chronicles. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press,
Tarsila Do Amaral
One of the most important razilian artists of the 20th century, Tarsila do Amaral, was born in Sao Paulo in 1886. She had a privileged childhood as the grandchild of a rich farmer. This brought with it various advantages, including an education that taught her to read, write, embroider and speak French (Damian, 1999). Finishing her studies in France and returning to razil, this artist left an impression on the Modernist movement in the country that remains to this day. With her husband Oswald de Andrade, Tarsila worked towards creating a unique artistic perspective for the razilian people. This perspective would not reject the European forms and images that had ruled the country's art world until the 1920s. Instead, these would be used and incorporated into traditional forms to create an entirely new and more inclusive perspective.
The Modernist movement came in the midst of a razil…
1. Amaral, Aracy. "Stages in the Formation of Brazil's Cultural Profile." The journal of Decorative and Propaganda Arts 21 (1995): 8-25.
2. Amaral, Tarsila do. Brazil, Sao Paulo drawing [Semana de Arte exhibition, 1922] c.1913.
3. Amaral, Tarsila do. Drawing Study of Black Woman. 1923.
4. Amaral, Tarsila do. Madrid: Fundacion Juan March. Tarsila, 1886-1973: 2009.