18+ documents containing “mononucleosis”.
Epstein-Barr Virus – EBV (Mononucleosis)
A contagious disease, infectious mononucleosis is mostly caused by the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention – CDC, 2018). It is, however, important to note that in most cases, an infection with EBV does not necessarily progress to mononucleosis. Essentially, EBV infections are commonplace and may not present any symptoms, particularly during the childhood early adulthood phases. However, as CDC (2018) points out, “at least one out of four teenagers and young adults who get infected with EBV will develop infectious mononucleosis.” Most infections on this front spread as a consequence of close contact with an individual who is already infected, i.e. via sharing of cutlery or kissing.
Some of the more common symptoms of EBV infection include, but they are not limited to, “sore throat, cervical lymph node enlargement, fatigue and fever most often seen in adolescents and young adults and lasting several….
At present, the symptoms presented by the student are consistent with infectious mononucleosis (IM) caused by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). This includes symptoms that appear to mimic those of the flu. In addition to a sore throat, the patient complains of aching joints and fatigue. It should be noted that an elevated temperature and swollen lymph nodes were revealed following an initial examination by the FNP. The lab results were, however, unremarkable and a Monospot test turned out to be negative. It is important to note that “because peak heterophile antibody levels are seen between 2 to 6 weeks from infection, testing too early in the disease process may lead to increased rates of false negative testing” (Stuempfig and Seroy, 2019). In the case study, we are told that the patient in question has been having “flu-like” symptoms for the last one week. Therefore, the Monospot test in this case could….
Infectious mononucleosis (mono) is caused by the Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV), a relative of herpes. The disease is most common in people under 30 years of age and is common worldwide. Almost all (90-100%) adults have been exposed and have antibodies, whereas young people remain susceptible (Handin, Lux & Stossel, 2003). This is why the disease manifests primarily in young people, and especially those who share rooms or live in crowded conditions like dormitories. Hygiene is a factor, too, with the rate of infection among children under the age of ten living in developing countries significantly higher than children under the age of ten in economically developed nations. Because the disease is carried on saliva, and because saliva interchange is the most common mode of transmission, mononucleosis is commonly called the "kissing disease." However, the disease can be transmitted via close contact without kissing (Evans & Kaslow, 1997). By the age….
Evans, A.S. & Kaslow, R.A. (1997). Viral Infectionsof Humans. New York: Plenum.
Gibbons, M.A., Peters, S.E. & Seaton, R.A. (2005). Severe pneumonitis complicating Epstein-Barr virus infection. Respiratory Medicine Extra 1(4): 104-106.
Handin, R.I., Lux, S.E. & Stossel, T.P. (2003). Blood. Philadelphia: Lippincott.
Prospective Clinical Study of Epstein-Barr Virus and Host Interactions During Acute Infectious Mononucleosis Article eview
Balfour et al. (2005) carried out the study with an aim of discovering how Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) replication is controlled. Using such information would offer them insights as to why some immunocompromised patients develop fatal or severe disease when they fail to contain EBV infection. According to Balfour et al. (2005), it is not easy to distinguish subjects with primary EBV from those with nonprimary EBV infection based on their symptoms and physical findings. The most frequent complaint was tiredness and pharyngitis was the common physical finding. Subjects with nonprimary EBV infection also manifested longer periods of a sore throat and headaches. Nausea and abdominal pain were also common symptoms manifested by the subjects. The trajectory of illness severity was that the recovery rate of nonprimary EBV infection subjects was slower than that of primary….
Balfour, H. H., Holman, C. J., Hokanson, K. M., Lelonek, M. M., Giesbrecht, J. E., White, D. R., . . . Wang, DH (2005). A Prospective Clinical Study of Epstein-Barr Virus and Host Interactions during Acute Infectious Mononucleosis. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 192(9), 1505-1512.
fever and palpable cervical nodes indicates an infection. Jennifer appears to have bacterial tonsillitis. However, in order to confirm, a throat culture must be taken. Although mononucleosis is uncommon in toddlers, it is a possible diagnosis and typically comes from contact in daycares (Yokoyama et al., 2013). To confirm the mononucleosis diagnosis, serology is needed. While the clinical manifestation points to possible mononucleosis diagnosis, younger children do not have as pronounced symptoms.
Bacterial or viral infections as well as other immunologic factors lead to development of tonsillitis. The majority of acute tonsillitis may be caused by viruses such as Herpes simplex virus (Babakurban, Erbek, Terzi, Arslan, & Sahin, 2014). Although because the symptoms are so pronounced, it could be caused by mononucleosis. This making the origins bacterial.
A possible treatment option is Augmentin. It is a broad spectrum penicillin antibiotic that has a combination of clauvulanate potassium and amoxicillin. However, another….
Babakurban, S., Erbek, S., Terzi, Y., Arslan, F., & Sahin, F. (2014). Fractalkine receptor polymorphism and chronic tonsillitis. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol, 271(7), 2045-2048. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00405-014-2908-7
HASLER, G. (2010). PATHOPHYSIOLOGY OF DEPRESSION: DO WE HAVE ANY SOLID EVIDENCEOF INTEREST TO CLINICIANS?. World Psychiatry, 9(3), 155. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/%28ISSN%292051-5545
Schindler, M., Drozdenko, G., Kuhl, A., & Worm, M. (2014). Immunomodulation in Patients with Chronic Hand Eczema Treated with Oral Alitretinoin. Int Arch Allergy Immunol, 165(1), 18-26. http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000365659
Soost, S., Abdollahnia, M., Kostev, K., & Worm, M. (2012). Topical therapy of hand eczema - analysis of the prescription profile from dermatologists in private practice. JDDG: Journal Der Deutschen Dermatologischen Gesellschaft, 10(3), 180-184. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1610-0387.2011.07787.x
Instructions: Read the following sentence and then answer the questions in a word processing document.The faloopious scaringas tringled quaransically to the barton.1. What did the faloopious scaringas do? They tringled.2. How did they tringle? Quaransically.3. What/Who tringled? The scaringas.4. Where did they tringle? To the barton.Reflection: Using the basic rules of grammar, I could tell that the subject is the scaringas. The word precedes the term tringled which is written like a verb in the past tense. So if the verb is tringled, one might ask, What tringled? and the answer would be to look immediately to the left of the predicate and identify the term that is being associated with the verb-looking word. That would be scaringas which appears to be a noun in the plural case. The term faloopious appears to have a descriptive ending ious which is a morpheme that designates that the root word is describing….
Pressure on the superior vena cava may produce SVC syndrome, a swelling of the head and arms. SVC syndrome involving the brain can be fatal and must be treated immediately. But enlarged lymphatic tissue in the chest cavity generally tends to displace -- rather than press upon or encase -- adjacent structures. Therefore, compromised breathing and SVC syndrome are relatively uncommon signs of lymphoma. (Hodgkin's Disease, 1998-2008)
Effects on Bone Marrow
Night sweats, fevers or anemia (a low red-blood-cell count), fevers may indicate Hodgkin's disease has spread to an individual's bone marrow. In these scenarios, a physician may order bone marrow aspiration and biopsy. In biopsy, medical staff uses a large needle to remove a narrow, cylindrical piece of the patient's bone. In another option, medical staff performs an aspiration, a process utilizing a needle to remove small bits of bone marrow. Generally, in both instances, to help determine cancer spread,….
Atlas of the Body: The Lymphatic System." (1999). American Medical Association. 2 June 2008 http://www.medem.com/medlb/article_detaillb.cfm?article_ID=ZZZG0S6CGJC&sub_at=518 .
Carson-DeWitt, Rosalyn S; Alic, Margaret. "Hodgkin's Disease," Gale Encyclopedia of Cancer, January 1, 2002. 2 June 2008 http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G2-3405200219.html .
Detailed Guide: Hodgkin Disease What Is Hodgkin Disease? American Cancer Society. Revised: 08/30/2007. 2 June 2008 http://www.cancer.org/docroot/CRI/content/CRI_2_4_1x_What_Is_Hodgkin_Disease.sp?rnav=cri .
Hodgkin's Disease Signs and Symptoms. (1998-2008). 3 June 2008 http://www.oncologychannel.com/hodgkins/symptoms.shtml.
None of this would have been possible had Milo not passed through the phantom tollbooth.
2. I may not have entered a toy tollbooth into another land but many of my life experienced parallel Milo's. Like Milo, too, I have not undergone a singular transformation of character but have accumulated a series of life experiences that together contribute to changes of character. For instance, when I was in school I played sports and was talented enough to be one of the assistant captains. Because I was shy, however, I rarely emerged as a team leader until the day our captain fell ill with mononucleosis and would not be in school for three weeks. The coach surprised me in front of the whole team by naming me as the replacement captain. I assumed my teammates would be disappointed that the other assistant was passed up. What happened absolutely startled me: the….
However, he questions the research that has been done in this area. First, he wonders whether the exercise is a placebo effect based on the anticipation of improvement. The second question is the acceptability of this treatment. Many CFS patients actively avoid exercise and many healthcare providers in fact recommend rest at all costs rather than a concern of relapse. However, the positive aspect of the CBT and the exercise is that it has the patients question their fears. In both cases, there is a psychotherapeutic affect that may be beneficial.
The use of antidepressants is another approach that has been suggested and studied. However, the results on this have also been mixed. As Demitrack (1996, p. 282) states, "At the present time, it is unrealistic to present medication as a sole treatment for this disease." It may be that medications could work in the short-term and provide enough symptomatic….
Center for Disease Control (2006, May 9). Chronic Fatigue Syndrome. Retrieved January 30, 2007 http://www.cdc.gov/cfs/cfsbasicfacts.htm .
Demitrack, M. And Abbey, S. (1996) (Eds) Chronic Fatigue Syndrome. New York: Guilford Press.
Hyland, M.E. et. al. (2006) Letter to the Editor. The Lancet 367 (9522), 1573-1576
Komaroff, a., & Fagioli, L. (1996) Medial Assessment of Fatigue and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome. In M. Demitrack and S. Abbey (Eds) Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (pg. 154-181). New York: Guilford Press,.
Physiological Effects of Hodgkin's Disease
In this paper I shall give an overview of Hodgkin's disease while focusing on its physiological effects. Specifically, the paper consists of an overview of the disease, describes how the disease affects the body cells and tissues, and how the treatment attacks the disease and affects the body, besides reviewing the treatments available.
Hodgkin's disease is one of the two (and less severe) types of cancer of the lymphatic system; the other type being non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. The disease is named after the British physician, Thomas Hodgkin, who first discovered the condition in 1832. Hodgkin's disease commonly occurs in young adults (between the ages of 15 to 35) and in older people (over 50-year-olds. However, about 10%-15% of cases have been diagnosed in children below 16 years of age. Statistics also show that more men than women are afflicted by it. ("What are the Key Statistics ... "….
'Autologous Bone Marrow Stem Cell Transplantation" (2004). American Cancer Society. Retrieved on September 28, 2004 from http://www.cancer.org/docroot/CRI/content/CRI_2_4_4X_Autologous_Bone_Marrow_Stem_Cell_Transplantation_and_Peripheral_Blood_Stem_Cell_Transplantation_20.asp?rnav=cri 'Chemotherapy." (2004). American Cancer Society. Retrieved on September 28, 2004 from http://www.cancer.org/docroot/CRI/content/CRI_2_4_4X_Chemotherapy_20.asp?rnav=cri 'Do We Know What Causes Hodgkin's Disease?" (2004). American Cancer Society. Retrieved on September 28, 2004 from http://www.cancer.org/docroot/CRI/content/CRI_2_4_2X_Do_we_know_what_causes_Hodgkins_disease_20.asp?rnav=cri
"Hodgkin's Disease." (2000) The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. Columbia University Press: New York.
'Hodgkin's disease: Overview" (2004) Oncology Channel Retrieved on September 28, 2004 from http://www.oncologychannel.com/hodgkins / 'How is Hodgkin's Lymphoma and the Non-Hodgkin's Lymphomas Different?" (2004) Lymphoma Information Network. Retrieved on September 28, 2004 from http://www.lymphomainfo.net/lymphoma/comparison.html
'How Is Hodgkin's Disease Treated?" (2004). American Cancer Society. Retrieved on September 28, 2004 from http://www.cancer.org/docroot/CRI/content/CRI_2_4_4X_How_Is_Hodgkins_Disease_Treated_20.asp?rnav=cri 'The Lymphatic System." (2004) CancerBACUP. Retrieved on September 28, 2004 from http://www.cancerbacup.org.uk/Cancertype/LymphomaHodgkins/General/Thelymphaticsystem
Major depressive disorder, or MDD, may affect up to twenty percent of the adult population. The recognition of depression as a serious and common mental disorder has been vital in the identification and treatment of depression in adults. Leaps and bounds have been made in the field of depression research. The widespread recognition of the many possible causes of depression, including chemical imbalances with genetic or medical origins as well as traumatic life events, has made it possible for those suffering from depression to openly seek treatment options and discuss their depression without necessarily feeling the same overwhelming shame and isolation that were inevitable in generations past. Depression is more likely to be identified in an affected individual by family members, physicians, or others because of the public information that is available for professionals and the common people. Research is constantly revealing new treatment options, identifying causal factors, and….
Fremont, W.P. (2004, April) Childhood reactions to terrorism-induced trauma: a review of the past 10 years. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. v43, i4, 381(12).
Gaughan, D.M., et al. (2004, June) Psychiatric hospitalizations among children and youths with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Pediatrics. v113, i6, 1793(1).
Gazelle, H. & Ladd, G.W. (2003, January-February) Anxious solitude and peer exclusion: a diathesis-stress model of internalizing trajectories in childhood. Child Development. v74, i1, 257(22).
Louters, L.L. (2004, September) Don't overlook childhood depression: an effective approach to childhood depression requires that you maintain a high index of suspicion and understand the disorder's full spectrum of manifestations. JAAPA - Journal of the American Academy of Physicians Assistants. v17, i9, 18(7).
HIV testing/Screening be made part of Primary Prevention?
This analysis backs up research on behavioral interventions that lower HIV transmission. The aim of the analysis are to reinforce interdisciplinary research that develops, implements, and evaluates practically and theoretically based interventions intended to prevent HIV transmission. This knowledge needs to progress understanding of the interaction between psychological, behavioral, biological and social factors that influence the acquirement of HIV in our populations. The analysis supports research that acts as the base for an empirically-based public health policy plan to prevent several new HIV infections as possible. Similarly, ASPQ supports basic prevention and intervention research that tackle multiple levels factors that facilitate or obstruct lowering of HIV risk.
Immense progress have been made over the ancient times decade in behavioral research on how to assist people prevent contracting HIV infections (primary prevention) and how to reduce or alleviate unfavorable consequences among individuals who are….
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2009). HIV / AIDS Surveillance Report. Vol. 19. Atlanta: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services,
CDC (2004). Cases of HIV infection and AIDS in the United States
HIV / AIDS, Surveillance Report 2005; 16:16 -- 45.
CDC. (2001) Revised recommendations for HIV screening of pregnant women. MMWR; 50(No. RR-19):63 -- 85.
depression has been known as a "result when individuals forfeit their personal power." (Depression: Multimedia Sourcebook, p.1) It also has been described in ancient times as "... [an] affliction [that] laid its cause to supernatural intervention, primarily religious in nature. (insworth, p. 48) In the Hindu depression was noted as a struggle between good and evil in which evil would win and "victimize individual humans." (insworth, p.48) In texts from Babylonia and Egypt, gods punished transgressions in the hearts of people and placed on them the depressive curse. The early Hebrew texts allude to the belief that depression in humans reflects the displeasure of Yahweh.
But according to up-to-the-date research, we know that depression is an "innocuous-sounding word... that refers to a potentially disabling illness that affects many but is understood by few." (insworth p.1) Professor Patricia insworth, a leading psychologist on depression, further explains that sufferers often do….
A variety of medical conditions can cause depression. These include dietary
1. http://www.nami.org / deficiencies in vitamin B6, vitamin B12, and folic acid. Degenerative neurological disorders may also be to blame such as Alzheimer's disease and strokes or through certain viral infections, such as hepatitis and mononucleosis.1
Depression typically cannot be shaken or willed away. (Becker, p. 187) An episode must therefore run its course until
Digestive System Disorder Case Study: Gastroparesis
The paper opens with an introduction and definintion of Gastroparesis and its association to damaging of vagus nerves along the intestines and stomach muscles. This reduces their ability for function properly. People living with diabetes have a higher likelihood of advancing Gastroparesis against sequential Diabetic Gastroparesis. More persons are contracting Gastroparesis during surgical operations. The paper illustrates that more patients are yet to find a cause linking their illnesses with Gastroparesis because it triggers Idiopathic Gastroparesis. The scope of Gastroparesis has a close link to diseases of connective tissue such as Ehlers-Danlos syndrome as well as scleroderma. The neurological conditions worsen along Parkinson's disease. The paper concludes with proposals of Gastroparesis diagnosis through tests carried out on gastric emptying scans, x-rays, and manometry. Clinical Gastroparesis takes the definition of stomach emptying complications. There are beneficial adjustments to insulin dosage among diabetic people who use parenteral….
Ellenburg, M.A., (2012). Gastroparesis: Causes, Tests and Treatment Options. New York: CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform
Parkman, H.P., & McCallum, R.W. (2011). Gastroparesis: Pathophysiology, Presentation and Treatment. New York: Springer
Sethi, A.K., & Murthi, R.K., (2011). Bowl Care and Digestive Disorders. New York: V&S Publishers
Depression in Adolescence
Depression in Adolescents
The link between symptoms, etiology, core biochemical processes, treatment outcome, and treatment response of affective (mood) disorders is yet to be adequately understood for allowing their categorization, such that it meets universal approval. Still, one has to make an attempt in this regard, and researchers propose a potentially-acceptable one, derived from extensive consultation.
In case of affective disorders, the basic disturbance is an affect (mood) change, typically extreme elation or depression (without or with related anxiety). An overall activity level change generally accompanies this change of mood, and a majority of other related symptoms either will be conveniently recognized in the context of these changes, or will be secondary to them. Most disorders have a tendency of repetition, and the commencement of individual bouts is usually linked to stressful circumstances or occurrences.
The key criteria of classification of affective disorders have been selected for practical purposes, in that,….
Algon, S., Yi, J., Calkins, M.E., Kohler, C. And Borgmann-Winter, K.E. (2013). Evaluation and Treatment of Children and Adolescents with Psychotic Symptoms. Current psychiatry reports. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3500659/
Christie, A. (2007). Childhood anxiety: Occupational disruption. New Zealand Journal of Occupational Therapy, 54(2),31-39. Available at http://www.cin.ufpe.br/~fbcpf/PAMPIE/childhood%20anxiety%20Occupational%20disruption.pdf
Halverson, J. L. (1994-2016). Depression Differential Diagnoses. Medscape. http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/286759-differential
Lewis, A. J., Bertino, M. D., Skewes, J., Shand, L., Borojevic, N., Knight, T., Lubman, D.I., Toumbourou, J.W. (2013, Nov 13). Adolescent depressive disorders and family based interventions in the family options multicenter evaluation: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. Available at: http://trialsjournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1745-6215-14-384
Health - Nursing
Epstein-Barr Virus – EBV (Mononucleosis) A contagious disease, infectious mononucleosis is mostly caused by the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention – CDC, 2018). It is, however,…Read Full Paper ❯
Medical - Diseases
At present, the symptoms presented by the student are consistent with infectious mononucleosis (IM) caused by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). This includes symptoms that appear to mimic those of the…Read Full Paper ❯
Mono Infectious mononucleosis (mono) is caused by the Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV), a relative of herpes. The disease is most common in people under 30 years of age and is common…Read Full Paper ❯
Prospective Clinical Study of Epstein-Barr Virus and Host Interactions During Acute Infectious Mononucleosis Article eview Balfour et al. (2005) carried out the study with an aim of discovering how…Read Full Paper ❯
fever and palpable cervical nodes indicates an infection. Jennifer appears to have bacterial tonsillitis. However, in order to confirm, a throat culture must be taken. Although mononucleosis is…Read Full Paper ❯
Instructions: Read the following sentence and then answer the questions in a word processing document.The faloopious scaringas tringled quaransically to the barton.1. What did the faloopious scaringas do? They…Read Full Paper ❯
Pressure on the superior vena cava may produce SVC syndrome, a swelling of the head and arms. SVC syndrome involving the brain can be fatal and must be…Read Full Paper ❯
None of this would have been possible had Milo not passed through the phantom tollbooth. 2. I may not have entered a toy tollbooth into another land but many…Read Full Paper ❯
However, he questions the research that has been done in this area. First, he wonders whether the exercise is a placebo effect based on the anticipation of improvement.…Read Full Paper ❯
Physiological Effects of Hodgkin's Disease In this paper I shall give an overview of Hodgkin's disease while focusing on its physiological effects. Specifically, the paper consists of an overview of…Read Full Paper ❯
Childhood Depression Major depressive disorder, or MDD, may affect up to twenty percent of the adult population. The recognition of depression as a serious and common mental disorder has been…Read Full Paper ❯
HIV testing/Screening be made part of Primary Prevention? This analysis backs up research on behavioral interventions that lower HIV transmission. The aim of the analysis are to reinforce interdisciplinary…Read Full Paper ❯
depression has been known as a "result when individuals forfeit their personal power." (Depression: Multimedia Sourcebook, p.1) It also has been described in ancient times as "...…Read Full Paper ❯
Gastroparesis Digestive System Disorder Case Study: Gastroparesis The paper opens with an introduction and definintion of Gastroparesis and its association to damaging of vagus nerves along the intestines and stomach muscles.…Read Full Paper ❯
Depression in Adolescence Depression in Adolescents The link between symptoms, etiology, core biochemical processes, treatment outcome, and treatment response of affective (mood) disorders is yet to be adequately understood for allowing…Read Full Paper ❯