CONSIDER THE CORE DRUG KNOWLEDGE FOR Fluoxetine (Prozac®)
Why is Rita taking fluoxetine?
Rita is currently taking Fluoxetine in response to a psychological evaluation that demonstrates Major Depressive disorder and there is also some evidence of PMDD (Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder). Major depressive disorder as described by the multi-axial system includes the presence of a single episode of the mood disorder, Major Depressive Disorder on the Axis I table as the patient has not reported having such severe episodes prior to this time and the episode is not better explained by any other psychotic disorder nor does she exhibit signs of having mixed episodes including mania or any other psychiatric disorder. It is also clear that Rita's Major Depressive Disorder episode is linked with the melancholic features as a modifier. The criteria for this modifier, experienced by Rita include loss of pleasure in all or most activities coupled with…… [Read More]
INTENSE, PERSISTENT, RECURRING
Definition of Mood Disorders
Diagnosis and Treatment
Proposed Dimensions for DSM5
In a single year, approximately 7% of Americans suffer from mood disorders, seen as depression or mania, likely to turn worse or cause death (Satcher, 2011). It is one of the top 10 causes of disability throughout the world. Mood disorder subjects spouses, children, parents, siblings and friends to frustration, guilt, anger, financial burden and even physical abuse in coping with the person who suffers from it. Depression has damaging effects on the economy in the form of decreased productivity and increased use of healthcare resources. Depression leads to absenteeism or reduces productivity. Depression accounts for the large part of healthcare expenditure. Depressed persons go through expensive diagnostic procedures in search for the cause of their pain. In many cases, they are treated for other complaints while the mood…… [Read More]
All people experience mood changes. We are happy or sad. We may be overjoyed or in despair, but our reactions are in proportion to the situations we face. In mood disorders, this balance is not present. Moods are extreme. Depression is a sad state where things seem hopeless. Mania is elation or extremely heightened energy. In both states the person's perception of the world is somewhat distorted. Many famous people have had these disorders including Winston Churchill and Eugene O'Neill.
Unipolar depression: is the most common mood disorder, and is more than just a short period of "the blues." Up to 15% of the population may be clinically depressed during any given year.
Symptoms: Emotionally, people with depression feel sad. They may describe themselves as feeling miserable or empty inside. They lose pleasure in thing they used to enjoy, and lose their sense of humor. Depression can also…… [Read More]
3). This wide range should be accounted for, and ideally the participants should have similar treatment histories. Too many intervening variables would interfere with the outcome of the research. It would be preferable to select participants who did not represent a wide range of treatment histories. Moreover, the "children's mood disorder diagnoses and their illness severity...also spanned a wide spectrum," (p. 3). Wide spectrums interfere with the accuracy of the research.
Ethical problems also arise in the methods used in the research. Families were chosen because their parents opted to participate in the study, but it is unclear whether or not the children participated of their own accord or because their parents wanted them to. eferrals welcomed participating families who already had children diagnosed with mental disorders. Some of the families had not yet sought treatment but many already had. Therefore, the study limited its population sample to families already…… [Read More]
Depressive or mood disorder is a term that is used to refer to the underlying or longitudinal disorders. Mood disorders are classified into various categories including elevated mood, depressed mood, and moods that swing between mania and depression. The most common types of mood disorders that cycle between mania and depression are bipolar disorders, which were previously known as manic depression. Bipolar I Disorder and Bipolar II Disorder are two different types of mood disorders that are associated with manic episodes or depressive symptoms. These two kinds of mood disorders have several similarities and differences in addition to being relatively difficult to treat effectively.
Similarities and Differences between Bipolar I and Bipolar II
As previously indicated, bipolar I and bipolar II disorders are two kinds of mood disorders that have become common in the recent past. Each of these mood disorders is defined by pattern or manic or depressive episodes,…… [Read More]
Melancholia in Film
Depicting Melancholia in Film: Melancholia
The film Melancholia (2011), directed by Lars von Trier, is a science fiction film about the end of the world viewed through the eyes of a melancholic. The melancholic is Justine, who is played by Kirsten Dunst, and the end of the world is caused by the planet Melancholia crashing into earth. One of the more important relationships in the movie is between Justine and her sister Claire. Throughout most of the film, Justine is in the midst of a depressive episode while Claire acts as a caretaker; however, at the very end of the film the roles of invalid and caretaker are reversed as Claire begins to panic and Justine manages both Claire's and Claire's son's fear in the face of imminent death.
Although there is a prologue that casts a sense of foreboding on the initially happy and joyful…… [Read More]
The client in the present scenario is an 8-year-old African American male who presents with signs of depression. Some of the reported symptoms include; feeling of sadness, occasional irritation, and decreased appetite. The score obtained upon the administration of the Children’s Depression Rating Scale indicates significant depression. This text concerns itself with three decisions relating to the medications prescribed for the 8-year-old.
Decision Point 1: Begin Zoloft 25 mg orally daily
Studies conducted in the past have indicated that for children and adolescents suffering from depression, Zoloft (Sertraline) happens to be largely effective. According to Hritzak and Culhane (2004), “Sertraline (Zoloft) is effective and generally well tolerated for the short-term treatment of major depressive disorder in both children and adolescents” (17). In essence, Sertraline, which is essentially an SSRI, impacts unbalanced brain chemicals in persons suffering from anxiety disorders, panic disorders, as well as depression. Low…… [Read More]
Disorder of the Hypothalamus
There is a tremendous amount of importance associated with the hypothalamus, which extends throughout various physical, emotional, and mental aspects of life. The hypothalamus is a part of the brain that creates hormones that are critical to a number of processes of the body including temperature, sex drive, mood, and others. It is also directly related to certain glands that secrete hormones. Therefore, it is very important that it functions properly because it plays a role in a number of vital processes that most people take for granted. Those with this condition have a reduced sense of smell (Houneida et al., 2013, p. 144).
Several different disorders exist that pertain to the hypothalamus. One that is fairly rare is termed Kallman syndrome, and is a genetic disorder that is related to bodily processes that typically develop during puberty for those with a normal functioning hypothalamus. The…… [Read More]
Bipolar disorder, originally called manic depressive disorder, is a severe mood disorder that vacillates between extreme "ups" (mania, hypomania) and "downs" (depression). The effects of having bipolar disorder can be observed across the patients social and occupational functioning. Often the patient is left isolated from work, friends, and family. Medications have become the first-line treatments for bipolar disorder; however, psychotherapy can offer additional benefits in the ongoing treatment of patients with bipolar disorder. This paper discusses the symptoms and treatment of bipolar disorder focusing on cognitive behavioral therapy and emotion focused therapy.
Description and differentiation
According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders -- Fourth Edition -- Text evision (DSM-IV-T) one's mood is an all-encompassing and sustained feeling tone experienced internally by the person and influences the person's behavior and perception of the world. Affect is the external or outward expression of this inner…… [Read More]
Bipolar I disorder is an axis 1 clinical disorder in the DSM-IV and is a serious mental illness that can lead to suicidal ideation or action. The history of bipolar disorder research is a long one, and understanding of the disease has deepened considerably over the last several generations. Diagnosis of bipolar disorder 1 is complicated by its resemblance to other mood disorders, mainly major depression but also psychotic disorders like schizophrenia. esearch is revealing new treatment interventions that are targeted to the biological needs of bipolar patients, as antidepressants are often or usually contraindicated. A Christian worldview suggests that individualized treatment plans take into account the family history and patient's lifestyle when recommending a treatment plan.
Bipolar I disorder is a serious mental illness that affects between 1 and 2.5% of the general population in the United States (Ghaznavi & Deckersbach, 2012). The more conservative estimate, 1%, is…… [Read More]
Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder (DMDD) is a childhood disorder characterized by chronic irritability that interferes with academic and social functioning. Frequent outbursts and temper tantrums, at a frequency of about three times per week, are the most obvious behavior externalizations of DMDD, but to be diagnosed with the disorder, the child must also exhibit poor mood or irritability in between outbursts, too (National Institute of Mental Health, 2018). To differentiate DMDD from pediatric bipolar disorder, it is also essential that the child does not exhibit sustained mood elevation or nonepisodic mania (Beweka, Mayes, Hameed, et al, 2016). Moreover, the symptoms of DMDD persist in spite of changes to the child’s environment, evident at home and also in school. Symptoms must also not be temporary, but in place for a year or more. While on the surface DMDD appears no different from any other psychiatric illness, it is in fact a nebulous…… [Read More]
Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD) is a mood disorder associated with specific periods of the calendar year. SAD is more commonly found in geographic locations with long winter seasons with shorter daylight hours, less sunlight, and longer nights. This lack of sunlight has been directly connected to mood changes in a variety of populations and is most common at latitudes that experience less light during the winter seasons. In addition, some mood changes have been associated with the summer months in specific geographic areas. This paper will explore the diagnosis and assessment of Seasonal Affective Disorder, including the differentiation of the physical and emotional causes for the mood changes that occur. The paper will also explore the common treatment methods, including behavioral, pharmacological, and biopsychological, attempting to identify the preferred methods of treatment and data regarding the efficacy of the methods (.
According to the American Psychiatric Association's (APA) DSM-IV, SAD…… [Read More]
The first group will receive a placebo. The second group will receive a spiritual chakra treatment designed to correct electrochemical imbalances within the body. The third group will receive medication to treat psychosis. The specific medication does not matter and therefore will not be specified. The dose will be the same for each patient and therefore will be monitored to determine whether dosage is sufficient.
Therefore, the measurements will track each participant and determine which treatment is most effective given the parameters of the study. The placebo group is expected to see no difference, other than perhaps unrelated psychological improvement which will be tracked and recorded as standard error or standard margin of the error estimate. The second group will undergo a physical treatment of chakra adjustment to maximize the flow of energy throughout the body and remedy the physiological response. The treatment will be administered once per day over…… [Read More]
Bipolar psychiatric disorder (BD) -- which is characterized by "…cycles of depression and mania" -- is a "euphoric, high-energy state" that can produce remarkable bursts of creativity or, on the other hand, can produce erratic behavioral events that are risky and provocative (Gardner, 2011). About 2.4% of the world's population has been diagnosed with bipolar disorder (at one time or another in their lifetime) but the rate in the United States (4.4% of the population) is the highest of any nation (Gardner, p. 1). The lowest rate on record is in India, 0.1%. This paper reviews various aspects and ramifications of the effects of bipolar disorder through nine peer-reviewed research articles.
Bipolar disorder and cigarette smoking
In the journal Bipolar Disorders the authors point out that adults suffering from bipolar disorder are "…two to three times more likely" have begun a serious smoking habit, which is a "devastating addiction" and…… [Read More]
Attention Deficit HyperactivITY Disorder DIAGNOSIS IN CHILDEN
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is a diverse behavioral set of symptoms described by the hub indication of impulsivity, hyperactivity and inattention. Even as, these symptoms have a tendency to gather together, some individuals are for the most part hyperactive and impetuous, even as others are predominantly inattentive. This disease affects both toddlers and adults of all ages and should be taken seriously. When this disease is being diagnosed in children, doctors often make quick decisions to make a diagnosis and handing out prescriptions. This should not be the case as doctors are supposed to take enough time to well analyze the condition of the children before offering prescriptions.
About Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
There are two main diagnostic decisive factors that are currently in use. These are the International Classification of Mental and Behavioral Disorders uses the initials (ICD-10) and the…… [Read More]
Carney, Robert M.; Kenneth E .Freedland. (2009). Treatment-resistant depression and mortality after acute coronary syndrome. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 166(4), 410-7.
Retrieved April 27, 2009, from ProQuest Medical Library database. (Document ID: 1671559601).
Major depressive episode. (2009). DSM IV. Retrieved April 27, 2009 at http://www.mental-health-today.com/dep/dsm.htm
Franklin, Donald. (2003). Major depression. Psychology Info. Retrieved April 27, 2009 at http://www.psychologyinfo.com/depression/major.htm
Khaled, Salma M.; Andrew Bulloch, Derek V. Exner, Scott B. Patten. (2009). Cigarette
smoking, stages of change, and major depression in the Canadian population. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 54(3), 204-8. Retrieved April 27, 2009, from ProQuest Medical
Library database. (Document ID: 1673587981).
Levinson, Douglas. (2005). The genetics of depression: a review. Biol Psychiatry.
Retrieved April 27, 2009 at http://depressiongenetics.med.upenn.edu/DLResearch/Levinson_GeneticsDepression.pdf
Marrie, A.; R. Horwitz, G. Cutter, T .Tyry, D. Campagnolo, & T. Vollmer. (2009). The burden of mental comorbidity in multiple sclerosis: frequent, underdiagnosed, and undertreated. Multiple Sclerosis, 15(3), 385-92.…… [Read More]
Apparent health can be generally positive or negative; in spite of how it links with the real health; it may be significant to comprehend its function in certain kinds of psychopathology. Negatively apparent health has been anticipated to symbolize a cognitive risk factor for panic disorder (PD), detached from elevated anxiety feeling. As a result, PD may be more likely to take place on a background of negative perceptions of one's health. A negatively perceived health may also have predictive implications for PD patients, bearing in mind that negatively perceived health has been found to be a considerable predictor of mortality in general and that individuals with panic-like anxiety indications, panic attacks, and PD have elevated mortality rates, mostly due to cardiovascular and cerebrovascular illnesses (Starcevick, Berle, Fenech, Milicevic, Lamplugh and Hannan, 2009).
Studies have suggested that panic attacks (PA) are widespread and connected with an augmented occurrence of…… [Read More]
Post Traumatic Stress Disorder and Alcoholism/Addiction
Alcoholism and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Overview
PTSD and Co morbidity of Alcoholism: The ole of Trauma
Childhood Abuse and Gender Differences in PTSD
Association Between Alcoholism and Emotion
Genetic and Environmental Influences
Models of Assessment/Conclusions
Abstract TC "Abstract" f C l "1"
This study will examine the relationship between post traumatic stress disorder and alcoholism/addiction. The author proposes a quantitative correlation analysis of the relationship between PTSD and alcoholism be conducted to identify the influence of trauma on subsequent alcohol abuse in patients varying in age from 13-70.
A survey of the literature available on PTSD and alcohol/substance abuse on patients is conducted leading to a conclusion that a direct relationship does exist between Post Traumatic Stress Disorder and Alcoholism/Addiction. This conclusion coincides with a large body of evidence and prior studies which link the prevalence of traumatic disorders with alcohol and substance…… [Read More]
Eating disorders are the number one cause of mortality among mental disorders. A significant portion of women in America suffer from eating disorders. This paper describes these disorders and identifies common, practical and theoretical approaches to eating disorders that are used by counselors, therapists and care givers to help women overcome their struggles. It discusses some of the causes of these disorders. Finally, it identifies the how the Christian perspective and faith-based interventions can be used to help women obtain a better, healthier, more positive, and more realistic image of womanhood to help them deal with the social and peer pressures, the unhealthy emotions, and the mental afflictions that can cause them to develop eating disorders. This paper concludes with the affirmation that the Christian perspective on healing can be an effective approach to helping women who suffer from eating disorders.
a. Key facts and statistics…… [Read More]
psychiatric disorder of childhood depression. The information will discuss how the disorder is diagnosed, the prevalence rates, theories concerning the etiology of depression and various treatments that are available for childhood depression.
hile many people may overlook this serious mental condition that occurs within some children, others are facing the reality of the disorder on a daily basis. More information is becoming readily available that offers research about depression in children and is very helpful to those seeking prognosis and treatment of their loved ones. Many times, depression in children and adolescents is overlooked or misdiagnosed. This paper will discuss symptoms and treatment of depression in children.
Depression is a mental problem that affects people of all ages, race, and economic levels. The diagnosis is becoming more acceptable and is commonly treated with antidepressant drug therapy. The patient is not only affected by treatment, but the drug and insurance…… [Read More]
The authors state, "underlying mechanism through which exposure to childhood abuse is associated with increased risk of panic cannot be determined based on these data alone" (p. 888). They offer several possible explanations. Exposure to abuse as a child may result in an extreme and realistic fear of threat to survival. This may be how panic disorder starts. Later, it may persist, or recur spontaneously, even without abusive conditions. In the face of a real life threat, panic is not pathological, but in childhood panic may make the child more vulnerable to panic later. Exposure to abuse may lead to biochemical changes that increase the risk of a disorder. Because the study was based on interviews with 18 to 21-year-olds, who were asked to recall past experiences, the findings could be contaminated by recall bias in which young people with mental instability might be more likely to report abuse in…… [Read More]
Mouffak, Faycal; Gallarda, Thierry; aup, Nicolas; Olie, Jean-Pierre; and Krebs, Marie-Odile (2007) Gender Identity Disorders and ipolar Disorder Associated With the Ring Y Chromosome. American Journal Psychiatry 164:1122-1123 July 2007. Online available at http://ajp.psychiatryonline.org/cgi/content/full/164/7/1122#R1647CHDJECID
Childhood Gender-Identity Disorder Diagnosis Under Attack (2007) National Association for Research and Therapy of Homosexuality. NARTH. Leadership U. Online available at http://www.leaderu.com/orgs/narth/childhood.html
Osborne, Duncan (2003) Voices - Identity Crisis. OUT magazine. Los Angeles, April 2003. Liberation Publications, Inc. Online available at http://www.antijen.org/Out.html
Hepp U, Kraemer , Schnyder U, Miller N, Delsignore a: Psychiatric comorbidity in gender identity disorder. J Psychosom Res 2005; 58:259-261
Habermeyer E, Kamps I, Kawohl W: A case of bipolar psychosis and transsexualism. Psychopathology 2003; 36:168-170
Diagnosing and Treating Gender Identity in Women (1997) Medscape Psychiatry & Mental Health eJournal. 1997 Online available at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/430853_4
Zucker, K.J. (1985) Cross-gender-identified children. Chapter 4 in .W. Steiner (ED.) Gender Dysphoria: Development, Research, Management, New…… [Read More]
Also known as manic-depressive disorder, bipolar disorder is a severe mental illness that can be treated with a combination of medication and regular therapy. Bipolar disorder is classified as a mood disorder, and is qualified by abnormal intensity of moods and mood swings, leading to dysfunctional, erratic, or self-destructive behaviors. When left untreated or unrecognized, bipolar disorder can disrupt daily functioning and human relationships. Therefore, chemical and non-chemical treatment interventions are critical for maintaining healthy functioning.
Bipolar disorder is referred to as having a cyclic pattern, because the symptoms are episodic. In other words, the person may be severely depressed, then normal, then fully manic, and then back to being depressed. Mania and depression are the two poles from which the person swings back and forth. Prevalence is equally common in men and women ("Bipolar Disorder," n.d.). First signs of onset are usually in the teens or early twenties;…… [Read More]
The exact regimen depends on the type and severity of symptoms, and whether the disorder is of depressive or bipolar type. Medications are usually prescribed to alleviate psychotic symptoms, stabilize mood and treat depression, while psychotherapy can help curb distorted thoughts, teach social skills and diminish social isolation. ("Schizoaffective Disorder," 2006)
Medication: Medications generally include antipsychotic drugs prescribed to alleviate psychotic symptoms, such as delusions, paranoia and hallucinations. Mood-stabilizing medications are prescribed in bipolar disorder, which help to level out the highs and lows of manic depression. Anti-depressants such as citalopram (Celexa), fluoxetine (Prozac) and escitalopram (Lexapro) are normally prescribed for depressive subtype schizoaffective disorder, as they are likely to alleviate feelings of sadness, hopelessness, or sleeplessness and lack of concentration. (Ibid.)
Psychotherapy and Counseling: Although there has been far less research on psychotherapeutic treatments for schizoaffective disorder than in schizophrenia or depression, the available evidence suggests that cognitive behavior…… [Read More]
This paper will provide an overview of bipolar disorder, as currently described in the most recent edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-V). It will explain how the symptoms of the disorder may manifest themselves, different treatment options, and evolving research in the field. Bipolar disorder remains a complex mental disease that can often mispresent in its features to clinicians, depending on the type and stage of the mood cycle the patient is in, so a clearer understanding by psychiatric clinicians, sufferers, and family members is needed.
Bipolar Disorder: An Overview
Bipolar disorder was once more commonly known as manic depression. It is classified as a mood disorder, under the current Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-V). A variety of types exist of the disorder, but its predominant feature is rapid shifts of mood. The most common forms of the disorder, bipolar I…… [Read More]
In conclusion, much academic attention has been spent on the role of serotonin deficiency and its role in depression and other mood disorders. There has been increasing attention on developing SSRIs that are target-specific in an attempt to reduce unwanted side effects. However, as we have seen too much serotonin many have lasting effects on the brain and contribute to elderly dementia, or permanent damage to the hippocampus.
It appears that maintaining the proper balance of serotonin in the system is the best method for the prevention of the immediate effects of depression and the long-term effects of dementia. Diet plays an important role in the ability of the body to maintain proper serotonin levels. However, there may be times when the body simply cannot maintain the balance on its own. That is when drug therapy such as MAOIs and SSRIs come into play. These drugs are good are relieving…… [Read More]
Mental Health Disorder
The following is a close examination of the psychosocial status of mental health disorder. There is going to be an examination of the symptoms along with a comprehensive diagnosis of the case.
Mental Health Disorder- Background
Childhood mental health disorder refers to all mental health conditions that affect a person in childhood. The disorder in children is described as critical changes that affect the way a child behaves, learns or even handles emotional situations. Some of the known childhood mental health disorders include (CDC - Child Development, Children's Mental Health -- NCBDDD, n.d):
Hyperactivity disorder/attention deficit disorder (ADHD) (http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/adhd/index.html)
Disorders related to behavior
Anxiety and mood disorders
Substance use disorders
Mental health is essential in life. Mental health disorders can persist throughout a person's life (CDC - Child Development, Children's Mental Health -- NCBDDD, n.d). The problem needs to be diagnosed early. Otherwise, children continue…… [Read More]
Bipolar and Personality Disorder
Approximately 20% of patients diagnosed with bipolar disorder are also found to suffer from borderline personality disorder (Zimmerman & Morgan, 2013). While some of the symptoms and characteristics of both disorders are similar, it is important, as Zimmerman and Morgan (2013) point out, to distinguish between the two, as each requires its own form of treatment in order to allow the patient to overcome the issues associated with each. This paper will discuss the treatment considerations for a person presenting with both bipolar disorder and personality disorder.
DSM-5 (2013) states that the diagnostic criteria for Bipolar 1 Disorder are: “For a diagnosis of bipolar 1 disorder, it is necessary to meet the following criteria for a manic episode. The manic episode may have been preceded by and may be followed by hypomanic or major depressive episodes” (p. 123). Mania is described as a…… [Read More]
Child & Adolescent Psychology
Assessment & Evaluation
Both ADHD and BMD display genetic relationships, although BMD does not seem to run in families to the degree seen in ADHD. With the ADHD established early in Clara's life, the focus of this assessment is on the possibility of co-morbid bi-polar mood disorder (BMD) and depression. While most individuals experience their first episode of BMD around the age of 18 or after -- the mean for diagnosis is 26 years of age -- children do rarely develop BMD. Clara would experience her ADHD as a chronic, consistent impairment, while the BMD is episodic, alternating with periods of normal levels of moods. That said, it is important to recognize that ADHD is typically associated with emotional reactions to certain trigger events, and that the people with ADHD are often quite passionate. The occasion of happy events bring ebullient reactions; unhappy experiences evoke intense…… [Read More]
DSM diagnostic criteria have long been a source of criticism. McGorry, Hickie, Yung, Pantelis, and Jackson (2006) point out some basic deficiencies of the DSM diagnostic system. First the authors state that the function of a diagnosis is to state what treatment should be applied or predict the prognosis of the condition. These are certainly functions of a diagnosis, but a diagnosis has broader implications. First and foremost the idea of having a diagnosis is to take a series of related signs and symptoms that hang together consistently and label them so as to facilitate communication between health care professionals. A diagnosis alone is useless unless it allows professionals to communicate about the same entity. Then descriptions of course, treatment, and prognosis can follow.
McGorry et al. charge that in the DSM system the clinical features that occur early in the course of the disorder are not distinguished from those…… [Read More]
estless legs syndrome, also known as Ekbom syndrome, is the most commonly experienced sensorimotor disorder among the general population (Bassetti et al., 2011). The disorder afflicts approximately 2 to 10% of the general population and it is experienced as periodic limb movements in 80% of individuals with restless legs syndrome (Bassetti et al., 2011). The most prominent symptoms of the disorder are urges to move the legs as well as unpleasant sensations in the legs (Lee et al., 2011). The symptoms generally commence or become worse during inactivity and individuals with the disorder generally feel relief from symptoms after movement (Lee et al., 2011). Also, symptoms of the disorder are generally worse during the evening hours in comparison to the daytime. Furthermore, restless leg syndrome often results in sleep disturbances such as delayed sleep onset, multiple awakenings, and reduced sleep efficiency (Lee et al., 2011). The disorder is…… [Read More]
Epilepsy Neurological Disorder
Epilepsy -- a Neurological Disorder
Epilepsy is a neurological disorder which causes frequent seizures due to abnormal electricity activity within the brain. Epilepsy is considered a brain disorder disturbing the brain function which ultimately affects behaviour and cognition. This paper highlights some common symptoms of epilepsy. It also explains different treatments deployed for reducing seizure activity in epilepsy. Each treatment portrays a different way of taking control over the seizures and points out a path towards leading a balanced life.
Epilepsy -- A Neurological Disorder
Epilepsy is a neurological disorder which is characterised by repeated spontaneous seizures of any type which cause problems with speech, vision, movement, awareness and muscle control. Epilepsy cannot be considered as an intellectual disability or mental illness. This paper explains the common symptoms associated with epilepsy. It highlights three different types of treatments for epilepsy and presents a comparative analysis…… [Read More]
Eating Disorders and Gender
There are medical conditions which more commonly occur in one gender over another. These conditions can be either mental or physical. Very often, they are both mental and physical conditions. Certain medical situations are extremely severe and can potentially result in serious harm to the body or perhaps even death. There are certain conditions which being with a mental impression, a false belief that has been ingrained within the mind which then manifests itself in the body of the individual. One of the most common and most disturbing types of condition is known as an eating disorder. By this term, it is meant that the patient suffers a mental conditioning which makes them either unwilling or unable to eat in a healthy manner resulting in either over or under eating and malnutrition. Eating disorders such as bulimia and anorexia are the result of psychological issues on…… [Read More]
Avoidant Personality Disorder
As per the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV), a certain case of avoidant personality disorder (APD) is featured by the existent sign of social inhibition, feeling of being short of requirement, and hypersensitivity to negative valuation. (American Psychiatric Association, 1994, p.1) Even though personality disorders are not often discovered in persons below age 18, children who come within the condition of APD are recurrently portrayed as being aloof to the core, fearful in arising circumstances, and afraid of dissention and social boycott. The proportion of the signs and the inability is way behind the practice of inhibition that is prevalent in as much as 40% of the populace. Hence it is of great relevance of examining the disorder as it relates to professional counseling.
Exploration of disorder
Bearing a semblance to other personality disorders, the state of Avoidant Personality disorder turns out…… [Read More]
Often is forgetful in daily activities
10. Often has difficulty maintaining alertness, orienting to requests, or executing directions
11. Often fidgets with hands or feet or squirms in seat
12. Often leaves seat in classroom or in other situations in which remaining seated is expected
13. Often runs about or climbs excessively in situations in which it is inappropriate
14. Often has difficulty playing or engaging in leisure activities quietly
15. Often is "on the go" or often acts as if "driven by a motor"
16. Often talks excessively
17. Often blurts out answers before questions have been completed
18. Often has difficulty awaiting turn
19. Often interrupts or intrudes on others (e.g., butts into conversations/games)
20. Often has difficulty sitting still, being quiet,... inhibiting impulses in...classroom or at home
21. Often loses temper
22. Often argues with adults
23. Often actively defies or refuses adult requests or rules
24.…… [Read More]
Bipolar disorder, as much as thirty years ago, was a big American secret. Bipolar disorder was not as common knowledge as it is today. During the latter 20th century and 21st century a lot of light has been shed on the subject of bipolar disorder: the diagnoses, the treatments, the signs, and the ways to live with the disorder, both for the sufferer as well as the people close to the sufferer in his or her life. The paper will briefly outline key terms and conditions of bipolar disorder. The paper will additionally offer insight into the lives of people living with bipolar disorder providing commentary on the adjustments in life one must make to move forward, as well as commentary on some of the more popular treatments to assist with the symptoms of the disorder.
The causes of bipolar disorder are unknown to medical professionals…… [Read More]
They also state that PMS is also normal for reproductive women.
Some critics go even farther, and blame the woman for the symptoms she is experiencing (Sellers, 2003). They suggest that the emotional and behavioral difficulties called PMDD are nothing more than basic conditioning, that the woman is rewarded for negative behavior. Sick days and other accommodations, they argue, allow the woman to skip school or work with a phony excuse, and allow them to avoid situations they find generate anxiety in them, such as difficult social interactions (Sellers, 2003).
However, the fact that the women show significant improvement during the luteal phase when taking effective medication argues against the critics' claims. In particular, the same SSRI's that work relatively rapidly in PMDD can take up to twelve weeks to help with non-PMDD depression (Steiner, 2000).
Critics also argue that "PMS provides an excuse for what would otherwise be unacceptable…… [Read More]
Program Evaluation Design
Eating Disorder Program
The university hospital in our city has developed a strong program focused on a spectrum of eating disorders. Disorders addressed include anorexia, bulimia nervosa, compulsive eating, obesity, and a variety of non-traditional eating disorders. Our hospital approaches these issues on many levels, and our staff includes highly trained psychiatrists and psychologists, as well as skilled nutritionists to develop personalized eating plans tailored to each patient. Gastroenterologists, endocrinologists, and other specialists are also part of our team, since the severity of eating disorders can lead to serious and life-threatening conditions.
We also recognize the value of peer support and have incorporated two peer-led groups that focus on eating disorders education as well as prevention. The groups have been meeting weekly for nearly six months. The meetings for each group are structured in the same way, and the length of each meeting is 90 minutes.…… [Read More]
Though a great deal more is known about neurotransmission today than was known at the beginning of the research associated with the initial biological discoveries of neurotransmitters and the neurotransmission process there is still a great deal to be discovered. Neurotransmission disorganization and impairment is clearly identified as a pervasive aspect of many psychological disorders. This is particularly true of the anxiety disorders and OCD. There is no doubt that increased understanding of the various mechanisms of OCD and normal neurotransmission will add to a greater research understanding of the biological causalities and modalities of OCD.
Though the most simplistic and earliest neurotransmission disturbance theories have been largely discounted the research has created ample evidence of disturbances in neurotransmission function (in more complex terms) as the root cause of several psychological disorders including various forms of anxiety disorders the subgroup which OCD falls into.
…this research has revealed the…… [Read More]
Children With Conduct Disorder
It has been suggested that the following three treatments are the most conducive for helping children who have behavior related problems:
This treatment is focused towards the changes that have to be made in the family system, such as improving family interaction with the child. Peer group therapy?
In this therapy we will work to develop the social and interpersonal skills of the child. Cognitive therapy?
This therapy will help the child in improving his communication skills, and problem solving skills. Along with that it provides anger management training to the child, along with impulsive control training. I would like o conduct an experimental study that will evaluate differences in each of these groups and see whether one intervention is preferable to the other.
I would randomly select children and randomly divide them amongst three groups. The children would all come from the…… [Read More]
Usually, diagnosis is symptom driven, then combined with testing, forms an opinion, sometimes verified by lab tests, of a specific diagnosis. For instance, someone may have symptoms of nausea, pain, depression, anxiety, and their skin has a yellowish hue. The physician runs blood tests and finds that the liver is malfunctioning and there is likely a diagnosis of hepatitis. In this case, there are both physical and mental symptoms, but it is the physical nature that is diagnosed first. For mental diagnosis, symptoms are also important, but are based more on the functioning of the individual in social systems, or by observing the patient's behavior (How are Mental Illnesses Diagnosed? 2012). Thus, both use symptoms as a guide, but mental diagnosis is more empirical and uses observation, while physical diagnosis uses quantitative measurements.
Etiology- Etiology is the study of basic causation. We now know that there are a number of…… [Read More]
treatment modalities for conduct disordered adolescent males has primarily been focused on comorbidity. Adolescent males with conduct disorder typically receive individual and family therapy, but when overt behaviors are extreme, pharmacotherapy may supplant insight-based therapy. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and social skills training are complementary approaches to intervention. Using an experimental approach, this study examines the impact of combined intervention approaches on perceived and observed improvement in the expression of problem behavior and life change strategies of adolescent males with conduct disorder.
Adolescents, across the board, experience a range of emotions. Negative impacts of these emotions include struggling with acceptance, self-esteem, isolation, confusion, anxiety, and depression, which can also be a result of instability at home (earight, et al., 2001). In addition to these social effects, many adolescents experience a distorted perception of reality (earight, et al., 2001). On occasion, this distortion may cause them to make poor choices, which demonstrates…… [Read More]
antisocial personality disorder (APD) as displayed by serial killer Belle Gunness. The essay discusses her behaviors with reference to the DSM IV criteria and reviews theoretical perspectives on APD.
Belle Gunness, who immigrated to the U.S. In 1881, was born Brynhild Paulsdatter Strseth in November 1859 in Selbu, Norway. Following her immigration, a series of suspicious fires and deaths resulting in insurance awards ensued. Shortly after marrying Mads Sorenson in 1884, the couple's store and home mysteriously burned down, with them claiming the insurance money for both. Sorenson died soon after of heart failure on the very day that his two life insurance policies overlapped, and Belle received about $8,000 from his life insurance. Even though his family demanded an inquiry, no charges were filed, nor were the couple's two children accounted for. They were believed to have been poisoned in infancy for the insurance money as well (A+E Networks,…… [Read More]
ascertaining the link between depression and eating disorders, with particular focus on young adults and teens. Not much information is available on the subject of eating disorder (ED)-diagnosed persons' nutritional status and food consumption. The objectives of this study were:
To explain eating disorder-diagnosed teens' nutritional intake and To study the relationship of depression with ED among teens without as well as with ED.
A number of data sources were employed for individual papers examined for this research. This examination facilitates the drawing of a few key inferences. ED's high stability and its major link to obesity and declining psychological health among adults highlight the necessity of timely problem identification and treatment in childhood and teenage. Depressed youngsters must be especially observed to detect restrictive ED development. Further, adult females depicting a lifetime ED diagnosis showed double the likelihood to report migraines as compared to unrelated members of this very…… [Read More]
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)
In an era of American history which will likely be defined by the disastrous decision to launch two foreign wars simultaneously -- which resulted in the nation's volunteer military force suffering tens of thousands of casualties in a decade of continuous combat -- public health experts here at home have become increasingly aware that the battle never really ends for those who have suffered through episodes of extreme stress and trauma. The diagnosis rate of post-traumatic stress disorder has risen at a steady rate for several consecutive years, both because of the medical community's growing understanding of its underlying causes, and the active removal of social stigmas regarding mental illness. According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV Text evision (DSM-IV T), "diagnostic criteria for PTSD include a history of exposure to a traumatic event that meets specific stipulations and symptoms from each…… [Read More]
In the United States alone, a staggering number of people suffer from some sort of mental illness and many more are at high risk of developing a mental condition. Worldwide, the number is even greater, especially in countries without the resources to provide the care needed by such people. Some mental conditions are more prevalent and easier to develop than others. Whereas a serious disease that manifests various forms of psychosis like schizophrenia is mostly prevalent in those who inherit it from family members, those who have abused drugs long-term and consistently, or those with brain injuries, milder conditions like bipolar disorder can be developed by virtually anyone. In the United States, about 2.5% of the population has some form of bipolar disorder (WedMD, 2014). This translate to about 6 million people.
Because of this high number of sufferers, increasing research attention in the psychiatric and medical fields…… [Read More]
Treatment of Psychological Disorder
The bipolar disorder is a mental disorder and alternatively known as manic depression elevates the mood and cause depression to the affected individuals. The symptom of bipolar depression is the elevated mood, and it is the significant symptom of the affected person. During mania process, the affected individuals behaves irritably, display abnormally energetic and happy. The affected individuals often make poorly decision with little or no regard to the consequences. During the depression period, the affected individuals may have a negative outlook on life, and having poor eye contact with others. The risk of suicide is another symptom of bipolar disorder where between 30% and 40% of the victims attempt to inflict self -harm. Other mental issues include substance use disorder, and anxiety disorders. While it is difficult to establish the cause, however, the genetic and environmental factors have been responsible for the cause of bipolar…… [Read More]
JC5 Research Articl2: Draft
Combined treatment with the mood stabilizers lithium and valproate produces multiple beneficial effects in transgenic mouse models of Huntington's disease.
rief Summary In Your Own Words: Goal, Experimental Design, Results, Conclusion
This research analyzes impacts of mixed-drug therapy on DNF (rain Derived Neurotrophic Factor) protein levels among transgenic and wild mice indicated under Huntington's Disease (HD's) N171-82Q mouse mutation. The mice's diet was chow, lithium and chow, valproate and chow, or a valproate-lithium mixture and chow. These test mice were surrendered following 14, 28, and 56 days of treatment in order to match DNF protein levels in the cortex between different treatment time intervals. rain cortex samples were acquired for assessment through the Western lotting method of analysis. Investigation-specified mutual treatment using valproate and lithium proved most effective in cumulative DNF protein stages during every treatment period.…… [Read More]
Nursing -- Group Therapy
Peer-reviewed literature regarding effective treatments of bipolar I disorder reveals that patients are significantly helped by family-focused or "family skills" therapy, particularly when dealing with depressive symptoms. However, studies also reveal that family therapy is less effective when dealing with manic episodes than are some other adjunctive treatments. Furthermore, quite a bit is as yet unknown about the relationship between family therapy and effective treatment of bipolar I disorder. Researchers lack evidence linking mania or hypomania factors to specific burdens on caregivers. In addition, families of bipolar patients undergo considerable stress and must struggle with limited and too often inaccessible avenues for their effective involvement. Finally, considerable additional study and focus is required so the health care industry can effectively incorporate relatives' thoughts, beliefs, attitudes, cultural identities and worldviews in operational structures and policy plans for the effective treatment of bipolar I disorder.
2. Body: Scholarly…… [Read More]
Since bipolar disorder has been shown to be a major cause of suicide, a number of U.S. studies have concluded that a person affected by this condition often shows signs and symptoms that may accompany suicidal feelings, such as talking or discussing suicide, having the feeling that "nothing will ever change or get better," that "nothing one does makes any difference" and feelings that the person is "a burden to family and friends." Also, the suicidal person may begin to abuse alcohol or illegal drugs like marijuana, cocaine and even heroin and proceed to put his/her affairs in order like "organizing finances or giving away possessions to prepare for one's death." Not surprisingly, such as person may also put him/herself in "harm's way or in situations where there is a danger of being killed" (2007, "Bipolar Disorder," Internet).
Clearly, a person with bipolar disorder will exhibit outward signs and indications…… [Read More]
The Bible relates to bipolar disorder and highlights the fact that it is very difficult for an individual to deal with it. In spite of the fact that one can be inclined to lead a pious life, the respective individual can be easily influenced by his physical condition. Romans 8 and Galatians 5 relate to how individuals should focus on controlling their mind by using their spirit rather than by using their flesh.
b.Frequency of occurrence
Although it is less known than schizophrenia, bipolar disorder has been reported to occur in a similar number of patients. Also, when considering that some physicians actually have trouble differentiating between the two, one can come to the conclusion that bipolar disorder can be mistaken for schizophrenia.
People suffering from bipolar disorder need to constantly concentrate on repressing the malady's symptoms, as only by doing this will they be able…… [Read More]
Healthcare Plan for the Management of Genitourinary Disorders
Objective of this paper is to carry out a care plan for the patient, aged 60 years, who is suffering from genitourinary disorder. The study carries out the case evaluation and identifies the symptoms of the patient complication. The study also provides a comprehensive healthcare plan used for the treatment of the patients.
Case Study Evaluation
HPI (History of Present Illness).
Evaluation of the case study reveals that the patient is a Hispanic male, aged 60 years of age and complains of a decline of urinary flow. While the patient has experienced the symptom for more than two years, however, the symptom has increased significantly for the past two weeks. Although, the patient has not been diagnosed in the past, however, he faces difficulties in achieving a free flow of urine that interferes in his daily activities. The gradual worsening of the…… [Read More]
The research on HPD causes is clearly linked to personality theory, and can help to understand each theory. By first examining causation research, and then by locating personality theory which supports the research, it was easy to see the validity of personality theories, and how they can be used in real world research. The research also tied in to course material by again forcing real world situations to be applied to theoretical perspectives.
As research surrounding the causes of HPD is undertaken, more is learned about factors that affect those with HPD. If a definite cause, or a list of possible causes, can be discovered through such research, treatment options specifically designed to address those causes can be developed, resulting in a higher possibility of success. This type of research is vital if those with histrionic personality disorder are to ever be fully cured. Therapy without certain cause can reduce…… [Read More]
DSM-5 Diagnostic Case Studies
Tom is a 30-year-old male who was near the orld Trade Center during the 9/11 attack. He witnessed horrific scenes, including people jumping from the orld Trade Center. Since that day, he has had nightmares. henever a plane flies overhead, he has the feeling that he needs to run to a secure place. He has thought of moving out of New York City because he finds himself reliving the event every time he is down in the area of the 9/11 attack.
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) although a very complex disorder, is a well-known psychiatric consequence of trauma, which is likely what Tom is experiencing (Iribarren, Prolo, Neagos, & Chiappelli, 2005). The event that is responsible for the PTSD must be directly experienced as a threat to one's own integrity and associated with intense fear, helplessness, or horror; the patient also persistently re-experiences the…… [Read More]
Hughes would be diagnosed with bi-polar disorder, with differential diagnoses consisting of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and agoraphobia. As DSM-V (2013) states, the diagnostic criteria for Bipolar 1 Disorder are as stated, "For a diagnosis of bipolar 1 disorder, it is necessary to meet the following criteria for a manic episode. The manic episode may have been preceded by and may be followed by hypomanic or major depressive episodes" (p. 123). This diagnosis may very well apply to Howard Hughes, as throughout the film The Aviator, he demonstrates an impulsive personality and is not adverse to taking enormous risks, in which his entire fortune and even life are on the line. He alternates between manic-depressive moments, where he shuts himself away for months, and moments where he emerges as a king-of-the-world type of figure (as in the court room scene towards the end of the film, when he defends himself). These…… [Read More]
Treatment of Bipolar Disorder?
The article what is the treatment for Bipolar Disorder by G. ayel revolves around the treatment options for Bipolar Disorder. The article lacks a proper introduction which otherwise would have begun with the explanation of bipolar disorder giving a brief overview about the maniac and depressive episodes along with the need to treat the disorder before proceeding onto the treatment procedures. Despite this, the author presents a coherent logical progression and sequence in his article by clearly describing the role of medicines such as antidepressants and antipsychotics. Although several terms such as mood stabilizers and psychotherapy are not elucidated, the order of ideas presented by ayel Michael in his article is vital in understanding the treatment strategies of bipolar disorder.
The main point of the writer is to explain the ways in which Bipolar Disorder can be treated. Since the writer has not explained the…… [Read More]
Borderline Personality Disorder
Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is defined as a condition wherein the patient suffers from a difficulty in regulating his or her emotions (NAMI, 2018). Individuals suffering from BPD can lack impulse control, have a poor self-image, and experience severe emotional responses when stressed. The inability to regulate the emotions can lead the individual to lash out at the self and engage in self-harm in some cases (NAMI, 2018). Though three-quarters of individuals diagnosed with BPD are women, some research indicates that an equal number of men may also suffer from the disorder and simply not be diagnosed.
Symptoms of BPD include: strong sense of abandonment by friends or family, real or imagined; very unstable relationships with others, consisting of wild swings between intense love and intense hate; distortion of a sense of one’s self that leads to depression or delusions of grandeur; poor impulse control; self-harm or…… [Read More]
The EMD technique is used in conjunction with psychotherapy and it has proven very effective for statistically significant numbers of patients in controlled studies (Breslau, Lucia, & Alvarado, 2006; Gerrig & Zimbardo, 2008).
Ethical Issues in Treating PTSD in eturning Combat Veterans with MDMA
A much more ethically controversial approach involves the use of low doses of MDMA in conjunction with traditional psychotherapy. That is because MDMA is an illicit drug with a very well-deserved reputation for being notoriously popular with recreational users and addiction. While their may be beneficial therapeutic uses of MDMA in certain patients, the population of U.S. armed services veterans suffering from PTSD are also, demographically and psychologically, at the greatest risk of drug addiction and to mental instability that could be worsened by non-therapeutic use of consciousness-altering substances, particularly in connection with unauthorized and unmonitored or controlled use.
It is not necessarily never appropriate to…… [Read More]
Treatment Approach to Adolescent Substance Disorders
All over the world, the issue of substance abuse among adolescents is worrying many parents and governments. Substance abuse not only has long-term negative effects on an adolescent's brain but it may also interfere with the individual's school performance, and the relationships they have with their families and friends. The good news is no matter what one is addicted to, he or she can be helped through a substance abuse intervention. Each intervention is tweaked to the specific needs of each adolescent. Prior to the commencement of treatment, there is need for a thorough evaluation to identify an individual's strengths and weaknesses and what needs to be done. A proper intervention will look into an adolescent's: behavioural issues; physical issues; ethnic and cultural factors; their relationships with parents, friends, loved ones and community members; their gender; and degree of psychological development (National Institute on…… [Read More]
depressive disorder (MDD) is a condition distinguished by the presence of at least one major depressive episode (American Psychiatric Association [APA], 2000). MDD occurs in adolescents with an estimated annual prevalence of four to eight percent and with a lifetime prevalence of 20% by age 18 (APA, 2000). In addition, the data indicates that the prevalence of depression rates among adolescents is increasing with the greatest surge in rates of depression occurring in adolescents between the ages of 15-18 years-old (Costello, Erkanli, & Angold, 2006).
Previous research has suggested that when MDD occurs in adolescents and children an untreated episode can last from seven to nine months (Sadock & Sadock, 2007). Adolescent depression shares many clinical features similar to depression in adults. Depressed adolescents are sad, they can lose interest in activities that used to be of importance to them, and they are very critical of themselves and believe that…… [Read More]