Moral Development & Gender ias
The influence of moral development on the perpetuation of gender bias among males and females in the school setting
In analyzing the moral development that humans undergo from childhood to adulthood, it is important to look into the models and theories in psychology that served as the foundation of this field. Moral development among humans can be categorized into different stages, in the same way that human development undergoes through different stages. For this paper, the theory and model discussed and analyzed is Lawrence Kohlberg's multistage theory of moral evolution.
Kohlberg's model is illustrated as follows:
LEVEL 1: Preconventional Morality
Stage 1- Obedience and Punishment Orientation
Stage 2- Individualism and Exchange
LEVEL 2: Conventional Morality
Stage 3- Good Interpersonal Relationships
Stage 4- Maintaining the Social Order
LEVEL 3: Postconventional Morality
Stage 5- Social Contract and Individual Rights
Stage 6- Universal Principles
The preceding outline of…… [Read More]
The purpose of the Thomspon (2012) article is to review literature on moral development and propose a new theoretical framework of life-span moral development. The development of moral conscience; the patterns of social cognition; and emotional understanding or emotional intelligence, are the three key components of the proposed framework of life-span moral development. Theory of mind addresses the evolution of cognitive processes related to social and empathic development. For example, infants and toddlers exhibit sensitivity to others' intentions, which has an impact on behavior. Furthermore, theory of mind research shows that young children can tell the difference between the social conventions vs. moral behavior. Thus, young children understand the concept of fairness. Young children can also comprehend the connection between their own personal desires and the results of their actions on other people's emotions. This is related to the capacity to sense and care about the emotions of…… [Read More]
Moral Development Theory
One of the biggest scandals involving print journalism in recent history has recently been uncovered in England -- and it involves one of the most popular tabloids in the UK, The News of the orld. Reporters employed by the popular print tabloid have been found to have hacked into the cellphone voice messages of celebrities, the Royal Family, sports notables and politicians. Those whose actions or lack of action are deeply implicated include the reporters and editors at The News of the orld, reporters, and shockingly, law enforcement in London has also been swept up in the disgraceful, sordid affair. This paper points out the way in which Lawrence Kohlberg's stages of moral development help explain the unethical aspects of the case.
Law Enforcement Lapses
The media have covered this story very completely, partly due to the shocking evidence that journalists would invade the private world of…… [Read More]
moral development of females and males. The writer discusses moral development including stages, reasoning, similarities and differences between females and males. The writer also discusses aggression in both genders and the impact on moral development. There were five sources used to complete this paper.
Today's society faces many acts of violence against its members. Shootings such as Columbine, date rape drugs being slipped into sodas, gang style murders, rapes and robberies seem to be more common place with each passing year. This calls to question the morals of societal members and whether or not young boys and girls are being taught morals and values. Morals include things such as honesty, respect of others and leading one's life in a fashion that is not harmful to others. Morals are something that is taught in the home, in the school and in social settings. Teaching morals is the teaching or expression of…… [Read More]
As humans we are bound to make mistakes, but if good logic and reasoning is used by us to infiltrate the patterns of resistance we surely can evolve into better human beings. Consequently, we would be in a better position for positive contribution to the wealth of the society.
To put the entire thesis into a nutshell, it can be well stated that the awareness of the concept and phenomenon of moral development has increased to an accelerated pace in the today's time due to its importance in shaping an individual's personality. In fact, it is a process that continues over the lifespan of an individual. The levels of moral development determine to what extent, the individual is likely to perform good actions and behaviors towards others.
Besides, it has been deeply and clearly observed that following and practicing the moral development phenomenon, one can definitely bring out a…… [Read More]
What stage of moral development best reflects the organizational culture of the company for which you work, and why do you think this is true? Provide a few examples if you can to support your analysis.
Stage 4. While not unethical, my organization places a strong emphasis on workers following rules and standard operating procedures. It seldom asks for advice from employees about how to improve efficiency. It encourages employees to work in teams harmoniously, not to rock the boat, and to follow the 'company line.'
Q3. Is your stage of moral development in conflict with your company's stage of moral development; that is, are your ethical beliefs aligned with the organizational culture in which you work? Explain. If not, you may be suffering from a condition referred to as moral stress.
I do not think I am in a state of moral stress, but I do think that my…… [Read More]
Kohlberg (1985) and others find that morality is best discussed in an interactive or "transative" setting, where students are free to interact as peers and to disagree among themselves about the best moral solution to a problem or dilemma. Studies conducted across cultures and religious communities find no clear relationship of religion to morality. esearch also finds that "Firm, fair, and flexible" classroom atmospheres contribute most to students' moral growth. Appropriate responses by teachers to both moral and conventional transgressions (responses to each type of transgression are, characteristically, different) also support students' moral growth.
Blatt and Kohlberg (1975) also suggest that while teachers are effective facilitators of discussions about morality, students actually learn more about morality from discussions and interactions with their peers. Conflict, stage disparity, and transitive discussion are good markers of the effectiveness of a classroom discussion on morality. Cooperative educational interactions within a democratic classroom environment have…… [Read More]
moral development would account for the behavior of the child you selected from uvenile ustice: In the Child's Best Interest. Be specific and cite the relevant theories.
oshua: Moral development
oshua is in an extremely difficult situation. He is currently being treated in a residential treatment center. In terms of his moral development, oshua seems able to perceive the needs of others, as he acknowledges that it is better for his family that he is being treated away from home for his defiant and delinquent behavior. He says that he is sacrificing himself for their welfare, which shows he has moved beyond a purely egocentric view of the world (Alberts, Elkind, & Ginsberg 2007:71-72). Egocentrism is the inability to perceive the separation of the self from other objects and the inability to acknowledge the different needs of others that can occasionally clash with one's own. Very young children exhibit extreme…… [Read More]
Kohlberg's Theory of Moral Development: Therapeutic Implications Kohlberg continues to be a significant figure and influence on the field of psychology. He is well-known for his theory of moral development which details different stages of morality throughout one's life. Although the theory has faced criticisms, particularly due to a questionable generalization to all cultures, it continues to be a basis of knowledge and usefulness in practice. In regards to therapy, the theory of moral development may be influential in a therapist's conceptualization and diagnosis of a client, treatment, and view of the client.
Kohlberg's theory of development is a six stage theory. Kohlberg (1976) believed that the earliest stage of moral development entails obedience whereas the highest level of development involves reasoning with universal human ethics. As the individual grows through each of the stages actions become less focused on oneself and more focused on abstract principles. Kohlberg…… [Read More]
Moral development has become an increasingly important aspect of education. Educators typically introduce moral education during the preschool years; however, it is oftentimes an essential component in elementary and secondary curricula as well. A review of the importance such development during early childhood, for both individuals and society; its implications in preschool; its cultural nature; and how it relates to the Singapore early childhood educational system provide sufficient background of the matter.
Promoting moral development during early childhood has several benefits. One of the primary objectives of preschool is social competence. In other words, preschoolers are taught from the beginning of their educational experience that one must interact with others in a constructive manner. To attain this goal, preschoolers are taught to be polite, by using courteous phrases; to positively interact with ethnically and racially diverse peers; to cooperatively use resources (such as toys, books, food, and crayons); to play…… [Read More]
Bowman et al. (2010) states that "third-level reasoning…prevents abuse of professional skills for one's own advantage or for that of one's social group" (2010).
Kohlberg believed that the U.S. government, the official morality, requires fifth stage moral reasoning (Lewis & Gilman 2005). This level asks for respect of individual rights and it accepts critically examined values (2005). While this stage is not the highest stage (the highest being a stage where life is considered "sacred"), it is above the norm. This should also be the level that administrative officials, as well as other individuals in positions of power, strive to attain. To be an administrative authority necessitates the belief that all individuals inherently have freedoms and values that cannot be manipulated in any way. Lewis and Gilman (2005) stress that when one is looking at the principles of Kohlberg's different levels and stages, it isn't about "the invoking of 'high…… [Read More]
Kohlberg's theory of moral development presents three levels with two stages each of moral reasoning. The reason or motive for the behavior of an individual is what defines each stage (Crain, 1985). In order to come up with this developmental theory Kohlberg carried out studies using various dilemmas and finding out how the subjects responded. His main interest in the process is not a "yes" or "no" said by the subject but rather the reasoning behind the answer. This way he was able to demonstrate that people's moral reasoning progressed through a series of stages as discussed hereunder:
The first level is referred to as the "pre-conventional moral reasoning" and is typically related to children of about the age of 10 years. At this stage the individual does not internalize morals and the reasoning is externally influenced (Jeremy et al., 2000). The individual categorizes an act as good or bad…… [Read More]
Ethics and Moral Development in the Business Environment
Ethics, as the study of right and/or wrong, is an essential tool for professionals and practitioners of specific fields of study, particularly those people who directly deal with society. Knowing acts and behavior that are right or wrong, moral or immoral are considerations that an individual must take into account when practicing his/her chosen field of profession. However, there are various theories on ethics that offer different perspectives in determining whether an act or behavior is ethical or not, moral or immoral. In the analysis of the case study Might Makes Right, four ethical and moral theories are discussed and applied in the context of the study: Immanuel Kant's Categorical Imperative, J.S. Mill's Utilitarianism, theory of rights-based ethical decision-making, and theory of justice-based ethical decision-making.
The case study presents the main problem, wherein Janice contemplates whether or not to present her subordinate…… [Read More]
The teacher who is cognizant of Kohlberg's theory and observant of student behavior might take the opportunity to help direct children who are beginning to make that transition to think about morality in ways that help them narrow their focus to understand basic concepts about why certain types of behavior may be moral or immoral. Without guidance, children may merely shift from the concern over doing what adults say to doing that which avoids negative consequences for themselves but without giving much thought to what specifically makes certain types of behavior right or wrong (Crain, 1985).
In some respects, Kohlberg's Level II (stage 3) is similar to Level I stage 1, in that the adolescent may substitute the messages and expectations of family and community for those of any adult; however, in terms of the degree of independent moral reasoning, there is not necessarily much difference in the process of…… [Read More]
Choose one of the five medical students and answer the following:
The medical student chosen is Nelson, the main protagonist.
Identify the level of moral development the character is at and defend the answer.
Each of the characters in the film, but none so more than Nelson, is trapped in the childhood or adolescent stage of moral development. Nelson had committed an accidental murder when he was a small boy. Consequently, he has not moved beyond this point mentally. He has moved slightly into the adolescent mindset, wherein his actions are defined by his peers. Nelson has hidden the dark secret of his past for years because it destroyed his childhood and he doesn't want further repercussions for that behavior.
Is this character an Objectivist, a relativist, or a Utilitarian; back this up with a scene from the movie.
Nelson is a Utilitarian. Despite the potential dangers to the…… [Read More]
Ethical Lapses at a Pittsburgh Correctional Facility
The responsibilities which are invested in our correctional institutions and the officers which preside over them align directly with the ethical impetus upon our society to punish, imprison and rehabilitate criminal offenders. Thusly, a corrections facility is part of the larger network of structures and entities intended to Maintain Social Order. Therefore, when a lapse in ethical orientation occurs and is demonstrably the fault of officers at such a facility, it may be said that damage has been done to its capacity to protect said social order. Most assuredly, this occurred at the State Correctional Institution Pittsburgh, where widespread allegations of sexual abuse by correctional officers against inmates have now instigating the U.S. Justice Department to launch a full scale civil investigation.
The events which transpired in the Pittsburgh correctional facility represent a systemic, sustained and largely concealed culture of abuse, neglect and…… [Read More]
MOAL DEVELOPMENT & GENDE CAE |
Moral Development and Gender Care Theories
Moral development in humans occurs naturally together with physical, social and mental development. Individually as well as in social settings, mankind evolves a developed moral character and conscience in spite of numerous social and psychological barriers, which temporarily retard or disturb the process. In axiology, concepts of moral development give rise to feelings of being an active and developing entity. Through potential self-realization or perfection, a grand innate legacy is inherited, to be fulfilled in one's individual character and via the community, revealing one's unseen but tremendous intrinsic value (Fieser & Dowden, 2016).
Kohlberg's Six Stages of Moral Development
Crain (2015) holds that the child development scholar and moral philosopher, Lawrence Kohlberg, noted that kids progress across distinct moral development stages similar to the way they progress across cognitive development stages (defined by Piaget). Kohlberg observed…… [Read More]
As Kohlberg proposed, children undergo "a sequence of qualitative changes in the way an individual thinks," (Nucci 2002). As children encounter new environmental stimuli including new peers, new social group situations, and new challenges to the developing ego, moral character begins to emerge. While it would be impossible to assess the ising Star Montessori academy based on the Web copy on their site, it is safe to say that the school does not overtly claim to contribute to their students' moral and character development. Learning and interacting with the environment at the child's own pace are emphasized, and social interactions may be left to the individual teachers at the school.
Kohlberg proposed three stages of moral reasoning that impact character development: pre-conventional, conventional, and post-conventional. Pre-conventional moral reasoning is based on an egocentric outlook and reciprocal actions. Social norms are of little worth to a child at the pre-conventional stage…… [Read More]
Moral Messages in Children's Literature
I chose four children's classics: Charlotte's web (1952) by E.B. White, and other three children's fairy tales, two by Jakob and Wilhelm Grimm (Cinderella and Snow white and the seven dwarfs) and one by Charles Perrault (Sleeping Beauty). These were among my personal childhood favorites. Looking back on all four as an adult, I see many similarities, but also many differences, in these books' inherent moral messages. All have been positively reviewed (e.g., have received awards or good critical reviews, and/or have stood the test of time). Each contains many distinct moral messages, some plain, others less so. Each also deals with situations that require moral decisions.
Charlotte's web is a story about eight-year-old Fern, who, while growing up on a farm, loves and nurtures a pet pig, Wilbur. Wilbur grows up (with help from Fern and various animal friends, including a wise…… [Read More]
Taps is a movie about a private military high school, where the school is facing closure. To prevent this the adolescents attending the campus take over the school; in terms of adolescent moral reasoning, the boys involved impulsively react instead of thinking things through. They arm themselves, feeling like they are taking initiative and working together as a team to accomplish a common goal. They react just as they are taught, to be a team and to foster group dependence and unity.
The conflict involves actor Timothy Hutton, a sort of commandant of the cadets, who wanted to barricade the school long enough to talk to their leader to stop them from closing to school. He wanted to wait until his leader could tell them or order them to stand down. Tom Cruises character was an aggressor, and opened fire on the national guard and ended up being…… [Read More]
Moral reasoning: An intercultural comparison
Until recently, many Western developmental theorists tended to see morality as a transcultural phenomenon, reflecting their belief that all cultures shared certain common moral assumptions. Both Piaget and Kohlberg stressed that moral development passes through a series of stages, just like the child's ability to understand other complex subjects like mass and volume (Jensen 2008; Sunac n.d). However, this tends to assume that the individual is the primary moral decision-making unit and reflects an individualistic bias. American culture is defined by certain assumptions, such as the importance of individualism and material advancement, which are not necessarily shared by all cultures (or indeed all subcultures within America) (Humphries & Jagers 2009: 206). In America, an individual who 'stands up' to a crowd, or who goes against established ideas and makes a profit in the case of an entrepreneur like Steve Jobs or…… [Read More]
The principle of harmony's job is to take corrective actions when needed in order to create the balance of economic justice between the principles. For example, when the other two principles are violated by such things as unjust social barriers to either participation or distribution, the principle of harmony works to eradicate these barriers and thus restore economic harmony, or justice.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, economic harmonies is defined as "laws of social adjustment under which the self-interest of one man or group of men, if given free play, will produce results offering the maximum advantage to other men and the community as a whole." In other words, whereas the other two principles are controlled by the free market, the principle of economic harmony is controlled by the government through laws and regulations aimed at controlling the negative effects of the free market. Examples of such controls are…… [Read More]
Moral and Medical Dilemma
As the progression of medical technology has expanded humanity's ability to heal one another directly -- through the process of organ transplants, blood transfusions, and bone marrow exchanges -- several ethical dilemmas have surfaced which impact physicians, patients, and politicians alike. An individual's voluntary decision to donate his or her organs in the event of an unexpected death, and the government's methods for devising an equitable system of distribution for blood and organ transplants are just a few of the increasingly rancorous debates to become associated with cutting-edge medical techniques. Today, with the concept of stem-cell research offering a vast array of seemingly miraculous medical advances, the moral discussion has shifted to cases like that experienced by the Whitaker family, which has been forced to confront an agonizing choice involving their seriously ill son Charlie. In the end, although the Whitakers were able to develop a…… [Read More]
Seeing how the Prime Directive should no longer apply, Picard was free to do whatever was necessary in order to save his crewman. However, the advanced technology employed by the aliens forced Picard to argue for the life of Wesley Crusher. His argument centers around the idea that this conflict is over whether or not moral universalism, or moral relativism would apply in the case of Wesley Crusher. Picard argues that the Federation does not interfere with other cultures because they believe that all cultures have equally value and the capacity for development. However, they are dealing with an alien race that is violating that principle. The aliens have decided that their moral universalism is correct for the Edo, and by extension, anyone who visits their planet. But Picard argues, correctly, that each culture must respect the rights of other cultures to develop in their own way. And the Prime…… [Read More]
The line of legitimacy, separating socially approvable use of force from violence, cannot be effectively drawn without an agreement on what constitutes the optimum amount of force necessary to maintain social order and to protect human rights against encroachment. A society subscribing to infinite morality which condemns all use of force as immoral is doomed no less than a society accepting the absolute pragmatism of tyrants. "
As Oleg Zinam proposes, these two extreme social attitudes to morality are equally unprofitable to the societies that adopt them. The attitude of absolute pragmatism can easily lead to the acceptance of political assassinations, as long as such acts may help the final political purpose. An example of absolute pragmatism can be the regime initiated by Hitler, who ordered the extermination of all Jews in an attempt to "purify" the human race by excluding anyone who did not fill in the Arian ideal.…… [Read More]
The pro-life arguments state that a fetus is in fact a real-life person in the making. Is true there's no supporting scientific evidence for the beginning of personhood, but what if an unborn child has a soul and can actually feel pain? Isn't then artificial abortion a crime? Just because we are not sure, we should take the most radical solution that we can and are allowed to by law?
This is the first solid argument to sustain the moral impermissibility of induced abortion. Because having an abortion equals the death of a life growing inside, as a natural result of unprotected sexual intercourse. It is therefore considered that the new life, the fetus, did not have a choice. And having an artificial abortion furthermore deprives him/her of the right to chose (whether to live or not). So, if it's about the right to chose and the freedom to decide…… [Read More]
I have a clear written mandate that guides this decision. The other alternatives do not have the same clear, written mandate as the one that I made. hile a utilitarian approach may have yielded a different decision, in my position as a safeguard of public safety I am not obligated to undertake a utilitarian position unless I can do so without compromising my primary mandate. This is something I was able to do with generic drugs that I cannot do with biosimilars, even though it would be expedient for me to ignore the differences between the two products.
There are certainly those who would object with this decision. A utilitarian in particular would have a strong argument that total health outcomes depend not only on drug safety but on availability as well. I would argue, however, that this objection is invalid for a couple of reasons. The most important of…… [Read More]
Moral Permissibility of Euthanasia
Voluntary Active Euthanasia
Voluntary Active Euthanasia can be described as a perfectly competent patient's appeal and request to be aided in the process of dying. This act is completely voluntary and by the choice of the patient himself due to the medical condition that he or she might be facing. It is a simplistic appeal on part of the patient to be provided with the necessary ways or assistance in putting an end to their own life. There are various methods to go ahead with this process, which may involve giving the patient a certain form of drug, putting a halt to some kind of treatment that the patient was undergoing or any other means of assistance. This form of providing an access to the person to commit suicide is referred to as assisted suicide where the doctor, physician or person in charge aids the person…… [Read More]
Social Psychology 2nd
Morality and Group elations: Possible Bias
The article entitled "Morality and intergroup relations: Threats to safety and group image predict the desire to interact with outgroup and ingroup members" as written by Brambilla et al. is comprised of three different research studies. However, each of these studies explores different facets of the same phenomena: how morality within and outside of groups varies by type of threat, and what sort of behavior these threats elicit from these same groups (Brambilla et al., 2013, p. 813). There is an extreme amount of relevance to the research conducted within this article and the principle research question of the present author, who is attempting to ascertain the meaning of relationships with moral development and reasoning in social groups.
Prior to stratifying the analysis of this paper to the three respective studies, it is necessary to mention various salient factors regarding the…… [Read More]
Such differences may lead us to question whether there are any universal moral principles or whether morality is merely a matter of "cultural taste" (Velasquez, Andre, Shanks and Meyer: 1).
If there is no transcendent ethical or moral standard, then cultural relativists argue that culture becomes the ethical norm for determining whether an action is right or wrong. This ethical system is known as cultural relativism. Cultural relativism is the view that all ethical truth is relative to a specific culture. hatever a cultural group approves is considered right within that culture. Conversely, whatever a cultural group condemns is wrong (Relativism: 2).
The key to the doctrine of "cultural relativism" is that right and wrong can only be judged relative to a specified society. There is no ultimate standard of right and wrong by which to judge culture. Proponents of cultural relativism believe this cultural diversity proves that culture alone…… [Read More]
Among other choices, those related to eating, drinking alcohol, sexuality, and peer group selection are some of the most important. In some respects, those decisions have a lot to do with the way that adolescent brains perceive, process, and react to external circumstances and experiences. The development of eating disorders is one example (Leon, Fulkerson, Perry, & Cudeck, 1993). Specifically, there is empirical cross-sectional data illustrating that specific teenage perception and interpretations of self-image (especially body-image) correspond to eating disorders. That valuable information provides a good strategy for identifying teens at greatest risk of developing eating disorders without knowing anything about their actual eating habits (Leon, Fulkerson, Perry, & Cudeck, 1993).
Adolescents value their peer group associations more than the approval of society more generally. They are also much less receptive to absolutes such as firm "all-or-none" rules prohibiting them from drinking any alcohol or requiring absolute sexual abstinence. Generally,…… [Read More]
(the Teacher's role in developing social skills)
ole of Workplaces:
espectable work is seen as a social standard based on harmonizing and mutually collaborative policies to advance rights at work; employment; social protection and social dialogue. It tackles a basic ambition of women and men everywhere, that is, to get respectable and productive work in situations of freedom, equality, security and dignity of human labor. This ambition stresses a collective attempt by many bodies, namely, by international organizations, national governments, business and workers, and by all the social bodies in civil society. It needs all mediators of change to be involved in pioneering economic and social initiatives, customized to particular national and local needs. It specifically calls for new working relationships and dialogue between the conventional social partners in the sphere of work which includes governments, organizations of employers and trade unions and other associations of civil society, which have…… [Read More]
Country Development: Economic, Social, Political, And Moral
On a very basic level, development means 'growing.' In the language of political science, development is often referred to in terms of 'developed' and 'least developed' countries. Development has thus become synonymous with industrialization, and being able to provide a certain level of material comfort for all citizens. Poverty may be common to all nations, but 'least developed' countries have entrenched forms of poverty in which even basic necessities like sanitary water are scarce. According to the United Nations, a country is deemed to be 'developed' when its citizens can be able to 'lead long and healthy lives, to be knowledgeable, to have access to the resources needed for a decent standard of living and to be able to participate in the life of the community" ("hat is development," Volunteering Options, 2013). Nations that are considered to be 'developing' like China and India,…… [Read More]
" (Anderson, et al., 2003) The study reported by Roberts, Christenson and Gentile (2003) provided a summary of a study that is unpublished but that states findings of a "positive correlation between amount of MTV watching and physical fights among third- through fifth-grade children. In addition, children who watched a lot of MTV were rated by peers as more verbally aggressive, more relationally aggressive, and more physically aggressive than other children. Teachers rated them as more relationally aggressive, more physically aggressive, and less helpful." (Anderson, et al., 2003) Anderson et al. also reports the study of Rubin, West, and Mitchell (2001) who state findings that young people listening to heavy metal music "held more negative attitudes toward women." (Anderson et al., 2003)
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION
The male child is more likely to view violence against females as well as sexual aggression against females to be acceptable if the male child…… [Read More]
When it comes to socialization, circles of friends, peer groups and so forth, it is clear that there is what is considered healthy and what is considered less than optimal. Beyond there, there will always tend to be subgroups and subcultures that emerge from within and from under a more dominant culture. This brief report shall describe the importance of peer groups, how subcultures can emerge and the significance of those subgroups emerging. Further, the way in which friendship circles are created and changed throughout the school years, how problems are associated with children that are rejected, bullying and their victims and beyond will be mentioned. Finally, there shall be the specific bits of advice offered by Kohlberg when it comes to moral development, growth of vocabulary and the seasoning of reasoning ability with kids will be part of what is discussed. While not all children and peer groups…… [Read More]
Business Organization Be Made Moral?
Ethical and Moral Issues
This work will operate under the assumption of being a staff member under one of Enron's Senior Vice Presidents during 1997, a year characterized by the first major accounting misrepresentation and/or financial manipulation uncovered. The misrepresentation and/or manipulation was the use of "market-to-market" accounting with the objective being the adjustment of the value recorded in company purchases for the purpose of covering up a shortfall in the expected earning of the energy trading division of the colossal amount of $180 billion, quiet a shortfall as compared to the earliest mis-accounting. This makes a further assumption that the senior vice president or the higher-up one is under supervision of had perchance heard something of this transaction and its accompanying facade and then stated quiet clearly in a staff meeting called for the express purpose of addressing the fact that if:
"This sort…… [Read More]
He also goes to have lunch with the counselor at least 2 a week.
Assessments of the Student
Some assessments that were used on Marcus were ATMS practices
Some of the other ways that are being used are pullouts with the interventionist so that they could push him back up to speed so that he could have been ready for the major testing that was coming up
Please add any other problem that you think he could possibly have .
The child was able to take be tested in the Task Reading area. (Not good at all will be attending the next session of tutoring so that he could attempt it again)
His reading rate is down also please make up other issues of academic's
Connection to Theory
Make up this info
Make this up I am Hispanic also and I worked with students…… [Read More]
e., physically), socially, and morally. In cognitive development, the individual learns how to think for himself/herself, and create decisions, judgments, and thoughts that are uniquely his/hers. Social development, meanwhile, is reinforced through one's recognition of gender identity. Through gender identity, the individual is able to determine and reinforce the role and status that society has given him or her as a man or woman. In effect, the individual becomes part of the society's institutions and structure because of the reinforcement of one's gender identity. Lastly, moral development takes place when the individual, based on his own cognitive and social experiences, is able to formulate his/her "personal philosophy," value judgment that s/he uses to create his/her beliefs, opinions, and feelings about life in general.
Santrock, J. (2001). Psychology. NY: McGraw-Hill ook Co.… [Read More]
This developmental theory provides one possible explanation for why Pelzer continued to defend and protect his mother for so long, and felt such a duty to do so; as the object of his repressed desires and his attempts to exhibit protective and masculine behavior, this would have been his essential task (Heffner 2003).
The age of six is somewhat on the cusp of Piaget's stages of preoperational and concrete operational. Many of the author's observations, such as that he "could determine what kind of day [he] was going to have by the way [his mother] dressed," suggest that he was already in the concrete operational stage, where future events could be abstracted from current information in a cause-and-effect manner (Pelzer 1995; pp. 30). Becoming stuck in this developmental phase due to a lack of stimulation and motivation was almost certainly a factor in the author's perspective throughout much of his…… [Read More]
To use personal and later, cultural schemas in their most fruitful ways, the crayon and the magic market cannot be abandoned in favor of clicking a mouse, nor can arts education be relegated to second-class status, especially young children. Art teaches students motor skills, about space and depth, about using the world around them in a creative fashion, and helps them see things anew, as well as sharpens their realistic observational skills.
Dewan, Shalia. (2007, September 17). Using Crayons to Exorcise Katrina.
The New York Times Magazine. Retrieved March 21, 2009 at http://www.nytimes.com/2007/09/17/arts/design/17ther.html
Geracimos, Ann. (2008, August 17). A box of possibilities: Children can learn a lot from colorful world of low-tech crayons. ashington Times, M.14. Retrieved March 21, 2009, from ProQuest Newsstand database. (Document ID: 1533647331).
Toku, Masami. (2002, Summer). Children's artistic and aesthetic development: The influence of pop-culture in children's drawings. Presented…… [Read More]
(Psychopedia, 2014, p. 1)
Psychosocial theory is reported to combine internal psychological factors and social factors that are external with each stage building on the others and focusing on a challenge that needs to be resolved during that specific stage so that the individual can move on to the next stage of development. (http://www3.niu.edu/acad/fcns280/THEORY/sld008.htm)
VI. enefits of Counseling and Development Theories
The benefits of counseling related to theories of human development include assisting individuals in understanding how they got to where they are today and assist them in understanding how they can personally make changes or adjustments in their own life to achieve their personal life goals. It is reported that "According to develop mentalists, relationships among cognitions, emotions, and behaviors are interdependent and rooted in transactions with the environment (locher, 1980); therefore, while all humans possess inherent natures and abilities to mature, certain conditions must be present…… [Read More]
Referents of Ethical Behavior
It is common for every individual to experience ethical dilemmas. On a daily basis, we are forced to make decisions and choose the right instead of the wrong ones, in spite of multivariate pressures. In my everyday life, there are key referents that I use to distinguish what is right from wrong. For starters, one of the referents is the law and regulation set by the authorities. For instance, a number of aspects can be right to a certain extent, and thereafter be considered wrong, as proclaimed by the law. For instance, the law can permit drinking up until 10 pm and thereafter consider it illegal. Therefore, one has to refer to the allowances and restrictions set to determine what is right and wrong. One other key referent that I make use of is justice, in that I have to respect the dignity and provide impartial…… [Read More]
Styles attachment often represent reciprocal interactions between the parent and child. For example, the child with a resistant attachment who becomes highly upset when the parent leaves but shows little interest in the parent when they return is often associated with a lack of parental affection. The children recognizes the parent as a source of security; however, since they receive little affection from the parent when the parent is present they learn not to approach the parent.
The child with an avoidant attachment style often treats the parent and strangers similarly. Often these children receive very little interaction with the parent when the parent is present and they have learned not to rely on them for stimulation. Likewise this lack of interaction does not allow the child to differentiate well between a stranger and their own parent other than having some form of mild familiarity with the parent.
The child…… [Read More]
Moreover, caring for her mother, the other option, would surely: a) create a feeling of being "unfulfilled" which brings with it depression and resentfulness; b) leave her with nothing to look forward to but the dark day when her mother actually passes away; and c) realize after a short time that she is not "a Mother Teresa" and that her live would be diminished (Stuart, 25).
hat does Stuart believe is the right choice for Alice? Stuart asserts that the virtue that carries the most weight in this instance is having Alice care for her mother. Giving up her career for her mother would outweigh the "…virtues of perseverance, love of truth…and self-knowledge" should she decide to go forward with her dissertation (26).
hat Stuart also mentions -- and this is a prime reason for this writer to believe Alice should find a competent person to be a caregiver for…… [Read More]
When I was just getting into my teenage years -- I was 13 going on 14 -- I was getting to the point where I had a lot of opinions about my parents, and some of them were not very kind. But I believed I had justification for the opinions I held about them and their response to me. To explain further, my mom and dad made me go to church, they made me go to boring church youth group meetings, they made me go to this strict fundamentalist church camp every summer, and wouldn't let me hang out with some of my best friends.
Every new friend I brought home from school to play ball in my back yard, or listen to music up in my room (which I shared with a sibling) they wanted to meet, and I had no problem with that. But after the…… [Read More]
2306 Kant. Consider situation: You ill life support. You a transplant organs continue living. Your parents decided biological child specifically organ transplant child / matures a level (assume part organ child survive)
Kant's assumption on the present matter is reflected in the well-known maxim and law, "act only in accordance with that maxim through which you can at the same time will that it become a universal law." (Stanford, 2004) Most often this "law" is interpreted as being a set of questions one must ask himself before undergoing a certain action. More precisely, the first step in determining whether the course of action one is about to take is morally correct or not is to actually formulate that action and provide a reasoning for it. Secondly, it is important to consider that action and that reasoning multiplied at a universal level, thought of this action as being a universal law…… [Read More]
Any objective set of moral criteria must include: (1) the obligation not to cause pain unnecessarily to another; (2) the consideration of fetal survivability; and (3) recognition that a fetus undoubtedly becomes a living person at some point prior to full-term birth. On the other hand, even with the benefit of modern medical technology, there may be no way of identifying precisely at what point of gestation those moral concerns first materialize. For that reason alone, definitions of the relevant stages of development (and their corresponding fetal capabilities) must err on the safe side so that any inaccuracy unnecessarily protects the moral rights of the fetus prematurely, rather than protecting the moral rights of the fetus too late.
A comprehensive analytical system designed to respect every conceivable moral concern arising in connection with abortion must also incorporate the autonomous rights of the mother, the comparative consequences to the fetus…… [Read More]
(2001, October 1) Self-esteem at work, Psychology Today, etrieved from http://www.psychologytoday.com/articles/200310/self-esteem-work
6. Describe the needs present in Maslow's hierarchy. How can organizations attempt to meet these needs so that employees are motivated to produce more work? Discuss the answer in detail.
According to Abraham Maslow (1970), there is a hierarchy of needs that define human development. These are: Basic Needs (food, shelter, clothing), Safety, Love and Belonging, Skill Accomplishment and Self-Actualization. In Maslow's view, as each need becomes adequately satisfied, the next highest need becomes dominant. The first three are deficiency needs because they must be satisfied if the individual is to be healthy and secure. The last two are growth needs because they are related to the development and achievement of one's potential (Maslow, 1970). In Maslow's view, as long as we are motivated to satisfy our deficiency needs, then we are moving in a positive direction towards personal…… [Read More]
Charlotte's eb: Field Research, Psycho-Social Research, and a Textual Summary and Analysis
Introduction and Field Research Background
My niece Ariel, age 11, agreed to read Charlotte's eb by E.B. hite with me, and to be my informant on this project (Shapiro, "Personal Interview"). Ariel is extremely bright (IQ over 140), and has already finished the 7th grade, having skipped second grade in elementary school (I bring this up not so much to brag about her, but because she may in fact be more advanced in her thinking and vocabulary skills than some of the other 9-11-year-old informants: arguably somewhere between Piaget's third (ages 7-11) and fourth (ages 11-15) concrete operational and formal operational stages of development). Ariel told me this was actually her second exposure to Charlotte's eb, though her first time reading the book on her own. Her third grade teacher had read it to her class, but Ariel…… [Read More]
Young adults are on the threshold between youthful behaviors and the adult world. Humans in their late teens begin to accept responsibilities for their own lives and learn to depend upon themselves financially, socially, and psychologically. This is also the time when they make life choices which will ultimately shape their futures and the people they eventually become. Renowned theorist Daniel Levinson defines adult development in the age between 17 and 33 as the novice phase, because this is the point where the young person takes on new responsibilities in the same way as an amateur or novice in a specific occupational field. According to theorist Erik Erikson:
In this stage, the most important events are love relationships. Intimacy refers to one's ability to relate to another human being on a deep, personal level. An individual who has not developed a sense of identity usually will fear a committed relationship…… [Read More]
.....versus that of a general more one, it is without a doubt that the different cultures and societies of the world have evolved a great deal over the millennia. The Christians are a good example. The Christians of the Crusades or Christians of the Church of England are far from being the Christians of today. Similarly, the Muslims of the Crusades or the Muslims that have fought for 1,400 years (and counting) over the successor of Muhammad have in many ways shifted since the day of the prophet, even if many others are still fighting (Hall). One might suggest that this is a natural evolution and that there has been a development of the moral standard over time. However, there is more than one idea to suggest that this could not and should not be the case. First, the fact that women are subjugated, limited and oppressed cannot be dismissed…… [Read More]
Morality of Cloning
In her book "Discovering Right and Wrong," Louis Pojman consistently makes the same point throughout her chapters: beyond all the debate and lack of consensus, and beyond all the confusion of relative morality, there should exist a true objective standard which a rational being can discover. In all her writing she seems to challenge the readers to look for objective evidence of truth, a plea which often has much in common with a more conservative position on politics and morality. When it comes to the issue of cloning, however, it seems that the search for rational objective evidence is frequently put aside in favor of often illogical "gut reactions." It is high time that a truly reasonable approach to cloning was attempted. In order to best approach this from an objectivist standpoint, it seems reasonable to backtrack to one of the founding fathers of modern objectivism, Immanual…… [Read More]
Moral and Legal Questions of Stem Cell Research
Stem cell research is an experimental, and research-based study as to methods of repairing the human body. y introducing stem cells into a damaged, or degenerating area of the body, the medical profession hopes to prompt the body to regrow healthy tissue, and repair the damage. Degenerative diseases, such as Parkinson's disease, or macular degeneration of a patient's eye retina are conditions in which the healthy tissues cease to function properly. There is no overt damage. There is not a disease which has physically destroyed the affected body part. ut for varying reasons, such as old age, wear and tear, or reasons medical science does not yet understand, the affected body part simply ceases to function properly. Stem cells are the type of cells, which are more numerous in, but not limited to, human embryos. They are the building blocks of the…… [Read More]
Darwin Comes of Age
o understand Robert Wright, it is first necessary to define evolutionary psychology, which is the foundation of Wright's theory. Evolutionary psychology contends that most, if not all, of human behavior can be understood by the interests of internal psychological mechanisms. hese internal mechanisms are adaptations, or products of natural selection that helped human ancestors survive and reproduce. Evolutionary psychology looks at the challenges early humans faced in their hunter-gatherer environments and the problem-solving they went through to meet those challenges. Based on these problem-solving adaptations, it then establishes the common roots of ancestral behavior and, especially related to Wright's book, how these common behavioral roots are observed and acted upon today. Human behavior, just like physical traits, has passed on from generation to the next. In their brains humans have specific knowledge that helps them adapt to the environment. he brain is subject to natural selection…… [Read More]
Youth Leadership and the Development of Communication Skills, Self-Esteem, Problem Solving and Employment Opportunities
The four-year longitudinal study by Marshall, Parker, Ciarrochi and Heaven (2014) showed that self-esteem is a reliable predictor of "increasing levels of social support quality and network size across time" (p. 1275). The idea that social support is a reliable predictor of self-esteem was not supported by the study's findings. The researchers measured the quantity and quality of self-esteem and social support levels of 961 adolescents over a five-year period to find that self-esteem is the key to helping adolescents develop into successful adult leaders with a wide range of networking possibilities open to them and a strong social support group behind them. This study directly links the concept of self-esteem to the greater possibility of employment as well, indicating that as adolescents with high self-esteem mature into adults, their ability to network and utilize support…… [Read More]
Old Boy at a Children's Museum Play Area
Soren is a 4-year-old boy. He has light blonde hair that is cut short on the sides and is longer on the top. He is a generally smiley child. He likes to interact with his surroundings and likes to run and hop, crouch and spring into action with a cry of delight as though he were taking great amusement in catching the world by surprise.
He is viewed at a play area in a children's museum. The observation begins just before noon and continues until a quarter past 1 pm.
The play area is very crowded and full of children around his own age, with parents standing nearby watching their children. Most of the children are playing on their own, looking at the environment around them, engaging with the activities (puzzles, blocks, interactive equipment, play sets, scooters, and jungle gym equipment). Soren's…… [Read More]
Morality in Little omen
In Louisa May Alcott's Little omen, Josephine March is able to be moral despite the great pressures and responsibilities imposed on her by her gender, the economic and political circumstances of the time, her role as elder sister, and her immense creative talent. However, Jo is also notoriously stubborn, proud, and easily provoked to anger, vices that consistently challenge her moral resolve throughout her adolescence and early adulthood, but ultimately Jo is able to overcome these vices with the help of moral guidance given to her from her family and upbringing so that she matures into a humble, charitable, and temperate character, far more mature than the fiery character of her youth.
The first instance of Jo's vices getting the best of her is when she remains angry at Amy for burning her manuscript even after Amy apologizes. The next day Jo does not warn Amy…… [Read More]
The ideas of Thomas Hobbes, the influential English philosopher who lived in the late 1500s to middle 1600s, are still considered important today. Hobbes is best remembered for his ideas on political philosophy. While Hobbes throughout his life championed the idea of absolutism for the sovereign he also is responsible for many of the fundamentals of Western political thought such as equality of men, individual rights, and the idea that all justifiable political power must be representative of the people (Edwards, 2002).
Hobbes also believed that human nature was such that people acted out of selfish-interests and if left to their own devices would do anything to get what they wanted or to acquire more power at the expense of others. Governments are then formed to shield people from their own selfishness; however he understood that even a King left unchecked would also act in a selfish manner…… [Read More]
Fichte separate right from morality and is it a good thing? Should they be separated?
Fichte's Philosophy of ight and Ethics
Why does Fichte separate right from morality and is it a good thing? Should they be separated?
Moral and political anxieties animate Fichte's entire philosophy and his perceptions to these issues that are innovative and at times tied together. His responses to Kant's vital philosophy in 1790 was a retaliation to the Kantian moral perception and its outset of human self-esteem as embedded in freedom and the moral outlook of human beings as normal agents. Fichte's perception on Wissenschaftslehre principle was a far from the conceptions developed in 1974 by the philosophers of Foundations of the entire Wissenschaftslehre. Fichte's major works in the principle of right and morality are extensively covered in these two areas; Fichte's Foundation of Natural ight (Cambridge Texts in the History of Philosophy) And the…… [Read More]
Ethical and Moral Philosophies in Businesses
Ethical Moral Philosophies
Moral Philosophies Application to Business
According to Trevino and Nelson (2007), Philosophy describes a universal scheme of measures that people live by. From this definition, it follows that the moral philosophy defines specific rules or principles that people use to determine right and wrong. In essence, moral philosophy guides an individual's values and principles about moral and immoral issues (Trevino & Nelson, 2007). In business, moral philosophy will guide an individual in the evaluation of morally upright choices relating to their values and principles. Stansbury (2009) argue that moral philosophies are the ideal perspectives on matters that serve individuals with principles in an abstract form to facilitate their very social existence. The two moral philosophies considered in this paper are "Teleogy" and "elativism."
"Teleogy" is derived from the Greek word for purpose or end. In this philosophy, it is considered that…… [Read More]