Use our essay title generator to get ideas and recommendations instantly
Moral Development & Gender ias
The influence of moral development on the perpetuation of gender bias among males and females in the school setting
In analyzing the moral development that humans undergo from childhood to adulthood, it is important to look into the models and theories in psychology that served as the foundation of this field. Moral development among humans can be categorized into different stages, in the same way that human development undergoes through different stages. For this paper, the theory and model discussed and analyzed is Lawrence Kohlberg's multistage theory of moral evolution.
Kohlberg's model is illustrated as follows:
LEVEL 1: Preconventional Morality
Stage 1- Obedience and Punishment Orientation
Stage 2- Individualism and Exchange
LEVEL 2: Conventional Morality
Stage 3- Good Interpersonal Relationships
Stage 4- Maintaining the Social Order
LEVEL 3: Postconventional Morality
Stage 5- Social Contract and Individual Rights
Stage 6- Universal Principles
The preceding outline of…
Shaw, V. (1998). Coping with Sexual Harassment and Gender Bias. NY: Rosen Publishing Group.
The purpose of the Thomspon (2012) article is to review literature on moral development and propose a new theoretical framework of life-span moral development. The development of moral conscience; the patterns of social cognition; and emotional understanding or emotional intelligence, are the three key components of the proposed framework of life-span moral development. Theory of mind addresses the evolution of cognitive processes related to social and empathic development. For example, infants and toddlers exhibit sensitivity to others' intentions, which has an impact on behavior. Furthermore, theory of mind research shows that young children can tell the difference between the social conventions vs. moral behavior. Thus, young children understand the concept of fairness. Young children can also comprehend the connection between their own personal desires and the results of their actions on other people's emotions. This is related to the capacity to sense and care about the emotions of…
Thompson, R.A. (2012). Whither the preconventional child? Toward a life-span moral development theory. Child Development Perspectives 6(4): 423-429.
Moral Development Theory
One of the biggest scandals involving print journalism in recent history has recently been uncovered in England -- and it involves one of the most popular tabloids in the UK, The News of the orld. Reporters employed by the popular print tabloid have been found to have hacked into the cellphone voice messages of celebrities, the Royal Family, sports notables and politicians. Those whose actions or lack of action are deeply implicated include the reporters and editors at The News of the orld, reporters, and shockingly, law enforcement in London has also been swept up in the disgraceful, sordid affair. This paper points out the way in which Lawrence Kohlberg's stages of moral development help explain the unethical aspects of the case.
Law Enforcement Lapses
The media have covered this story very completely, partly due to the shocking evidence that journalists would invade the private world of…
CBS News. (2012). Apologies all around in UK hacking scandal. Retrieved February 18, 2012,
From http://www.cbsnews.com .
Davis, Doug. (2009). Kohlberg's Moral Stages. Haverford College. Retrieved February 18,
2012, from http://www.haverford.edu/psych/ddavis/p109g/kohlberg.stages.html .
moral development of females and males. The writer discusses moral development including stages, reasoning, similarities and differences between females and males. The writer also discusses aggression in both genders and the impact on moral development. There were five sources used to complete this paper.
Today's society faces many acts of violence against its members. Shootings such as Columbine, date rape drugs being slipped into sodas, gang style murders, rapes and robberies seem to be more common place with each passing year. This calls to question the morals of societal members and whether or not young boys and girls are being taught morals and values. Morals include things such as honesty, respect of others and leading one's life in a fashion that is not harmful to others. Morals are something that is taught in the home, in the school and in social settings. Teaching morals is the teaching or expression of…
Barnett, Mark A.; Quackenbush, Steven W.; Sinisi, Christina S (1996)., Factors affecting children's, adolescents', and young adults' perceptions of parental discipline.. Vol. 157, Journal of Genetic Psychology, pp 411(14).
Day, H.D.; Franklin, J.M.; Marshall, D.D.(1998). Predictors of aggression in hospitalized adolescents.. Vol. 132, The Journal of Psychology, pp 427(8).
Livock, Rusty (1995). Working with Violence. Vol. 4, Journal of Gender Studies, pp 233-4.
Ijzendoorn, Marinus H. van; Zwart-Woudstra, Hylda A.(1995). Adolescents' attachment representations and moral reasoning.. Vol. 156, Journal of Genetic Psychology, pp 359(14).
As humans we are bound to make mistakes, but if good logic and reasoning is used by us to infiltrate the patterns of resistance we surely can evolve into better human beings. Consequently, we would be in a better position for positive contribution to the wealth of the society.
To put the entire thesis into a nutshell, it can be well stated that the awareness of the concept and phenomenon of moral development has increased to an accelerated pace in the today's time due to its importance in shaping an individual's personality. In fact, it is a process that continues over the lifespan of an individual. The levels of moral development determine to what extent, the individual is likely to perform good actions and behaviors towards others.
Besides, it has been deeply and clearly observed that following and practicing the moral development phenomenon, one can definitely bring out a…
Boss, J.A. (2010). Ethics for Life. 5th Edition. USA: McGraw-Hill Education.
Daft, R.L. (2008). The Leadership Experience. 4th Edition. USA: Cengage Learning.
Gibbs, J.C. (2003). Moral development and reality: beyond the theories of Kohlberg and Hoffman. USA: Sage.
Killen, M. & Smetana, J.G. (2006). Handbook of Moral Development. Repinted Edition. USA: Routledge.
What stage of moral development best reflects the organizational culture of the company for which you work, and why do you think this is true? Provide a few examples if you can to support your analysis.
Stage 4. While not unethical, my organization places a strong emphasis on workers following rules and standard operating procedures. It seldom asks for advice from employees about how to improve efficiency. It encourages employees to work in teams harmoniously, not to rock the boat, and to follow the 'company line.'
Q3. Is your stage of moral development in conflict with your company's stage of moral development; that is, are your ethical beliefs aligned with the organizational culture in which you work? Explain. If not, you may be suffering from a condition referred to as moral stress.
I do not think I am in a state of moral stress, but I do think that my…
Kohlberg (1985) and others find that morality is best discussed in an interactive or "transative" setting, where students are free to interact as peers and to disagree among themselves about the best moral solution to a problem or dilemma. Studies conducted across cultures and religious communities find no clear relationship of religion to morality. esearch also finds that "Firm, fair, and flexible" classroom atmospheres contribute most to students' moral growth. Appropriate responses by teachers to both moral and conventional transgressions (responses to each type of transgression are, characteristically, different) also support students' moral growth.
Blatt and Kohlberg (1975) also suggest that while teachers are effective facilitators of discussions about morality, students actually learn more about morality from discussions and interactions with their peers. Conflict, stage disparity, and transitive discussion are good markers of the effectiveness of a classroom discussion on morality. Cooperative educational interactions within a democratic classroom environment have…
Nucci, Larry. (February 1987. Synthesis of research on moral development. Educational leadership. 86-92
Summary of the article "Synthesis of research on moral development" by Larry Nucci
Course title, course section number
Summary of "Synthesis of Research on Moral Development"
moral development would account for the behavior of the child you selected from uvenile ustice: In the Child's Best Interest. Be specific and cite the relevant theories.
oshua: Moral development
oshua is in an extremely difficult situation. He is currently being treated in a residential treatment center. In terms of his moral development, oshua seems able to perceive the needs of others, as he acknowledges that it is better for his family that he is being treated away from home for his defiant and delinquent behavior. He says that he is sacrificing himself for their welfare, which shows he has moved beyond a purely egocentric view of the world (Alberts, Elkind, & Ginsberg 2007:71-72). Egocentrism is the inability to perceive the separation of the self from other objects and the inability to acknowledge the different needs of others that can occasionally clash with one's own. Very young children exhibit extreme…
Joshua's mother seems loving and concerned, and is sad that her son cannot spend the holidays with the family, however difficult his behavior might be. In the film, the extent of Joshua's acting out is not detailed, although it is noted that it is not necessarily worse than other children who are never put in 'the system' at all. The judge blames Joshua's blended family as the cause of his interpersonal difficulties. There seem to be relatively few obvious reasons for Joshua's acting-out -- d espite the judge's assertion that divorce and reconstituted families can contribute to delinquency, overall the family does not seem to be extremely dysfunctional, nor it is clear why Joshua's behavior is so egregious it cannot be corrected while Joshua remains at home. Joshua's signs of remorse also suggest he has a conscience and thus he is far from a hardened sociopath or narcissistic.
This is interesting, given the commonly-shared belief that juvenile delinquents tend to operate on a State 1 or Stage 2 level of the Kohlberg scale of moral reasoning. They either fear punishment or believe the rules are enforced because others say so, without seeing a larger purpose (Leenders & Brugman 2005: 66). Joshua seems to defy this notion by showing real moral compunction at the pain he has been causing his family. However, it should be noted that Joshua seems to regret his actions because they make others feel bad (as well as himself). He does not see his behavior as bad in the contest of a larger moral system.
Kohlberg's system of different stages of moral development is often used to suggest that children who are delinquent are insufficiently developed 'morally' just like
Kohlberg's Theory of Moral Development: Therapeutic Implications Kohlberg continues to be a significant figure and influence on the field of psychology. He is well-known for his theory of moral development which details different stages of morality throughout one's life. Although the theory has faced criticisms, particularly due to a questionable generalization to all cultures, it continues to be a basis of knowledge and usefulness in practice. In regards to therapy, the theory of moral development may be influential in a therapist's conceptualization and diagnosis of a client, treatment, and view of the client.
Kohlberg's theory of development is a six stage theory. Kohlberg (1976) believed that the earliest stage of moral development entails obedience whereas the highest level of development involves reasoning with universal human ethics. As the individual grows through each of the stages actions become less focused on oneself and more focused on abstract principles. Kohlberg…
Kohlberg, L (1976). Moral stages and moralization the cognitive-developmental approach In T
Lickona (Ed ). Moral development and behavior theory, research, and social issues. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.
Mwamwenda, T. (1992). Studies of attainment of higher moral reasoning. Psychological Reports
Moral development has become an increasingly important aspect of education. Educators typically introduce moral education during the preschool years; however, it is oftentimes an essential component in elementary and secondary curricula as well. A review of the importance such development during early childhood, for both individuals and society; its implications in preschool; its cultural nature; and how it relates to the Singapore early childhood educational system provide sufficient background of the matter.
Promoting moral development during early childhood has several benefits. One of the primary objectives of preschool is social competence. In other words, preschoolers are taught from the beginning of their educational experience that one must interact with others in a constructive manner. To attain this goal, preschoolers are taught to be polite, by using courteous phrases; to positively interact with ethnically and racially diverse peers; to cooperatively use resources (such as toys, books, food, and crayons); to play…
Hansen, David T. (1995). Teaching and the Moral Life of Classrooms. Journal for a Just and Caring Education. Vol.2. pp. 59-74.
Nucci, Larry (1997). Moral Development and Character Formation. Psychology and Educational
Practice. Berkeley: MacCarchan.
Singapore Ministry of Education (2000). Civics and Moral Education Syllabus. Retrieved September 17, 2005. Web site:
Bowman et al. (2010) states that "third-level reasoning…prevents abuse of professional skills for one's own advantage or for that of one's social group" (2010).
Kohlberg believed that the U.S. government, the official morality, requires fifth stage moral reasoning (Lewis & Gilman 2005). This level asks for respect of individual rights and it accepts critically examined values (2005). While this stage is not the highest stage (the highest being a stage where life is considered "sacred"), it is above the norm. This should also be the level that administrative officials, as well as other individuals in positions of power, strive to attain. To be an administrative authority necessitates the belief that all individuals inherently have freedoms and values that cannot be manipulated in any way. Lewis and Gilman (2005) stress that when one is looking at the principles of Kohlberg's different levels and stages, it isn't about "the invoking of 'high…
Barger, Robert N. (2000). A summary of Lawrence Kohlberg's stages of moral development. CSUDH. Retrieved on October 11, 2010, from http://www.csudh.edu/dearhabermas/kohlberg01bk.htm
Bowman, James S., West, Jonathan P., & Beck, Marcia A. (2010). Achieving
competencies in public service (the professional edge). M.E. Sharpe, Inc.
Lewis, Carol W. & Gilman, Stuart C. (2005). The ethics challenge in public service: a problem-solving guide. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Kohlberg's theory of moral development presents three levels with two stages each of moral reasoning. The reason or motive for the behavior of an individual is what defines each stage (Crain, 1985). In order to come up with this developmental theory Kohlberg carried out studies using various dilemmas and finding out how the subjects responded. His main interest in the process is not a "yes" or "no" said by the subject but rather the reasoning behind the answer. This way he was able to demonstrate that people's moral reasoning progressed through a series of stages as discussed hereunder:
The first level is referred to as the "pre-conventional moral reasoning" and is typically related to children of about the age of 10 years. At this stage the individual does not internalize morals and the reasoning is externally influenced (Jeremy et al., 2000). The individual categorizes an act as good or bad…
Crain, W.C.. (1985). Theories of Development. Prentice-Hall. pp. 118-136. Retrieved from http://faculty.plts.edu/gpence/html/kohlberg.htm
Jeremy, I.M. et al. On "Stages and Moral Reasoning, Developmental Review," Volume 20, Issue
2, June 2000, Pages 181-205.
McDevitt, T.M., & Ormrod, J.E. (2007). Child development and education (3rd ed.). Upper
Ethics and Moral Development in the Business Environment
Ethics, as the study of right and/or wrong, is an essential tool for professionals and practitioners of specific fields of study, particularly those people who directly deal with society. Knowing acts and behavior that are right or wrong, moral or immoral are considerations that an individual must take into account when practicing his/her chosen field of profession. However, there are various theories on ethics that offer different perspectives in determining whether an act or behavior is ethical or not, moral or immoral. In the analysis of the case study Might Makes Right, four ethical and moral theories are discussed and applied in the context of the study: Immanuel Kant's Categorical Imperative, J.S. Mill's Utilitarianism, theory of rights-based ethical decision-making, and theory of justice-based ethical decision-making.
The case study presents the main problem, wherein Janice contemplates whether or not to present her subordinate…
The teacher who is cognizant of Kohlberg's theory and observant of student behavior might take the opportunity to help direct children who are beginning to make that transition to think about morality in ways that help them narrow their focus to understand basic concepts about why certain types of behavior may be moral or immoral. Without guidance, children may merely shift from the concern over doing what adults say to doing that which avoids negative consequences for themselves but without giving much thought to what specifically makes certain types of behavior right or wrong (Crain, 1985).
In some respects, Kohlberg's Level II (stage 3) is similar to Level I stage 1, in that the adolescent may substitute the messages and expectations of family and community for those of any adult; however, in terms of the degree of independent moral reasoning, there is not necessarily much difference in the process of…
Crain, W. (1985). Theories of Development. New York: Prentice-Hall.
Gerrig, R. And Zimbardo, P. (2008). Psychology and Life. New York: Allyn & Bacon.
Hockenbury, DH and Hockenbury, S.E. (2007). Discovering Psychology. New York:
Choose one of the five medical students and answer the following:
The medical student chosen is Nelson, the main protagonist.
Identify the level of moral development the character is at and defend the answer.
Each of the characters in the film, but none so more than Nelson, is trapped in the childhood or adolescent stage of moral development. Nelson had committed an accidental murder when he was a small boy. Consequently, he has not moved beyond this point mentally. He has moved slightly into the adolescent mindset, wherein his actions are defined by his peers. Nelson has hidden the dark secret of his past for years because it destroyed his childhood and he doesn't want further repercussions for that behavior.
Is this character an Objectivist, a relativist, or a Utilitarian; back this up with a scene from the movie.
Nelson is a Utilitarian. Despite the potential dangers to the…
Ethical Lapses at a Pittsburgh Correctional Facility
The responsibilities which are invested in our correctional institutions and the officers which preside over them align directly with the ethical impetus upon our society to punish, imprison and rehabilitate criminal offenders. Thusly, a corrections facility is part of the larger network of structures and entities intended to Maintain Social Order. Therefore, when a lapse in ethical orientation occurs and is demonstrably the fault of officers at such a facility, it may be said that damage has been done to its capacity to protect said social order. Most assuredly, this occurred at the State Correctional Institution Pittsburgh, where widespread allegations of sexual abuse by correctional officers against inmates have now instigating the U.S. Justice Department to launch a full scale civil investigation.
The events which transpired in the Pittsburgh correctional facility represent a systemic, sustained and largely concealed culture of abuse, neglect and…
Crain, W.C. (1985). Theories of Development. Prentice-Hall. pp. 118-136.
Lord, R. (2011). U.S. Justice opens inquiry into Pa. prison abuses. Pittsburgh Post-Gazette.
MOAL DEVELOPMENT & GENDE CAE |
Moral Development and Gender Care Theories
Moral development in humans occurs naturally together with physical, social and mental development. Individually as well as in social settings, mankind evolves a developed moral character and conscience in spite of numerous social and psychological barriers, which temporarily retard or disturb the process. In axiology, concepts of moral development give rise to feelings of being an active and developing entity. Through potential self-realization or perfection, a grand innate legacy is inherited, to be fulfilled in one's individual character and via the community, revealing one's unseen but tremendous intrinsic value (Fieser & Dowden, 2016).
Kohlberg's Six Stages of Moral Development
Crain (2015) holds that the child development scholar and moral philosopher, Lawrence Kohlberg, noted that kids progress across distinct moral development stages similar to the way they progress across cognitive development stages (defined by Piaget). Kohlberg observed…
Crain, W. C. (2015). KOHLBERG'S STAGES OF MORAL DEVELOPMENT. Theories of Development, 118-136. Retrieved from http://www.cs.umb.edu/
Fieser, J., & Dowden, B. (2016). Care Ethics. Retrieved October 18, 2016, from Internet Encylopedia of Philosophy: http://www.iep.utm.edu/care-eth/
Fieser, J., & Dowden, B. (2016). Moral Development. Retrieved October 19, 2016, from Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy: http://www.iep.utm.edu/moraldev/
Hetherington, M. E., & Parke, R. D. (2003). Gender Roles and Gender Differences. In M. E. Parke, Child Psychology: A Contemporary Viewpoint. New York: Mcgraw-Hill Global Education.
Moral Messages in Children's Literature
I chose four children's classics: Charlotte's web (1952) by E.B. White, and other three children's fairy tales, two by Jakob and Wilhelm Grimm (Cinderella and Snow white and the seven dwarfs) and one by Charles Perrault (Sleeping Beauty). These were among my personal childhood favorites. Looking back on all four as an adult, I see many similarities, but also many differences, in these books' inherent moral messages. All have been positively reviewed (e.g., have received awards or good critical reviews, and/or have stood the test of time). Each contains many distinct moral messages, some plain, others less so. Each also deals with situations that require moral decisions.
Charlotte's web is a story about eight-year-old Fern, who, while growing up on a farm, loves and nurtures a pet pig, Wilbur. Wilbur grows up (with help from Fern and various animal friends, including a wise…
The principle of harmony's job is to take corrective actions when needed in order to create the balance of economic justice between the principles. For example, when the other two principles are violated by such things as unjust social barriers to either participation or distribution, the principle of harmony works to eradicate these barriers and thus restore economic harmony, or justice.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, economic harmonies is defined as "laws of social adjustment under which the self-interest of one man or group of men, if given free play, will produce results offering the maximum advantage to other men and the community as a whole." In other words, whereas the other two principles are controlled by the free market, the principle of economic harmony is controlled by the government through laws and regulations aimed at controlling the negative effects of the free market. Examples of such controls are…
Bretzke, James T. A Morally Complex World: Engaging Contemporary Theology.
Curran, Charles. The Catholic Church, Morality and Politics. www.networklobby.org/resources/index.html.
Curran, Charles. The Catholic Moral Tradition Today. Center for Economic and Social Justice. www.cesj.org/thirdway/economicjustice-defined.htm
Elliott, Hanna. "Stereotypes of Religious Voters Don't Fit." Associated Baptist Press, 03 Nov. 2006.
Moral and Medical Dilemma
As the progression of medical technology has expanded humanity's ability to heal one another directly -- through the process of organ transplants, blood transfusions, and bone marrow exchanges -- several ethical dilemmas have surfaced which impact physicians, patients, and politicians alike. An individual's voluntary decision to donate his or her organs in the event of an unexpected death, and the government's methods for devising an equitable system of distribution for blood and organ transplants are just a few of the increasingly rancorous debates to become associated with cutting-edge medical techniques. Today, with the concept of stem-cell research offering a vast array of seemingly miraculous medical advances, the moral discussion has shifted to cases like that experienced by the Whitaker family, which has been forced to confront an agonizing choice involving their seriously ill son Charlie. In the end, although the Whitakers were able to develop a…
Petersen, J. (2003, June 19). "Designer baby born to uk couple." Retrieved from http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/3002610.stm
Seeing how the Prime Directive should no longer apply, Picard was free to do whatever was necessary in order to save his crewman. However, the advanced technology employed by the aliens forced Picard to argue for the life of Wesley Crusher. His argument centers around the idea that this conflict is over whether or not moral universalism, or moral relativism would apply in the case of Wesley Crusher. Picard argues that the Federation does not interfere with other cultures because they believe that all cultures have equally value and the capacity for development. However, they are dealing with an alien race that is violating that principle. The aliens have decided that their moral universalism is correct for the Edo, and by extension, anyone who visits their planet. But Picard argues, correctly, that each culture must respect the rights of other cultures to develop in their own way. And the Prime…
The line of legitimacy, separating socially approvable use of force from violence, cannot be effectively drawn without an agreement on what constitutes the optimum amount of force necessary to maintain social order and to protect human rights against encroachment. A society subscribing to infinite morality which condemns all use of force as immoral is doomed no less than a society accepting the absolute pragmatism of tyrants. "
As Oleg Zinam proposes, these two extreme social attitudes to morality are equally unprofitable to the societies that adopt them. The attitude of absolute pragmatism can easily lead to the acceptance of political assassinations, as long as such acts may help the final political purpose. An example of absolute pragmatism can be the regime initiated by Hitler, who ordered the extermination of all Jews in an attempt to "purify" the human race by excluding anyone who did not fill in the Arian ideal.…
Ben-Yehuda, Nachman. 1997. Political Assassination Events as a Cross- Cultural form of Alternative Justice.
International Journal of Comparative Sociology, Vol.38: 25-30.
Feliks, Gross. 1974. The Revolutionary Party. Essays in the Sociology of Politics. Westport: Greenwood
The pro-life arguments state that a fetus is in fact a real-life person in the making. Is true there's no supporting scientific evidence for the beginning of personhood, but what if an unborn child has a soul and can actually feel pain? Isn't then artificial abortion a crime? Just because we are not sure, we should take the most radical solution that we can and are allowed to by law?
This is the first solid argument to sustain the moral impermissibility of induced abortion. Because having an abortion equals the death of a life growing inside, as a natural result of unprotected sexual intercourse. It is therefore considered that the new life, the fetus, did not have a choice. And having an artificial abortion furthermore deprives him/her of the right to chose (whether to live or not). So, if it's about the right to chose and the freedom to decide…
Abortion." Wikipedia. 2007. Wikimedia Foundation Inc. 21 April 2007. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abortion
Abortion debate." Wikipedia. 2007. Wikimedia Foundation Inc. 22 April 2007.
I have a clear written mandate that guides this decision. The other alternatives do not have the same clear, written mandate as the one that I made. hile a utilitarian approach may have yielded a different decision, in my position as a safeguard of public safety I am not obligated to undertake a utilitarian position unless I can do so without compromising my primary mandate. This is something I was able to do with generic drugs that I cannot do with biosimilars, even though it would be expedient for me to ignore the differences between the two products.
There are certainly those who would object with this decision. A utilitarian in particular would have a strong argument that total health outcomes depend not only on drug safety but on availability as well. I would argue, however, that this objection is invalid for a couple of reasons. The most important of…
Van Arnum, P. (2010). Healthcare reform draws mixed reviews from pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries. PharmTech.com. Retrieved December 8, 2010 from http://pharmtech.findpharma.com/pharmtech/Regulation/Healthcare-Reform-Draws-Mixed-Reviews-from-Pharmac/ArticleStandard/Article/detail/662434?contextCategoryId=48563
Moral Permissibility of Euthanasia
Voluntary Active Euthanasia
Voluntary Active Euthanasia can be described as a perfectly competent patient's appeal and request to be aided in the process of dying. This act is completely voluntary and by the choice of the patient himself due to the medical condition that he or she might be facing. It is a simplistic appeal on part of the patient to be provided with the necessary ways or assistance in putting an end to their own life. There are various methods to go ahead with this process, which may involve giving the patient a certain form of drug, putting a halt to some kind of treatment that the patient was undergoing or any other means of assistance. This form of providing an access to the person to commit suicide is referred to as assisted suicide where the doctor, physician or person in charge aids the person…
Baird, R.M. (1989). Euthanasia: The Moral Issues. Prometheus Books.
Dowbiggin, I. (2003). A Merciful End: The Euthanasia Movement in Modern America. Oxford Univeristy Press.
Gorsuch, N.M. (2006). The Future of Assisted Suicide and Euthanasia. Princeton University Press.
Keown, J. (2002). Euthanasia, Ethics, and Public Policy: An Argument against Legalisation. Cambridge University Press.
Social Psychology 2nd
Morality and Group elations: Possible Bias
The article entitled "Morality and intergroup relations: Threats to safety and group image predict the desire to interact with outgroup and ingroup members" as written by Brambilla et al. is comprised of three different research studies. However, each of these studies explores different facets of the same phenomena: how morality within and outside of groups varies by type of threat, and what sort of behavior these threats elicit from these same groups (Brambilla et al., 2013, p. 813). There is an extreme amount of relevance to the research conducted within this article and the principle research question of the present author, who is attempting to ascertain the meaning of relationships with moral development and reasoning in social groups.
Prior to stratifying the analysis of this paper to the three respective studies, it is necessary to mention various salient factors regarding the…
Fiske, S.T., Gilbert, D.T., Lindzey, G. (2010). Handbook of Social Psychology. New York: Wiley.
Tuffin, K. (2004). Understanding Critical Social Psychology. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.
Brambilla, M., Sacchi, S., Pagliaro, S., Ellemers, N. (2013). Morality and intergroup relations: Threats to safety and group image predict the desire to interact with outgroup and ingroup members. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology. 49: 811-821.
The purpose of this article is to extend on previous rsearch relating the issue of group morality to the perceived threat and influential behavior within an ingroup as actuated on the part of an outgroup. The researchers studided an ingroup of Italian nationals and an outgroup of Indians who were living Italy. Therefore, there ethnic differences between these groups as well as those which may have been perceived related to nationality.
Such differences may lead us to question whether there are any universal moral principles or whether morality is merely a matter of "cultural taste" (Velasquez, Andre, Shanks and Meyer: 1).
If there is no transcendent ethical or moral standard, then cultural relativists argue that culture becomes the ethical norm for determining whether an action is right or wrong. This ethical system is known as cultural relativism. Cultural relativism is the view that all ethical truth is relative to a specific culture. hatever a cultural group approves is considered right within that culture. Conversely, whatever a cultural group condemns is wrong (Relativism: 2).
The key to the doctrine of "cultural relativism" is that right and wrong can only be judged relative to a specified society. There is no ultimate standard of right and wrong by which to judge culture. Proponents of cultural relativism believe this cultural diversity proves that culture alone…
Anderson, Kerby. "Cultural Relativism." (2004):1-5.
Accessed 1 April 2012.
"Argument by Morality: Axiological Argument." 2002. Accessed 7 April 2012.
Among other choices, those related to eating, drinking alcohol, sexuality, and peer group selection are some of the most important. In some respects, those decisions have a lot to do with the way that adolescent brains perceive, process, and react to external circumstances and experiences. The development of eating disorders is one example (Leon, Fulkerson, Perry, & Cudeck, 1993). Specifically, there is empirical cross-sectional data illustrating that specific teenage perception and interpretations of self-image (especially body-image) correspond to eating disorders. That valuable information provides a good strategy for identifying teens at greatest risk of developing eating disorders without knowing anything about their actual eating habits (Leon, Fulkerson, Perry, & Cudeck, 1993).
Adolescents value their peer group associations more than the approval of society more generally. They are also much less receptive to absolutes such as firm "all-or-none" rules prohibiting them from drinking any alcohol or requiring absolute sexual abstinence. Generally,…
Gloria R. Leon, Jayne a. Fulkerson, Cheryl L. Perry, and Robert Cudeck. "Personality
and Behavioral Vulnerabilities Associated With Risk Status for Eating Disorders in Adolescent Girls." Journal of Abnormal Psychology, Volume 102, Issue 3; (1993): 438-444.
Country Development: Economic, Social, Political, And Moral
On a very basic level, development means 'growing.' In the language of political science, development is often referred to in terms of 'developed' and 'least developed' countries. Development has thus become synonymous with industrialization, and being able to provide a certain level of material comfort for all citizens. Poverty may be common to all nations, but 'least developed' countries have entrenched forms of poverty in which even basic necessities like sanitary water are scarce. According to the United Nations, a country is deemed to be 'developed' when its citizens can be able to 'lead long and healthy lives, to be knowledgeable, to have access to the resources needed for a decent standard of living and to be able to participate in the life of the community" ("hat is development," Volunteering Options, 2013). Nations that are considered to be 'developing' like China and India,…
Drengson, Alan. "Some thoughts on the Deep Ecology movement." Foundation for Deep
Ecology. 2012. 16 Feb 2013.
"European-Americans and Native Americans view each other, 1700-1775.: National Humanities
" (Anderson, et al., 2003) The study reported by Roberts, Christenson and Gentile (2003) provided a summary of a study that is unpublished but that states findings of a "positive correlation between amount of MTV watching and physical fights among third- through fifth-grade children. In addition, children who watched a lot of MTV were rated by peers as more verbally aggressive, more relationally aggressive, and more physically aggressive than other children. Teachers rated them as more relationally aggressive, more physically aggressive, and less helpful." (Anderson, et al., 2003) Anderson et al. also reports the study of Rubin, West, and Mitchell (2001) who state findings that young people listening to heavy metal music "held more negative attitudes toward women." (Anderson et al., 2003)
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION
The male child is more likely to view violence against females as well as sexual aggression against females to be acceptable if the male child…
Gentile, D.A. And Sesma, A. (2003) Developmental Approaches to Understanding Media Effects on Individuals. Online available at http://www.psychology.iastate.edu/~dgentile/106027_02.pdf
Nevins, Tara (2004) The Effects of Media Violence on Adolescent Health. Physicians for Global Survival, Canada, Summer 2004. Online available at http://pgs.wemanageyour.com/wp-content/uploads/2008/03/effectsofmediaviolence_final.pdf
Anderson, C. et al. (2003) The Influence of Media Violence on Youth. Psychological Science in the Public Interest. VOL. 4, NO. 3, December 2003. Online available at http://www.psychologicalscience.org/pdf/pspi/pspi43.pdf
When it comes to socialization, circles of friends, peer groups and so forth, it is clear that there is what is considered healthy and what is considered less than optimal. Beyond there, there will always tend to be subgroups and subcultures that emerge from within and from under a more dominant culture. This brief report shall describe the importance of peer groups, how subcultures can emerge and the significance of those subgroups emerging. Further, the way in which friendship circles are created and changed throughout the school years, how problems are associated with children that are rejected, bullying and their victims and beyond will be mentioned. Finally, there shall be the specific bits of advice offered by Kohlberg when it comes to moral development, growth of vocabulary and the seasoning of reasoning ability with kids will be part of what is discussed. While not all children and peer groups…
Kreager, D. & Moody, J. (2011). DELINQUENCY AND THE STRUCTURE OF ADOLESCENT PEER GROUPS. Pubmed Central (PMC). Retrieved 4 November 2016, from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3092163/
McLeod, S. (2016). Kohlberg - Moral Development - Simply Psychology. Simplypsychology.org. Retrieved 4 November 2016, from http://www.simplypsychology.org/kohlberg.html
MV Media. (2016). Celebrating the unique Islamic-American culture of Black Muslims. Muslimvillage.com. Retrieved 4 November 2016, from https://muslimvillage.com/2015/07/21/84358/black-muslims-unique-islamic-american-culture/
NIH. (2016). How does bullying affect health & well-being?. Nichd.nih.gov. Retrieved 4 November 2016, from https://www.nichd.nih.gov/health/topics/bullying/conditioninfo/Pages/health.aspx
Business Organization Be Made Moral?
Ethical and Moral Issues
This work will operate under the assumption of being a staff member under one of Enron's Senior Vice Presidents during 1997, a year characterized by the first major accounting misrepresentation and/or financial manipulation uncovered. The misrepresentation and/or manipulation was the use of "market-to-market" accounting with the objective being the adjustment of the value recorded in company purchases for the purpose of covering up a shortfall in the expected earning of the energy trading division of the colossal amount of $180 billion, quiet a shortfall as compared to the earliest mis-accounting. This makes a further assumption that the senior vice president or the higher-up one is under supervision of had perchance heard something of this transaction and its accompanying facade and then stated quiet clearly in a staff meeting called for the express purpose of addressing the fact that if:
Leadership; Facing Moral and Ethical Dilemmas (2005) Advantage Executive Coaching and Organization Development The Center for Business and Ethics at Loyola Marymount University. Online available at: http://www.leadershipadvantage.com/moralAndEthicalD ilemmas.shtml.
Leadership; Facing Moral and Ethical Dilemmas (2005) Advantage Executive Coaching and Organization Development The Center for Business and Ethics at Loyola Marymount University. Online available at: http://www.leadershipadvantage.c om / moralAndEthicalDilemmas.shtml
Mead, Margaret as cited by: Ibid
He also goes to have lunch with the counselor at least 2 a week.
Assessments of the Student
Some assessments that were used on Marcus were ATMS practices
Some of the other ways that are being used are pullouts with the interventionist so that they could push him back up to speed so that he could have been ready for the major testing that was coming up
Please add any other problem that you think he could possibly have .
The child was able to take be tested in the Task Reading area. (Not good at all will be attending the next session of tutoring so that he could attempt it again)
His reading rate is down also please make up other issues of academic's
Connection to Theory
Make up this info
Make this up I am Hispanic also and I worked with students…
e., physically), socially, and morally. In cognitive development, the individual learns how to think for himself/herself, and create decisions, judgments, and thoughts that are uniquely his/hers. Social development, meanwhile, is reinforced through one's recognition of gender identity. Through gender identity, the individual is able to determine and reinforce the role and status that society has given him or her as a man or woman. In effect, the individual becomes part of the society's institutions and structure because of the reinforcement of one's gender identity. Lastly, moral development takes place when the individual, based on his own cognitive and social experiences, is able to formulate his/her "personal philosophy," value judgment that s/he uses to create his/her beliefs, opinions, and feelings about life in general.
Santrock, J. (2001). Psychology. NY: McGraw-Hill ook Co.
Santrock, J. (2001). Psychology. NY: McGraw-Hill Book Co.
This developmental theory provides one possible explanation for why Pelzer continued to defend and protect his mother for so long, and felt such a duty to do so; as the object of his repressed desires and his attempts to exhibit protective and masculine behavior, this would have been his essential task (Heffner 2003).
The age of six is somewhat on the cusp of Piaget's stages of preoperational and concrete operational. Many of the author's observations, such as that he "could determine what kind of day [he] was going to have by the way [his mother] dressed," suggest that he was already in the concrete operational stage, where future events could be abstracted from current information in a cause-and-effect manner (Pelzer 1995; pp. 30). Becoming stuck in this developmental phase due to a lack of stimulation and motivation was almost certainly a factor in the author's perspective throughout much of his…
Fraser, C.; Burchell, B. & Hay, D. (2001). Introducing social psychology. Malden, MA: Blackwell.
Heffner. (2003). "Freud's Stages of Psychosexual Development." Accessed 12 October 2009. http://allpsych.com/psychology101/sexual_development.html
Pelzer, D. (1995). A Child Called it. Omaha: Omaha Press.
Springhouse. (1990). "Piaget's Cognitive Stages.' http://honolulu.hawaii.edu/intranet/committees/FacDevCom/guidebk/teachtip/piaget.htm
To use personal and later, cultural schemas in their most fruitful ways, the crayon and the magic market cannot be abandoned in favor of clicking a mouse, nor can arts education be relegated to second-class status, especially young children. Art teaches students motor skills, about space and depth, about using the world around them in a creative fashion, and helps them see things anew, as well as sharpens their realistic observational skills.
Dewan, Shalia. (2007, September 17). Using Crayons to Exorcise Katrina.
The New York Times Magazine. Retrieved March 21, 2009 at http://www.nytimes.com/2007/09/17/arts/design/17ther.html
Geracimos, Ann. (2008, August 17). A box of possibilities: Children can learn a lot from colorful world of low-tech crayons. ashington Times, M.14. Retrieved March 21, 2009, from ProQuest Newsstand database. (Document ID: 1533647331).
Toku, Masami. (2002, Summer). Children's artistic and aesthetic development: The influence of pop-culture in children's drawings. Presented…
Dewan, Shalia. (2007, September 17). Using Crayons to Exorcise Katrina.
The New York Times Magazine. Retrieved March 21, 2009 at http://www.nytimes.com/2007/09/17/arts/design/17ther.html
(Psychopedia, 2014, p. 1)
Psychosocial theory is reported to combine internal psychological factors and social factors that are external with each stage building on the others and focusing on a challenge that needs to be resolved during that specific stage so that the individual can move on to the next stage of development. (http://www3.niu.edu/acad/fcns280/THEORY/sld008.htm)
VI. enefits of Counseling and Development Theories
The benefits of counseling related to theories of human development include assisting individuals in understanding how they got to where they are today and assist them in understanding how they can personally make changes or adjustments in their own life to achieve their personal life goals. It is reported that "According to develop mentalists, relationships among cognitions, emotions, and behaviors are interdependent and rooted in transactions with the environment (locher, 1980); therefore, while all humans possess inherent natures and abilities to mature, certain conditions must be present…
Muro, L. (2007) The Effects of Human Developmental counseling Application Curriculum on Content Integration, Application, and Cognitive Complexity for Counselor Trainees. Retrieved from: http://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc5138/m2/1/high_res_d/dissertation.pdf
Counseling Psychology (2014) Lewis & Clark Graduate School of Educational Counseling. Retrieved from: http://graduate.lclark.edu/departments/counseling_psychology/mental_health/about/
Psychosocial Theory (Erik Erikson) (2014) Retrieved from: http://www3.niu.edu/acad/fcns280/THEORY/sld008.htm
Learning Theory (2014) Princeton University. Retrieved from: https://www.princeton.edu/~achaney/tmve/wiki100k/docs/Learning_theory_(education).html
Referents of Ethical Behavior
It is common for every individual to experience ethical dilemmas. On a daily basis, we are forced to make decisions and choose the right instead of the wrong ones, in spite of multivariate pressures. In my everyday life, there are key referents that I use to distinguish what is right from wrong. For starters, one of the referents is the law and regulation set by the authorities. For instance, a number of aspects can be right to a certain extent, and thereafter be considered wrong, as proclaimed by the law. For instance, the law can permit drinking up until 10 pm and thereafter consider it illegal. Therefore, one has to refer to the allowances and restrictions set to determine what is right and wrong. One other key referent that I make use of is justice, in that I have to respect the dignity and provide impartial…
Styles attachment often represent reciprocal interactions between the parent and child. For example, the child with a resistant attachment who becomes highly upset when the parent leaves but shows little interest in the parent when they return is often associated with a lack of parental affection. The children recognizes the parent as a source of security; however, since they receive little affection from the parent when the parent is present they learn not to approach the parent.
The child with an avoidant attachment style often treats the parent and strangers similarly. Often these children receive very little interaction with the parent when the parent is present and they have learned not to rely on them for stimulation. Likewise this lack of interaction does not allow the child to differentiate well between a stranger and their own parent other than having some form of mild familiarity with the parent.
Moreover, caring for her mother, the other option, would surely: a) create a feeling of being "unfulfilled" which brings with it depression and resentfulness; b) leave her with nothing to look forward to but the dark day when her mother actually passes away; and c) realize after a short time that she is not "a Mother Teresa" and that her live would be diminished (Stuart, 25).
hat does Stuart believe is the right choice for Alice? Stuart asserts that the virtue that carries the most weight in this instance is having Alice care for her mother. Giving up her career for her mother would outweigh the "…virtues of perseverance, love of truth…and self-knowledge" should she decide to go forward with her dissertation (26).
hat Stuart also mentions -- and this is a prime reason for this writer to believe Alice should find a competent person to be a caregiver for…
Hill, T.E.. "Assessing Moral Rules: Utilitarian and Kantian Perspectives." Philosophical Issues,
15(1), (2005): 158-178
Mautner, Thomas. "Act-Utilitarianism." The Penguin Dictionary of Philosophy. Retrieved June 12, 2013, from http://utilitarianism.org . 2008.
Rivera, Lisa. "Sacrifices, Aspirations and Morality: Williams Reconsidered." Ethical Theory and Moral Practice. 10.1 (2007): 69-87.
When I was just getting into my teenage years -- I was 13 going on 14 -- I was getting to the point where I had a lot of opinions about my parents, and some of them were not very kind. But I believed I had justification for the opinions I held about them and their response to me. To explain further, my mom and dad made me go to church, they made me go to boring church youth group meetings, they made me go to this strict fundamentalist church camp every summer, and wouldn't let me hang out with some of my best friends.
Every new friend I brought home from school to play ball in my back yard, or listen to music up in my room (which I shared with a sibling) they wanted to meet, and I had no problem with that. But after the…
2306 Kant. Consider situation: You ill life support. You a transplant organs continue living. Your parents decided biological child specifically organ transplant child / matures a level (assume part organ child survive)
Kant's assumption on the present matter is reflected in the well-known maxim and law, "act only in accordance with that maxim through which you can at the same time will that it become a universal law." (Stanford, 2004) Most often this "law" is interpreted as being a set of questions one must ask himself before undergoing a certain action. More precisely, the first step in determining whether the course of action one is about to take is morally correct or not is to actually formulate that action and provide a reasoning for it. Secondly, it is important to consider that action and that reasoning multiplied at a universal level, thought of this action as being a universal law…
Kerstein, S. (2009) Treating Others Merely as Means in "Utilitas" Vol. 21, No. 2, June, University of Cambridge, available online at http://faculty.philosophy.umd.edu/SKerstein/Kersteinmeremeans.pdf
New York University. (n.d) Means and ends. Available at http://philosophy.fas.nyu.edu/docs/IO/1881/scanlon.pdf
Stanford Enciclopedia of Phylosophy. (2004) Kant's Moral Philosophy. Available at http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/kant-moral/#ForUniLawNat
Any objective set of moral criteria must include: (1) the obligation not to cause pain unnecessarily to another; (2) the consideration of fetal survivability; and (3) recognition that a fetus undoubtedly becomes a living person at some point prior to full-term birth. On the other hand, even with the benefit of modern medical technology, there may be no way of identifying precisely at what point of gestation those moral concerns first materialize. For that reason alone, definitions of the relevant stages of development (and their corresponding fetal capabilities) must err on the safe side so that any inaccuracy unnecessarily protects the moral rights of the fetus prematurely, rather than protecting the moral rights of the fetus too late.
A comprehensive analytical system designed to respect every conceivable moral concern arising in connection with abortion must also incorporate the autonomous rights of the mother, the comparative consequences to the fetus…
(2001, October 1) Self-esteem at work, Psychology Today, etrieved from http://www.psychologytoday.com/articles/200310/self-esteem-work
6. Describe the needs present in Maslow's hierarchy. How can organizations attempt to meet these needs so that employees are motivated to produce more work? Discuss the answer in detail.
According to Abraham Maslow (1970), there is a hierarchy of needs that define human development. These are: Basic Needs (food, shelter, clothing), Safety, Love and Belonging, Skill Accomplishment and Self-Actualization. In Maslow's view, as each need becomes adequately satisfied, the next highest need becomes dominant. The first three are deficiency needs because they must be satisfied if the individual is to be healthy and secure. The last two are growth needs because they are related to the development and achievement of one's potential (Maslow, 1970). In Maslow's view, as long as we are motivated to satisfy our deficiency needs, then we are moving in a positive direction towards personal…
Maslow, a., (1970) Motivation and personality, 2nd ed., Harper & Row (orig. 1954)
Young adults are on the threshold between youthful behaviors and the adult world. Humans in their late teens begin to accept responsibilities for their own lives and learn to depend upon themselves financially, socially, and psychologically. This is also the time when they make life choices which will ultimately shape their futures and the people they eventually become. Renowned theorist Daniel Levinson defines adult development in the age between 17 and 33 as the novice phase, because this is the point where the young person takes on new responsibilities in the same way as an amateur or novice in a specific occupational field. According to theorist Erik Erikson:
In this stage, the most important events are love relationships. Intimacy refers to one's ability to relate to another human being on a deep, personal level. An individual who has not developed a sense of identity usually will fear a committed relationship…
Advocates for Youth. (2008). Growth and development, ages 18 and over -- what parents need to know. Retrieved from http://www.advocatesforyouth.org/parents/157?task=view
Beaty, L. (2002). Developmental counseling: the young adult period. Critical Issues in Young
Beck, M. (2012). Delayed development: 20-somethings blame the brain. The Wall Street
.....versus that of a general more one, it is without a doubt that the different cultures and societies of the world have evolved a great deal over the millennia. The Christians are a good example. The Christians of the Crusades or Christians of the Church of England are far from being the Christians of today. Similarly, the Muslims of the Crusades or the Muslims that have fought for 1,400 years (and counting) over the successor of Muhammad have in many ways shifted since the day of the prophet, even if many others are still fighting (Hall). One might suggest that this is a natural evolution and that there has been a development of the moral standard over time. However, there is more than one idea to suggest that this could not and should not be the case. First, the fact that women are subjugated, limited and oppressed cannot be dismissed…
Morality of Cloning
In her book "Discovering Right and Wrong," Louis Pojman consistently makes the same point throughout her chapters: beyond all the debate and lack of consensus, and beyond all the confusion of relative morality, there should exist a true objective standard which a rational being can discover. In all her writing she seems to challenge the readers to look for objective evidence of truth, a plea which often has much in common with a more conservative position on politics and morality. When it comes to the issue of cloning, however, it seems that the search for rational objective evidence is frequently put aside in favor of often illogical "gut reactions." It is high time that a truly reasonable approach to cloning was attempted. In order to best approach this from an objectivist standpoint, it seems reasonable to backtrack to one of the founding fathers of modern objectivism, Immanual…
Bailey, Ronald. (1998) "The Standard Objections to Cloning Won't Bear Examination." Cloning: For and Against. New York: Open Court Publishing. 129.
Christopher bard quoted in: Bailey, Ronald. (1998) "The Standard Objections to Cloning Won't Bear Examination." Cloning: For and Against. New York: Open Court Publishing. 126.
Bailey, Ronald. (1998) "The Standard Objections to Cloning Won't Bear Examination." Cloning: For and Against. New York: Open Court Publishing. 127
Moral and Legal Questions of Stem Cell Research
Stem cell research is an experimental, and research-based study as to methods of repairing the human body. y introducing stem cells into a damaged, or degenerating area of the body, the medical profession hopes to prompt the body to regrow healthy tissue, and repair the damage. Degenerative diseases, such as Parkinson's disease, or macular degeneration of a patient's eye retina are conditions in which the healthy tissues cease to function properly. There is no overt damage. There is not a disease which has physically destroyed the affected body part. ut for varying reasons, such as old age, wear and tear, or reasons medical science does not yet understand, the affected body part simply ceases to function properly. Stem cells are the type of cells, which are more numerous in, but not limited to, human embryos. They are the building blocks of the…
Answers to your questions about Stem Cells. 2001. ViaCord. Retrieved 15 Dec 2002. http://www.viacord.com/Preservation/Preservation.asp?section=1&s=sourceOfStemCells 2001>
Bush, George W. "The Bush Decision on Stem-Cell Research" National Review Online.
2002 Retrieved 15 Dec 2002. http://www.nationalreview.com/document/document081001.shtml
Critical Legal Studies." Legal Information Institute, Cornell Law School. 2000. Retrieved 10 Dec 2002. http://www.law.cornell.edu/critical/theory.html
Darwin Comes of Age
o understand Robert Wright, it is first necessary to define evolutionary psychology, which is the foundation of Wright's theory. Evolutionary psychology contends that most, if not all, of human behavior can be understood by the interests of internal psychological mechanisms. hese internal mechanisms are adaptations, or products of natural selection that helped human ancestors survive and reproduce. Evolutionary psychology looks at the challenges early humans faced in their hunter-gatherer environments and the problem-solving they went through to meet those challenges. Based on these problem-solving adaptations, it then establishes the common roots of ancestral behavior and, especially related to Wright's book, how these common behavioral roots are observed and acted upon today. Human behavior, just like physical traits, has passed on from generation to the next. In their brains humans have specific knowledge that helps them adapt to the environment. he brain is subject to natural selection…
Though women today can better afford to economically take care of themselves, there is a throwback to the past. Even in the poorest societies, a father's social status translated into more advantages for the children. Although a modern woman can reflect on her wealth and independence and thus gauge her decisions accordingly, she still has to come to grips with the ingrained impulses from her early ancestral environment. In fact, women, says Wright, are not able to override their internal impulses. The tendency remains for them to place greater emphasis on a mate's financial prospects regardless of their income. As long as a society remains economically stratified, the challenge of reconciling lifelong monogamy with human nature will be significant.
This is despite the fact that most men are better off in a monogamous system and women are less better off. Wright gives the example of 2,000 people living in a monogamous society with each woman engaged to marry the man who shares her ranking. She'd like to marry a higher-ranking man, but they were taken by competitors. The men would like to marry up, too, but cannot for the same reason. If polygyny was legalized, at least one woman somewhat more desirable than average, with a rating of 400 for example, leaves male #400 and becomes a wife of a more successful lawyer, #40. Women thus become better off and most men worse off. Women have greater options; men have less. Polygyny would more evenly distribute the assets of men. However, monogamy gives men access to a supply of women that would otherwise be unattainable, even if it is only one. Monogamy is not a big plus for either side; it's a compromise for both men and women.
Wright, Robert. The Moral Animal. New York: Pantheon Books, 1994.
Youth Leadership and the Development of Communication Skills, Self-Esteem, Problem Solving and Employment Opportunities
The four-year longitudinal study by Marshall, Parker, Ciarrochi and Heaven (2014) showed that self-esteem is a reliable predictor of "increasing levels of social support quality and network size across time" (p. 1275). The idea that social support is a reliable predictor of self-esteem was not supported by the study's findings. The researchers measured the quantity and quality of self-esteem and social support levels of 961 adolescents over a five-year period to find that self-esteem is the key to helping adolescents develop into successful adult leaders with a wide range of networking possibilities open to them and a strong social support group behind them. This study directly links the concept of self-esteem to the greater possibility of employment as well, indicating that as adolescents with high self-esteem mature into adults, their ability to network and utilize support…
Larson, R., Tran, S. (2014). Invited commentary: Positive youth development and human complexity. Journal of Youth Adolescence, 43: 1012-1017.
Marshall, S., Parker, P., Ciarrochi, J., Heaven, P. (2014). Is self-esteem a cause or consequence of social support? A 4-year longitudinal study. Child Development, 85(3): 1275-1291.
Morton, M., Montgomery, P. (2013). Youth empowerment programs for improving
adolescents' self-efficacy and self-esteem: A systematic review. Research on Social Work Practice, 23(1): 22-33.
Old Boy at a Children's Museum Play Area
Soren is a 4-year-old boy. He has light blonde hair that is cut short on the sides and is longer on the top. He is a generally smiley child. He likes to interact with his surroundings and likes to run and hop, crouch and spring into action with a cry of delight as though he were taking great amusement in catching the world by surprise.
He is viewed at a play area in a children's museum. The observation begins just before noon and continues until a quarter past 1 pm.
The play area is very crowded and full of children around his own age, with parents standing nearby watching their children. Most of the children are playing on their own, looking at the environment around them, engaging with the activities (puzzles, blocks, interactive equipment, play sets, scooters, and jungle gym equipment). Soren's…
Morality in Little omen
In Louisa May Alcott's Little omen, Josephine March is able to be moral despite the great pressures and responsibilities imposed on her by her gender, the economic and political circumstances of the time, her role as elder sister, and her immense creative talent. However, Jo is also notoriously stubborn, proud, and easily provoked to anger, vices that consistently challenge her moral resolve throughout her adolescence and early adulthood, but ultimately Jo is able to overcome these vices with the help of moral guidance given to her from her family and upbringing so that she matures into a humble, charitable, and temperate character, far more mature than the fiery character of her youth.
The first instance of Jo's vices getting the best of her is when she remains angry at Amy for burning her manuscript even after Amy apologizes. The next day Jo does not warn Amy…
Alcott, Louisa May. Little Women. Google ebook. Boston, MA: Roberts Brothers, 1868. eBook.
Retrieved from: http://books.google.com/books?id=Fzqjs08fIJ4C
The ideas of Thomas Hobbes, the influential English philosopher who lived in the late 1500s to middle 1600s, are still considered important today. Hobbes is best remembered for his ideas on political philosophy. While Hobbes throughout his life championed the idea of absolutism for the sovereign he also is responsible for many of the fundamentals of Western political thought such as equality of men, individual rights, and the idea that all justifiable political power must be representative of the people (Edwards, 2002).
Hobbes also believed that human nature was such that people acted out of selfish-interests and if left to their own devices would do anything to get what they wanted or to acquire more power at the expense of others. Governments are then formed to shield people from their own selfishness; however he understood that even a King left unchecked would also act in a selfish manner…
Action in America. (2012). Drug war cost clock updated 2011. Retrieved on February 10, 2010
from http://actionamerica.org/drugs/wodclock.shtml .
Appel, D. (2004). Why can immorality be legislated more easily than morality in America
Free Leadership Thoughts. Retrieved February 5, 2012, from http://authenticleadershipinc.com/free.html
Fichte separate right from morality and is it a good thing? Should they be separated?
Fichte's Philosophy of ight and Ethics
Why does Fichte separate right from morality and is it a good thing? Should they be separated?
Moral and political anxieties animate Fichte's entire philosophy and his perceptions to these issues that are innovative and at times tied together. His responses to Kant's vital philosophy in 1790 was a retaliation to the Kantian moral perception and its outset of human self-esteem as embedded in freedom and the moral outlook of human beings as normal agents. Fichte's perception on Wissenschaftslehre principle was a far from the conceptions developed in 1974 by the philosophers of Foundations of the entire Wissenschaftslehre. Fichte's major works in the principle of right and morality are extensively covered in these two areas; Fichte's Foundation of Natural ight (Cambridge Texts in the History of Philosophy) And the…
"Fichte's Philosophy of Right and Ethics," forthcoming in Gunter Zoller (2007). The
Cambridge Companion to Fichte. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Genealogy of Morality (APA Citation)
The Genealogy of Morality
"the Genealogy of Morality"
In the modern world the term "genealogy" has taken on the connotation of the study of a family history, or a list of ancestors and offspring of a particular family. While this definition is the most common, there is another definition of the term "genealogy" which involves an account of the origin and historical development of something. It is easy to see how the study of a family's history has evolved from this term, since it too is the origin and development of a series of relatives. But it is the more general definition of genealogy, studying the origin and historical development of something, that Friedrich Nietzsche used for the title of his book On The Genealogy of Morality. The book contains three individual essays involving a discussion of morals within modern society and the evolution of…
Nietzsche, Frederich. (2007). On The Genealogy of Morality. New York, Cambridge UP.
Retrieved from http://www.inp.uw.edu.pl/mdsie/Political_Thought/GeneologyofMorals.pdf
Ethical Theory and Moral Practice developed as a cohesive field in the late twentieth century, with the establishment of the Ethical Theory and Moral Practice Journal, in 1998. The theory therefore represents a culmination of scholarly thought and analysis in the fields of philosophy, sociology, and psychology. As a cross-disciplinary theory, Ethical Theory and Moral Practice reveals the increasing hybridization of fields that relate to normative ethics.
Because Ethical Theory and Moral Practice is a relatively new field of scholastic inquiry, the field is currently "undergoing change," ("Ethical Theory and Moral Practice: How do they relate?" 2008). Changes reflect shifting social, economic, and political realities. Without falling pray to the traps of ethical relativism, Ethical Theory and Moral Practice remains heterogeneous and diverse.
The roots of the theory are difficult to trace because of the "disciplinary cross-pollination" that has occurred ("Ethical Theory and Moral Practice: How do they relate?" 2008).…
"Ethical Theory and Moral Practice: How do they relate?" (2008). Conference 2008. Retrieved online: http://www.bezinningscentrum.nl/links/special_links5/special_links5_conference.shtml
"What Makes Us Moral?" (2011). VU University Amsterdam. Retrieved online: http://www.ph.vu.nl/nl/onderzoek/secties/praktische-filosofie/conference-what-makes-us-moral/index.asp
Ethics, Morality, Values, And Beliefs
According to "the ethics site," an Internet resource for college instructors regarding the teaching of different ethical systems, ethics may be defined as "the explicit, philosophical reflection on moral beliefs and practices. The difference between ethics and morality is similar to the difference between musicology and music. Ethics is a conscious stepping back and reflecting on morality, just as musicology is a conscious reflection on music." ("Glossary," The Ethics Site, 2005) In other words, ethics is the philosophy of what is right and wrong, while morality is the practice of ethics, or virtue in action.
The analogy between a musician and a musicologist proposed by the positioning of ethics vs. morality is interesting, because one might understand music very well, and be able to explain its theory and teaching as a musicologist. However, a great musicologist might be only a middling musician. In contrast, there…
"Glossary." The Ethics Site. 2005. http://ethics.acusd.edu/LMH/E2/Glossary.html. [11 Feb 2005]
The published codes of ethics for different professions try to make it clear that "professional" in that occupation will not misuse that power, and especially that the use will not be made for personal gain. Of course, in totality, the codes of ethics should provide guidance about the values to be upheld in the profession, specific ethical principles and specific standards. (Professional code of Ethics)
Since there is a wide variation in codes for different professions, it is required that codes from some professions be looked at to decide the ethical standards of a profession. However, studying ethical codes does not mean that the individual will be following the codes and behaving in an ethical manner. This is mentioned clearly in the code for National Association of Social Work as "a code of ethics cannot resolve all ethical issues or disputes or capture the richness and complexity involved in striving…
An Overview of Morality and ethical systems" Retrieved at http://faculty.ncwc.edu/toconnor/415/415lect01.htm. Accessed on 30 July, 2005
Dean, John. W. (26 March, 2004) "A Closer Look at the Case from Which Justice Scalia Has
Refused To Rescue Himself." Retrieved at http://writ.news.findlaw.com/dean/20040326.html . Accessed on 30 July, 2005
Etzioni, Amitai. (4 August, 2004) "When It Comes to Ethics, B-Schools Get an F" Retrieved from http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wp-dyn?pagename=article&contentId=A38323-2002Aug2¬Found=true . Accessed on 30 July, 2005
.....personal ethics derive from a combination of established codifications of moral conduct, such as those embedded in political documents or in religious scripture, but also from my personality, my upbringing, and my worldview. I tend towards a utilitarian point-of-view, in that I do believe that the consequences of actions are more important than worrying about whether an action is inherently right or wrong. I also believe that there are situational variables that make true deontological ethics almost impossible to apply universally and without hypocrisy. Although I make some decisions based on the principle of doing the maximum amount to good for the maximum number of people, I also recognize the importance of a strong ethical character when making decisions "Six Ethical Theories Rough Overview," n.d.). This is why I believe that there can be no one ethical theory that encompasses all situations. A person who has a strong ethical character,…
An example of this is a young man and woman talking about a new law. The man says that everybody should follow it, like it or not, since laws are crucial to social group (conventional level). The woman remarks, however, that some well organized societies, such as Nazi Germany, were not mostly moral. The man therefore notices that some evidence contradicts his view. He experiences some Nazi Germany, were not particularly moral. The man hence sees that some evidence opposes his analysis. He experiences some cognitive conflict and is motivated to think about the matter more fully (post-conventional level).
Kincheloe, J.L., & Horn, .A. (Eds.). (2007). The Praeger Handbook of Education and Psychology. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers.
Kincheloe, J.L., & Horn, R.A. (Eds.). (2007). The Praeger Handbook of Education and Psychology. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers.