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moral responsibility of AIDS. There are three references used for this paper.
AIDS continues to be a growing epidemic throughout the world today, with irresponsibility playing a key role. It is important to look at the moral considerations that are raised by this issue.
Since 1981, the number of reported AIDS cases has grown to epidemic proportions. Worldwide, by the end of 2003, "there were 40 million adults and children living with HIV / AIDS, with 3 million of these individuals being infected with HIV / AIDS in 2003 alone (http://www.avert.org/worldstats.htm)."
In 2001, Pope John Paul II "urged those involved in the fight against AIDS to help young people develop what he called 'responsible maturity' in their love lives. He pointed out that the spread of the virus is part of a social context characterized by a serious crisis in values, and sex is a main way…
AIDS Frequently Asked Questions. (accessed 17 June, 2004). http://w3.whosea.org/hivaids/aidsfaq.htm ).
Unknown. (27 June, 2001). "Popes cites 'moral responsibility' factor in AIDS spread.
Worldwide HIV & AIDS Statistics. (accessed 18 June, 2004). http://www.avert.org/worldstats.htm )."
Criminal laws absolutely prohibit furnishing alcohol to minors, even formally requiring bartenders to check the identification of any patron who appears even slightly older than the legal age for alcohol consumption (Schmalleger 1997). Conceivably, the same absolute standard could easily be applied to drinking in conjunction with driving. Furthermore, when it comes to protecting their own financial interests, bartenders often enforce standards beyond what it required by law: they may prohibit certain forms of attire associated with violent criminal gangs, and they often serve drinks in plastic cups, precisely because they are fully aware of the degree to which alcohol impairs good judgment and that glass bottles and glassware are capable of inflicting much more damage in situations where intoxicated patrons provoke physical altercations.
In fact, bartenders know or should know that the social culture of alcohol consumption, particularly among certain demographic groups, makes it the norm rather than the…
Friedman, L.M. (2005) the History of American Law (3rd Edition).
New York: Touchstone.
Geeting, J. (2003) the Badge: Thoughts from a State Trooper.
Indian Wells, CA: McKenna Publishing Group.
Like Midgley, Bailey would expect the company to conduct its opeations and make the same decisions that would be equied in its native society. Moe impotantly, Bailey would likely also ague that the company has a moal duty to espond to the situation even if it wee the case that its native society ecognized no such moal obligation.
Both Bailey and Midgley would pobably equie the company to conside the natue of the hams caused by its poduct and to take easonable measues to pevent those hams completely iespective of any obligation o expectation in that egad by any society. Thei view would be that moality is a matte of objective pinciple and not subjective values and that allowing the types of hams descibed as a esult of pofit-making entepises is always immoal and always imposes a moal obligation, by objective pinciple, on the manufactue to take appopiate measues to…
references to standards of health and well-being (p. 261) to apply the UN principles to this case.
Application of Berlin's Moral Perspective
Berlin offers a perspective that is decidedly unhelpful to the prospect of recognizing objective moral principles. He suggests that wherever two individuals espouse diametrically opposite positions on an issue, it does not necessarily follow that the truth of one view means that the other is untrue (p. 266). Berlin seems to offer a complex justification for moral relativism, largely by focusing on the types of cases where (admittedly) a perfect solution is most difficult. However, he seems not to recognize that these can be regarded as exceptions to general principles that provide the morally preferable (if not necessarily perfect) solution. Therefore, Berlin might argue that nobody likes the idea of street children being harmed by their misuse of the company's product but that virtually any solution to that dilemma would impose harmful consequences on the company, such as by limiting its rights to conduct business manufacturing a legal product.
I would applaud the UN Declaration for its intention, disregard Benedict's, Bailey's, and Berlin's positions, and apply the arguments of Midgley. Certainly, the "perfect" solution may often be impossible, as it might very well be in this case, as pointed out by Berlin. However, it is possible (as demonstrated by the UN Declaration) to recognize and uphold objective moral principles that transcend the facts of any specific case considered in isolation. I would apply the same conceptual approach of the UN Declaration with respect to fundamental rights and freedoms and apply it to two other moral issues: First, that entities may not pursue or perpetuate activities in foreign societies that are expressly prohibited (or that trigger moral obligations reflected in law) in their nations. Second, that entities causing unnecessary harm to any human beings be held morally accountable for those harms and responsible for mitigating them, compensating victims, or, where appropriate, ceasing those activities altogether in light of the magnitude of the harms with which they are associated.
Moral Luck" by admitting defeat: he informs the reader that he will be assessing "a fundamental problem about moral responsibility to which we possess no satisfactory solution" (450). The problem is essentially one about ethical judgment, and he begins it with an illustration from Kant. Kant's view of the ethical will, in the quotation offered by Nagel at the outset, is one in which goodness is not determined by "what it effects or accomplishes or because of its adequacy to achieve some proposed end" (449). In other words, goodness is to be located in process, rather than in results. The reader may find it ironic, then, that Nagel begins his paper by promising us no solution whatsoever -- in his critique of Kantian ethics, Nagel seemingly requires the reader to measure Nagel's own work as a philosopher by the Kantian criterion, of admiring Nagel's will to philosophize without judging him…
Nagel, Thomas. "Moral Luck." In Feinberg, Joel and Shafer-Landau, Russ (eds.) Reason and Responsibility. 12th Edition. Belmont: Wadsworth, 2004.
Any objective set of moral criteria must include: (1) the obligation not to cause pain unnecessarily to another; (2) the consideration of fetal survivability; and (3) recognition that a fetus undoubtedly becomes a living person at some point prior to full-term birth. On the other hand, even with the benefit of modern medical technology, there may be no way of identifying precisely at what point of gestation those moral concerns first materialize. For that reason alone, definitions of the relevant stages of development (and their corresponding fetal capabilities) must err on the safe side so that any inaccuracy unnecessarily protects the moral rights of the fetus prematurely, rather than protecting the moral rights of the fetus too late.
A comprehensive analytical system designed to respect every conceivable moral concern arising in connection with abortion must also incorporate the autonomous rights of the mother, the comparative consequences to the fetus…
Moral and Legal Questions of Stem Cell Research
Stem cell research is an experimental, and research-based study as to methods of repairing the human body. y introducing stem cells into a damaged, or degenerating area of the body, the medical profession hopes to prompt the body to regrow healthy tissue, and repair the damage. Degenerative diseases, such as Parkinson's disease, or macular degeneration of a patient's eye retina are conditions in which the healthy tissues cease to function properly. There is no overt damage. There is not a disease which has physically destroyed the affected body part. ut for varying reasons, such as old age, wear and tear, or reasons medical science does not yet understand, the affected body part simply ceases to function properly. Stem cells are the type of cells, which are more numerous in, but not limited to, human embryos. They are the building blocks of the…
Answers to your questions about Stem Cells. 2001. ViaCord. Retrieved 15 Dec 2002. http://www.viacord.com/Preservation/Preservation.asp?section=1&s=sourceOfStemCells 2001>
Bush, George W. "The Bush Decision on Stem-Cell Research" National Review Online.
2002 Retrieved 15 Dec 2002. http://www.nationalreview.com/document/document081001.shtml
Critical Legal Studies." Legal Information Institute, Cornell Law School. 2000. Retrieved 10 Dec 2002. http://www.law.cornell.edu/critical/theory.html
Business Ethics - Application Project
Groups tend to bring out the moral best and worst in us. -- C. E. Johnson, 2016,
Because most significant projects require a group effort, self-directed groups are becoming increasingly commonplace in companies of all sizes and types today (Johnson, 2016). These groups are being tasked with a wide range of responsibilities including making decisions that are important for achieving organizational goals (Johnson, 2016). As the epigraph above emphasizes, despite their importance, not all groups succeed in achieving their goals and others fail to achieve their full potential due to unethical activities or suboptimal moral choices (Johnson, 2016). These issues came to the fore during one recent experience involving a seven-person group that failed to achieve its goals due to various immoral behaviors on the part of group members, including the author. This paper evaluates my performance as a morally responsible group member, including the…
Johnson, C. E. (2016). Organizational ethics: A practical approach (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications.
The principle of harmony's job is to take corrective actions when needed in order to create the balance of economic justice between the principles. For example, when the other two principles are violated by such things as unjust social barriers to either participation or distribution, the principle of harmony works to eradicate these barriers and thus restore economic harmony, or justice.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, economic harmonies is defined as "laws of social adjustment under which the self-interest of one man or group of men, if given free play, will produce results offering the maximum advantage to other men and the community as a whole." In other words, whereas the other two principles are controlled by the free market, the principle of economic harmony is controlled by the government through laws and regulations aimed at controlling the negative effects of the free market. Examples of such controls are…
Bretzke, James T. A Morally Complex World: Engaging Contemporary Theology.
Curran, Charles. The Catholic Church, Morality and Politics. www.networklobby.org/resources/index.html.
Curran, Charles. The Catholic Moral Tradition Today. Center for Economic and Social Justice. www.cesj.org/thirdway/economicjustice-defined.htm
Elliott, Hanna. "Stereotypes of Religious Voters Don't Fit." Associated Baptist Press, 03 Nov. 2006.
Responsibilities of Corporations
Most people would agree that the purpose of business is to make a profit, but at what cost in human lives and suffering?
On December 3, 1984, a cloud of highly toxic gas rose above the city of hopal, India. When it settled, it instantly killed approximately 3,000 people, and left up to 600,000 people dying slowly or suffering various kinds of medical problems (Economist, par. 2). Union Carbide's pesticide plant was the culprit, yet the company denies any wrongdoing as well as any responsibility in the incident. According to the company's official statement, the explosion was the result of sabotage (Union Carbide, par. 4).
Even if we accept Union Carbide's claim that sabotage was the cause of the catastrophe, does this clear the company of any guilt in the matter? If sabotage really is to blame, doesn't it only shift the company culpability from one area…
1. Economist. "Bhopal's Deadly Legacy." 373.8403 (2004). Academic Search Premier 6 Dec. 2004 http://80-web15.epnet.com.memex.lehman.cuny.edu.
2. Multinational Monitor. "Workers at Risk: The Dangers on the Job When the Regulators Don't Try Very Hard." 24.6 (2004): 21-26.
3. Schmitt, Christopher H., Wakefield, Ann M., Ekman, Monica M. "Secrets behind the mask." U.S. News & World Report 137.4 (2004): 38-41.
4. Union Carbide Corp. "Statement of Union Carbide Corporation Regarding the Bhopal Tragedy." 2004. http://www.bhopal.com/ucs.htm.
At the same time, optimized care is mandated by the medical code of ethics. If older people are therefore sufficiently able to function independently, access to care should be available to them, because this is their preference, and professionals have an obligation to honor these preferences.
In the medical profession, there are no simple solutions to the discrepancy between the fiscal limitations of health care and the ethical obligations of professionals to their clients. The best ideal is to use specific codes of ethics in order to find an acceptable solution that satisfies both the drive to remain financially viable and the obligation to provide all clients with the optimal care.
As mentioned, above, the dilemma involves Mrs. DN, an elderly woman who suffered from a debilitating stroke that left her in a wheel chair. Because she was generally at home, she had the right to home care according…
Bevir, M. (2002). SidneyWebb: Utilitarianism, Positivism, and Social Democracy. Journal of Modern History, No. 74. Retrieved from http://escholarship.org/uc/item/7vm01529.pdf
Bevir, M. And O'Brien, D. (2003, Jan 1). From Idealism to Communitarianism: The Inheritance and Legacy of John Macmurray. History of Political Thought, No. 24. Retrieved from http://escholarship.org/uc/item/95m6q13r.pdf
Carroll, M.J. (2007, Dec). Physical Therapists' Perception of Risk of Violating Laws and Rules Governing the Practice of Physical Therapy and/or Their Personal Moral and Ethical Values when Failing to Provide Treatment for an Uninsured or Underinsured Patient. Graduate College of Bowling Green. Retrieved from http://etd.ohiolink.edu/send-pdf.cgi/Carroll%20Mark%20J.pdf-acc_num=bgsu1193091796
De Sousa e Brito, J. (2008, Aug 8). From Utilitarianism To Kantism: Bentham's Proof of Utilitarianism, Mill and Kant. ISUS X, Tenth Conference of the International Society for Utilitarian Studies. Retrieved from http://escholarship.org/uc/item/4zn812s7.pdf
Within the society today there are different people with their own different behaviors. Some might turn out to be meaningful people but others end up being a bother to the society. This paper will look out moral disengagement in the society.it will explain using behavioral theories why a person is more likely to drop out of the society to become a terrorist as opposed to dropping out to become a hermit or monk.it will also focus on Albert Bandura's model of moral disengagement and explain some techniques that might be used to justify the use of violence by individuals.
Observing the society today more people are getting involved in terrorist behavior as opposed to becoming monks or hermits. The likely hood of an individual becoming a terrorist is high compared to the same individual becoming a monk or hermit. This can be explained using behavioral theories.…
Kathiemm, N. (2010).Moral disengagement -- introduction. Retrieved August 9, 2013 from http://engagingpeace.com/?p=31
Cherry, K. (2012).Introduction to operant conditioning. Retrieved August 9, 2013 from http://psychology.about.com/od/behavioralpsychology/a/introopcond.htm
I have a clear written mandate that guides this decision. The other alternatives do not have the same clear, written mandate as the one that I made. hile a utilitarian approach may have yielded a different decision, in my position as a safeguard of public safety I am not obligated to undertake a utilitarian position unless I can do so without compromising my primary mandate. This is something I was able to do with generic drugs that I cannot do with biosimilars, even though it would be expedient for me to ignore the differences between the two products.
There are certainly those who would object with this decision. A utilitarian in particular would have a strong argument that total health outcomes depend not only on drug safety but on availability as well. I would argue, however, that this objection is invalid for a couple of reasons. The most important of…
Van Arnum, P. (2010). Healthcare reform draws mixed reviews from pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries. PharmTech.com. Retrieved December 8, 2010 from http://pharmtech.findpharma.com/pharmtech/Regulation/Healthcare-Reform-Draws-Mixed-Reviews-from-Pharmac/ArticleStandard/Article/detail/662434?contextCategoryId=48563
Moral Permissibility of Euthanasia
Voluntary Active Euthanasia
Voluntary Active Euthanasia can be described as a perfectly competent patient's appeal and request to be aided in the process of dying. This act is completely voluntary and by the choice of the patient himself due to the medical condition that he or she might be facing. It is a simplistic appeal on part of the patient to be provided with the necessary ways or assistance in putting an end to their own life. There are various methods to go ahead with this process, which may involve giving the patient a certain form of drug, putting a halt to some kind of treatment that the patient was undergoing or any other means of assistance. This form of providing an access to the person to commit suicide is referred to as assisted suicide where the doctor, physician or person in charge aids the person…
Baird, R.M. (1989). Euthanasia: The Moral Issues. Prometheus Books.
Dowbiggin, I. (2003). A Merciful End: The Euthanasia Movement in Modern America. Oxford Univeristy Press.
Gorsuch, N.M. (2006). The Future of Assisted Suicide and Euthanasia. Princeton University Press.
Keown, J. (2002). Euthanasia, Ethics, and Public Policy: An Argument against Legalisation. Cambridge University Press.
In this order of ideas, based on the legislative opportunity to offer farming contracts, the manufacturer offered deals to family farms that would raise the hogs. This basically meant that the capital invested would belong to the farmer, and therefore the company was subjected to few risks. "Why invest your own capital when you can get a farmer to take the risk? Why own the farm when you can own the farmer?" (Hosmer, 2004)
However this particular strategic approach was rather useful for the corporations, the industry was facing a quite serious problem. As such, industry analysts were concerned with the huge freedom and capabilities of the large companies. To better explain, since they took no risks, but only purchased the hogs from the farmers, organizations had the possibility to change the contractual terms and impose drastic conditions upon the farmers. They could easily request lower prices, and the farmers…
Hosmer, L.T., Smithfield Food's Vertical Integration Strategy
Business Intelligence: Smithfield Foods Competitive Analysis, Hoovers, 2008, http://www.hoovers.com/smithfield-foods/--ID__14734,target__business_intelligence -- /free-co-samples-index.xhtmllast accessed on July 14, 2008
Vertical Integration, Quick MBA, 1999-2007, http://www.quickmba.com/strategy/vertical-integration/last accessed on July 14, 2008
Unfortunately, those not exercising this "right," that is the traditional two-parent families bear the brunt of these phenomena. Their incomes are heavily taxed to bear the burden of the "rights" of those who are passing the bill on without paying their fair share.
This brings up what Mr. Lloyd calls the other "R"-responsibility. The emphasis upon rights has impoverished the social discourse. For rights to be meaningful and workable, they have to have a context or framework to exist in. This is where responsibility comes in. hat differentiates Mr. Lloyd from other authorities is that he deepens the definition of responsibilities beyond simply recognizing and protecting other people's "rights." He is reaching for the stuff that holds countries together, that is the type of responsibility that builds communities. For this reason, advocates a return to the biblical heritage upon which British and American constitutional concepts rest (Lloyd, 2008).
Legal vs. moral rights, rights vs. responsibilities, freedom vs. equality. (2007, August 11).
Retrieved 23 July 2010 from http://www.thefighting44s.com/archives/2007/08/11/legal-vs.-moral-rights-rights-vs.-responsibilities-freedom-vs.-equality/
Perez, Matthew C. (2006, November 26). Rights vs. responsibilities: it is the "responsibility" of the citizens of a society to protect the "rights" granted to them by previous generations . Retrieved from http://www.associatedcontent.com/article/89196/rights_versus_responsibilities.html?cat=9
Social issue: rights vs. responsibilities. (2008, Winter). Retrieved 23 July 2010 from http://www.vision.org/visionmedia/article.aspx?id=4750
Corporate Social esponsibility
Today's society is very much a corporate society where power is centered at many of corporate centers. Corporations are seen more than just tools and methods of living, but rather this way of life dictates the lives of millions as this system provides jobs and employment as an outlet of societal contribution. As a result of the deep and profound impact on society, many wonder what is the long-term effects of a corporate society and what benefits, if any, are available?
This line of questioning eventually leads to the idea of corporate social responsibility and the ethical and moral approach of the corporation within the human culture. The purpose of this essay is to describe the idea of corporate responsibility and examine it through the use of corporate philanthropy as a useful and practical method of success and benefit. The profitability, both long-term and short-term, will be…
Karnani, Aneel, (2010). The Case Against Corporate Social Responsibility. The Wall Street Journal, 23 Aug 2010. Retrieved from http://online.wsj.com/news/articles/SB10001424052748703338004575230112664504890
McKee, Steve, (2012). Corporate Social Responsibility: Distinction or Distraction? Bloomberg Businessweek, 9 Aug 2012. Retrieved from http://www.businessweek.com/articles/2012-08-09/corporate-social-responsibility-distinction-or-distraction
Thorpe, Devon. (2013). Corporate Philanthropy Programs are Diverse and Creative. Forbes, 10 Oct 2013. Retrieved from http://www.forbes.com/sites/devinthorpe/2013/10/10/corporate-philanthropy-programs-are-diverse-and-creative-get-ideas-here/
But the shareholders themselves need to be more aware and more involved in their company's business in order for any meaningful change to sustain itself:
Shareholders, the intended beneficiaries of the corporate vehicle, are the ultimate capitalists: avaricious accumulators with little fiscal risk and no legal responsibility for the way in which they pursue their imperative to accumulate. Shareholders, not corporations, show indifference to the needs and values of society. It is their behaviour that is most appropriately characterized as amoral indifference to the plight of others and their environment. Shareholders, not corporations, behave in a pathological manner. And shareholders should be the targets for the cure that we need for our ills. (Glasbeek 2005: 24)
There is also the problem of victimisation of other cultures in a global market. As Strike, Gao and Bansal (2006) point out in their article, 'Being Good While Being Bad: Social esponsibility and the…
Berkhout, Tom. 2005. 'Corporate Gains: Corporate Social Responsibility Can Be the Strategic Engine for Long-Term Corporate Profits and Responsible Social Development.' Alternatives Journal, January/February, pp. 15-22.
Carroll, B.A. 2004 'Managing ethically with global stakeholders: Annual Editions' Business Ethics 06-07: Contemporary Learning Series 30, pp. 114-120.
Dean, Dwane Hal. 2004. 'Consumer Reaction to Negative Publicity: Effects of Corporate Reputation, Response, and Responsibility for a Crisis Event.' The Journal of Business Communication 41:192-201.
Dickens, Charles. 1912. A Christmas Carol. Chicago: Rand McNally.
Alcohol and usiness Ethics
Introduction moral society is built on the basis of a number of unspoken, but generally agreed upon social issues. A moral society generally applies the maxim "treat others in the way you would like to be treated" and this proverb, although it's heard more frequently in the school play yard than in the corporate boardroom, should affect business decisions which affect the community at large. Some would say that operating a business within legal boundaries is not an accurate measure of an ethical business. Within the past few decades, advertising has become the focus of ethical pressure. The 'Joe Camel' cartoon character developed as a spokesperson - mascot for the camel cigarette was pulled after community outrage that the furry, cute character was likely an attempt by the company to market their addictive and destructive products to children.
A tremendous pressure has been brought to bear…
Carson, S. (1995) The Nature of a Moral Business Person. Review of Business, Vol. 17.
Cappel, J., and Windsor, J. (1999) A Comparative Study of Moral Reasoning. College Student Journal, Vol. 33.
Cummings, Christian. (2001) Alcopops. Fm4.org Accessed 25 March 2004. Available from: (http://fm4.org.at)
Don't join the alcopop generation (2001, May 21) U.S. News & World Report.
"hen Congress returned in 1934 to complete the federal disclosure tapestry, it created express private causes of action for misleading reports filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) as part of the newly enacted continuous disclosure requirements, (3) provided private recoveries for market manipulation, (4) and authorized suits on behalf of reporting companies for short-swing profits garnered by certain insiders (Cox, Thomas, and Kiku, 2003)."
The creation of the SEC as a government body for oversight arose out a recognition by the courts that private action was not enough to protect investors and consumers from the materially misleading representations of corporate America (Cox, Thomas, and Kiku, 2003). Since its creation, however, the numerous laws and regulations that have come to frame the world of corporate governance have exceeded the limits of manageable governance. By the time the SEC has identified a problem, pursued investigation of the corporate representations of…
Anderson, Jonas V. 2008. Regulating Corporations the American Way: Why Exhaustive Rules and Just Deserts Are the Mainstay of U.S. Corporate Governance. Duke Law Journal 57, no. 4: 1081+. Database online. Available from Questia, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5027008674 . Internet. Accessed 16 June 2009.
Angelidis, John P., and Nabil A. Ibrahim. 1993. Social Demand and Corporate Supply: A Corporate Social Responsibility Model. Review of Business 15, no. 1: 7+. Database online. Available from Questia, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001675246 . Internet. Accessed 16 June 2009.
Bavly, Dan A. 1999. Corporate Governance and Accountability: What Role for the Regulator, Director, and Auditor?. Westport, CT: Quorum Books. Book online. Available from Questia, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=114694551 . Internet. Accessed 16 June 2009.
Besser, Terry L. 2002. The Conscience of Capitalism: Business Social Responsibility to Communities. Westport, CT: Praeger. Book online. Available from Questia, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=106996136 . Internet. Accessed 16 June 2009.
Their reputation suffered, although it did not seem to make a dent in their passenger traffic, something that indicates how complacent and compliant the American people have become. Most people did not even seem to care that Southwest had endangered them and only a few spoke out in blogs or in other areas when the news broke. Southwest has a serious responsibility to keep its passengers and crews safe, and they lost the trust of at least some people because of their callous disregard for safety. That is a huge moral responsibility, and Southwest has never really acknowledged their failure, which is an even larger ethical concern, it seems. In a statement before Congress, Southwest CEO Gary Kelly said, "Our compliance with certain specific Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) airworthiness directives has been called into question. We have committed to a thorough review and to make any changes necessary to ensure…
Goodwyn, W. (2008). FAA whistleblowers: Southwest probes stymied. Retrieved 29 Nov. 2008 from the NPR Web site: http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=89328997 .
Kelly, G. (2008). Southwest Airlines provides testimony to U.S. House of Representatives Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure. Retrieved 29 Nov. 2008 from the Southwest Airlines Web site: http://www.southwest.com/swamedia/trust_in_southwest.html .
Levin, a. (2008). Inspectors: FAA officials gave Southwest a pass on safety checks. Retrieved 29 Nov. 2008 from the USAToday Web site: http://www.usatoday.com/travel/flights/2008-03-09-safety_N.htm .
Wilber, D.Q. (2008). Airlines, FAA under fire on the hill: Lawmaker links safety lapses to 'cozy relationship,' will hold hearing. Retrieved 29 Nov. 2008 from the Washington Post Web site: http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2008/04/01/AR2008040102696.html
repositories of ethical values, religion, philosophy, cultural experience, and law influence managers. Although different doctrine controls different religions, all of the major religions preach some form of responsibility to society in general. Christian managers reading and seeking direction from the Bible exemplifies the use of a religious text to influence the managerial thought process. Many passages from the various religious texts draw a comparison between a shepherd and the shepherd's responsibilities. If each person is considered a shepherd, then each person has responsibilities beyond what they do for themselves. In some cases a religion teaches that moral responsibility extents to the indirect results business activity, such as pollution. In spite of the pressures to remain open for business seven days a week, some Christian-oriented businesses refuse to open on Sundays even though this decision hurts them directly in terms of lost business, but also hurts them because of the loss…
Ethics and Corporate esponsibility
The following will be an assessment of firm referred to as PharmaCAE. The assessment will concentrate on the idea of companies that have encountered negative outcomes as a result of company business activities. CECLA (Comprehensive Environmental esponse, Compensation, and Liability Act) will be brought up in this assessment in addition to other environmental safeguarding proposals and human social theories in regards to environmental and work ethics.
A new initiative, We CAE about YOU world, was recently initiated by PharmaCAE, declaring its dedication to the environment via modifications in packaging, recycling, and other green programs. This was possible in spite of the fact that the firm's lobbying attempts and PAC have effectively conquered environmental policies, such as the broadening of the Superfund tax that was established by Comprehensive Environmental esponse, Compensation, and Liability Act (CECLA). Situated in New Jersey, PharmaCAE sustains a huge production facility in the…
Animal Ethics. Virtue ethics and care ethics - Animal Ethics. Retrieved August 9, 2015, from http://www.animal-ethics.org/virtue-ethics-care-ethics/
Berger, J. (2010, December 25). Fox News - Breaking News Updates | Latest News Headlines | Photos & News Videos. Obama's Reversal on 'Indigenous Peoples' Rights Stirs Concern Over Legal Claims | Fox News. Retrieved August 4, 2015, from http://www.foxnews.com/politics/2010/12/24/obama-reversal-indigenous-peoples-stirs-concern-legal-claims/
Calman. (2004). Teaching and learning ethics Evolutionary ethics: can values change. Journal of Medical Ethics, 30, 366-370. Retrieved, from http://jme.bmj.com/content/30/4/366.full
Difference Between Similar Terms and Things. Difference Between Utilitarianism and Deontology | Difference Between | Utilitarianism vs. Deontology. Retrieved August 9, 2015, from http://www.differencebetween.net/science/health/difference-between-utilitarianism-and-deontology/
college education, learning and practicing the social responsibility and the significance of inculcating a strong sense of social responsibility in college students.
Man's main task in life is to give birth to himself, to become what he potentially is. The most important product of his effort is his own personality"- Erich Fromm.
This personality is shaped and refined through the enlightenment gained through education, personal experiences and personal efforts to ameliorate one's personality by tapping the dormant talent and by adhering to the learned moral and social values. In order to keep our values intact for the rest of our lives and to become what we potentially are education is a must, for mentors at all levels inculcate a strong sense of discipline and responsibility in the college-going students, qualities that facilitate them in being productive and successful citizens.
Where educational institutions fulfill their social responsibility by providing various facilities…
Fromm E. Available at http://www.quoteland.com/topic.asp?CATEGORY_ID=108 (October 24, 2002)
Vaughn W (1999). From Sociality to Responsibility: Graduate Employee Unions and the Meaning of the University. Perspectives: Issues in Graduate Education.
Clayton M (1999). Cultivating character. The Christian Science Monitor, 06-15, pp 15
Arawi T (2002). Values in Education, Volume: 2, Journal of College and Character.
Employment -- the Morality of the Contract between Employee and Employer
Before entering into a contract for employment, an employees' first concern is usually to gain a living wage, then to gain experience in a particular profession, and perhaps finally to gain advancement within a particular corporate structure, industry, or trade. An employer's main concern in hiring an employee is usually if the employee can perform the job the employee is being hired to perform, if he or she will be deserving of the wage he or she is will be paid, and if he or she will stay for the necessary hours and period of time. However, once the employee has made a commitment to work and the employer has made a commitment to pay the employee for a period of time, the relationship and ratio of obligations invariably grows murkier. hat obligation does the employer have…
Franklin, Benjamin "From the Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin" Retrieved on April 5, 2005 at http://www.wwnorton.com/secure/tindall/ch3/resources/documents/franklin.htm .
Franklin, Benjamin. "Benjamin Franklin, How I became a printer in Philadelphia" http://www.ku.edu/carrie/docs/texts/franklin_how.html
Locke, John. "Two Treatises of Government" (1690) Retrieved on April 5, 2005 at http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/1690locke-sel.html .
Winthrop, John "A Modell of Christian Charity" (1630) Retrieved on April 5, 2005 at http://history.hanover.edu/texts/winthmod.html .
Of course, in principle, lying to the public is still morally wrong; however, there is a fundamental difference between lying to protect the interests of your company in a manner that allows your company to continue putting the public at risk and lying to protect the interests of your company in a manner that merely minimizes the potential future harm to your company arising from past mistakes, provided appropriate steps are implemented to correct the situation in the future.
The best possible solution to the ethical dilemma presented would comprise the following components:
commitment from the company president to thoroughly investigate the allegations of the state public safety director.
A commitment from the company president to implement all the steps necessary to resolve the problems identified by the state public safety director.
A public statement that acknowledges the importance of working with the state public safety director's office to ensure…
Moreover, caring for her mother, the other option, would surely: a) create a feeling of being "unfulfilled" which brings with it depression and resentfulness; b) leave her with nothing to look forward to but the dark day when her mother actually passes away; and c) realize after a short time that she is not "a Mother Teresa" and that her live would be diminished (Stuart, 25).
hat does Stuart believe is the right choice for Alice? Stuart asserts that the virtue that carries the most weight in this instance is having Alice care for her mother. Giving up her career for her mother would outweigh the "…virtues of perseverance, love of truth…and self-knowledge" should she decide to go forward with her dissertation (26).
hat Stuart also mentions -- and this is a prime reason for this writer to believe Alice should find a competent person to be a caregiver for…
Hill, T.E.. "Assessing Moral Rules: Utilitarian and Kantian Perspectives." Philosophical Issues,
15(1), (2005): 158-178
Mautner, Thomas. "Act-Utilitarianism." The Penguin Dictionary of Philosophy. Retrieved June 12, 2013, from http://utilitarianism.org . 2008.
Rivera, Lisa. "Sacrifices, Aspirations and Morality: Williams Reconsidered." Ethical Theory and Moral Practice. 10.1 (2007): 69-87.
moral hazard in mergers, acquisitions and takeovers. The essay discusses the definition of moral hazard as well as related agency theory and the role of asymmetrical information in transactions. The essay also reviews insider trading from the perspective of insider trading.
In the context of economic theory, moral hazard describes the tendency of a party to take excessive risks because the costs associated with the unreasonable risk are not incurred by the party taking the risks. That is, when the behavior of one party to a transaction may result in detriment to another party after the transaction has taken place, moral hazard may be said to be present. Moral hazard occurs because an institution or individual does not bear the full responsibility or consequences of its actions, and as a result, there is a tendency to act less carefully than otherwise would be the case; this irresponsible behavior leaves the…
Carlton, Dennis W. And Daniel R. Fischel. "The Regulation of Insider Trading." Stanford Law Review. (1983) 35: 857 -- 895. Web. .
Heakal, Reem. "Defining Illegal Insider Trading." (September 25, 2010) n. pag. Web. .
Kleiman, Robert T. "Agency Theory." (2012): n. pag. Web. .
Stein, Jeremy C. "Takeover Threats and Managerial Myopia." Journal of Political Economy. (1988) 96.1: 61- 80. Web. .
moral and not belief in God?
Humanity encompasses all aspects about exemplification of life and the utmost being. The origin of man is detrimental to the subsequent behaviours and codes of living among these human beings. In most cases, many researchers have shown that human existence is based on the origin and existence of God. God is regarded as a supreme being who gives and takes life. Nonetheless, human behaviour and character is dictated by what takes place in the multilingual conglomerates and thoughts within the human mind. In fact, humanity is obviously inexistent without the existence and intervention of God. Nonetheless, I support the opinion that believing in God changes human characters and behaviours. The impairment of morals and sensible approaches of handling life come with assurance of living in the presence of God. With God being an assurance to a moral sustenance of human life, one can be…
Dorff, E.N. (2007). For the love of God and people: A philosophy of Jewish law.
Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society.
Fuchs, J. (1983). Personal responsibility and Christian morality. Washington, D.C:
Moreland, J.P., & Craig, W.L. (2004). Philosophical foundations for a Christian worldview.
Ethical Values and Behavior
Moral Leadership: Batson vs. Tyler
Batson (Chapter 8, hode, 2006) is of the view that moral leadership is about getting people to uphold moral standards and to always act ethically. The underlying assumption is that when everyone acts within their moral capacities, the organization and society as a whole is deemed to benefit. Acting morally, according to Batson, means looking out for the needs and well-being of others, and acting in their favor whenever our interests and theirs are in conflict. Moral leadership is about getting the people around you to look out for others, and to always put the needs of others before their own. It is about motivating people to care for the needy, promote justice in society, conduct their businesses within ethical boundaries, pay their taxes, vote, recycle harmful substances, and contribute to charity programs, not because they derive benefit from doing so,…
Hill, J.L. (1996). The Case for Vegetarianism: Philosophy for a Small Planet. Lanham, MA: Rowman & Littlefield.
Mackinnon, B. & Fiala, A. (2014). Ethics: Theory and Contemporary Issues (concise, 8th ed.). Stamford, CT: Cengage Learning
Rhode, D.L. (Ed.). (2006). Moral Leadership: The Theory of Practice and Power, Judgment and Policy. San Francisco, CA: John Wiley & Sons.
(2001, October 1) Self-esteem at work, Psychology Today, etrieved from http://www.psychologytoday.com/articles/200310/self-esteem-work
6. Describe the needs present in Maslow's hierarchy. How can organizations attempt to meet these needs so that employees are motivated to produce more work? Discuss the answer in detail.
According to Abraham Maslow (1970), there is a hierarchy of needs that define human development. These are: Basic Needs (food, shelter, clothing), Safety, Love and Belonging, Skill Accomplishment and Self-Actualization. In Maslow's view, as each need becomes adequately satisfied, the next highest need becomes dominant. The first three are deficiency needs because they must be satisfied if the individual is to be healthy and secure. The last two are growth needs because they are related to the development and achievement of one's potential (Maslow, 1970). In Maslow's view, as long as we are motivated to satisfy our deficiency needs, then we are moving in a positive direction towards personal…
Maslow, a., (1970) Motivation and personality, 2nd ed., Harper & Row (orig. 1954)
In the film, the passion that Ganju feels for her work, for the people she works with, and for the mission of her organization is quite apparent. This in itself sets up a great environment for others to be a part of. A leader guides those that are willing to learn and serves as a role model when making pertinent conclusions. Personal decisions that get made in regards to the organization need to consider the involvement of all parties and therefore bring order to the purpose of the business (Johnson, 2012). This can be examined in the selected film and due to Ganju's ability to make people feel comfortable, it is obvious that those individuals that are members of her team are made to feel like their voice actually matters and are made to believe that it makes a difference to speak up. Members need to feel that they are…
Johnson, C.E. (2012). Organizational ethics: A practical approach. Thousand Oaks, Calif: SAGE Publications.
Responsibility Project. (2012). Liberty Mutual's the Responsibility Project. [Film]. Retrieved 22 April 2012 from http://responsibility-project.libertymutual.com/films/women-in-the-world-erin-ganju#fbid=EqAzhYh4Rtl
Palmer, D. & Zakhem, a. (2012). Managing for ethical-organizational integrity. Business Expert Press. Amazon Digital Services. Inc.
These claims are virtually all based on the concept that corporations - particularly multinationals -- should be held accountable for their actions within their sphere of operations. "Corporations, for their part, have responded in numerous ways, from denying any duties in the area of human rights to accepting voluntary codes that could constrain their behavior" (atner, 2001, p. 436). In fact, this very point is echoed throughout the literature; for example, "At the turn of the 20th century, corporations tended to disregard the public interest willy-nilly. And even as recently as one-half century ago, corporations had so much power over the marketplace and so little responsibility to society" (Sriramesh & Vercic, 2003, p. 450). Despite these trends, things are changing, though, as atner points out: "The last decade has witnessed a striking new phenomenon in strategies to protect human rights: a shift by global actors concerned about human rights from…
Blackburn, V.L., Doran, M., & Shrader, C.B. (1994). Investigating the dimensions of social responsibility and the consequences for corporate financial performance. Journal of Managerial Issues, 6(2), 195.
Cable, V. (1995). The diminished nation-state: A study in the loss of economic power. Daedalus, 124(2), 23.
Casmir, F.L. (1997). Ethics in intercultural and international communication. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Dalton, D.R., & Metzger, M.B. (1996). Seeing the elephant: An organizational perspective on corporate moral agency. American Business Law Journal, 33(4), 489-576.
McGurn suggests that even the highly complex modern economic markets and financial institutions reflect the values and morals of the community; collectively, they merely manifest the free will exercised by the individuals who control their operations and strategies. In that respect, McGurn reminds us that economic systems and institutions are inanimate and not capable of exercising either moral judgment or immoral exploitations. Rather, morality is a duty of individuals and of the human community to establish through appropriate social values. On the whole, McGurn argues that even the most disastrous economic catastrophes play a role in allowing corrective mechanisms to evolve internally; no interference from government is necessary.
Analysis and Criticism of the Religious Approach to Economic Market Regulation
In principle, the a priori assumption that religion is a beneficial perspective for human conduct and that of institutions is patently flawed. Secular moral theorists might argue (rightfully) that memorizing moral…
The money he earns doesn't go to his relatives but to drink. Teta Elziebta and Marija also give up their hopes of a successful marriage, of family. They become whores. Like Jurgis, they spend their earnings on themselves and not their family: they become heroine addicts (310).
Sinclair's contention that community can't exist in a society that makes immorally-based decisions persists through to the end of the novel. Despite their attempts to become a part of a community after leaving their family, Jurgis, Teta Elziebta, and Marjia all fail. The "communities" they find -- whorehouses and gangs of thugs-- because they are based on an immoral standards, do not function. For example, though he earns the criminal underground money and participates well in their endeavors, Jurgis is kicked out (300). Marija realizes that the community she lives in keeps her a prisoner by keeping her addicted to heroine and forever…
Sinclair, Upton. The Jungle. New York, Barnes and Noble Press, 1995.
Ethics in Printed Media
Print media is one of the most common forms of mass media that people come into contact with on a daily basis in order to obtain information. This form of mass media entails all printed work such as billboards, newspapers, posters, and magazines. Similar to other kinds of media, ethics has become a major issue in printed media given that the major priority of mass communications or journalism is to ensure that provided information is truthful and accurate. Accuracy and truthfulness in print media is ensured through understanding and practicing professional ethics as well as effective decision making on issues that apply to the media.
Generally, ethics in media is a category of applied ethics that addresses various issues related to standard of media and certain moral principles. In addition to dealing with controversial issues or topics, ethics in print media helps journalists to inform, educate,…
"Ethics in Media Reporting." (n.d.). Ishan Family. Retrieved September 27, 2014, from http://www.ishanfamily.com/cms/pdf/2.pdf
Richardson, I. (n.d.). Ethics of Print Media. Retrieved September 27, 2014, from http://www.ehow.com/about_6239171_ethics-print-media.html
Humanitarian intervention: hen is it justified?
One of the most controversial concerns of 20th and 21st century international affairs is the question of when it is justified to embark upon humanitarian interventions. On one hand, there have been clear examples in recent history of genocides (most notably in Rwanda and Bosnia) that clearly defy human decency. On the other hand, the concept of national sovereignty well as the logistics and costs of a coordinated humanitarian intervention can be daunting. Furthermore, calls for humanitarian intervention also often provoke concerns about using such interventions as the pretext for self-interested actions of a more powerful state. This paper will argue that while there are legitimate philosophical objections to humanitarian interventions, on a practical basis such interventions are required to preserve international stability and to prevent future warfare.
A number of theorists of international relations believe that humanitarian interventions of any kind are unjustified.…
Clarke, Walter & Herbst, Jeffrey. "Somalia and the Future of humanitarian intervention."
Foreign Affairs. March/April. 1996. Web. 4 May 2015
"Dutch state liable for 300 Srebrenica massacre deaths." The Guardian. 16 Jul 2014. Web.
4 May 2015
Present, explain, and assess the thesis that only acts done from duty have moral worth
In his Groundwork for the Metaphysics of Morals, Immanuel Kant addresses the issue of how people can determine the moral value of actions. His central claim is that only acts that are done out of duty can be considered to have any moral value. Implicit in this topic is the need to reconcile the intent of one's actions with the result of their actions. Kant explores exactly where morality can be located when identifying the value of one's actions. At stake in Kant's argument is whether there is in fact an a priori framework for how people should behave, and where virtue is found.
At the beginning of the Groundwork, Kant explains the notion of logic and defines the terms that he deploys to explain his governing thesis. These terms include: good will,…
Kant, Immanuel. (2010). Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals. London: Cambridge University Press.
Moral Community: A group in America that is clearly being marginalized politically and socially is the community of undocumented immigrants. An estimated 11.1 million immigrants are living and working in the United States, and notwithstanding that the U.S. Senate and the executive branch have passed a bill allowing undocumented immigrants a path to citizenship, the Republicans resist supporting this legislation. Cultural relativism helps to understand why 11.1 million people are being denied the right to work towards citizenship. Cultural relativism: the beliefs of one culture (in this case, those immigrants that are not yet citizens) should also be understood by others (in this case conservatives don't relate to the cultural beliefs of immigrants and vice-versa). A conservative "moral argument" is that there are a limited amount of goods and jobs in the U.S. And immigrants take these away from citizens here legally, but cultural bias and racism also certainly play…
Foley, E. (2014). GOP Reveals Immigration Reform Principles. HuffPost Politics. Retrieved June 18, 2014, from http://www.huffingtonpost.com .
Morality in Little omen
In Louisa May Alcott's Little omen, Josephine March is able to be moral despite the great pressures and responsibilities imposed on her by her gender, the economic and political circumstances of the time, her role as elder sister, and her immense creative talent. However, Jo is also notoriously stubborn, proud, and easily provoked to anger, vices that consistently challenge her moral resolve throughout her adolescence and early adulthood, but ultimately Jo is able to overcome these vices with the help of moral guidance given to her from her family and upbringing so that she matures into a humble, charitable, and temperate character, far more mature than the fiery character of her youth.
The first instance of Jo's vices getting the best of her is when she remains angry at Amy for burning her manuscript even after Amy apologizes. The next day Jo does not warn Amy…
Alcott, Louisa May. Little Women. Google ebook. Boston, MA: Roberts Brothers, 1868. eBook.
Retrieved from: http://books.google.com/books?id=Fzqjs08fIJ4C
Dow is not the most ethical company to begin with, given their production and distribution of toxic chemicals. The products Dow produces can destroy the environment and potentially threatens the health of their employees as well as their consumers. However, as Greg Miller points out in his article, "Fired by Big Brother: Fearing Sexual Harassment Lawsuits, Dow Chemical Co. In Michigan Fired Workers who Forwarded Lewd E-Mail. Could Your Company Do the Same?" Dow might be guilty of violating further ethical codes, those that pertain to employee relations and basic human rights. A number of Dow employees, a disproportionate number of which were union members, were fired without warning due to their forwarding lewd e-mails. The terminated employees suffered considerable hardships as a result of being fired. Some of them had worked at the company for decades and lost their pensions along with their dignity; many could barely…
The ideas of Thomas Hobbes, the influential English philosopher who lived in the late 1500s to middle 1600s, are still considered important today. Hobbes is best remembered for his ideas on political philosophy. While Hobbes throughout his life championed the idea of absolutism for the sovereign he also is responsible for many of the fundamentals of Western political thought such as equality of men, individual rights, and the idea that all justifiable political power must be representative of the people (Edwards, 2002).
Hobbes also believed that human nature was such that people acted out of selfish-interests and if left to their own devices would do anything to get what they wanted or to acquire more power at the expense of others. Governments are then formed to shield people from their own selfishness; however he understood that even a King left unchecked would also act in a selfish manner…
Action in America. (2012). Drug war cost clock updated 2011. Retrieved on February 10, 2010
from http://actionamerica.org/drugs/wodclock.shtml .
Appel, D. (2004). Why can immorality be legislated more easily than morality in America
Free Leadership Thoughts. Retrieved February 5, 2012, from http://authenticleadershipinc.com/free.html
Victor inwardly becomes a monster himself." (Kain, par. 5)
On the other hand, ichard III was written by William Shakespeare. It is the story of ichard who secretly desired the throne of his brother. Although ichard is unattractive and considers himself as such, he is very charismatic. He has a strong personality and he is brilliant with his words and his arguments. In his desire for the thrown of his brother, King Edward IV, ichard was willing to kill anyone just to obtain it. Being intelligent and skillful, he was able to deceive the people around him in order to manipulate them. In order to get married, he manipulated Lady Anne. And then he used his political power by manipulating and deceiving the people around him to have his other brother, Clarence, executed. He used manipulated his older brother, Edward to feel guilty about Clarence's death. This contributed to the…
California State University, Northridge. 2007. 9 June 2009.
Donnelley, Connor. Conscience with the New Millenium. 8 June 2009 < http://www.sma.org.sg/sma_news/3202/ethics.pdf >.
Hall, Richard, Dennis, Carolyn Brown, Chipman, Tere. The Ethical Foundations of Criminal Justice. New York: CRC Press, 1999.
Kain, Joseph. "The Human Situation in Creators of Life and Their Creations." Lehigh University Digital Library. 9 June 2009 .
Fichte separate right from morality and is it a good thing? Should they be separated?
Fichte's Philosophy of ight and Ethics
Why does Fichte separate right from morality and is it a good thing? Should they be separated?
Moral and political anxieties animate Fichte's entire philosophy and his perceptions to these issues that are innovative and at times tied together. His responses to Kant's vital philosophy in 1790 was a retaliation to the Kantian moral perception and its outset of human self-esteem as embedded in freedom and the moral outlook of human beings as normal agents. Fichte's perception on Wissenschaftslehre principle was a far from the conceptions developed in 1974 by the philosophers of Foundations of the entire Wissenschaftslehre. Fichte's major works in the principle of right and morality are extensively covered in these two areas; Fichte's Foundation of Natural ight (Cambridge Texts in the History of Philosophy) And the…
"Fichte's Philosophy of Right and Ethics," forthcoming in Gunter Zoller (2007). The
Cambridge Companion to Fichte. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Organizational esponsibility and Current Health Care Issues
Ethics is the assessment and research of the human habits in regard to moral concepts, particularly those in a certain team, occupation, or specific organization (The Free Dictionary, 2012). People deal with lots of ethical/moral problems everyday and how they react might result in significant and legal ethical/moral ramifications. In the healthcare market, having approaches for making ethical/moral choices is a necessary part of the task. This paper will provide a circumstance that happens in a medical workplace and if the choice of the medical assistant will have an effect on the decision-making procedure, which can bring about legal and honest complexities.
The situation provides a skillfully experienced medical assistant and Licensed Practical Nurse (LPN) working in a clinic or medical workplace as a workplace assistant. Alone in the workplace and in charge of the phone calls throughout lunch, the assistant gets…
Bagheri, A. (2012). Elements of human dignity in healthcare settings: the importance of the patient's perspective. Journal of Medical Ethics; 38:12-729.
Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2009). Medical Assistants. Retrieved on October 31, 2010 from, http://www.bls.gov/oco/ocos164.htm
Buzzle. (2010). Medical Assistant Job Description. Retrieved on November 1, 2010 from, http://www.buzzle.com/articles/medical-assistant-job-description.html
Fremgen, B.F. (2009). Medical Law and ethics (3rd. ed.) Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.
Business ethics is a division of ethics that pertains to the interaction of business and ethics and applies ethical analysis to the business area. It is both expressive and normal. The five activities within business ethics can be delineated as follows:
1. Using general ethical principles to specific practices in business.
2. The analysis of whether moral terms related to individuals' actions may be applied to combined entities such as firms.
3. Analysis of presumptions of business.
4. Analysis of other related areas of information as guided by embedded problems in business.
5. Describing morally commendable and exemplary actions of firms (Barrett, 2009).
Corporate social responsibility (CS) entails any activity that encourages the interests of any stakeholder of a business corporation. Occasionally CS refers to philanthropic programs that target communities or employees. In other instances it refers to obligations to promote the welfare of suppliers. It also refers to an…
Barrett, Douglas. (2009). Corporate Social Responsibility and Quality Management Revisited.
Journal for Quality & Participation, 31(4), 24-30.
Gill, Amiram. (2008). Corporate Governance as Social Responsibility: A Research Agenda.
Berkeley Journal of International Law, 26(2), 452-478
Sociology: Ethics and esponsibility
The Humane Society is a non-profit organization that was established in 1954; their goal is to develop a world that is kind and sustainable for animals and humans together (humanesociety.org). The mission of the Humane Society is to protect animals from exploitation, brutality and abandonment; according to their official website, "We work to reduce suffering and to create meaningful social change for animals by advocating for sensible public policies, investigating cruelty and working to enforce existing laws, educating the public about animal issues, joining with corporations on behalf of animal-friendly policies, and conducting hands-on programs that make ours a more humane world" (Humanesociety.org) The organization prides itself on the celebration of pets, wildlife and the ecosystems that support them as well as the adoption of shelter animals (Humanesociety.org).
Ethics and responsibility pervade this organization and shape and guide nearly everything they do as the work of…
Cooper, T. (2012). The Responsible Administrator. San Francisco: John Wiley.
Utm.edu/ethics. (2009, May 10). Ethics. Retrieved June 6, 2012, from Internet Encyclopedia:
Utm.edu/resp. (2009, march 9). Responsibility. Retrieved June 6, 2012, from Internet
.....ethical plan and strategy is integral to an organization's overall commitment to social responsibility. In "Marketing Ethics and Social Responsibility," Marinova (2013) first discusses the general importance of ethics as a general marketing strategy, in order to promote the brand as one that is socially responsible and thereby position the organization not just ethically but also strategically within the marketplace. Next, Marinova (2013) defines terms related to ethics and corporate social responsibility to help organizations to identify their weaknesses in these areas and make strong commitments to change and revising their ethical policies, particular in marketing. Moreover, the author offers some of the direct marketing solutions related to specific issues like false advertising and the sale of potentially harmful products from toys containing lead paint to food products containing items known to cause obesity or other diseases. The tremendous strengths of the Marinova (2013) article are only partially offset by…
The activities of businesses affect different stakeholders within the communities they operate in. They affect customers, employees, shareholders, suppliers, financiers, regulatory authorities, and communities. Accordingly, in their pursuit of economic objectives, business organizations have a responsibility to satisfy the concerns of stakeholders affected by their operations. This is the core of corporate social responsibility (CSR). CSR theory asserts that business organizations exist for not only profit motives, but also social and environmental objectives (Schwartz, 2011). Indeed, CSR has become so that important governments in most countries around the world have enacted laws and regulations that businesses must adhere to so as to foster community wellbeing and environmental sustainability. Inattention to social and environmental concerns may harm an organization's public reputation or have serious legal ramifications on the organization.
WECAREHealth (WCH), a New Jersey-based pharmaceutical company, is facing serious human rights issues and environmental concerns due to its activities in the…
Corporate ocial Responsibility: Bowen and Carroll
Howard R. Bowen was the founder of the concept of corporate social responsibility. In his book "ocial Responsibility of the Businessman," Bowen argued that business was a major force that touched the lives of numerous individuals. ince business was inextricably and continuously involved in processes of judgment and decision-making, many of their proposals and assertions touched the lives of vast numbers of citizens. These included not only employees of the firm but also their families, acquaintances, and so forth. The larger the firm, therefore, the more corporate responsibility, accordingly the industry had in regards to the decisions that it formulated. As Bowen asked: "What responsibilities to society may businessmen reasonably be expected to assume?" (p. xi). And he responded:
"It refers to the obligations of businessmen to pursue those policies, to make those decisions, or to follow those lines of action which are desirable…
Sniderman, S. (2011). "Bill & Melinda gates Foundation outlines 7 social good initiatives for 2011" yourolivebranch.org http://news.yourolivebranch.org/2011/02/07/bill-melinda-gates-foundation-outlines-7-social-good-initiatives-for-2011/
Whoriskey, P. (Oct. 6, 2011) Record thin on Steve Job's philanthropy. Washington Post.
Is it true that the "bottom line" of a business is profit and profit alone? Perhaps it is for some companies, but the idea of the “triple bottom line” has been around for quite some time—and it refers not just to profits but also to people and planet. The triple bottom line has received renewed interest since the rise of the concept of corporate social responsibility (CSR) which refers to a company’s advocacy of and support for the values important to the “social, environmental and economic environment in which” the company operates (Castka, Bamber & Sharp, 2005, p. vii). When companies fail to consider the triple bottom line—the impact of their business operations on people and the planet as well as on profits—then they fall into that group of companies condemned by Feldman (2012) in his Sunday Review letter: such corporations fail to appreciate “how their obsession with the…
NHS Corporate Social esponsibility Practice
In a contemporary business environment, organizations are struggling with the new roles to meet the needs of present generation without compromising the needs of future generation. Within a business environment, stakeholders are calling upon corporate organizations to implement operations that will meet the societal values and the natural environment. Organizations are also being called upon to apply principles of corpo-rate social responsibility (CS) in the business operations. Corpo-rate social responsibility (CS) is the process where corporate organizations demonstrate the inclusion of social responsibility and environmental concerns in their business activities. (D'Amato, Henderson, & Henderson, 2009). It is no longer acceptable for a firm to conduct business without demonstrating societal concern.
The objective of this report is to evaluate the current Corporate Social esponsibility practice of National Health Service (NHS). The report uses Carroll's pyramid models to demonstrate the effectiveness of NHS Corporate Social esponsibility practice,…
Bowie, N.E. (1999). Business Ethics and Normative Theories. Black well Publishing. UK.
Burton, B.K., Farh, J.L. & Hegarty, W.H. (2000). Comparison of a Cross-Cultural Corporate Social Responsibility Orientation: Hong Kong vs. United States Students. Teaching Business Ethics, 4(2):151-167.
Carroll, A.B. (1999). Evolution of a Definitional Construct of Corporate social responsibility Business and Society, 38(3): 268-295.
D'Amato, A. Henderson, S. & Henderson, S.(2009).Corporate Social Responsibility and Sustainable Business. CCL Press. USA.
Apple's Current Position On Its Ethical And Social esponsibilities
Corporations are increasingly seeking a vision in maintaining social responsibility alongside a vision in business. There are also demands for greater accountability and transparency in corporate actions of organized consumers, state representatives and grass movements (Garsten, 2003). Many corporations aim to engage in corporate citizenship and to be socially responsible by adhering to social accountability standards and voluntary codes of conduct. This essay endeavors to examine Apple's current position on the social and ethical responsibilities and to determine whether it has met the responsibilities. The study also determines the impact caused by the violation of ethics and social responsibilities among Apple's suppliers.
Current Position on the Company's Ethical and Social esponsibilities
Corporate Social esponsibility comprises of actions that are not required by the law, but extend beyond the transactional interest of companies and further social good. CS is often used to…
Creel, T. (2010). Environmental Reporting Practices of the Largest U.S. Companies. Management Accounting Quarterly 12(10): 13-20
Garsten, C. (2003). The cosmopolitan organization -- an essay on corporate accountability. Global Networks 3(3):355 -- 370
Kenney, M. (2011). How venture capital became a component of the U.S. National System of Innovation. Industrial and Corporate Change, 20(6): 1677 -- 1723
Northrop, E. (2013). The Accuracy, Market Ethic, and Individual Morality Surrounding the Profit Maximization Assumption. American Economist, Vol. 58, No. 2: 111-124
Organizational Issues from the Responsibility Project (Liberty Mutual)
The video chosen from the Responsibility Project was "omen in the orld: Erin Ganju." Her story is meaningful for a number of reasons that will be reviewed in this paper. Ganju is the CEO of "Room to Read," an organization that seeks to help educate children (through reading and other skills) in order that today's children can grow up with the power to change the world for the better.
omen in the orld: Erin Ganju -- hat are the Important Issues? Ganju begins her video by explaining how "passionate" her parents were -- when she was just a child -- about sharing information with her regarding different cultures. A sense of "wanderlust" was "instilled" in her, Ganju explains. Importantly, Ganju's parents not only took their daughter to many interesting places, but the family read about each place they visited, encouraging both reading…
Deen, Thalif. (2011). UNESCO reveals huge secondary education gap worldwide. One World
South Asia. Retrieved November 12, 2012, from http://southasia.oneworld.net.
Foster, Wayne A., and Miller, Merideth. Development of the Literacy Achievement Gap: A
Longitudinal Study of Kindergarten Through Third Grade. Language, Speech, and Hearing
Leadership -- Power and Responsibilities / Integrity
hen it comes to the concept of "leadership" there are numerous definitions that can be applied. Every leader uses his or her own approach to leading, and while there are similar aspects to the behaviors of most leaders, how leaders approach their strengths is played out differently. In literature (like the blind man in Cathedral) and in real life (like the way Abraham Lincoln conducted himself in a political situation) leaders provide robust examples of how to get things done and how to influence the actions of others.
This paper uses the leadership styles and behaviors of several individuals to demonstrate their qualities (or, in the case of Jimmy Cross, lack of leadership qualities) as they lead -- and the paper points to the integrity the individuals showed in the process of their leadership.
Leadership and Integrity
Abraham Lincoln -- the subject today…
Abrashoff, Michael D. It's Your Ship: Management Techniques from the Best Damn Ship in the Navy. New York: Warner Books. 2002
Carver, Raymond. Cathedral: Raymond Carver, in The Wadsworth Casebook Series for Reading, Research, and Writing, Ed. Laurie Kirszner. Independence, KY: Cengage
Moreton, Catherine L. "10 Qualities that Made Abraham Lincoln a Great Leader." Business & Legal Resources. Retrieved February 16, 2013, from https://hr.blr.com . 2008.
In addition, we might ask ourselves if the richer nations have or not a greater responsibility as far as the research and development in the area of sustainable energy are concerned. (Reid, environmentalleader.com)
elieving that there are such energy sources or consumption policies which would allow the planet's resources to be maintained for a longer period, while making sure that all the nations are provided with a comfortable living is rather naive. Under these circumstances, it has been argued that doing the moral thing means choosing the least terrible solution. The problem is that this implies a relativistic evaluation of the matter which impacts the manner in which the moral principles are conceived.
efore stepping into a debate regarding the character of the moral principles, we may state that we agree with the opinions which state that there is no such thing as objective moral principles."Ethics can be seen as…
Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics (Ross, W.D. Translator). Retrieved fromhttp://socserv.mcmaster.ca/econ/ugcm/3ll3/aristotle/Ethics.pdf September 30, 2010
Hartman Laura P. & Joe DesJardins. Business Ethics Decision Making for Personal integrity & Social Responsibility, Second Edition
Of these, proponents like Bruce W. Fraser (2005) quote studies and statistics that support the financial viability of corporate responsibility. One study is for example the one by Oekom Research, which indicates that of the 602 companies examined, the 186 companies with the highest sustainability rating also performed better financially than the 416 remaining companies, outperforming them by 23.4%.
Critics like Vogel are however not impressed by such numbers (tavins, 2006). The much wider studies cited and compared in his book appear to indicate that results like those mentioned by Fraser are both biased and too narrow to provide a true indication of the performance/responsibility ratio.
This is a debate that will probably last for a very long time. Nevertheless, other factors should also be taken into account, especially in terms of shareholders. hareholders as entities are changing together with the environment in which they function. An increasing number of…
Fraser, Bruce W. (2005, Feb). Corporate social responsibility Internal Auditor. Database: FindArticles.com
Stavins, Robert N. (2006, April). The Market for Virtue: The Potential and Limits of Corporate Social Responsibility (book review). Environment. Database: FindArticles.com.
Teach, Edward. (2005, Dec). Two views of virtue: the corporate social responsibility movement is picking up steam. Should you worry about it? CFO: Magazine for Senior Financial Executives. Database: FindArticels.com
This kind of competition can prove to be more effective than governmental regulations since firms are reluctant to follow government mandates.
Secondary research has been used as the main tool. Important journal articles, case studies and analyses have been included to understand the concept of CS and its use in gain competitive advantage.
ANALYSIS and DISCUSSION
Social responsibility is closely connected with concern for financial growth. According to this belief, firms seek to maximize their profits by investing in a healthy environment and other public good projects. The firms that have successfully attained the prestigious image of being socially responsible follow this ideology. These firms choose to be more socially conscious not because of any real intention of creating a healthier society but because their actions seem to influence buyer behavior in a positive manner. Companies are thus rapidly developing serious CS policies with exclusive departments dealing with this.…
Miller, H. "Businesses don't have social responsibilities; people do." The Miami Herald 21 July 2004.
The Good Company." The Economist. 22-28 Jan. 2005: 11.
Braungart, M; McDonough, W. Cradle to Cradle. New York: North Point Press, 2002.
Aaronson, S; Reeves, J. Corporate Responsibility in the Global Village: The Role of Public Policy. Washington, DC: National Policy Association, 2002.
There are several ways that BP could have chosen to respond, all of which were "open" to them (i.e. they had free will), yet those chose to take paths that were less moral. Kant's universal law would have them put their responsibility to humanity as the motivator, however, their motives have not proven to be driven by doing what is genuinely good for humanity.
Blackburn (2009) states that it is tricky to apply the categorical imperative and that the most persuasive examples of it being effective are in cases where there is an institution whose existence depends on sufficient performance by a sufficient number of individuals.
Suppose, as is plausible, that our ability to give and receive promises depends upon general compliance with the principle of keeping promises. Were we to break them sufficiently often, or were promise-breaking to become a 'law of nature,' then there would be no such…
Blackburn, S. (2009). Ethics: A very short introduction. New York: Oxford University Press.
Kant, I. (2010). Groundwork of the metaphysic morals. Trans H.J. Paton. Introduction philosophy: Classical and contemporary readings. Eds. John Perry, Michael Bratman,
and John Martin Fischer. (5th edition). New York: Oxford. 504-20.
Lyon, Susan. (2010). Climate Progress. Retrieved on August 24, 2010, from the Web site:
Corporate Social esponsibility
The purpose of this case study is close synopsis of the Enron case and its impact on consumers and corporate business practices alike. Prior to its collapse Enron had been named one of America's top 10 admired corporations, and its boards "was acclaimed one of the U.S.' best five" (eed, 2004). Throughout the 1990s the company experienced tremendous growth and profits exceeding $180 billion, employing more than 30,000 people worldwide (eed, 2004).
Enron collapsed however and went bankrupt, a process that "outraged and impacted stakeholders tremendously and resulted in numerous congressional investigations" (eed, 2004). The "implosion" of the company "wreaked havoc on accounting like no other case in American history; the collapse of the system called into question the adequacy of U.S. disclosure practices and the integrity of independent audit processes" (Thomas, 2002).
Overview of the Case
In October of 2001 Enron executives announced they were taking…
Berlau, John; Spun, Brandon. (2002). "Is Big business ethically bankrupt? Boom in business ethics courses is likely in the wake of the Enron scandal, but critics say these classes need to focus on moral rather than political corrected ness." Insight on the News, Vol. 18, Issue 10, p. 16
Farrell, G. (2002). "Impact to reverberate from Wall Street to D.C." USA Today. October 10, 2004, http://www.usatoday.com/money/energy/enron/2002-06-17-andersen.htm
Hoops, J. (2004). "Enron revisited: where are we today?" The Trusted Professional,
October 11, 2004,
Role of Memory in Shaping Morality
Oscar Wilde once wrote that, "The man with a clear conscience probably has a poor memory." The role of memory and remembering in shaping moral decisions is a concept that is central to sections of Hannah Arendt's Responsibility and Judgment and Friedrich Nietzsche's On the Genealogy of Morals as both texts wrestle with how one knows that an action is morally wrong. It is a question that goes back to the earliest days of philosophical inquiry under Socrates: Does the understanding of morality come inherently from something within man or is it merely inculcated by society and thereby remembered. Drawing from her own experiences as a German Jewish refugee and after World War II as a reported at the Nuremberg Trials, Arendt argues that morality must exist beyond the scale of the individual as there is too much variability within humanity's perspective on moral…