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Mother Tongue, by Amy Tan [...] how the author uses rhetorical strategies to make her argument, while critiquing cultural standards. Amy Tan writes of the different forms of English she uses in her life, while illustrating the myriad ways that people express themselves depending on their audience and their needs. Everyone uses different phrases and expressions depending on their surroundings and their goals. Tan's essay applies to all of us, and because of this, it is easier to read and easier to apply to everyday and classroom situations.
Throughout Amy Tan's essay, she compares the English she uses everyday, to the English she uses with family and close friends. She uses the English she has learned as a tool to express the stilted English that makes up her cultural memories and the words of her mother. She writes, "But to me, my mother's English is perfectly clear, perfectly natural. It's…
Bloom, Harold. Amy Tan. Ed. Tenley Williams. Philadelphia: Chelsea House, 2000.
Tan, Amy. "Mother Tongue."
(Although Hispanic voters, demographically, may seem to be aligned with the Democratic Party on class issues, on social issues they tend to be conservative and have been eagerly courted by the Republican Party in many states).
Passing a mandatory English law would be a validation of racism against Hispanics, and even encourage discrimination in the name of anti-immigration sentiment. "Romanticism exalted language, made it mystical, sublime -- a bond of national identity. At the same time, Romanticism created a monster: it made of language a means for destroying a country" (King 1997). If we have English-only laws, the natural implication are that those who speak English more proficiently (clearly not recent immigrants or at least not immigrants from non-European nations) are better citizens. If we have English-only laws, the implication is that speaking English is somehow superior to not speaking English, despite the need for Americans to function in the…
King, Robert D. "Should English be the law?" The Atlantic. 1997. December 13, 2009.
Tame a Wild Tongue
Language and Identity in Anzaldua How to Tame a Wild Tongue
How to Tame a Wild Tongue is a fascinating internal expose of the evolution and development of language among immigrants of Spanish linguistic heritage. Gloria Anzaldua recognizes herself as a "blended" individual who speaks and contributes to a myriad of native and blended languages that are all varied and regionally expressive of both native Mexican and other "Chicano" immigrants as well as many of this heritage which were born in the U.S. To new immigrants or second generation immigrants to the U.S. Or even some who were isolated linguistically from their mother tongue by political borders. The work is powerful and expressive; it also lends itself to an internalized (externalized) idea of self. Anzaldua specifically discusses the cultural connections and disconnections that are created by language and its evolution and also addresses issues of internal…
Anzaldua, G. (1993). "How To Tame a Wild Tongue." Ways of Reading: An Anthology for Writers. Eds. David Bartholomae and Anthony Petrosky. Boston: Bedford, 39-48. Print.
Fought, C. (2008). "On the borderlands of communities: Taking linguistic research to la frontera." Plenary talk at-New Ways of Analyzing Variation 37?(NWAV-37), 8 November, Houston, Texas. Retrieved December 10, 2010 from: http://nwav37.rice.edu/abstracts/Fought_Preston.pdf.
Lynch-Biniek, A. (Summer/Fall 2009) Filling in the blanks: They say, I say, and the persistence of formalism. The CEA Forum 38 (2) Retrieved December 10, 2010 from: http://www2.widener.edu/~cea/382lynchbiniek.htm.
Like our genes, our native tongues are both unique and passed down from generation to generation. Native tongues are integral and inescapable parts of our personal and collective identity, like skin color or gender. Therefore, language can be a stigma, an indicator or race, ethnicity, and culture. In the book Borderlands: La Frontera, Gloria Anzaldua explores expressions of Chicano culture in America through an analysis of the language she calls Chicano Spanish. Chicano Spanish is a by-product of ways Tex-Mex peoples created a unique cultural heritage in the Southwestern United States. The author speaks about Chicano culture, race, and identity all as functions of language. In her essay "How to Tame a Wild Tongue," Gloria Anzaldua shows how language indicates personality, culture, and background more than any other aspect of self-expression. Therefore, we should be proud of our native tongue just as we should be proud of our culture,…
Business Plan for Green Tongues
Environmental and Industry Analysis
Products or Services
Marketing esearch and Evaluation
Manufacturing and Operations Plan
Critical isks and Assumptions
Benefits to the Community
Green Tongues is an advertising company that provides environmentally friendly advertising solutions to all those companies that value their environment and want to give back to the society in which they exist. Green Tongues envisions itself to be the premier advertising company in the near future in the entire Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) region as consumers and businesses in this region are slowly beginning to realize the importance of environmental conservation. The six member states that comprise the GCC (i.e., Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates) are shown to be well situated to take advantage of their political and economic clout in ways that promote environmentally…
Bains, K. (2008, January 9). Solar powered billboards in San Francisco, Africa, and Canada.
Solar Power Authority. Retrieved from http://solarpowerauthority.com/solar-powered-billboards-in-san-francisco-africa-and-canada/ .
Blanche, E. (2011, February). Gulf rail network: The dream becomes reality. The Middle East,
Active Side of Infinity by Carlos Castaneda
Writer Will Get:
As we open the book, we are confronted with two poems, "Syntax" and "The Other Syntax" What is the significance of syntax? It is defined as the linguistic study of how words are put together to form sentences and ultimately, to mean something. The first of these poems describes the Western view of the beginning of the universe, the Big Ban Theory. It is a linear explanation backed by equations that demands a linear progression, one in which we have constructed our world: beginnings, middles and ends. The speaker "mirrors the syntax of his "mother tongue."
"The Other Syntax," questions the first and states that there are other syntaxes. One for instance that speaks of the intensity of the experience. There are no clear-cut signposts. Thus the universe is the chariot…
s noted on the JP Morgan's own website, the evolution of the credit derivatives market has shifted the entire technology agenda into the banking environment because of the creation of electronic markets. full understanding of how recent changes in technology can be related to international economics and development is thus critical to success in the field of consulting.
I believe I can offer a unique combination of technical, business, and personal skills to JP Morgan that relate directly to the interrelationship of technology, structural development, and international economics. My background in the electrical and structural aspects of engineering, my personal and social education in Europe, and my familiarity with business culture and terms would all make me a valuable asset to JP Morgan.
In September of 2002, I graduated with honors in Civil Electronic Engineering from the Free University of Brussels (V.U.B.). This background in engineering has given…
At university, I honed and developed my analytical skills, the apex of which was my thesis on the simulation of an ADSL-modem. My work has taught me how to tackle unstructured problems, rather than simply to apply outmoded concepts to new ideas. I am extremely comfortable with several program languages, including Visual basic, C++, Java and Matlab-Simulink. But beyond comfort, I know how to think creatively in the language of technology, much as I know how to communicate in a variety of languages.
A interned in 2001 with the Telindus Company in Beligu, an International telecommunications company, for which I wrote a program to use a sampler as an oscilloscope enabling the company to test modems. In my work for Eleven 11 in Antwerp, Belgium, I wrote a specific program to facilitate this Belgian diamonds company's accounting. Even during my 'leisure' time I found myself fusing my interests in technology and business, when I created with some friends of mine an investment club in February of 2000.
But at JP Morgan, my passion for technology and business would be fused, not simply into a single investment club, but would become the focus of my professional and intellectual life. I offer my skills, my energy, along with my passion to this great and renowned company.
Why are you applying for a role in your chosen area? (Demonstrate your suitability for the position(s) sought.)
In September of 2002, I graduated with honors with a degree in Civil Electronic Engineering from the Free University of Brussels (V.U.B). Although I enjoyed studying this discipline and pursuing my degree, I have come to realize that my naturally extroverted personality is far more suited and more fulfilled in the fast-paced world of business and finance. This is why I have decided to apply for an entry-level position for the Financial Management Program (FMP) at General Electric.
I do not only seek an education for myself in my new, chosen field. I also believe that my background has given me, as a person, a good deal that I can offer to GE as a company. A civil electronic engineer, such as myself, is often confronted with highly complex mathematical…
For example, the word "ring" connotes a wedding ring and it also refers more directly to the "ring of boots" at her feet. The word "lifted" also has a double meaning, one literal and one metaphorical. The mother remembers literally lifting her baby boy in the bathtub, but she contemplates how he is being "lifted" or stolen by his fiance. Her baby boy is leaving her. The word "bedded" also connotes two different things, suggesting both sex but also finality as she describes the feeling wedding ring being permanently em-bedded on a person's finger.
6. The first stanza of Agha Shahid Ali's poem "Postcard from Kashmir" is filled with hope and optimism, delivered mainly by the word "neat." Written from a youthful perspective, the word "neat" is often used as slang like the word "cool" is. Moreover, the word "neat" is used to described his humble yet poor home. The…
general education SDAIE or Sheltered English lesson plan based on the approach described in the course Writing Effective Lesson Plan textbook in a content area of history based on both the California English Language Art Standards and English Language Development standards. This paper states appropriate goals and objectives, objectives, outcomes, rationale, describe content presentation methods, instructional strategies, learning activities, technology, assessment techniques and teaching materials.
The lesson is for an 8th grade class of world history at the ABC School. There are a total of thirty students in the class and their ages range from 13-14 years. According to the information that has been provided by the cooperating teacher there are four are English learners in the class, three are re-designated English learners while two of the students have IEP's, from among these two one has auditory memory issues and the other has ADHD.
Crawford, A.N. (2005). Communicative approaches to second language acquisition: From oral language development into the core curriculum and L2 literacy. In C.F. Leyba (ed.) Schooling and language minority students: A theoretical framework 3rd Edition (pp. 65117). Los Angeles, CA. Evaluation, Dissemination and Assessment Center, California State University, Los Angeles.
Cummins, J. (2005). Teaching the language of academic success: A framework for school-based language policies. In C.F. Leyba (ed.) Schooling and language minority students: A theoretical framework 3rd edition (pp. 3-31). Los Angeles, CA. Evaluation, Dissemination and Assessment Center, California State University, Los Angeles.
Echevarria, A., Graves, A. (2007). Sheltered content instruction: Teaching English language learners with diverse abilities. Boston, MA. Allyn and Bacon.
Genzuk, M. (2011). Specially designed academic instruction in English (SDAIE) for language minority students. Center for Multilingual, Multicultural Research Digital Papers Series. Center for Multilingual, Multicultural Research, University of Southern California. Retrieved from http://www.usc.edu/dept/education/CMMR/DigitalPapers/SDAIE_Genzuk.pdf
Inuktitut in Modern Inuit Communities in Northern Canada
The role of language in identity construction of the Inuit in Nunavik (Quebec, Canada), which nourishes the evolution of their ethno-territorial movement in the eastern Canadian Arctic, had been around since the 1970s. This paper is an analysis of the legal-political context of the Quebec State then enables the detachment of the cornerstones of its policy speech in general, and finally those with respect to the indigenous population, in particular to the Inuit language.
There are eight major Inuit communities: those of the LABADO, the UNGAVA, and the BAFFIN, of Iglulik, the CAIBOU, of Netsilik and Copper as well as the Inuit of the Western Arctic (which replaced MACKENZIE INUIT). There are five main dialects Inuit in Canada Inuvialuktun, Inuinnaqtun, Inuktitut and inuttut grouped under a single language, Inuktitut or Inuktitut. (McGrath 2007) At the last census, 70% of Inuit said they…
Alia, Valerie (2009). Names and Nunavut: Culture and Identity in Arctic Canada. Berghahn Books. ISBN 9781845451653
Billson, Janet Mancini; Kyra Mancini (2007). Inuit women: their powerful spirit in a century of change. Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 9780742535961
Crandall, Richard C (2000). Inuit art: a history. McFarland. ISBN 0786407115
De Poncins, Gontran. Kabloona. St. Paul, MN: Graywolf Press, 1996 (originally 1941). ISBN 1-55597-249-7
If anything, the more languages in which a book is published the better. This way there can be as much cross fertilization of ideas and solutions to pressing needs.
Achebe, Chinua. Things Fall Apart. New York: Penguin, 2006.
____African Trilolgy. London: Picador, 2000
Ashcroft, Bill; Griffiths, Gareth and Tiffin, Helen (eds.). The Post Colonial Studies eader, London: outledge, (1995)
Bassnett-McGuire, Susan. Translation Studies. London: outledge, 1991.
Chevrier, Jacques. "Writing African books in the French Language L'Afrique littcraire et artistique 50 (1979): 49.
Janmohamed, a. Janmohamed, a. "Sophisticated Primitivism: The Syncretism of Oral and Literate Modes in Achebe, Chinua Things Fall Apart.." Ariel: A eview of International English Literature 15 (1984): 19-39.
Gikandi, Simon. "The Epistemology of Translation: Ngugi, Matigari, and the Politics of Language." esearch in African Literatures 22.4 (1991): 161-67.
Gyasi, Kwaku. Writing as Translation: African Literature and the Challenges of Translation.: esearch in African Literatures a.2. (1999).,…
Achebe, Chinua. Things Fall Apart. New York: Penguin, 2006.
____African Trilolgy. London: Picador, 2000
Ashcroft, Bill; Griffiths, Gareth and Tiffin, Helen (eds.). The Post Colonial Studies Reader, London: Routledge, (1995)
Bassnett-McGuire, Susan. Translation Studies. London: Routledge, 1991.
Consider the fact that the Iroquois are said not to have had a strong word for the singular "I," and that they subsequently developed what was arguably the longest lasting communal representative democracy the world has ever known. The Inuit, whose culture revolves around the arctic world, have dozens of words for snow - this sort of technical knowledge allows quick and accurate transmission of conditions and training in survival.
In Western terms, one remembers that Jesus Christ was said to be "The Word," yet in the original Greek this indicates not only a spoken word but also the Logos - the root term for intellectual reason, for Meaning within context (be that the context of a sentence, a life, a history, or a universe); logos was rational order. The difference between saying that a religious figure is the Word (which at its most profound seem to indicate a kind…
Atkins, J.D.C. (1887). Report of the commissioner of Indian affairs. House Exec. Doc. No. 1, Pt. 5, 50th Cong., 1st Sess. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
Boston Language Institute. "TEFL FAQ http://teflcertificate.com/faq.html
Ethnologue. "English http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=eng
Macha, Freddy. "Tanzanian Independence Day Abroad. http://www.unclesamofafrica.com/TanzaniaGuardian.htm
English in Teaching and Learning Math in Hong Kong
With the intermingling of cultures, business, and globalization in general, it is difficult to imagine that English would not be spoken or at least understood in some form in any part of the world. If nothing else, Internet communication has opened up myriad opportunities for people to learn about any amount of cultures and languages they wish. In terms of business, as mentioned, the world has also become increasingly globalized. Businesses that can expand globally tend to be stronger financially and have greater longevity than those who cannot. Often, an ability to communicate internationally is at the heart of business success. For this reason, the medium of instruction in schools, and especially non-English speaking countries, have come to the forefront of educational attention. In Hong Kong, social and political changes have given a unique dynamic to whether or not English should…
Education Commission (2005, Dec.). Report on Review of Medium of Instruction for Secondary Schools and Secondary School Places Allocation. Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of The People's Republic of China. Retrieved from: http://www.e-c.edu.hk/tc/reform/resources/MOI&SSPA_report_Eng.pdf
Poon, A.Y.K., Lau, C.M.Y. And Chu, D.H.W. (2013, March). Impact of the Fine-Tuning Medium-of-Instruction Policy on Learning: Some Preliminary Findings. Literacy Information and Computer Education Journal, Vol. 4, Iss.1. Retrieved from: http://infonomics-society.org/LICEJ/ImpactoftheFineTuningMediumofInstructionPolicyonLearningSomePreliminaryFindings.pdf
Tsui, A.B.M. (2008). Medium of Instruction in Hong Kong: One Country, Two Systems, Whose Language? Medium of Instruction Policies: Which Agenda? Whose Agenda? Edited by James. W. Ollofson and Amy B.M. Tsui. Taylor & Francis e-Library.
Zeng, W. (2007). Medium of Instruction in Secondary Education in Post-Colonial Hong Kong:
, notes at that there has been a "paucity of studies" on the effectiveness of video in teaching culture through foreign-language programs. Herron investigated whether students retain more ("little c") cultural "practices" or ("big C") cultural "products" by watching video in a second-language program (Herron, 1999, p. 522). Thirty-eight students were given a pretest before watching the 10 videos that were part of the French-language curriculum. Immediately afterward they were given a post-test. Interestingly, in terms of their evolving understanding of French culture, in 8 of the 10 total post-video quizzes, the students gave higher scores to their "little c" (understanding cultural practices) than to "big C" (cultural products). And 84.2% of the 38 students believed that the 10 videos showed "a lot or a vast amount" of little c (cultural practices in France) presented and 42.1% believed that "a lot or a vast amount" of big C (cultural products…
Herron, Carol, Dubreil, Sebastien, Corrie, Cathleen, and Cole, Steven. (2002). A Classroom
Investigation: Can Video Improve Intermediate-Level French Language Students' Ability
To Learn about a Foreign Culture? The Modern Language Journal, 86(i), 36-53.
Herron, Carol, Cole, Steven P., Corrie, Cathleen, and Dubreil, Sebastien. (1999). The
Language and Literacy
Every workplace without exception relies on language as a primary means of communication. Therefore, all types of literacy are required in order for an organization to function properly. The different types of literacy range from multicultural awareness to written language to public speaking. For the purposes of this project, I examined and analyzed several different workplace environments for their usage of language and their different literacy demands. My personal workplace environment is a high-stress, hustle-and-bustle office. Phones are ringing constantly throughout the day, memos are being circulated on a near-daily basis, and most employees need to be familiar with company literature including quarterly financial reports. In addition to the rigors of interpersonal communication, which entails informal as well as formal conversations, we deal with inter-office communications with those who work at remote office locations, with offices located abroad, with clients, and with various others with which we…
Vocabulary Acquisition in ESOL Students
English as foreign/second language (EFL/ESL) classrooms widely neglected the area of vocabulary, until lately. Grammar lessons are founded on a collection of rules having coherent structure, expected to be remembered or followed by students. However, the same doesn't hold true when it comes to vocabulary (Jeff, 2010). In the past few years, this area of English learning has gained importance as a necessary component to be learned by ESL students. It is believed by many to be just as crucial as reading, speaking, writing, and listening (Jeff, 2010). Work of different researchers state that knowledge of vocabulary aids language use, which in turn helps expand vocabulary knowledge, while knowledge about the world leads to increased language use and vocabulary knowledge (p. 6). The above contextualized outlook towards vocabulary learning will aid students in expanding their vocabulary by means of authentic communication (Jeff, 2010).
Adel M. Alharbi. (2015). Building Vocabulary for Language Learning: Approach for ESL Learners to Study New Vocabulary. Journal of International Students. ISSN: 2162-3104 Print / ISSN: 2166-3750 Online Volume 5, Issue 4, pp. 501-511
August, D., & Shanahan, T. (Eds.). (2006). Developing literacy in second-language learners: Report of the National Literacy Panel on Language-Minority Children and Youth Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
ERIC Clearinghouse on Languages and Linguistics. (1992). Myths and misconceptions about second language learning. ERIC Digest. Washington, DC: Author. Retrieved May 22, 2007, from http://eric.ed.gov/ERICDocs/data/ericdocs2/content_storage_01/0000000b/80/2a/1d/2b.pdf
Francis, D. J., Rivera, M., Lesaux, N., Keiffer, M., & Rivera, H. (2006). Practical guidelines for the education of English language learners: Research-based recommendations for instruction and academic interventions. Portsmouth, NH: Center on Instruction. Retrieved February 21, 2007, from http://www.centeroninstruction.org/files/ELL1 - Interventions.pdf
To combat subjectivity, he called for interpretation to be subject to church authority, which was the voice of reason. Reardon (1981) echoes this interpretation: "Hooker sets out to refute the puritan contention that in religion holy scripture affords the sole and absolute authority and rule" (p. 280). Hooker shows that the narrow principle of sola scriptura "disregards the larger context of the divine law in creation within which even the scriptural revelation must be placed if we are to understand its proper scope and purpose" (Reardon, 1981, p. 280). Not far from the Reformers, they upheld the idea that the directly inspired written word contains supernatural revelation. There is perhaps less emphasis on preaching and proclamation in the Anglicans than in the Reformers.
hat is the status of the creeds and traditions? In Anglicanism, the Nicene, the Athanasius, and the Apostle's creeds are stressed as true because they are taken…
Aland, K. (Ed.). (2004). Martin Luther's 95 theses. Saint Louis: Concordia Publishing House.
Avis, P. (2007). The identity of Anglicanism: essentials of Anglican ecclesiology. London and New York: T & T. Clark.
Bayer, Oswald. (2008). Martin Luther's theology: a contemporary interpretation (Trans T.H. Trapp). Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans.
Beckwith, R.T. (1988). "Anglicanism." In New dictionary of theology (S. B. Ferguson & D.F. Wright, Eds.), pp. 21-23. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press.
The proposed study will be guided by the following research questions:
1. Can a set of best practices be identified from the existing body of literature concerning implementing and administering a special curriculum for young indigenous non-native speakers of English? If so, how can these best practices best be applied to Malaysia's young indigenous non-native speakers of English?
2. What cross-cultural factors need to be taken into account in developing such a special curriculum?
3. What are some of the common obstacles, challenges and constraints that have been experienced in other countries in general and in Malaysia in particular in implementing English as a second language curricular offerings?
The Design -- Methods and Procedures
Data Collection. The proposed study will draw on both secondary and primary sources to achieve the above-stated purposes and answer the above-stated research questions, an approach that is highly congruent with the…
Charles, M. (2006, October). Language matters in global communication. The Journal of Business Communication, 44(3), 260-262.
Crismore, a. (2003). An American woman teaching in Malaysia: Remembering the obstacles and successes. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 46(5), 380-382.
Dennis, C., & Harris, L. (2002). Marketing the e-business. London: Routledge.
Dovring, K. (1999). English as lingua franca: Double talk in global persuasion. Westport, CT:
The language of instruction in schools and universities is omanian, but Hungarian and German are also used for the benefit of the country's two largest ethnic minorities.
The Pre-University Level ("nv? mantul Preuniversitar) is structured in 4 cycles: Kindergarten, Primary school comprised or two 4-grade periods - grades I to IV and grades V to VIII, and High school (Liceu) - four or five grades (grades IX to XII/XIII). There are two categories of higher education: Vocational education ("nv? mant profesional ?i tehnic), which can continue or supplant High School to prepare students for careers that are based in manual or practical activities, and Higher education (Studii Superioare) organized (or in the process of being organized) according to the principles of the Bologna process, which aims at the construction of the European higher education area. It has the following four components: Bachelor-3 years in most disciplines, Master (Masterat) 2 years…
Capita, L and Capita, C. "Country Reports on Education: Romania," Education and Media in Southeast Europe. Retrieved January 27, 2007 at http://www-gewi.kfunigraz.ac.at/csbsc/country_reports/Education_Romania.htm.
Calin, M. And Dumitrana M. (ed.) "Values and Education in Romania Today," Romanian Philosophical Studies I, Cultural Heritage and Contemporary Changes Series IVA, Central and Eastern Europe, Volume 14 http://www.crvp.org/book/Series04/IVA-14/contents.htm
Ryan, K. And Lickona, T, "Character Development: The Challenge and the Model," in K. Ryan and T. Lickona, ed., Character Development in School and Beyond (Washington: The Council for Research Values and Philosophy, 1992), p. 5.
5). Surprisingly, however, in a corpus of 50,000 spoken words compiled from "group discussions between representatives of the EU government and national agencies of higher education" (pp. 6-7), Breiteneder (2009) did not find a large incidence of 3rd person singular - O. In only about 21% of the cases where 3rd personal singular was used was the -s left off. Perhaps, reasons Breiteneder, this is because all the speakers in the study had received formal schooling in a SE, but if so, then why was the -s used in some cases and not in others? Breiteneder posits that in some instances the interlocutors may have been purposely leaving off the -s for social reasons (2009, p. 262).
Certain verbs and expletive phrases seem to divide along dialectal lines with regard to use of modal past. Jacobsson (1975) writes that the sentences I suggested he took it with him, and I…
Bell, Daniel a. Beyond Liberal Democracy: Political Thinking for an East Asian Context. Princeton University Press. 2006
Brandon, L., Baszile, D., & Berry, T.. Linguistic moments: language, teaching and teacher education in the U.S. Educational Foundations (Winter-Spring), 47-66. 2009
Breiteneder, a.. English as a lingua franca in Europe: An empirical perspective. World Englishes, 28, 256-269. 2009
Davidsen-Nielsen, Niels.. Tense and Mood in English: A Comparison with Danish. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. 1990
Cultural diversity refers to the diverse varieties of human cultures that exist in a certain region, society or in the world as a whole. The characteristics of diversity may include ethnicity, traditions, geographic background, language spoken, religious beliefs, race or physical features. This term is also based on the idea that different cultures should respect each other's differences. With the global integration, the need for communication in accordance with other person's cultural awareness has intensified. Many times, any gesture that is considered offensive in one culture is completely accepted in the other culture. Hence, people sometimes develop misunderstandings when communicating with someone from a different culture. Therefore, it is essential that differences are appreciated for an effective communication.
I am a Christian man who is originally from Ukraine. My mother tongue is Ukrainian and I came to United States some 10 years ago. I am very moderate in my religious…
Newsom, D., Turk, J.V., and Kruckeberg, D. (2004). This is PR: The Realities of Public Relations. Belmont, CA: Thomson/Wadsworth.
Rosener, J.B. (1990) "Ways Women Lead," Harvard Business Review, Vol. 68, No. 6, pp. 119-25
Constructivism in TESOL-1
EFL - The term is the main topic on which the paper is based upon (English as a foreign language). It does not refer to the student learning English language which is not his or her native language nor is it being spoken in their native country English is totally a foreign language.
ESL -- This refers to English as a second language. Students who learn English as a second language intend to use it in places where English is a native language and it ain't their first or native language..
ELF - The term does stand for English as a lingua franca
EAL - Stands for English as an additional language. The term (EAL) is only applicable to certain countries where English is just an extra language.
EAP -- In this specific study means English for academic purposes
EIL - The abbreviation stands for English…
Anderson, R, & Freebody, P. (1981) Vocabulary knowledge; Comprehension and teaching: Newark, NJ: International Reading Association,
Bain, K., (2004) What the Best College Teachers Do. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Blake, R. (2000) Computer-mediated communication: Language Learning & Technology, 4(1), 120 -- 136,
Jonassen, DH (1999) Constructing learning environments on the web: Engaging students in meaningful learning: Educational Technology Conference and Exhibition 1999: Thinking Schools, Learning Nation.
Traditional Methods of Language Teaching
The paper discuses the various traditional methods of language teaching, namely:
Grammar Translation Method
The Audio-lingual Method
The Direct Method
The Silent Way
The Communicative Approach
Cognitive code learning
The Natural Approach
Functional-Notional Approach and The task-based approach
The paper discusses each approach in details and describes its various chief principles and how it helps both teachers and students to teach, understand, learn, and practice all the skills they learn through these approaches.
Grammar Translation Method
This method involves the learner to spend a lot of time in understanding the language structure. Though both listening as well as speaking suffer because of it. However, grammar and vocabulary are being stressed throughout the teaching method.
The grammar translation method has been derived from traditional approaches to the teaching of Latin and Greek in the nineteenth century (Selected Lesson Plans). It was originally used to…
Benstein, Patricia. Explaining concepts behind the Silent Way. Wanadoo Communiquer. www.wanadoo.fr
Communicative language teaching. Sil International.
Capes - History of Language Teaching 2. Club Internet.
Knowledge and Learning and Teaching a Second Language:
Researchers have divided the skills necessary for the acquisition of second language comprehension, particularly in the reading area, into two general theories: bottom-up, text-based, psycholinguistic approaches or top-down, socially-oriented conceptual approaches. In each case, lack of second language comprehension is attributed to misunderstanding of some key variable of the approach. For example, bottom-up studies tend to trace miscomprehension to misunderstanding of grammar (syntax), vocabulary (semantics), or other textual aspects. Accordingly, comprehension from the bottom-up is a data-driven process (Carrell and Eisterhold, 1983).
In contrast, top-down studies primarily attribute miscomprehension to the lack of specific background knowledge or cultural familiarity that is necessary to understand the text. Top-down understanding is seen as a process that is driven by concepts (Carrell and Eisterhold, 1983). Goodman (1967) is credited with first recognizing this additional aspect to reading comprehension, although he did not use the term…
Adamson, H.D. (1993). Academic competence: Theory and classroom practice. White Plains, NY: Longman Publishing Group.
Bernhardt, E.B. (2001). Progress and procrastination in second language reading research. Retrieved January 29, 2003 at http://language.stanford.edu/conferencepapers/AAALBernhardt01.doc
Carrell, P.L. (1983a). Background knowledge in second language comprehension. Language Learning and Communication. 2, 25-34.
Carrell, P.L. (1983b). Three components of background knowledge in reading comprehension. Language Learning. 33, 183-207.
Chinese as the native language and culture to research. Include such information as the need to communicate, social organisation (tribes, cities, etc.) contacts with other cultures, development of a written language, nonverbal aspects of language (such as inflection and body language), changes over the centuries, etc.
Chinese culture and language
Chinese cultural values play an important role in shaping the community's social norms, with the majority of individuals in China being inclined to take on attitudes that are in accordance with their traditions. Chinese language needs to be understood as being much more than a dialect, as it has a strong socio-cultural effect on its speakers and as it affects individuals in a cognitive-linguistic way. The impact of such ideas on concepts such as people, families, and communities can be observed by addressing the way that they function with the language as a central model facilitating better connections between bodies.…
Gu, S. (2011). "A Cultural History of the Chinese Language." McFarland.
He, A.W. & Xiao, Y.(2008). "Chinese as a Heritage Language: Fostering Rooted World Citizenry." Natl Foreign Lg Resource Ctr.
Postiglione, G.A. (1999). "China's National Minority Education: Culture, Schooling, and Development." Psychology Press.
Wang, Y. (2013). "Language, Culture, and Identity Among Minority Students in China: The Case of the Hui." Routledge.
Bangladesh Connection to the World
Bangladesh’s cultural, political, and economic facets are its link with the remaining world. Bangladeshi art expresses the historical political and social transformations the nation has undergone over time. The previously united Bengal region is now segregated into the Indian state of West Bengal and the independent nation called the People’s Republic of Bangladesh. The former’s major religion is Hinduism while the latter’s is Islam. All through the course of history, cultural concepts and particular facets’ identifications as ‘tradition’ contributed significantly to constructing identity notions within the region, where a mingling of multiple cultures may be seen to this day (Selim, 2014). By highlighting the nation’s political developments historically, Bangladesh’s Muslim nationalism is revealed to be an alternative approach to the prior nationalism-secularism of Bengal (Hossain, 2012).
Identity – The nation’s culture, a product of centuries of amassing elements from Hinduism, Buddhism, Islam…
strong interest with language. She holds the view that language is a powerful tool which can evoke emotion, a complex idea, a visual image or just a simple truth. She noticed keenly of the different English that she uses when giving a talk to a large group of people about her life and book. The talk was going on well until she realized that her mother was in the room. She was using a kind of English which her mother has never heard her use before. This was a type of English she had never used with her mother before.
The main idea of the writer is that she uses different a different kind of English when communicating to her mother and when writing or communicating to other people. She admits that she is always conscious of the type of English she uses with her mother. She always adjusts her…
The conflict between Sara and her father mirrors that of Ana and her mother. Reb and Carmen both try to control and manipulate their daughters by appealing to traditional cultural values. Gender is at the heart of their struggle, as gender norms are critical to their old-fashioned worldviews. Interestingly, there are traditionalists in both Bread Givers and in Real Women Have Curves who retain their ethnic identities while promoting gender equality. For example, Ana's grandfather relays a tale about a treasure-filled mountain in Mexico. He tells the tale to a captivated Ana before telling her that he wants Ana to "find her gold" too. Ana's father and grandfather support her academic achievements and want her to take advantage of the scholarship. In Bread Givers, Sara meets another traditional Polish-American. Although Hugo is not Jewish, he and Sara bond over their cultural identity and prove that ethnic pride does not need…
Although Carey's journal reportedly ends prematurely, he continued to write letters for the next thirty years.
Carey understood the value in/of education, medicine, and other works. He continually encouraged missionaries to travel to the hinterland "and build an indigenous Christianity with vernacular Bibles and other writings and native-led churches."
For his mission to succeed, hile it simultaneously retained its core, Carey purported, it had to not only fill the eternal needs of people missionaries shared the gospel with, but also their day-to-day needs.
During his day-to-day life, Carey was also a husband and father. The following relates details regarding his three marriages.
Dorothy Plackett Carey (1755?-1807): Married illiam Carey in 1781. She was 25 and he was 19. Their marriage was a contrast in ability and interests. She was reluctant to leave England and go to India. Only after much perusasion and on the condition that her sister, Kitty,…
The protagonist's resistance is thus effective, psychologically in the sense that the fire-watcher has been given a gift that other members of society and the world might lack, a sense of his own personal ineffectuality, true, but also a sense of the ultimate transience of all human desires for boundaries and possession. This does not necessarily provide a solution to the problem of social marginalization, or of the historical conflicts presence in Israel and waged in the political sphere, but it does provide a certain ideological 'gift' to the marginalized man.
In contrast, Anita Desai's short story is more lighthearted in its analysis of cultural marginalization. In her story, the central protagonist travels to another city in India and establishes a career for herself, quite contrary to how she has been taught to live. The central, female protagonist does not fall into the conventional mode of simply marrying an acceptable…
Tea was the third most important commercial product, and was also sold to the mainland. Research indicates that the Japanese, as well as other foreign powers, deeply coveted in Taiwan's wealth (Government Information Office in Taiwan, at (http://www.taiwan.com.au/polieco/history/report04.html).
In 1886 Taiwan's defenses against foreign aggression were modernized, the government implemented tax reforms to make Taiwan financially independent, and educated its indigenous peoples. A general trade office was established to encourage foreign trade, and Western-style schools were set up (Government Information Office in Taiwan, at (http://www.taiwan.com.au/polieco/history/report04.html).When Taiwan was ceded to Japan in 1895 under the terms of the Treaty of Shimonoseki, the locals declared independence on May 25, 1895, and formed the Democratic Taiwan Nation to resist the Japanese take-over. A total of 7,000 Chinese soldiers were killed in the conflict and civilian casualties numbered in the thousands (Government Information Office in Taiwan, at (http://www.taiwan.com.au/polieco/history/report04.html).These events also assisted in the creation…
Ballantine, Joseph. Formosa: A Problem for United States Foreign Policy. Washington DC: Brookings Institution, 1952.
Chih-ming, Ka. Japanese Colonialism in Taiwan: Land Tenure, Development, and Dependency, 1845-1945. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, Inc., 1995.
Government Information Office in Taiwan. "History of Taiwan." Taiwan.com. 2005.
Taiwan.com. 10 June 2005 http://www.taiwan.com.au/polieco/history/report04.html.
The office and administrative expenses would remain constant even to that point, as would the insurance expense.
Exhibit B: Cash Flow Statement, Year Two
At this point, the business is earning a healthy return and Mr. Ahn is receiving will be able to bring in a reasonable salary. The nature of the business may well change at this point. At the maximum revenue of $144,000 per year the pretax profit would be $63,600. As a result, it is likely that a clinic will be formed with other practitioners in order to minimize expenses and increase profitability.
e did not include taxes in our cash flow examples because the company is going to be set up as a sole proprietorship. This means that the income from the company will be rolled into the income for Mr. Ahn, as well as his liabilities. Mr. Ahn's personal expenses are therefore not included in…
No author (2007). Traditional Chinese Medicine. Alternative Medicine Foundation. Retrieved December 18, 2008 at http://www.amfoundation.org/tcm.htm
No author (2005). Regulation of TCM in the United States. Medscape Today. Retrieved December 18, 2008 at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/511877_7
No author (2008). HIV / AIDS, the U.S.-China Partnership for Public Health at Work, and Traditional Chinese Medicine in the U.S. Fact Sheet. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved December 18, 2008 at http://www.hhs.gov/news/facts/chinahiv.html
Census information from U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved December 18, 2008 at http://factfinder.census.gov/home/saff/main.html?_lang=en
families who speak languages other than English in the home. My own family is bilingual, and I am from a multicultural city in which people from many different backgrounds live in the same neighborhood. Therefore, I have had positive experiences with teachers being used to multicultural and multilingual students.
My view is that multilingualism is a core strength that should be nurtured, and it breaks my heart when parents do not use their mother tongue at home out of fear that their child will not grow up with strong English language skills. I have tried to tell parents that research shows that bilingual students learn faster, particularly regarding verbal skills, and also develop the social skills that will help them later in life (American Speech-Language-Hearing Association, 2015).
Although I have not worked professionally with students who have special needs, on an informal level I have worked closely with children who…
American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (2015). The advantages of being bilingual. Retrieved online: http://www.asha.org/public/speech/development/The-Advantages-of-Being-Bilingual/
"Bilingual children have a two-tracked mind," (2013). ScienceDaily, 15 July 2013. Retrieved online: www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/07/130715151106.htm
"Helping Young Children to Develop Emergent Literacy Skills," (n.d.). Paths to Literacy. Retrieved online: http://www.pathstoliteracy.org/helping-young-children-develop-emergent-literacy-skills
Robertson, C. (n.d.). Supporting ELLs in the mainstream classroom. WETA. Retrieved online: http://www.colorincolorado.org/article/supporting-ells-mainstream-classroom-language-tips
Authenticity in Multicultural Narratives of experience and language -- the problem of Rigoberta Menchu's I, Rigoberta Menchu
On the surface, there is no 'problem,' one might say, given the astounding achievement of native Guatemalan opposition leader and community activist Rigoberta Menchu. Rigoberta Menchu won the Nobel Prize, even after she was forced to go into hiding in her beloved Guatemala, and then flee her native land to Mexico, far from the land and community she loved. She remains a forceful and vigorous voice for the rights of disenfranchised Guatemalans to this day. Her resulting book, called in English, I, Rigoberta Menchu, tells of her experiences as a native Guatemalan woman, and then as the Representation of the Guatemalan Opposition (RUOG). But because of its translated quality and the subject's own perception of herself as a community spokeswoman as well as a lone sufferer of oppression -- indeed, what it means…
Hooks, Margaret, ed. Guatemalan Women Speak. Introduction by Rigoberta Menchu. London: Catholic Institute for International Relations, 1991.
Manchu, Rigoberta. I, Rigoberta. 1984.
Perera, Victor. Unfinished Conquest. The Guatemalan Tragedy. Berkeley, Los Angeles and London: Univ. Of California Press, 1993.
Sommer, Doris. "No Secrets: Rigoberta's Guarded Truth." Women's Studies 20 (1991): 51 -- 72.
The lack of paternity leave does not promote greater flexibility for employers and employees to agree on the most suitable way to balance work and domestic needs without interference from the government.
hy Fathers Should Get More Paternity Leave:
Despite of the stigma associated with men's involvement in child care and domestic issues, fathers should get more paternity leave because of the benefits of taking some time off after the birth of a child. Currently, there is a growing body of research that demonstrates that longer paternity leave contribute to certain long-term benefits. Some of the major benefits and reasons for more paternity leave to fathers include & #8230;
Increased Involvement in Child Care:
Based on the findings of a 2007 study by Columbia University researchers, fathers who get more paternity leave are more involved in child care months after resuming work (eber par, 13). Furthermore, an evaluation of leave-policy…
Chen, Vivia. "Should Paternity Leave Be Mandatory?" The Careerist. ALM Media Properties, LLC., 9 Apr. 2013. Web. 24 June 2013. .
Hall, Jason. "Why Men Don't Take Paternity Leave." Online Posting. Forbes. Forbes.com LLC, 14 June 2013. Web. 24 June 2013. .
McGregor, Jena. "Paternity Leave Isn't Just about Dads." The Washington Post. The Washington Post, 14 June 2013. Web. 24 June 2013. .
Peacock, Louisa. "Father's Day: Fathers Should Get 'use it or Lose it' Parental Leave." The Telegraph. Telegraph Media Group Limited, 14 June 2013. Web. 24 June 2013. .
In the novel, the reader is allowed to travel along with Kim and his master the Lama all over northern India, where they are constantly reminded of how life can take a very different path when one least expects it. The Grand Trunk Road along which Kim and his Lama travel could be seen as a symbol of the River of the Arrow, the object of their quest.
When Kim was first conceived, Kipling has just married Catherine and was eagerly awaiting the birth of their first child while living in Vermont. For Kipling, this was a time of much inner contemplation and his thoughts were invariably directed to the two subjects closest to his heart, being childhood and India. Like most writers, Kipling distanced himself, at least in his mind, from all the turmoil and tragedy that was occurring in India during the early years of the 20th century…
Some of Kipling's later works include Debits and Credits (1926), Thy Servant a Dog (1930) and Limits and Renewals (1932). On January 18, 1936, at the age of seventy, Rudyard Kilping died after a short illness, leaving behind his daughter Elsie.
As an author, Rudyard Kipling deserves much more praise and recognition than he has received recently. After all, by the time he was thirty-three years old, he had written and published thirteen books, comprised of poetry, novels and short story collections. Some of his best work was also accomplished at this age, such as Barrack-Room Ballads, the Jungle Book, Captains Courageous and the Second Jungle Book. As a literary specialist, Kipling has been noted for inventing India as a literary subject, at least in the West, admired for his poetical output, classed as an innovator of children's literature, and viewed as one of the leading exponents of the short story format.
In addition to his Nobel award for literature, Kipling received many high honors in a number of fields which only increases his importance in English letters. In 1926, he was given the Gold Medal of the Royal Society of Literature which placed him in a very influential group of authors, such as Sir Walter Scott and Thomas Hardy. Kipling also received honorary degrees from Oxford, Cambridge, the University of Edinburgh and several other prestigious schools. Thus, Rudyard Kipling occupies an important niche in English literature and surely was one of the most innovative and creative authors that came to prominence during the years of Queen Victoria's reign.
It also widened her female audience much further than the small group of upper-class women with whom she was acquainted (ibid).
Overall, this work represented Lanyer as a complex writer who possessed significant artistic ambition and "who like other women of the age wrote not insincerely on devotional themes to sanction more controversial explorations of gender and social relations" (Miller 360).
In her work, Lanyer issued a call to political action by noting several Old Testament women who changed the course of ancient Jewish history through their bravery, humor and valor, and she recalled the favor Christ demonstrated to women in a variety of actions and by electing them as custodians of his salvational message (ibid 362). The story covered Christ's betrayal by male apostles, the arraignment before male authorities to whom Lanyer addressed complaints, and the account of Christ's procession to Calvary, the crucifixion and the drama of the…
Barish, Jonas. Ben Jonson. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1963.
Braun, Lily, and Meyer, Alfred. Selected Writings on Feminism and Socialism. Gary: Indiana University Press, 1987.
Castiglione, Baldassare. "The Courtier." In Three Renaissance Classics. NY: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1953, 242-624
De Vroom, Theresia. Female Heroism in Thomas Heywood's Tragic Farce of Adultery. NY: Palgrave, 2002.
2002, 108)." By 1996 the teaching of English in Thailand was compulsory for all primary children from the first grade.
Teaching English as a Second Language in Thailand
Although the teaching of English as a second language has been present in Thailand for quite some time, there are still many issues that arise as it pertains to teaching English in Thailand. In some ways it may appear that English language pedagogy is still in its infancy. For instance many people in Thailand have low degrees of proficiency in English (Laopongharn & Sercombe, 2009). This is particularly true as it pertains to the speaking and writing of English. The problems present in Thailand as it pertains to Teaching English as a foreign language has many different causes (Laopongharn & Sercombe (2009). For the purposes of this discussion, Thai culture will be explored as an impediment to the teaching of English as…
Adamson, J., 2003. Challenging beliefs in teacher development: potential influences of Theravada Buddhism upon Thais learning English. Asian EFL journal, 5 (3), 1-21.
Adamson, J., 2005. Teacher development in EFL: what is to be learned beyond methodology in Asian contexts?. Asian EFL journal, 7 (4), 74-84.
Chou, C. 2000. Chinese Speakers' Acquisition of English Conditionals: Acquisition Order and L1 Transfer Effects. Second Language Studies, 19(1), pp. 57-98
Forman R. (2008) Using notions of scaffolding and intertextuality to understand the bilingual teaching of English in Thailand. Linguistics and Education 19-319 -- 332
English for academic purposes approach focuses on the reader, too, not as a specific individual but as the representative of a discourse community, for example, a specific discipline or academia in general. The reader is an initiated expert who represents a faculty audience. This reader, particularly omniscient and all-powerful, is likely to be an abstract representation, a generalized construct, one reified from an examination of academic assignments and texts (aimes, 1991).
Partnership Teaching is not just an extension of co-operative teaching. Co-operative teaching consists of a language support teacher and class teacher jointly planning a curriculum and teaching strategies which will take into account the learning needs of all pupils. The point is to adjust the learning situation in order to fit the pupils. Partnership Teaching is more than that. It builds on the notion of co-operative teaching by linking the work of two teachers with plans for curriculum improvement…
Davison, Chris. (2006). Collaboration Between ESL and Content Teachers: How Do We Know
When We Are Doing It Right? International Journal of Bilingual Education & Bilingualism, 9(4), 454-475.
Grover, Sam. (2009). Methods for Teaching TESOL. Retrieved August 31, 2010, from e-How
Web site: http://www.ehow.com/way_5403572_methods-teaching-tesol.html
There is the feeling that Rushdie is toying with the concept of freedom of speech in this story as well as destroying the concept of the East as mysterious. Rushdie uses English to tell his story, but he incorporates the Indian oral tradition without any kind of chronological structure to the story. He deconstruct the binary opposition of East and est. He himself is between the Orient and the Occident and he chooses to use both structures, combining Britain and India (Buran 10).
The factors of race and gender complicate the relations of class in Joseph Conrad's Heart of Darkness, ole Soyinka's "Telephone Conversation," and Jean Rhys "Let Them Call It Jazz" in various ways. In Heart of Darkness, the story is centered on the typical male experience, which tends to alienate the female reader from the very "mannish" story. There is some speculation that Marlow and Kurtz's sexist views…
Achebe, Chinua. Things Fall Apart. Heinemann; Expanded edition, 1996.
Buran, Abdullah. Salman Rushdie's East, West: Deconstructing the Binary Division
Between Orient and Occident. Germany: Druck und Bindung: Books on Demand,
English as Creole: "Still trying not to refer to you lot as 'bloody colonials'" Brandy yan evaluates the claim that Middle English is a creole. yan presents arguments that Middle English is a creole with Old French, Latin or Scandinavian, and that Middle English is representative of language death. Finally, yan argues that Middle English can be seen as a trilingual, which is drawn from Anglo-French, Latin, and Middle English.
yan presents the argument that Middle English can be considered a French Creole. yan outlines the argument of Bailey and Maroldt (1977). Bailey and Maroldt start with the assumption that Middle English is a creole, and go on to present an argument that Middle English became a creole through mixing with Old French before 1200 and Central French during the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries.
Middle English can also be considered a Latin or Scandinavian creole, yan notes. Warner argues that…
Bailey, Charles J. And Karl Maroldt. "The French lineage of English." Langues en contact -- Pidgins -- Creoles. Ed, Jurgen M. Meisel. Tubingen: Narr, 21-53, 1977.
Dalton-Puffer, Chritiane. "Middle English is a creole and its opposite: On the value of plausible speculation." Linguistic Change Under Contact Conditions. Ed. Jacek Fisiak. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 1995. 35-50.
Gorlach, Manfred. "Middle English -- a creole?" Linguistics Across Historical and Geographical Boundaries. Eds.
Poussa, Patricia. "The Evolution of Early Standard English: The Creolization Hypothesis." Studia Anglica Posnaniensia 14 (1982): 69-85.
Because she knows that she is good in writing and improves consistently, Katya is encouraged to put a large amount of energy into writing. he has also attempted to submit some fiction to magazines, with somewhat limited success. Katya has shown some of her extracurricular articles and stories to teachers. According to her, the teachers have all been positive regarding her skills.
As mentioned above, Katya has always been a good and conscientious student, particularly in terms of language and numbers. he strategizes in terms of time, allocating a specific time per day for each subject that requires her attention. he also allocates this time in terms of the effort level required for each subject. For the subjects in which she has a lower level of interest, such as the natural and biological sciences, Katya attempts to allocate more time than she would to a subject in which she…
California Dept. Of Education (2007). DataQuest. http://dq.cde.ca.gov/dataquest/
Valdes, Guadalupe. (1998, Aug-Sept). The World outside and inside Schools: Language and Immigrant children. Educational Researcher, Vol. 27, No. 6, pp. 4-18. http://www.jstor.org/stable/1176090
"A Framework For Learning About Your Students."
Appendix A: Interview with ELL student
I appreciate the value of the test for your faculty and staff as well as for students like me. Because I am confident the test would prove my high level of communications skills, I would not mind taking it under normal circumstances.
However, I would be unable to take the TOEFL exam before fall admission deadline because the test will not be administered before then. I am quite eager to begin my Masters degree research and would not want the TOEFL exam to cause any delays in my education. Given my strong academic record, my proven language and communications skills, and my having completed English language courses commonly recognized as substitutes for the TOEFL exam, I hope you will grant me this waiver. I can assure you I will become a terrific asset to your university and especially to the Master's program in my chosen field…
During the investigative process, this researcher documents the formulation and thinking of the citizenship education programme in a typical Singapore secondary school.
Singapore, a contemporary strategic island known as one of the world's busiest economic powerhouse seaports, also currently constitutes a major global banking, petroleum, and ship building center. During the past few decades, Singapore, considered a "melting pot of cultures" moved to the top of considerations for international travelers. "A bridge and causeway connect Singapore to the Malaysia mainland…." (Singapore, 2008) Due to problems evolving from the aggressive current patterns of the Strait of Singapore, however, vital, on-going land reclamation projects routinely occur.
Regional fishermen and pirates originally claimed Singapore, at one time part of the Sumatran Empire of Srivijaya. During the 16th century, European control of the Malaysian area began. In 1819, Britain founded Singapore as a British trading colony, and consequently built one of Britain's most vital…
Figure 8: Yishun Town Secondary School Location (1) (Yishun Town Secondary, 2008)
X -- pic in other TEMPLATE
Figure 9: Yishun Town Secondary School Location (2) (School Information Service, 2008)
Not only is a challenge present for Muslim teachers in attempting to standardize this curriculum but as well "this is compounded by the fact that curriculum materials related to teaching about Islam produced overseas - even for Arabic language studies - are viewed as irrelevant or unsuited to young students' lives and culture in the U.S. And Europe." (Douglass and Shaikh, 2004)
Guidelines have been provided in recent years concerning teaching religion in public schools in the U.S. And it is stated by Douglass and Shaikh that "general adherence to the guidelines and their implementation in textbook development has done more than anything else to improve the accuracy of textbook depictions of the basic beliefs and practices, origin stories and subsequent cultural and institutional history of various religions." (Douglass and Shaikh, 2004) Stated as primary among the changes is "the consistent use of attributive phrases, combined with greater factual accuracy."…
Akhir, Jamadil (2008) Islamic education after independence and the impact of National Educational Policy. Social Issues. Online available at http://www.hijrahmedia.com/proto/iidl2/artikel/edu4.php
Coulson, Andrew (2004) Education and Indoctrination in the Muslim World - Is There a Problem? What Can We Do about it? Policy Analysis 11 Mar 2004. No. 511.
Delic, Zijad)(2001) Hermeneutics of Islamic Education and the Construction of New Muslim Cultures in the West: Faithful by t Reformed. University of Oregon (2006)
Douglass, Susan L. And Shaikh, Munir a. (2004) Defining Islamic Education: Differentiation and Applications. Current Issues in Comparative Education Vol. 7(1) Teachers College, Columbia University.
Essed notes the profound perceived threat to power experienced by those in the majority feel when even small encroachments are made by other groups into the dominant fabric of society, and how tacit racism against minorities is often allowed even by those who might not consider themselves prejudiced on an interactional and personal level (184). In short, the institutional racism of society inevitably affects interpersonal relations, even amongst people who do not harbor what we might think of as hatred in their hearts. Racism for Essed is an ideological social construct, a powerful social and philosophical method of enforcement that affects how 'people' see the world, and also the mechanisms of the justice system (185). Racist images and practices become an invisible and accepted part of daily life, and are unquestioned, thus it is not enough to simply change one's individual mind (190). Her essay, though it seems overly focused…
Race Critical Theories: Text and Context. Philomena Essed & David Theo Goldberg, Ed.
Many studies show that one should start foreign language studies as soon as possible, and the peak age of learning the second language is said to be on or before the child reaches the age of 10. After the baby is born, and eventually learned his/her native language, it now gradually starts having its full capacity to learn another or new language just by imitating and hearing his/her environment. The earlier he/she hears the accents and sound of another language, there is much more possibility that he/she will develop it. Added to this, if he/she is also given chance to be exposed in the language, and the opportunity to speak it, chances are that he/she will be able to speak it fluently. This way, the child would treat both the mother tongue and the foreign language equally (http://www.snn-rdr.ca/snn/2003apr/bilingual.html,2003).
One high school principal was quoted saying "A child has only one…
Baker, Colin. (1993).Foundations of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism. Multilingual Matters Ltd.
Bialystok, Ellen. (1991). Language Processing in Bilingual Children. Cambridge University Press.
Bilingual. 2004.WordIQ.com. http://www.wordiq.com/definition/Bilingual
Davis, Laura and Keyser, Janis. Parenting Experts: Bilingual Family Pros and Cons. ParentsPlace.com
A major challenge that the majority of English language learners will face is difficulties understanding new concepts with the various forms of verbal communication. Part of the reason for this, is because many people will often have to deal with issues associated with: the differences between English and their native language. At the same time, they will have to address challenges such as: cultural assimilation and adjusting to changes inside their new schools. This is problematic, because if some kind of lesson plan is not created to address these challenges many students will often become frustrated with the educational environment. Once this occurs, it means that they can begin to: lose interest in the subject matter and they will have more difficulties in adjusting to the various challenges that they are facing.
As a result, a number of different theories were developed over the years that were designed to…
Lesson Plan, 2011.
My Notes, 2011.
Carter, R, 2001, The Cambridge Guide to Teaching, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Fathman, A, 2006, Science for English Language Learners, NTSA Press, Richmond.
According to Malfaro, just a single year of English is not essentially sufficient to effectively make the initiative to reading and writing. (Tozzi, 1998)
Supporters give an instance of a study undertaken in the year 1991 approved by the National Academy of Sciences mentioning that the children who have are able to speak a foreign language are able to comprehend English more quickly and perform better educational development on the whole after receiving many years of teaching in their regional language. (Leon, 2001) Jay Greene belonging to the Manhattan Institute employed more accurate statistical instruments compared to those employed in the earlier researches and discovered that bilingual education possess encouraging effects. He inferred that attempts to eradicate the use of local language in teaching does damage to the children by refuting them access to beneficial methods. Almost every researcher who has made an assessment of the scientific research has inferred…
Alvarez, Roberto. (2002) "Bilingual Education" St.: James Encyclopedia of Pop Culture.
Brisk, Maria Estela. (November, 1999) "Education Quality Bilingual Defining Success" Presented at the Symposium on Language Policy. Bar Ilam University, Israel.
Brisk, Maria Estela. (2000) "Defining Success: Quality Bilingual Education" LAB at Brown University.
Cummins, Jim. (9 February, 1998) "Beyond Adversarial Discourse: Searching for Common Ground in the Education of Bilingual Students. Presentation to the California State Board of Education. Sacramento, California. Retrieved at http://ourworld.compuserve.com/homepages/JWCRAWFORD/cummins.htm. Accessed on 26 November, 2004
Flashcards can, for example, be provided with words, and students can point to drawings of these items. For a written component, flashcards with simple pictures can be used to assess students' vocabulary development. For the intermediate stage, the oral component could include repeating relatively complicated sentences as accurately as possible. A written component can include an assessment such as question and answer sequences, where students are required to use full sentences. For the advanced stage, flash cards depicting a somewhat complicated scene can be used, requiring students to write a short narrative. For the oral component, an open-ended question and answer sequence can be used to assess students' fluency.
Particularly during the beginning and intermediate stages, talented students can be identified by means of consistently high scores, achieved within a short time. Students who need extra assistance can be identified when there is a consistent lack of achieving progress.
Haynes, J. (2005). Stages of Second Language Acquisition. Retrieved from: http://www.everythingesl.net/inservices/language_stages.php
Tannenbaum, J-E. (1997). Practical Ideas on Alternative Assessment for ESL Students. ERIC Digest. Retrieved from: http://ingles.ing.uchile.cl/otros/downloads/Alternative%20assessment%20for%20ESL%20Students.pdf
For instance, "some speakers may engage in overlap, speaking while someone else is taking a turn-at-talk. For some linguistic groups, this discourse behavior can be interpreted as a signal of engagement and involvement; however, other speakers may view it as an interruption and imposition on their speaking rights. Teachers can use the Record-View-Transcribe-Analyze technique to study cross-cultural interactions in their classrooms, helping students identify different communication strategies and their potential for miscommunication." (Demo, 2001)
According to the work "Vernacular Dialects in U.S. Schools," "Children from different backgrounds come to school speaking a wide variety of dialects." (Christian, 1997) the problem according to Christian (1997) is in the fact that, "One central issue in this controversy is whether mastery and use of a standard dialect should be required in schools. Some people consider such a requirement to be discriminatory, because it places an extra burden on certain students. Others argue that…
Literacy, Education and Social Development, (1997) Confintea, Hamburg 1997 UNESCO Institute for Education Fifth International Conference on adult Education (CONFINTEA V) held 3in Hamburg, 1997. 3c Social Development
Park, Eunjin and King, Kendall CAL Digest: Cultural Diversity and Language Socialization in the Early Years (2003) December EDO-FL-03-13
Demo, Douglas a. (2001) Discourse Analysis for Language Teachers CAL Journal September 2001
Schiffrin, D. (1994). Approaches to discourse. Oxford: Blackwell.
In Thailand, the people take everything with a smile, and even when they make blunders and mishaps, and the same is pointed out to them, they tae it with a smile. People from the West feel that they are being laughed at, as they are probably less accustomed to being shouted at. (Social Customs) This is a peculiar institution and is seen in some cultures and probably these are the cultures who feel that they are superior to the other cultures surrounding them, or who have come into their country. This is also probably the reason why the Thais have never changed their culture due to influences of other countries.
Thai history before the Sukhothai kingdom. etrieved from www.kingdom-of-thailand.com/history.htm. Accessed on 30 April, 2005
Thailand: Economic Policy Analysis. McKeever Institute of Economic Policy Analysis. etrieved at http://www.mkeever.com/thailand.html. Accessed on 30 April, 2005
Thailand Culture. etrieved at http://www.lonelyplanet.com/destinations/south_east_asia/thailand/culture.htm. Accessed on…
Thai history before the Sukhothai kingdom. Retrieved from www.kingdom-of-thailand.com/history.htm. Accessed on 30 April, 2005
Thailand: Economic Policy Analysis. McKeever Institute of Economic Policy Analysis. Retrieved at http://www.mkeever.com/thailand.html . Accessed on 30 April, 2005
Thailand Culture. Retrieved at http://www.lonelyplanet.com/destinations/south_east_asia/thailand/culture.htm . Accessed on 30 April, 2005
Thailand has a tropical climate with three seasons. Retrieved at http://www.kingdom-of-thailand.com/climate.htm. Accessed on 30 April, 2005
Malcolm X on education
A school dropout, Malcolm X illustrates the dichotomy between a formal and what he calls a "homemade" education: "In the street, I had been the most articulate hustler out there -- I had commanded attention when I said something. But now, trying to write simple English, I not only wasn't articulate, I wasn't even functional," (171). Street smarts vs. book smarts: Malcolm X's survival and success depended on both. Practically illiterate when he first entered prison, Malcolm X wrote letter after letter to Elijah Muhammad, forging for himself a homemade education: "It was because of my letters that I happened to stumble upon starting to acquire some kind of a homemade education," (171). His desire to communicate with Elijah Muhummad was the initial spark that inspired Malcolm X to teach himself how to read and write. Painstakingly, he would copy page after page from the dictionary…
Malcolm X, with the assistance of Alex Haley. The Autobiography of Malcolm X New York: Grove, 1966.
Kusanagi Satoshi states that the so called 'anime' phenomenon did not, in fact, rise up all of a sudden within the past few years; in fact, it has been slowly developing over a longer period of time, perhaps from the 1960's onwards. This was the time that very many Japanese shows were in reality produce with such a clearly American style that the final product came to be labeled as an American one, despite the fact that they were really Japanese. What this means is that in a world where American domination of mass culture has more often than not been taken for granted, anime was one art form that began to be recognized for its very cultural resistance. In other words, anime is an art form that has very true Japanese roots, but still manages to exert an extremely wide influence on large areas beyond its natural boundaries. (Yoshida,…
About Manga" Retrieved at http://www.manga.com/about.html . Accessed 6 August, 2005
An anime explosion" The University of Texas at Austin Retrieved at http://www.utexas.edu/features/archive/2004/anime.html . Accessed 6 August, 2005
Anime, characteristics" Retrieved at http://encyclopedia.laborlawtalk.com/Anime#Characteristics. Accessed 5 August, 2005
Anime: Hentai" Retrieved at http://anime.about.com/library/glossary/bldef_hentai.htm . Accessed 5 August, 2005
HM Challenges in Today's Organizations
All organizations require employees to make them a success and this function is considered as important as finance, machinery and land for running the organization successfully. The important point to note here is that individuals all have different temperaments and working methods, and some people in the organization are responsible for making them all work together. This is the job of the human resources department which is otherwise known as the personnel department. If an organization is not staffed correctly then it ends up loosing the economy of scale that it should have got also the maximum possible customers and profits.
On the other hand, if there are too many people then there is a lot of financial liability if they are retained, and when they are laid off, there are financial implications from redundancy payments. If the organization cannot do manage its own staff…
Accounting Technicians in 2001. Retrieved from www.aat.co.uk/docs/employers/hays_employer_research.pdf Accessed on 27 July, 2005
Brewster, Chris; Mayrhofer, Wolfgang; Morley, Michael. New Challenges for European Human
Resource Management. MacMillan, 2000. Retrieved from " http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o& ; d=101941797 Accessed on 27 July, 2005
Brewster, Chris; Harris, Hilary. International HRM. Routledge. 1999. Retrieved from "
Her opinions are in contrast with those of Hugh who is never conservative with his mother tongue and believes that his language Irish, must be able to effectively evolve for it to survive extinction.He emphasized the need for learning new names and went ahead and paralleled it with the making of a new home. He views the preservation of old language as a barrier to the progress of Irish people (Friel 66).He related this to the character Jimmy who can never retain the rather beneficial Latin and Greek languages.
The character Owen is noted to be an interesting one. This is because he takes utmost pleasure in effective subverting of language for his own gain and humor. hen he was translating for the Gaelic listeners, he purposefully did so inaccurately, a fact which angered his brother. In critically viewing this scenario, we see that that the character Owen was intentionally…
Friel, Brian. Translations. London: Faber & Faber, 1980.
Learning that is imparted through an educational institution or training company within the workplace setting in known as Work-based learning (WL). WL is administered by an external teacher in professional capacity and supervised by an employee of the company where WL is imparted. An exhaustive literature review indicates that it was only after Moser report's shocking revelations, regarding lack of literacy, language, and numeracy skills in one out every five adults in ritain that U.K took expedited policy actions to introduce WL. WL is relevant for all adult and young learners and more pertinent for instruction of English as a second language (ESL). Since medium of interaction and business transactions in U.K is English, instruction of ESL is essential for empowering vast percentage of population that does not have requisite skills to compete in labor market due to lack of language skills. Increased use of computers and multimedia in teaching…
Anderson, RC & Freebody, P 1981. 'Vocabulary knowledge'. In J.T. Guthrie (Ed.),
Beck, IL, McKeown, MG & Kucan, L 2002. 'Bringing words to life: Robust vocabulary instruction'. New York: Guilford.
Becker, HJ 2000. 'Pedagogical motivations for student computer use that lead to student engagement'. Educational Technology, Vol. 40, no. 5, pp. 5-17. Viewed on 6 Mar 2013, [http://www.crito.uci.edu/tlc/findings/spec_rpt_pedagogical/ped_mot_pdf.pdf]
Brown, HD 2001. 'Teaching by principles: An interactive approach to language pedagogy'. (2nd ed.). White Plains, NY: Longman.
Defense of Poetry," Mongolian poet Galsan Tschinag defines poetry as the "interrelation between Nature and Man." Although writing about completely different types of poetry and poets, Robert Bly comes to similar conclusions about the function of poetry. In "A Meditation on a Poem by Goethe," Bly states that during the early twentieth century, there was a crossroads in literature. The dominant form of literature was author- or poet-focused. ith the ego at the helm, the poems that were written promoted the inner psychological state of human beings. However, there is a different type of poetry, according to Bly. That type of poetry can be exemplified by the likes of Goethe, who imparted a sense of awe and wonder at nature. It is the feeling of being overwhelmed by nature that characterizes the second type of poetry, which is the same type of poetry that Tschinag describes in "Defense of Poetry."…
Bly, Robert. "A Meditation on a Poem by Goethe." In News of the Universe. University of California Press, 1995.
Hacken, Richard. "Images of Migration and Change in the German-Language Poetry of Galsan Tschinag." Retrieved online: http://net.lib.byu.edu/estu//tschinag/migration.htm
Tschinag, Galsan. "Defense of Poetry." Retrieved online: http://www.poetryinternationalweb.net/pi/site/collection/article_item/int_article/363/Defence-of-Poetry-1999-Galsan-Tschinag
Being a counselor can sometimes be a really tough job. Counseling can only be effective and beneficial when the counselor places himself or herself in the shoes of his or her client. If he or she is unable to do so, he or she will never become an effective counselor. Placing oneself in the circumstances of someone else is not easy, let alone placing oneself in the shoes of a person who is of a different race, religion or culture. That is the real test of a counselor. In this paper I shall discuss what is required to understand the cross-cultural relationships in counseling to help the client get over their problem easily. All the dimensions pertaining to counseling (of a client of a different background that the counselor) will discussed with the case scenario.
When clients and counselors have different cultural (or ethnic or racial)…
Cannon, E.P. (2008). "Promoting moral reasoning and multicultural competence during internship." Journal of Moral Education, 37(4), 503-518.
Crethar, Hugh C. And Ratts, Manivong J. (2008). "Why Social Justice is a Counseling Concern?"
Gilbert, Jane. (2002). "Cross-cultural issues in counseling skillstraining: lessons from Lesotho."
Journal of Social Development in Africa. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons.