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Muhammad as a Prophet
According to Shepard (2005) in Islam, there is something like more than one hundred and twenty four thousand prophets who were supposed to have been taught by God to teach men. Shepard makes the point that every prophet came on the scene with his own rules and regulations but shadowed the rules which had been put together by the prophets that had come before him. Shepard goes on to mention that the first prophet, in most religions is believed to be Adam, was the first human to ever walk the earth. The most important prophet, and the last, in Islam, is believed to be Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) (Shepard 2005). This man was supposed to be the last prophet that came from God and according to the Muslims; there will never be another one. The life of this famous prophet comprises of a lot of examples and…
Ahmad, Mirza Bashiruddin Mahmud. Life of Muhammad. Boston: Islam International Publications, 2006.
Alah, Sirat Rasul. The Life of Muhammad. A. Guillame, 2000.
Ernest, Carl E. Following Muhammad: Rethinking Islam in the Contemporary World (Islamic Civilization and Muslim Networks). The University of North Carolina Press, 2005.
Haleem, Abdel. M.A.S. The Qur'an: A New Translation. Oxford, 2005.
Muhammad Ali in Egypt and the Influence of Napoleon
Services and Mission of Muhammad Ali Pasha
eforms under the egime of Muhammad Ali Pasha
Economic Strengthening Activities to Make Egypt Self Sufficient
Muhammad Ali the Father of Modern Egypt
AFU Armed Forces Union
CGS Chief of the General Staff
CUP the Committee of Union and Progress
Dev-Sol evolutionary Left
Dev-Yol evolutionary Way
D-SK Confederation of Unions of evolutionary Workers
DP Democrat Party
EEC or EC European Economic Community or European Community
Confederation of Unions of Islamist Workers
IMF International Monetary Fund
JP Justice Party
MI-SK The Confederation of Unions of Nationalist Workers
M-T National Intelligence Organization
NAP Nationalist Action Party
NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization
NDP Nationalist Democracy Party
NOP National Order Party
NSC National Security Council
NSP National Salvation Party
NTP New Turkey Party
Alston, R. (1995). Soldier and Society in Roman Egypt: A Social History. London: Routledge. Retrieved June 7, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=109085852
Ansari, H. (1986). Egypt, the Stalled Society / . Albany, NY: State University of New York Press. Retrieved June 7, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=102522123
Asante, M.K. (2002). Culture and Customs of Egypt. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. Retrieved June 7, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=111669565
Assmann, J. & Stroumsa, G.G. (Eds.). (1999). Transformations of the Inner Self in Ancient Religions. Boston: Brill. Retrieved June 7, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=114080134
Shadid characterizes the Turabi-led Islamist program -- achieved through a military coup -- as the attempt to establish Islamic politics in a viable modern way without division between political and religious life. Islam is seen as an encompassing identity, not just a belief set. Shadid gives its aims: "a revival of the umma, adoption of sharia, social and economic development and trepidation about the West's cultural, economic and political influence" (Shadid168). It can bring about the end of war, famine, and poverty independent of the West. The key is that the system relies on interpretation of Islam through the Qur'an and traditional law. It only secondarily references the model of Muhammad when it talks about how the social community is built. Muhammad's example in Mecca and Medina are cited for this (Shadid 171). At the same time, political power usurped by the elite came through a critique of the religious…
Ernst, Carl W. Following Muhammad: Rethinking Islam in the Contemporary World. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 2003.
Esmer, Yilmaz. "Islam, Gender, Democracy and Values: The Case of Turkey, 1990-2001." In Changing Values, Persisting Cultures: Case Studies in Value Change, eds. Thorleif Pettersson and Yilmaz Esmer, 275-301. Leiden: Brill, 2008.
Gabriel, Richard a. Muhammad: Islam's First Great General. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, 2007.
Khalidi, Tarif. Classical Arab Islam: The Culture and Heritage of the Golden Age. Princeton, NJ: Darwin Press, 1985.
t the time of her marriage to Muhammad, Khadija was forty years old and possibly had children from an earlier marriage. s husband and wife, Muhammad and Khadija bore seven children. In 619 a.D., Khadija died from an unknown illness; soon after, Muhammad married for the second time. However, at this point in his life,
Muhammad opted to have more than one wife, a tradition that was carried on in rabic culture
bdullah, llama. The Sayings of Muhammad. NY: Citadel Press, 1990, 245.
for hundreds of years. Thus, Muhammad clearly knew the power that went along with having a large family; exactly how many children he had by the time of his death is unknown.
In essence, the life of Muhammad was a long-term mission aimed at spreading the words of llah to all corners of the world. ccording to llama bdullah, writing in the Sayings of Muhammad, the great…
Adil, Hajjah Amina. Muhammad: The Messenger of Islam. New York: Islamic Supreme
Armstrong, Karen. Muhammad: A Biography of the Prophet. New York: HarperCollins,
Kelen, Betty. Muhammad: The Messenger of God. Nashville, TN: Thomas Nelson, 1975.
The Medinian tribes (largely influenced by conversion of Sa'd ibn Mu'adh) gradually accepted Islam and with Muhammad instituting a spirit of brotherhood, charity, and morality (as opposed to the anarchic, warlike spirit that had, heretofore, prevailed), Islam became a viable growing option for many.
As part of survival tactic, the Medinian immigrants were encouraged by Muhammad in their war against Mecca. These, particularly the Battle of Badr, strengthened Muhammad's position and made Islam grow. Heretics were killed and pagans subdued.
Expert strategist and war man, Muhammad prevented alliances from forming against him and devised new military techniques to defend median from siege. Later treaties negotiated, particularly with the Quraysh, further cemented regard for Mohammad, as well as guaranteeing military security for his empire way into the future (Peterson, 2007)
The conquest of Mecca, in 630, resulted in minimal casualties since most of the Meccans converted to Islam. His famous speech,…
Armstrong, K. Islam: A Short History (The Modern Library, 2000)
Hourani, A. A History of the Arab People (London, 1991)
Peterson, D. (2007). Muhammad, Prophet of God. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company.
Because Islam represented a threat to their power as a trading entity, Muhammad preached as a prophet faced with hostility by the established religious authorities of his time and place. His followers were gained under the threat of martyrdom, a fate spared Muhammad only by virtue of the protection of his uncle, a powerful regional leader. (MidEasteb for Coexistence, p. 1)
ith the death of his uncle, Muhammad was forced to take on a more militant stance as he expanded his influence. ith some followers departing for North Africa and employing similar tactics of conversion by conquest, the influence of Islam spread quickly. As the MidEasteb for Coexistence reports, "From their base in Medina, the Muslims took to raiding Meccan caravans. In 624, they won the battle of Badr and took much booty. Now secure in Medina, Muhammad expelled the Banu Qaynuqa, one of the three main Jewish tribes, and…
MidEastWeb for Coexistence. (2007). Muhammad. MidEastWeb.org.
Katz, J. (2001). The Prophet Mohammed. Eretz Yisroel.
This campaign was not only geared in making Meccans realize that there is only one God but also focused on uniting people under one God. Third, the prophet was not a man of war and used the word jihad, which has mistakenly been interpreted to mean holy war, to promote struggle for survival of Muslims. The struggle was primarily a peaceful non-violent way to fight for the survival of Mecca.
Accomplishment of Goals for Unity:
Through his work, Prophet Muhammad achieved his goals of promoting social change and unity of people under one God. Generally, Prophet Muhammad's work yielded results in various ways most of which was realized several years after his death. One of the major ways with which unity was achieved is that the prophet's life has become an example to emulate among Muslims. As Islam continued to spread into new territories and obtain converts, Muhammad's sayings and…
Armstrong, Karen. Muhammad: A Prophet for Our Time. New York: Atlas / HarperCollins, 2006. Print.
Muhammad Ali Clay
Muhammad Ali is among the most widely identified faces in the world; recognized not only for becoming the most effective boxers in the recent boxing history; however for becoming probably the most well-informed persons of the last century. Ali had not always been recognized with that name; although he had been born as Cassius Marcellus Clay on the 17TH of January in 1942 in Louisville, Kentucky. Both Ali and his younger sibling udolph had numerous minor conflicts like all brothers may have, however they had been, and are still endowed with possessing a really close connection (Hauser, 1991).
Twelve-year-old Cassius had been excited about boxing right after his brand-new motorbike had been stolen in an annual Black fair known as The Louisville House Show. Joe Martin, a police officer who trained young teenagers how they can box, had been in a small basement located in the fair…
Hauser, Thomas. Muhammad Ali: His Life and Times. New York, NY, Bantam Books, 1991
Michael, E. (2009). Muhammad Ali: The Making of an Icon. Temple University Press.
Shone, R. (2006). Muhammad Ali: The Life of a Boxing Hero. The Rosen Publishing Group.
Tyers, Kathy. Muhammad Ali: The Greatest. San Mateo, Ca, IDG Books World Inc.1995
Muhammad and how these challenges may have affected the Islamic tradition facing pluralism. First, pluralism in Islam is discussed, as outlined in the Qu'ran, and then Mohammad's trials are discussed, as they relate to the issue of pluralism in Islam. The definition of pluralism used in this paper is "the acceptance of other faiths which approach the same truths as one's own, rather than the alternative definition "the tolerance of faiths other than one's own." The definition, and its relevance to the discussion presented in this paper is also discussed.
What is the attitude of Islam towards pluralism (http://www.dawoodi-bohras.com)?If one goes by the Qur'anic pronouncements, Islam not only accepts the legitimacy of religious pluralism, but in fact considers pluralism central to its system of beliefs (http://www.dawoodi-bohras.com).There are very clear statements to this effect: for example, verse 5:48 (http://www.dawoodi-bohras.com).The verse is as follows: "Unto every one of you we have appointed…
Cohen, J. Under Crescent and Cross.
Lewis, The Jews of Islam.
McAuliffe, Quranic Christians.
Rahman, Major Themes of the Qu'ran.
slam is a Middle Eastern religion originating from around the 7th century, based on the teachings of the Prophet Muhammad. The basic paradigm of slam focuses on the revelations and ideals given to Muhammad by Allah (God) and recorded in the slamic Holy Text, the Qur'an. The basic focus of the Qur'an is to guide individuals to their appropriately perfect relationship with Allah through order, law and tradition. t is important to remember that the Qur'an was written during a time when most of the population was illiterate, so the cultural traditions contained within the Qur'an were designed to organize society and every aspect of life.
slam is mystical in the sense of a tradition of both wisdom and philosophy, based primarily on the manner in which the Prophet attained the wisdom of Allah and transcribed it. n many ways, though, like other religious traditions, the idea is…
In Islam, the duality of the revelations given to Muhammad and the mysticism revolving around Allah and the spirituality of humans is inexorably tied to the notion of society and culture. There is no separation of taking pieces of the Qur'an, but only in looking at it as a holistic document and, as one scholar put it, a template for an inner language that forms a holistic view of humanity and synthesis of spiritual and practical notions of how humans should live. Muhammad and the Qur'an, as the word of Allah, understand that life is a pathway towards perfection, and perfection is knowing God. However, the wisdom of the Qur'an also recognizes that humans are imperfect and must be guided towards this ultimate goal of perfection. Like Aristotle, happiness (perfection or oneness with God) does not always come at the end of the path, but along the way through trials and tribulations, evolving wisdom, and a dedication to faith.
Sells, M. (1996). Early Islamic Mysticism. Mahwah, NJ: Paulist Press, pp. 1-23.
Jesus & Muhammad
Jesus and Muhammad:
Similarities and Differences in the Lives of Two of History's Most Extraordinary Men
The power of religion is unmatched by any other philosophy. Religion has been utilized throughout history to unite or divide entire populations, to attain political prestige or financial power, and to subjugate society by often thwarting scientific reasoning. Yet, for many, religion has also provided guidance in times of turmoil and a sense of belonging in an often-disjointed world. This latter view of religion is one that those who established two of the world's largest faiths, Christianity and Islam, hoped to promote in the very beginning of time. In order to better understand these two men and the development of their faiths, this paper will conduct an examination of similarities and differences between Jesus and Muhammad's exceptional lives by beginning with the historical circumstances in which the two men lived and…
Inspiring poor communities to regain or preserve their self-sufficiency is one of the only ways to mitigate the problems associated with globalization. Globalization can be a liberating force, opening small markets up to the world. If Yunus were to lend money to poor women in a closed market system, their businesses would not thrive or grow and the potential to create vast amounts of wealth for the community would dwindle. Therefore, the global market economy has the potential to foster wealth in the poorest regions of the world.
Large multinational corporations may end up in symbiotic relationships with small, local companies. Small local companies can deliver goods and services, serving as ancillary support systems with intimate knowledge of the local culture and community. Small businesses are a potentially invaluable asset, not only by diversifying local economies but also by adding sources of supply, distribution, and retail outlets for products and…
Hence, the message contained in the holy book -- the Qur'an -- which is supposed to be the word of God Himself, is of great importance to the Muslims.
The book itself consists of the revelations made to Muhammad over a number of years, following the first revelation made to him while he was meditating in a cave near Mecca. It is divided into 114 chapters (called suras) that have been assembled in a descending order from the longest to the shortest chapter. The book is believed to be the word of God (as revealed to Prophet Muhammad) by the Muslims and sets forth the basic requirements of Muslim life, including spiritual, social, and legal codes of conduct. The Qur'an is written in the Arabic language and has a lyrical beauty that is difficult to translate into other languages. Like all profound works of literature, the verses of the Qur'an…
Ali, a.Y. (2000). "The Holy Qur'an." Translation in English. Wordsworth Classic of World Literature. Wordsworth Edition Limited: UK
Al-Muhajabah (2008). Al-Muhajabah's Islamic Pages. Retrieved on December 10, 2008 at http://www.muhajabah.com/tawhid.htm
Dallal, a.S. (2008). "Islam." Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia. Retrieved on December 10, 2008 at http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761579171/islam.html
Fisher, M.P. (2008). Living Religions. Seventh Edition. Pearson Prentice Hall: NJ
This freedom included interpreting the haditha into sharia, or Islamic law, but in the tenth century Sunni leaders declared the gates of knowledge closed, and the sharia complete. The Arabic empire still flourished, however, despite the persecution of various heresies including the mystical branch of Islam, Sufism. Strangely, religious tolerance was also ostensibly part of Muslim belief and practice in government, but apparently this did not extend to warping or blaspheming the Muslim religion itself. The Arab empire was eventually overrun by Mongols, but instead of ending Islamic rule this actually extended and complicated it.
The Mongols actually converted to Islam within decades of their entrance into Muslim territories, and political thinking that allowed one Muslim to kill another person claiming to be a Muslim was developed by a Muslim resistance leader. Muslim leaders -- all Muslims, in fact -- should try to implement sharia, but the Mongols were not…
government Islamic community establish death Muhammad? How Muslim lands governed 900-1400? eference Book: A History World Societies, Eighth Edition, Vol1 by: McKay, Hill, Buckler, Ebrey,
Even with the fact that Muhammad had managed to create a powerful religious ideology, he did not provide his followers with a clear understanding of who he wanted to succeed him in ruling the Arab world. As a consequence, many of his companions started disputes with regard to who was the rightful heir to Muhammad's Empire. Sunni and Shia Muslims represent the two main groups in Islam and they have been arguing with regard to which of them should represent the principal branch of the religion ever since Muhammad's death. In spite of the fact that Muhammad managed to bring together all the tribes of Arabia, the power that he left behind made it difficult for his followers to simply continue to respect his teachings…
McKay, J.P., 2009, A history of world societies, 8th edition, Bedford / St. Martin's
MindSparks, Islam's Impact, Social Studies
Around 1500 positions will be created during the development phase itself. The second company will work on high tech thin film solar panels, which have never been applied in commercial applications before. This project will be based in Indiana and Colorado, creating 2000 jobs during the construction phase and 1500 steady jobs in the future. This would comply with the president's statement during his election campaign about bringing up several "green" jobs. Both the projects are major steps towards competing against the Chinese solar industry. Even though these developments are positive, getting the loans does not imply success.
California's solar industry has been growing at a fast pace. olar panel installations in the roofs of the homes have gone from 500 to 50,000 within 10 years. an Diego itself has 2,262 solar roofs, more than an Francisco or Los Angeles. Nevada City is the one of the leaders…
California's solar industry has been growing at a fast pace. Solar panel installations in the roofs of the homes have gone from 500 to 50,000 within 10 years. San Diego itself has 2,262 solar roofs, more than San Francisco or Los Angeles. Nevada City is the one of the leaders in per capita installations where around 20% houses have a working solar system installed. The city of industry, near the outskirts of Los Angeles has the highest capacity (1.5 Kilowatts per head) per capita. Regardless of these efforts, solar power is responsible for less than 1% of the American power supply. The unavailability of feed-in tariff (like in Germany) prevents homeowners to set up extra power capacities and sell electricity. A Bill passed in this regard, the AB920, sponsored by Jared Huffman, has been unsuccessful in gaining enough support. A San Francisco-based group, Vote Solar Initiative has been making efforts to pass a bill to remove the limits of financial resources accessible to customers in order to compensate their power bills (net metering). As per the terms of this bill, its users can use solar roofs to pay off their bills. The assembly is waiting for the final decision.
Mohammed Professional Values
In Hey. I a research paper "Professional Work Values life Prophet Mohammad" Your research answer questions 1.What values? 2.What impact values? Use business corporate evidence prove argument. 3.How values a foundation organizational culture unifies Human Capital a diverse nature a contemporary organization?.
Professional work values and leadership: The life of the prophet Mohammed
The founder of Islam, the prophet Mohammed, is mainly known as a spiritual leader. But many of the values he embodied in his life would also be instructive for the world of business. Mohammed was a man committed his vision and values, just like all business leaders must be, to ensure that their followers believe that the organization is delivering something unique to consumers. Mohammed's life as well as his words continues to inspire people of all faiths.
Even before he became a religious figure, Mohammed was famous for his honesty and trustworthiness. "When…
Five pillars of Islam. (2009). BBC. Retrieved:
Life of Mohammed. (2002). PBS. Retrieved:
Mohammed Suharto and Macbeth
illiam Shakespeare wrote Macbeth to be one of his most important epic plays, reaching into the darkest aspects of mankind and offering no redemption to his hero in the end. At first a loyal general, Macbeth sees power as something that is in his grasp, and with the right amount of pressure, he seizes this power by killing King Duncan. (Shakespeare, 1611) In the end, Macbeth was punished for the evil that he committed, and did not remain King for long. The power unbalance that Macbeth sets forth can be compared to Mohammed Suharto's take over of Indonesia in 1965. Suharto, like Macbeth, was power hungry, and believed that he knew what was the best way to govern, and would do anything possible to prove it.
In several ways, the life of Mohammed Suharto can be directly placed over the story of Macbeth. The same tragic…
Berger, M. (Jan 28, 2008). Suharto Dead at 86. The New York Times. Retrieved from, http://www.nytimes.com/2008/01/28/world/asia/28suharto.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0 .
No Author. (2008). Time. A look back at Suharto's Indonesia. Retrieved from, http://www.time.com/time/photogallery/0,29307,1702682,00.html .
Shakespeare, W. (2011). Sparknotes. Macbeth. Retrieved from, http://nfs.sparknotes.com/macbeth/.
Non- Muslim scholars have made speculations about the dates and authenticity of the Quran, accounts of Islamic history and the Sira literature. The literatures have elicited a wide range of responses from Muslims. Others dismiss the ideas as fantasies from unbelievers, whereas others view them as dangerous attacks from the enemy designed to undermine the true faith. Apart from literary sources, other historians have tried to make speculations using graffiti, abandoned settlements, coins, inscriptions, glassware, coins, pottery, and mile makers who used caravan routes to shed some light on Islamic history, especially through the religion's prophetic role among the selected; Prophet Muhammad. These sources depict a mythological perspective and truth based on the history, life and role of prophecy in completing the principles of Islam according to Prophet Muhammad.
According to Islamic sources, Muhammad's prophetic career started two decades prior; around the 610 when he was forty years…
Haleem, A.M.A.S. The Qu'ran: A New Translation. London: Oxford, 2005.
Hisham, I.A., Ishaq, I.M., Guillame, A. The Life Of Muhammad. Chicago: Oxford University Press, 1998.
Sells, M.A. Approaching The Quran. Virginia: White Clouds Press Virginia, 2007.
Shephard, W. Introducing Islam. New York: Routledge, 2009.
Contributions of Mohamed Talaat Pasha Harb to Egypt’s National Development and Banking System
Born on 25th November, 1867 in Cairo’s El- Gammalia, Mohamed Talaat Pasha Harb is considered one among the greatest personalities who contributed to Egypt’s overall national growth and development. He studied art, science, economics, literature, and French. After acquiring a law degree, he commenced his career in the role of translator in the Royal Circuits’ Lawsuits Section, responsible for state- owned farmland. Though favoring free enterprise, he was quick to climb the rungs of the career ladder, landing the position of lawsuits section manager (53-75)3.
His subsequent posts as manager were at various organizations including Kom Ombo Company (a firm that actively reclaimed and sold land) and the Egyptian Real- Estate Company (where he ensured citizens of Egypt held most of the shares). He penned numerous books, including “The Economic Remedy of Egypt and Creating the…
Life of Prophet Muhammed
There is an inherent degree of difficulty incurred in the life of a prophet. This fact is documented in a number of different texts, one of the most revealing of which is The Life of Muhammad. This book is valuable because it illustrates a multitude of events in the progression of Muhammad's life from his birth to his journey as a man. However, it does so by revealing the fact that during all stages of his life, he was favored by God -- rendering him worthy as a prophet of Allah. Furthermore, this book illustrates the fact that despite a plethora of burdensome situations, Muhammad always retained God's favor and acted in accordance with his role as a divine prophet. A close examination of the textual evidence in this manuscript reveals that as a prophet, Muhammad encountered a significant amount of austere trials, the results of…
Ishaq. The Life of Muhammad. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1955.
Jesus and Mohammed -- Their Lives & Legacies
Jesus Christ and Mohammed are thought of historically -- and today as well -- as the two individuals that have probably had the greatest impact on the world in a spiritual and religious context. hile other iconic spiritual and religious leaders have made their mark on history and society, Jesus (who founded Christianity; today there are an estimated 2.8 billion followers) and Mohammed (Islam's most holy figure; there are an estimated 2.2 billion Muslims), Jesus was believed to be the Son of God, who came to earth to offer humans an opportunity to have everlasting life. Mohammed, on the other hand, is believed to be the prophet who received the text of Islam from God and led the growth of Islam.
This paper traces the lives of Jesus and Mohammed, compares the impact that their deaths had on society, describes the way…
Biography. (2005). Jesus Christ Biography / Synopsis. Retrieved April 18, 2013, from http://www.biography.com .
Boff, Leonardo. (2011). Passion of Christ, Passion of the World. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books
History-Timelines. (2007). Timeline of Jesus. Retrieved April 18, 2013, from http://www.history-timelines.org.uk .
Public Broadcast Service. (2006). The Life of Mohammed. Retrieved April 18, 2013, from http://www.pbs.org .
Medina Charter" Prophet Muhammed's reign 1948 "International Declaration Human Rights" in terms similarities differences. (Please essay simple eyes). Font: 14 times roman
Even with the fact that the masses have been accustomed to considering that human rights have not been a priority for most major powers from around the world until the second half of the twentieth century, the truth is that humanity has expressed great interest in the concept centuries before this moment. Muhammad founded the Medina Constitution in 622 A.D. with the purpose of having a complex community of Muslims, Jewish individuals, and pagans living together in harmony. It is very intriguing that this Charter was issued thirteen centuries earlier than the Universal Declaration of Human Rights when taking account that the latter contains a great deal of ideas present in the former.
hile the Medina Charter can be perceived as a rough and faulty draft of the…
Ramadan, Hisham R., "Understanding Islamic Law: From Classical to Contemporary," (Rowman Altamira, 2006)
"Human rights not coined in heaven," Retrieved October 14, 2012, from the Institute of Islamic Understanding Malaysia Website: http://e-kiosk.ikim.gov.my/downloadarticle.asp?id=251
"The Medina Charter," Retrieved October 14, 2012, from the MPAC Website: http://www.mpac-ng.org/specialtopic/386-the-medina-charter.html
When examining the Prophet Muhammad in a religious-historical context, it is helpful to compare him to another central religious figure in the history of the West in order to highlight how he is unique. For example, while Christ plays the role of God-Man in the Christian religion, Muhammad simply plays the role of man—though a very special one, of course.[footnoteRef:1] As the Qur’an notes: “Muhammad is no more than an apostle: many were the apostle that passed away before him.”[footnoteRef:2] However, Muhammad’s nature is unlike that of other men, for he is recognized in Islam as having the “most perfect nature” and as being “like a jewel among stones.”[footnoteRef:3] Similarly to the way in which Christ is beloved of the Father in Christianity, Muhammad is “the beloved of God (habib Allah), whom the Quran calls an excellent model (uswah hasanah) to emulate.”[footnoteRef:4] Another distinction that can be made is…
The impact each has had on their respective followers, as well as the millions of other individuals who choose not to follow their teachings is overwhelming in nature. For two individuals who lived so many centuries ago to still hold sway over such a large portion of the population is a testament to their influence. Currently both Mohammed and Jesus are honored on special days throughout the year, and more than that they are also venerated and revered every single day by millions of faithful followers of their respective teachings.
The teachings of Jesus are currently being presented through the Christian Bible and primarily through the four gospels of the New Testament. These four books were written approximately forty to sixty years after the death of Jesus and relate the stories of his life and times. "hat Christians believe about Jesus' life and teachings is based largely on biblical texts,…
Fisher, M.P. (2005) Living Religions (6th ed), New York: Prentice Hall
John the Disciple, (1979) the Bible: New Testament, Salt Lake City, Utah: Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints
lives Jesus Mohammed relation respective religion. The paper formatted APA guidelines, include research sources. Be complete steps paper: 1. Trace lives Jesus Mohammed historically.
Jesus and Mohammed
Standing as the two principal religions on the planet, Christianity and Islam are most recognized for the individuals who made it possible for them to exist. Jesus is the major figure in the world of Christianity while Mohamed is the central figure in the Islamic world. Given religion is presently one of the most debated topics, one of the best methods of understanding each of the two religious faiths would be to analyze the characters that stand at the base of each of them.
Although there is no exact evidence to demonstrate when Jesus was born, most sources point toward the belief that the act occurred somewhere before the death of King Herod the Great. There are a series of scholarly accounts meant…
Rausch, Thomas P. "Who is Jesus?: an introduction to Christolog." (Liturgical Press, 2003).
Sarker, Abraham. "Understand My Muslim People." (Barclay Press, 2004).
As an adolescent, Mohamed managed to make use of his businessman nature and his remarkable communicational skills. At the age of twenty five he was entrusted with taking care of the caravans of a rich widow which he later married. Being very fond of religion, Mohamed paid a great interest to udaism and Christianity, but was quick to dispose of both of them as he didn't share the principles of the two. He often visited a temple in Mecca where people were worshiping three hundred and sixty Gods. Mohamed felt attracted by Allah, the moon God, and began to claim that the moon God had been the one true God people should worship. As a very religious man that he had been, Mohamed was known to dedicate several weeks to the divinity by praying in a cave near Mecca where he allegedly had numerous visions of God and of heaven.…
Jesus or Mohammed. Retrieved Aug. 29, 2008. Available at http://www.tftw2.org/Tracts/mohammed.html
Biography of Jesus Christ. Retrieved Aug. 29, 2008. Available at http://www.sacklunch.net/biography/J/JesusChrist.html
Religion Facts. Retrieved: Aug 29, 2008. Available at http://www.religionfacts.com
microtheme Mohammad's poems- file attached A microtheme analysis paper focuses a K. Silem Mohammad's poem "Breathalyzer" is fairly obtuse, and much more than a little bit confusing. The source of this confusion, however, stems from the fact that it is a poor example of poetry, and reflective of many of the traits of modern or postmodern poetry that nearly make it unworthy of the name poetry. Still, the source of the meaninglessness of this poem is the desultory nature of it. There are numerous words, which are portioned in lines that make neat, geometric shapes on the paper. Yet there is no true connection between them, which renders them all but devoid of meaning.
The random and disjointed nature of the words in Mohammad's poem are evinced relatively early on in this work. In the second stanza of the poem (further testament to the random nature of this work is…
Mohammad, K.S. (2008). Breathalyzer. Washington, D.C.: Edge Books.
Canebrake," by Mohammed Mrabet presents a story of Tangier where a woman suffers the insult of being ignored by her drunken husband Kacem day in and day out as she stays cooped up in the house and slaves away cooking for him and his friend Stito. She was never allowed to go out to the hammam (Turkish bath) to bathe as she wished. It is the opinion of this author that she confronts him boldly with evidence of her infidelity with Stito and this causes him to sober up and pay attention to lovemaking with his wife. This is a covert tale of feminine boldness from the Maghreb (Mrabet 142-144).
In the story, the mortal sin of drinking is fought boldly with the visual evidence of Kacem friend Stito's infidelity. He had a bachelor and had no problems because he smoked only kif (a mild hashish blend). It kept his…
Mrabet, Mohammed. "The Canebrake." The Art of the Story: An International Anthology of Contemporary Short Stories . Ed. Daniel Halpern. 1st ed. New York: Viking Adult, 1999. 142-
The Diet and Lifestyle of the Followers of Mohammed
People who lived during the time of Mohammed followed a specific dietary system and lifestyle which was modeled on that of the prophet. The diet was natural and holistic and the lifestyle was as well. For example, after morning prayers, the prophet would dissolve a spoonful of honey in water and drink this, and his followers would do the same. The purpose of this was that not only would the honey sweeten the water but also it would prepare the digestive tract for the breakfast that was soon to follow (Abdalshafy, 2014). This honey juice was especially important in the life of Mohammed and his followers in maintaining a healthy, regimental lifestyle. This paper shall discuss other aspects of the lifestyle and dietary system of the followers of Mohammed at this point in time.
Breakfast for the followers of…
Abdalshafy, M. (2014). Optimum health from the Food of the Prophet. Encyclopedia of Miracles in Coran and Sunnah. Available from http://www.quran-m.com/firas/en1/index.php/prophetical/458-optimum-health-from-the-food-of-the-prophet.html
Muir, W. (1861). Life of Mahomet. London: Smith, Elder.
Muslim Health Network. (2014). Islam and Health. MHN. Available from http://www.muslimhealthnetwork.org/islamandhealth.shtml
Nigosian, S. (2004). Islam: Its History, Teaching, and Practices. IN: Indiana
What is meant by the term 'social enterprise' and what do social enterprises contribute to society and the economies in which they operate?
The acceleration with which the world is changing day by day is continuous. A majority of organizations that have a motto of 'not-for-profit' are looking out for prospects with the help of which they can begin or widen their projects in order to get their missions fulfilled and offer the needy the earned profits. Thus, any organization or scheme that brings about the mentioned twofold objectives is considered a social enterprise. Social enterprises sell mission-related goods or services and by doing so they try to create a more impartial and fair environment through specific market-based strategies (Bornstein & Davis 2010).
In other words, a business is regarded as a social enterprise when the main objective is to cope up with the prevailing societal problems and…
Baptiste, T. (2009). Being a Leader and Making Decisions. 1st. ed. New York: Chelsea House.
Beerel, A. (2009). Leadership and Change Management. 1st. ed. Los Angeles: SAGE.
Bornstein, D. & Davis, S. (2010). Social Entrepreneurship: What Everyone Needs to Know. 1st. ed. New York: Oxford University Press.
Borzaga, C. & Defourny, J. (2001). The Emergence of Social Enterprise. 1st. ed. London: Routledge.
The association drawn between the leader's teachings and the principled disposition of his followers appeals to a modern Judeo-Christian vantage as well. As the documentary proceeds to its discussion on figures such as Jesus and Mohammed, the constancy of world religion becomes that much clearer. In many ways, Jesus and Muhammed may be perceived as twin pillars on a single continuum. Indeed, "Muhammed regarded himself as the last prophet of the Judaic-Christian tradition. He adopted aspects of these older religion's theologies while introducing new doctrines." (Katz, 1) Thus, it is not surprising that upon its inception into the world at around 570 CE, the Islamic religion produced a legal code which was monotheistic, centered on the prescription of ethical law and applicable in both the theocratic and civil arenas.
This law would likewise predispose the Muslim people to many rituals which echoed those of the Judeo Christian ethic. Like Jesus…
Films Media Group (FMG). (1998). Three Pillars: Confucius, Jesus and Mohammed. Films for the Humanities & Science.
Katz, J. (2001). The Prophet Mohammed. Eretz Yisroel.
Canebrake Night Woman
Sex in the Canebrake and Night Woman
On the surface, "The Canebrake" by Mohammed Mrabet and "Night Woman" by Edwidge Danticat are two completely different stories. The former is about a disgruntled housewife; the latter is about a prostitute. However, there is a fundamental theme that ties these two stories together. That is, each story explores how female sexuality can be exploited to gain power and control. It is the purpose of this paper to discuss how the female protagonist in both stories use sex to get what they want.
In "The Canebrake," Kacem's wife is not very pleased with her husband. He drinks too much and he shows little interest in her. Moreover, he won't even let her leave the house. She is a prisoner of sorts, "No matter how much she entreated him and argued with him, he would not even let her go to…
In the city of Medina, Muhammad united the warring tribes. Following eight years of fighting Mecca tribes the Muslims conquered Mecca. In the year 632, after returning to Medina from a farewell pilgrimage to Mecca, Muhammad became ill and died. At the time of his death, almost all of the Arabian Peninsula had converted to the Islamic faith. He had united the Arabian tribes into a single Muslim religious polity hegemon (ibid, 34-40).
The revelations Muhammad reported receiving until his death in 632 form the body of the Qur'an, regarded by Muslims as the "ord of God" and around which the Muslim religion is built upon. In addition to the Qur'an, Muhammad's life and traditions are observed by Muslims. These stories discuss Muhammad and the other prophets with reverence, adding the phrase peace be upon him whenever his name is mentioned. His life and deeds have been debated and criticized…
Braswell, G. (2000). What you need to know about islam and muslims. New York, NY: B&H Book.
Goldschmidt, A., & Davidson, L. (2005). A concise history of the middle east. (9th
ed.). Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
Incense Burner of Amir Saif al-Dunya wa'l-Din ibn Muhammad al-Mawardi, 1181-82, Iran
The Incense Burner of Amir Saif al-Dunya wa'l-Din ibn Muhammad al-Mawardi (1181-82) Iran is located in Gallery 453 in the Galleries for the Art of Arab Lands, Turkey, Iran, Central Asia, and Later South Asia. The Metropolitan Museum designates the medium used in the work of art as bronze, cast, engraved, chased, and pierced. The Incense Burner of Amir Saif al-Dunya wa'l-Din ibn Muhammad al-Mawardi is approximately 33 1/2 inches in height and 32 1/2 inches in length. The appearance of the incense burner is zoomorphic which was a popular representation during the Seijug period.
The appearance of the Incense Burner of Amir Saif al-Dunya wa'l-Din ibn Muhammad al-Mawardi is that of some type of animal such as a dog. The characteristics of the Incense Burner of Amir Saif al-Dunya wa'l-Din ibn Muhammad al-Mawardi include engraving on…
The Sawm is the Fourth Pillar of Islam and it teaches Muslims in regard to fasting (refraining from eating or drinking). The Ramadan is the ninth month in the Islamic lunar year and is believed to be the most important period of the year in Muslim tradition. Muslims are not allowed to eat, drink, or engage in sexual intercourse throughout daylight hours every day during the Ramadan. The person who abstains from eating, drinking, and sex during daylight hours at Ramadan also has to be moral, as any sort of immorality makes the fasting pointless.
The Fifth Pillar is the Hajj, the pilgrimage to Mecca. People understand this pilgrimage as a physical and spiritual journey to the holiest place in Islam. The Islamic world promotes the belief that any person who is a Muslim and who is physically able to travel to Mecca should do so at least once in…
Boyd Jenkins, Orville, "MAJOR TYPES OF ISLAM," Retrieved September 10, 2011, from the Orville Jenkins website: http://orvillejenkins.com/outlineintro/types.html
Mason, Bethany, "Following the Prophet: A Comparison of Sunni and Shiite Muslims," Retrieved September 10, 2011, from the East Tennessee State University website: http://www.etsu.edu/writing/teaching&theory_s06/sunnis.htm
Penney, Sue, "Islam," Heinemann, 1999.
Ridenour, Fritz, "So What's the Difference?," Gospel Light, 2001.
Esposito finds that the premodernist revival movements of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries contributed to the pattern of Islamic politics that developed and left a legacy for the twentieth century. These movements were motivated primarily in response to internal decay rather than external, colonial threat (Esposito 40-41).
At the same time, many areas of the Islamic world experienced the impact of the economic and military challenge of an emerging and modernizing est beginning in the eighteenth century. Declining Muslim fortunes also reversed the relationship of the Islamic world to the est, from that of an expanding offensive movement to a defensive posture. Muslim responses to these changes ranged from rejection to adaptation, from Islamic withdrawal to acculturation and reform. Some responded by secular reform, and by the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, Islamic modernist movements had also developed in an attempt to bridge the gap between tradition and modernity…
Ahmed, Leila. Women and Gender in Islam: Historical Roots of a Modern Debate. New Haven: Yale University, 1992.
Islamic Liberalism. Chicago: Chicago University Press, 1988.
Eickelman, Dale F. The Middle East: An Anthropological Approach. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, 1989.
Dhimmis (minorities of other religions) participated as equal citizens in this renaissance and Muslim scholars made more scientific discoveries during this time than in the whole of previously recorded history (Goldschmidt & Davidson, 2007). The break between the hiis (those who considered Ali to be legitimate ruler of the nation) and the unnis (those who revered Muhammad and all four rashidun) occurred during this period. Mystic Islam (best known as ufism), or esoteric groups were born during this period as well as Muslim philosophy.
Today, approximately 80-90% of Moslems are unnis whilst 10-20% are hiites. The key difference between unnis and hiites is that unnis believe that the first four caliphs were rightful successors to Mohamed and that caliphs should be chosen by the whole community. The alafi sect (otherwise notoriously known as Wahabbissm) is an extreme Islamic movement derived from unnism. hiites, on the other hand, believe in the…
Armstrong, K. (2000). Islam: A Short History The Modern Library: UK.
Brown, D. (1999). Rethinking Tradition in Modern Islamic Thought Cambridge: Cambridge Univ,. Press
Goldschmidt, A. & Davidson, L. (2010) A concise history of the Middle East Boulder, CO: Westview Press
Hourani, A. (1991) A History of the Arab People London: Penguin
Religious Field Search
AHMADIS: THE OTHER FACE OF ISLAM
For the purposes of this paper I visited the local Ahmaddiya Muslim Community or as they prefer to called Ahmadis. Ahmadis are a sub-sect of the Islamic Community. What attracted to me to study this community was that unlike the general image we have of the Islamic community, this community is non-violent and is considered heretical by the larger Islamic community for having a prophet in succession to Muhammad, the founder of the Islamic faith. In many Muslim majority countries the Ahmadis are banned and in many others they have been ex-communicated from the Islamic mainstream. Apparently -- as I discovered- one of the other contentious issues between them and the rest Islamic community is the controversy over Jesus Christ's death, which I found interesting given that I considered Jesus an exclusively Christian figure. To my amazement it turns out that…
1. Ahmad, M.T (1989). MURDER in the NAME of ALLAH London, UK:
Lutterworth Press Cambridge
2. Durant, W. (1950), The Story of Civilization, 11 volumes, New York:
Simon and Schuster.
Crouching Tiger Hidden Dragon
The film, documentaries and the last docudrama are exceptional production pieces by notable directors and producers. Crouching tiger-hidden dragon defies the usual mantra of strength only attributed to men. Jen effectively acts as person having higher morals. The martial arts performance was exceptional, an unusual feature in Hollywood. Islam, the empire of faith is another documentary made on the rise of Islamic empire and the life of Prophet Mohammad having a great impact on establishment of religion. 'Gandhi' also remains an unquestioned production classic that eloquently portrays Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, the unquestioned leader of India. The film sheds light on Hinduism as a religion and its faith and dogmas. Lastly, Kundan is a docudrama based on life of Dalai Lama. 'Kundan' might not have justified the stature of Buddhism in history of mankind but the piece of production remains an earnest effort on part of Martin…
Bowker, J. & Bowker, D. (1997). World religions. Dorling Kindersley.
Chan, K. (2004). The Global Return of the Wu Xia Pian (Chinese Sword-Fighting Movie): Ang Lee's Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon. Cinema Journal, 43(4), 3-17.
Conze, E. (2004). Buddhism: Its essence and development. Windhorse Publications.
Driver, M.W. & Ray, S. (2004). The medieval hero on screen: representations from Beowulf to Buffy (Vol. 56). McFarland & Company Incorporated Pub.
Reward and Punishment
The American system of justice is designed to ensure that criminal activity is punished and those responsible for crime are made to serve retribution for their choices. The system is based on the idea that it is better for 100 criminals to get away with crime than for one innocent man to go to prison. However, miscarriages of justice still take place in the American justice system. Innocent people go to prison and guilty people go free. Those unsatisfied with the situation have been known to take matters into their own hands. This vigilantism has been a major topic of debate with regard to ethics and the determination of what is morally right or wrong. The system is designed so that the regular everyday citizen does not have to perform the punishment on the criminals. The severity of a crime is supposed to have a direct correlation…
Thiroux, Jacques P. And Keith W. Krasemann (2008). Ethics: Theory and Practice. Prentice Hall.
Type a versus Type B Leadership
The ability to guide and direct a group, department or entire organization is predicated on being able to balance task and relationship orientation through transformational leadership. The most effective leaders balance short-term transactional strategies for getting immediate results with transformational leadership skills, intermediating between each using emotional intelligence (EI) to guide their decision making (Ivey, Kline, 2010). The foundational elements of transformational leadership include individualized consideration, intellectual stimulation, inspirational motivation (Ismail, Mohamed, Sulaiman, Mohamad, Yusuf, 2011) and idealized influence. Transformational leaders are able to use situational awareness and EI to selectively apply each of these approaches at the most opportune time to get the best results (Ivey, Kline, 2010). The intent of this analysis is to evaluate how these techniques can be used for assessing scores from the Type A versus Type B tests taken. I received a score of 38 on Type…
Ismail, A., Mohamed, H.A., Sulaiman, A.Z., Mohamad, M.H., & Yusuf, M.H. (2011). An empirical study of the relationship between transformational leadership, empowerment and organizational commitment. Business and Economic Research Journal, 2(1), 89-108. Retrieved from ProQuest.
Ivey, G.W., & Kline, T.B. (2010). Transformational and active transactional leadership in the Canadian military. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 31(3), 246-262. Retrieved from ProQuest.
Authors Donald Lively and ussell Weaver describe Hustler Magazine as Falwell's "antagonist (p. 79)," no doubt representing for Falwell abuses of our Constitutional freedoms.
"In 1983, Hustler Magazine decided to parody Falwell using a Campari Liqueur advertisement. The actual Campari ads portrayed interviews with various celebrities about their 'first times.' Although the advertisement actually focused on the first time that the celebrities had sampled Campari, the ads portrayed the double entendre of the first time that the interviewees had engaged in sex. Hustler mimicked the Campari format and created a fictional interview with Falwell in which he stated that his 'first time' was during a drunken incestuous rendezvous with his mother in an outhouse (p. 79)."
The Oregon Commentator, May, 2007
There is probably no limit to the outrage that was felt by Falwell, and by his support base, both of which would have been offended, first, by using Falwell…
Block, H. (Artist) (1979). Spiritual Leader, Washington Post, Field Newspaper
Syndicate, April 8, 1979. Found online at Pop Art Machine, http://popartmachine.com/item/pop_art/LOC+1158615/SPIRITUAL-LEADER-/-HERBLOCK.-UNPROCESSED-%5BITEM%5D-%5BP&P%5DREPRODUCTION ..., retrieved March 1, 2010.
Chunovic, L. (2000). One Foot on the Floor: The Curious Evolution of Sex on Television
From I Love Lucy to South Park. University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor, MI.
Essentially, science utilizes the power of reason and logic in its search for the truth while religion depends almost wholly upon faith, being a belief in something without any evidence whatsoever to support it. In the realms of science, investigators seek to understand natural phenomena through direct observation and experimentation which makes it mandatory that all interpretations of the facts be provisional and testable. Statements made by any authority, revelation or appeal to the supernatural are not part of this process, due to the absence of supporting evidence.
Thus, in the eyes of religious scholars and authorities, all opposition to what science has uncovered is based on faith and mythological revelation which takes precedence over evidence. Also, the tenets of religion have not, for the most part, changed much over time and cannot be validated when subjected to the scientific method.
Like many others that study the natural world, scientists…
(Prophet Noble Drew Ali)
Ali came to Chicago in 1925 and his movement took on its greatest force here. He saw Marcus Garvey as a motivation for his own work. Ali, like Garvey preached the significance of forming unity among all the people of the African Diaspora. Marcus Garvey was particularly acclaimed as a John the Baptist who set the way for the emergence of Noble Drew Ali at Moorish Science Temple meetings. (What was the relationship between Noble Drew Ali and Marcus Garvey?)
Warith al-Din Muhammad:
Many foreign countries have exercised substantial power on the lives of American Muslims by ascertaining to increase the religious knowledge. Saudi Arabia has enhanced the image of Islam in the West. It has supported the actions of the Muslim World League -- MWL in America. Saudi Arabia has also promoted good relations with the Afro-American Muslim community. In all possibility, under foreign pressure,…
Experiencing the Sacred
Compare St. Teresa's experience of the spiritual marriage with both Muhammad's Night Journey and the Buddha's Enlightenment. The focus should clearly identify similarities and differences.
Teresa of Avila, Muhammad, and the Shakyamuni Buddha all had intense spiritual experiences. Their experience can all be classified as numinous and ecstatic, because they each surrendered their physical selves to experience union with a spiritual dimension. They were each subsumed by their spiritual experiences, imparting either fear or joy. Moreover, each of these individuals made a great impact on religious, philosophical, and spiritual teachings.
There are some distinct differences between these three figures, though. The obvious differences are cultural, geographic, and temporal. St. Teresa of Avila is the most modern of the three figures. She lived during the 16th century in Spain, and her upbringing was steeped in Catholicism. Muhammad lived during the 7th century CE, nearly a thousand years prior…
Kessler, Gary. "Experiencing the Sacred." 2008.
Pojman, Louis. "The Argument from Religious Experience." Chapter 5 in Philosophy of Religion.
There is an obvious contradiction between what we think of Muslim women and their actual life. In order to better understand them and their social and civil life, we need to understand their religion and the way of thinking for both men and women.
In the introductory chapter of the book "The war of Muslim Minds, Islam and the West," Gilles Kepel talks about the online article "Knights under the Prophet's anner," published on the Internet in December 2001 by Ayman al-Zawahiri, Al Qaeda's most valued ideologue and Osama bin Laden's mentor.
According to his statements, the explanation for the attack of September 11 on the World Trade Centre is a simple and rather nationalistic one. Jihad activists came to face the disappointing conclusion that wherever they would go, Afghanistan, osnia or Saudi Arabia, jihad activist were unable to motivate and gather up the masses in order to fight…
Gilles Kepel, "The War of Muslim Minds, Islam and the West," The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts and London, England, 2004
Bernard Lewis and Robin Wright, Laith Kubba, "Islam and Liberal Democracy: Recognizing Pluralism," Journal of Democracy 7.2 (1996) 86-89
Meria, Middle East Review of International Affairs, Journal, Volume 3, Number 1, March 1999, Article "Islam, Islamists and democracy," by Ali R. Abootalebi
Zuleyha Keskin, "Status of Women in Islam," 2005
Judaism, Christianity, and Islam
Hebrew history, as told by the Hebrews, begins in Mesopotamia, in the cities of Ur in the south and Haran in the north. With Abraham, the story of the Hebrews begins, and it is clearly stated that Hebrew origins lay outside Canaan. The command to leave his ancestral home and journey to Canaan was accompanied by a promise (Gen. 12:2) The exact location of the nation-to-be is not specified but was, of course, known to those hearing or reading the account, Abraham journeyed to Canaan, Egypt, the Negeb, Hebron, Gezer, Beer-sheba and back to Hebron where he and his wife Sarah died.
The journey itself was more than a pilgrimage, for it represented the starting point of a continuing adventure in nationhood. Nor are the travelers without vicissitudes, but throughout famine, earthquake, fire and war, god protected them.
The close relationship between the Hebrews and…
Media Control in Egypt
The media in Egypt is much more controlled than in many other countries, including the United States. That control began with President Gamal Abdel Nasser, moved through Anwar Sadat, and then on to Hosni Mubarak. During that time, the television and newspapers were strictly controlled, and only what the president wanted people to see was placed in them. There is significant evidence that the control of the media in Egypt was done largely to oppress the people, and to make sure they were only hearing and seeing what the government wanted them to hear and see. Social, political, and economic factors are all significant in the control of the Egyptian media, which many believe should be uncontrolled and independent. That would allow it to provide actual, factual information, instead of only what the government agreed that the people were allowed to know.
The Egyptian media…
Amin, Hussein, and I- Chapter One: General Status. "Report on the State of the Media in Egypt." The Arab Center for the Development of the Rule of Law and Integrity Project Title: Strengthening the Rule of Law and Integrity in the Arab World Report on the State of the Media in Egypt Second Draft Author: Dr. Hussein Amin. Arab Rule of Law. (n.d.). Web.
"Egypt." Freedom House. 2012. Web.
Elmasry, Mohamed Hamas. Journalism with Restraint: A Comparative Content Analysis of Independent, Government, and Opposition Newspapers in Pre-Revolution Egypt. 2012. Web.
El Zahed, Hala. "Egyptian Press and the Transition to Democracy." Egyptian Press and the Transition to Democracy: A Study of the Conditions and Challenges Facing National Print Media Post. 2011. Web.
Abul-Waleed Muhammad Ibn Rushd: His Work and Philosophy
Abul-Waleed Muhammad Ibn Rushd (1126-1198 C.E), also known as Averroes, is regarded by many as one of the foremost Islamic philosophers and a pivotal figure in the history of Andalusian philosophy. He is also deemed an important figure in the history of Western philosophy. An important contribution to Islamic culture and philosophy was his defense of Greek philosophy in the Islamic world as well as his emphasis on the philosophy of Aristotle. Ibn Rushd is credited with the introduction of "rationalism" into Islamic philosophy.
A as Etienne Gilson has written in his Reason and Revelation in the Middle Ages, Rationalism was born in Spain in the mind of an Arabian philosopher, as a conscious reaction against the theologism of the Arabian divines, by whom he means the Ash'arite Mutakallimun. (Fakhry)
In global terms it has been asserted that not only…
Allahhakbar. Net. Groundwork on Islamic Philosophy in the context of Modern Western Philosophy. 3 March 2004. www.salaf.indiaaccess.com/atheist/groundwork_on_islamic_philosophy.htm
Fakhry M. Averroes: (Ibn Rushd) His Life, Works and Influence. 4 March, 2004. www.oneworld-publications.com/books/texts/averroes-his-life-woks-and-influence-intro.htm
Hillier C. The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. 4 March, 2004. http://www.iep.utm.edu/i/ibnrushd.htm
IIDL. Abul Walid Muhammed Ibn Ahmed Ibn Rush. 4 March, 2004. http://iidl.net/index.php?ch=15&pg=64&ac=111
As Tapper (1995) points out, the three major approaches of Western social theory are each "flawed by their commitment to positivism, objectivity, and scientific detachment," (p. 186). Some may wonder how it could be possible to study religion with scientific detachment, since scientific detachment is partly defined by the absence of religious sentiment. If a historian is too detached, he or she cannot come to terms with the language best used to understand any given tradition: for example the "body" of Muhammad and the Prophet's tribe. Denying relevance of mystical experiences, subversive or minority views, or even non-linear representations of history would be doing a disservice to the history of religion. A scholar doesn't necessarily have to spend time in a monastery to understand Zen but it wouldn't hurt. Encounters with terms and ideologies add the missing semantic value that can make a history of religion whole and truly meaningful.…
Tapper, R. (1995). 'Islamic anthropology' and the 'Anthropology of Islam'. Anthropological Quarterly. 68(3): 185-193.
Varisco, D.M. (1995). Metaphors and sacred history: the geneaology of Muhammad and the Arab 'Tribe'. Anthropological Quarterly. 68(3): 139-156.
Governmental healthcare centers concentrate on providing primary care to individuals and to control and manage the spread of infectious diseases and to manage natural disasters (Christian et al., 2008). However, in the public domain, health care differs from one country to another. This can be specifically applied in developed nations, where social, economic and political factors are most likely to influence public health policies and centers and their accessibility and availability (Christian et al., 2008). This research proposal concentrates on presenting an overview and detailed background of health centers in English-speaking countries. The countries selected are Australia, Canada, the United Kingdom and the United States.
Governmental health care centers concentrate on the provision of primary care to individuals and on controlling and managing the spread of infectious diseases and managing responses to natural disasters (Christian et al., 2008). However, in the public domain, health care differs --…
About NHS hospital services. (2013). National Health Service. Retrieved from http://www.
Christian MD, Devereaux AV, Dichter JR, et al. (2008). Definitive care for the critically ill during a disaster: current capabilities and limitations: from a Task Force for Mass Critical
Care summit meeting, January 26 -- 27 2007 Chicago, IL. Chest. Vol. 133(Suppl):8S -- 17S.
Medieval Western Society, Byzantine Society and Islamic Society
It is the habit of history to study several cultures as if they have developed independently of one another, and entirely different. The results of national and regional pride are evident in the manner in which history is retold, as each civilization builds the future of its own region and develops its own regional differences and standards, each is often studied as if it has developed in a vacuum. Within the primary sources of the foundational societies that encompass the history of today's world there are many differences to be found; yet there is also a clear indication that Early Medieval Western Society, Byzantine Society and Islamic Society all developed within the context of the Ancient Roman Civilization, with all the resulting effects. Additionally, they all developed feudal and manorial institutions in response to internal and external pressures of encroachment. In short…
The fight itself was beautifully orchestrated by Ali through the study of Foreman's technique, movement, strength, and weaknesses. hile preparing for the fight, Ali focused training on his weaknesses, and on Foreman's strengths as a fighter. Ali also took advantage of the public's support and encouragement and used it to build up his esteem, mentally and amongst the African peoples. Foreman, on the other hand, stayed out of the public eye and was reluctant to take part of the cheering for or against his opponent. Foreman was rather laconic during his stay, saying little and staying out of the spotlight. Ali took advantage of the publicity that the fight was receiving and was constantly in front of the camera, whether he was boasting his great skill, advocating his political views, or trying to psych Foreman out. Ali boasts include his great ability to be able to manipulate Foreman's actions stating,…
D'Silva, Roy. "History of Boxing." Buzzle.com. 2011. Web. 3 February 2011.
Gast, Leon. When We Were Kings. Gramercy Pictures, 1996. Film.
Graham, Gordon. Philosophy of the Arts: An Introduction to Aesthetics. New York:
Routledge, 2005. Print.
The already shaky relationship between the Qatar state and Iranian society was further undermined by the Western exploitation of Iranian resources during the second half of the nineteenth century.
From 1918 until 1921 "British subsidies kept the government afloat, and British military and administrative advisers attempted to reorganize Iran's army and to manipulate the various political factions within the country to British advantage" (Cleveland, 185)*. When Britain added insult to injury by offering Iran a loan in exchange for exclusive advisory privileges, anti-imperial demonstrations broke out in several cities. Widespread discontent grew further. The Qatar government was regarded as ineffective and pro-British. A determined military commander finally took action and put a stop to the chaos.
Reza Khan used the political climate to advance from the position of commander and chief of the army in 1921 to that of the shah of Iran in 1925. His election overthrew the Qatar…
The poems Catullus wrote to the woman Lesbia are among his best known. How would you characterize their affair?
Catallus describes a conflicted and stormy affair with the women of Lesbia. Sexual tension is evident in his poems, which have a strong erotic content. Therefore, his affairs were passionate and physical.
If the gender roles were reversed and the woman were the narrator, do you think this series of poems would read differently? Explain.
The poems would read differently not because their content would have changed but because they would subvert social norms. As a male, Catallus is allowed, almost expected to write such explicit details about his physical affairs including references to love and hatred. Females would have been more subtle because of the widespread social persecution they might suffer if they admitted to promiscuity or tumultuous romantic interludes especially with married people.
Catullus ends up calling his lady…
(Feldman and Slattery 201)
In this environment, it is likely that the people of Somalia would welcome the devil himself if he was carrying food and water, and these circumstances have not been lost on those who would exploit them for their own political agenda.
Historical Role of NGOs in Somalian Reconstruction.
The experiences of the United Nations and other relief agencies in Somalia are proof positive that even the best intentioned humanitarian efforts cannot succeed if nongovernmental organizations are targeted by political forces that deem their presence counterproductive for their political agendas. According to Boulden (2001), "The UN response to the Somalia crisis ran the gamut from the extreme of total disregard to total involvement then back to total disregard. During the first year of anarchy, the situation within the country became so dangerous that most nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and UN humanitarian agencies left the country" (54). This author…
Black's Law Dictionary. St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co., 1990.
Boulden, Jane. Peace Enforcement: The United Nations Experience in Congo, Somalia, and Bosnia. Westport, CT: Praeger, 2001.
De Waal, Alex. (1998). "U.S. War Crimes in Somalia." New Left Review a (230):132.
Doh, Jonathan P., Hildy Teegen and Sushil Vachani. (2004). "The Importance of Nongovernmental Organizations (NGOs) in Global Governance and Value Creation: An International Business Research Agenda." Journal of International Business Studies 35(6):463.
Middle East/Gulf region has a complex history and has experienced a series of important events both during and in the years following Muhammad's influence in the territory. hile Muhammad's ruling played an important role in shaping thinking in the region, his legacy was actually more important, taking into account that it practically influenced people in taking on certain attitudes and in expressing great interest in wanting to promote Islamic thought.
The Arab Caliphate greatly expanded the Islamic Empire and turned it into one of the greatest in all of history. It lasted from 632 until 1513 and it involved a series of leaderships: the Rashidun period, the Umayyad period, and the Abbassid period. These three dynasties kept Arabs together and provided them with a sense of unity and cultural identity. Introducing Arab as an official language further contributed to making individuals in the Middle East feel as if they were…
Barakat, Halim, "The Arab World," (UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA PRESS, 1993).
Hourani, Albert Habib, "A History of the Arab Peoples," (Harvard University Press, 2002)
Muhammad appointed no successors and had no sons, only his son-in-law Ali. In fact, under Islam there could never be another prophet after Muhammad since his revelation was considered to be the true and final word of God. Instead, the Arab tribal leaders elected Abu-Bakr as kalifa (caliph) on the grounds that he was one of the first converts to Islam outside of the Prophet's family. His policy was to unite the Arabs in a jihad against the Byzantine omans and Persian Sasanids, and in a very short time, "the mightiest empires in the Middle East…were humbled by the Arab warriors for Islam" (Glouldschmidt and Davidson, 2009, p. 53).
Within 100 years, the Arab-Islamic Empire had conquered a truly vast territory, from Spain to the borders of China, and come close to taking over all of Europe. For the Arabs, this was the Golden Age of science,…
Catherwood, C. (2011). A Brief History of the Middle East. Constable and Robinson, Ltd.
Goldschmidt, A. And L. Davidson (2009). A Concise History of the Middle East, 9th Edition. Westeview Press.
Plurality is built into Islam's legal and ideological foundations, complicating the political and social structure of the religion and its institutions. Principle means by which to explore and critique the complexity and plurality of Islam include the Hadith and the various schools of Islamic law. Because of the relatively equal veracity of all six books of the Hadith, and of the various schools of law, there is no singular authoritative body in Islam. Each region of the world has instead opted to emphasize some teachings and some legal schools over others.
The Hadith is a collection of writings reflecting the traditions, actions, and actual sayings of Muhammad. The Hadith comprises six books, compiled in the ninth and tenth centuries, and are viewed as "second only to the Quran in their practical significance and authority," (p. 74). The "soundness of their claims of transmission" is one of the central issues…
Kamali, M.K. (1999). Law and society. Chapter 3 in The Oxford History of Islam. Ed. Esposito. Oxford University Press.