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Murder and Injustice in a Small Town
Are you innocent until proven guilty?
The constitution of the U.S.A. has the provision of being treated as though one is innocent until the due process of the law takes its course and one is proven guilty or set free on absolute innocence grounds. It should be pointed out that if you committed the crime then you are guilty regardless of the conditions. However, the American citizens have the protection of the constitution from such a presumption. The presumption of innocence is one of the basic rights in the constitution, though it is not directly inscribed and only gets to the citizen through English jurisprudence and has been in that system from time immemorial till it has been considered common law (Craig Walenta, 2010). The tricky part however is the implementation of this concept at the time of the arrest to…
Craig Walenta, (2010). U.S. Constitution Online. Retrieved December 6, 2011 from http://www.usconstitution.net/constnot.html
Death Penalty Information Center, (2010). Sentencing for Life: Americans Embrace Alternatives
to the Death Penalty. Retrieved December 6, 2011 from http://www.deathpenaltyinfo.org/sentencing-life-americans-embrace-alternatives-death-penalty
National Museum of Crime & Punishment, (2008). Crimes Punishable By Death. Retrieved December 6, 2011, from http://www.crimemuseum.org/library/execution/crimesPunishableByDeath.html
Murder Trial of Phil Spector
In the 1960s, Phil Spector achieved legendary status as the visionary behind countless pop music classics. The famed 'all of Sound' produces helped to create immortal hits with girl groups like the Crystals and the Ronettes. But he achieved a different kind of notoriety when his oft-acknowledged erratic behavior and affection for firearms culminated in the 2003 death of Lana Clarkson. The actress, whose body was found in the foyer of Spector's California home, was found to have been shot by the increasingly psychologically unsound pop music producer.
hen the smoke had cleared from his arrest, according to CNN, suicide had been ruled out. This would leave Spector to stand on trial for the murder of the 40-year-old actress. The charge of murder is defined as the act of purposefully taking the life of another human being by non-accidental action. In the case of Spector,…
CNN. (2009). Phil Spector Found Guilty of Actress' 2003 Murder. CNN.com.
Glaister, D. (2009). How Phil Spector Was Convicted of the Murder of Lana Clarkson. The Guardian.
Murder in the Cathedral
An Analysis of Eliot's Murder in the Cathedral
Eliot's Murder in the Cathedral is certainly a uniquely dramatic work. Eliot (1951) has written his own intention concerning its style: "As for the versification, I was only aware at this stage that the essential was to avoid any echo of Shakespeare…Therefore what I kept in mind was the versification of Everyman" (p. 27). Everyman, a medieval morality play that likely influenced the Bard, is (like Murder) directly religious and unabashedly direct. Yet Everyman was written for a Christian audience at a time when Christendom had not yet quite come completely undone. Eliot's poetic drama, coming four full centuries later, hardly has the self-same audience (even if it was penned for a religious festival). Eliot's audience, whether Christian or not, is modern: and Eliot's poetry is written for a modern audience. And even though he attempts (in style)…
There is a plethora of questions result if one deduces the seriousness of the situation. For instance, should the system be reevaluated in terms of the rights of minors; especially when it comes to interrogation practices? Or did the police in Jacksonville, Florida just represent a few bad apples in an otherwise functioning system? The answers to these questions are fair from obvious and subject to intense arguments from both sides of the debate.
Another consideration that is relevant would be the frequency of occurrences in which innocent people are imprisoned. Websites such as www.injusticebusters.com have devoted an incredible amount of time and energy documenting occurrences in which individuals were wrongly convicted of crimes. It is apparent after inspection of cases represented on websites such as these, that even though Brenton Butler was able to receive a fair judgment in the courtroom, not every tried suspect receives such a favorable…
Still, the ethical issue remains, as historical examples, divine command theory, and natural law theory, while all agreeing that murder is necessary in some circumstances, do not agree on which circumstances. Thus, solving this ethical dilemma will require conversation and understanding from those who view different circumstances as appropriate for murder. From individual attention to religious understanding, the law must understand the seriousness of this ethical question when attempting to govern regarding it.
Austin, M.W. (2006). Divine Command Theory. etrieved April 9, 2009, from the
Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Web Site: http://www.iep.utm.edu/d/divine-c.htm
Docker, C. (2003). Did you Know. etrieved April 9, 2009, from Fast Access. Web Site:
Himma, E. (2009). Natural Law. etrieved April 9, 2009, from the Internet
Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Web Site: http://www.iep.utm.edu/n/natlaw.htm
Holy Bible: New International Version: (1973). Colorado Springs: International Bible
"The Great Euthanasia Debate" (2009, April 2). etrieved April 9, 2009, from…
Austin, M.W. (2006). Divine Command Theory. Retrieved April 9, 2009, from the
Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Web Site: http://www.iep.utm.edu/d/divine-c.htm
Docker, C. (2003). Did you Know. Retrieved April 9, 2009, from Fast Access. Web Site:
IC 18-4003 lays out the elements needed for a first-degree murder conviction, and many of those do not require aforethought. Further, IC 18-4001 does not state the definition is for first degree murder only, and thus, simply adds to the ambiguity of the law.
Still another change may need to be a redefining of phrase "an abandoned and malignant heart" in IC 18-4002. This phrase is not legally clear, and as a result, leads to confusion when attempting to interpret the meaning of the statute in first degree murder cases. This phrase, taken from common law, must be interpreted as such, according to precedence. In State v. Olin, 111 Idaho 516, 519, 725 P.2d 801, 840 (Ct. App. 1986), the court ruled that common law terminology must be given its common law meaning, and that the intentions of the cluster of ideas surrounding such language must be conveyed. In this…
American Heritage Dictionary. (2003). Common law. American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language. New York: Houghton Mifflin Company.
American Law Institute. Model Penal Code 210.2(1) (b) Comment, n. 4, 1980.
Blinn, K.W. (1950). First degree murder: a workable definition. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology 40(6): 729-735.
Greenhoot, a.A. (1912). Supreme Court of Idaho cases. In Pacific States Reports (pp. 297-345).
Family members who cannot find meaning in their loss suffer greater levels of distress. This stress may take the form of physiological alertness, anxiety, panic attacks, headaches, somatic complaints, sleep disturbances, and difficulty concentrating (Miller, 2009). Survivors often exhibit prolonged feelings of guilt and anger. Family members regularly blame themselves for the death of the victim, creating pseudo-explanations in order to give meaning to this unexplainable trauma (Miller, 2009). Self-directed anger enables the survivor to exert some control over the situation, however, oftentimes this anger is directed outwardly at the police, the justice system, and society in general (Miller, 2009).
External factors also play a significant role in the life of the survivor. Since a murder is considered a violation against the state, victim's families can be left feeling as if the needs of the justice system take priority over the needs of the family and can leave them feeling…
Armour, M. (2002). Journey of family members of homicide victims: A qualitative study of their posthomicide experience. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 72(3), 372-382.
Horne, C. (2003). Families of homicide victims: Service utilization patterns of extra- and intrafamilial homicide survivors. Journal of Family Violence, 18(2), 75-82.
Miller, L. (2009). Family survivors on homicide: II. Practical therapeutic strategies. The American Journal of Family Therapy, 37(2), 85-98.
Miller, L. (2008). Death notification for families of homicide victims: Healing dimensions of a complex process. Omega, 57(4), 367-380.
e., after Kohn's death). In a way, Stanislawski is asking the reader to completely forget about contemporaneous elements of the case.
There was one man who was accused, went to trial and was convicted of Kohn's murder, but this was appealed and overturned. After the reversal of the conviction, the supreme court examined it again and the judgment was upheld. One of Stanislawski's arguments is that the accused was Orthodox and it was Orthodox writers and publishers who later tried to cover up the whole event, calling it merely a death -- not a murder. Stanislawski specifically points his finger at the publishing house Mosad HaRav Kook (p. 77), stating that they purposefully got it wrong.
Stanislawski's cover up story is great as it creates a lot of excitement and conspiracy, which is always fun to read, but the his story seems, for the most part, to be completely unsupported…
Stanislawski, Michael. A Murder in Lemberg: Politics, Religion, and Violence in Modern Jewish
History. Princeton University Press, 2007.
" (Lebsock 80).
This ordering of events makes more sense, but the evident fluctuations from one moment to the next make the validity of his testimony highly suspect. If these events had actually transpired, Marable should have no trouble remembering when and where Mary Barnes communicated with him. Apparently, this account takes into consideration Edward Pollard's testimony that Mary Barnes soon followed him into the fields.
Later Solomon Marable contends, "Mary Barnes told me on Friday before the murder that she had two women besides herself, and she wanted me to help them. My part was to keep Mrs. Pollard quiet, and Mary Abernathy and Pokey Barnes was to rob the house." (Lebsock 86). This constitutes three separate meeting times between Marable and Mary Barnes which he testifies to in a very short period of time. Rather than making his statements less trustworthy, in the eyes of the public and…
Lebsock, Suzanne. A Murder in Virginia: Southern Justice on Trial. New York W.W. Norton, 2003.
Finally, the testing and use of a polygraph examination of Fritz was inexcusable. It was based on the results of this test that the police ultimately decided to arrest Fritz and then they set about building their case. In reality, the results of the polygraph were not definitive and merely indicated that Fritz was being possibly evasive. Under normal circumstances, such results would have not motivated an arrest.
The failure of the prosecution to share vital Brady material with the defense and the trial court's failure to properly rule on the state's failure were a severe violation of the defendants' constitutional rights. The defense in both cases should have been granted, at a minimum, a request for a new trial and the prosecution should have been sanctioned for their failure to share the information with the defense. The forensic evidence as to the hair samples and the palm print should…
Rasputin reportedly drank enough cyanide-laced wine to have consumed four times the lethal dose, in addition to the cyanide in the pastries.
Moreover, Rasputin was a known drinker and both his autopsy and a report by his door lady confirm that he had been drinking heavily the night of his murder. "Alcohol, due to its acidity, speeds up the affect of potassium cyanide poisoning."
While it is possible for glucose or carbohydrate consumption to prevent cyanide poisoning, it is unlikely that Rasputin would have consumed sufficient amounts of either to counteract the amount of cyanide that Purishkevich and Yusopov suggest the consumed.
There are also inconsistencies between the stories that Purishkevich and Yusopov tell about Yusopov encountering a still-alive Rasputin in the basement. However, those inconsistencies are not conclusive, as one might expect confusion from someone who has just discovered that the man they murdered is actually alive. What are…
Cash, Carolyn. 2009. Why Felix Youssoupov killed Rasputin: Motives for Murder of Russian
Holy Man. Vancouver: Suite 101. Online. Available from Internet, http://russian
youssoupov_killed_rasputin, accessed 27 April, 2009.
Robinson had apparently embezzled some money from Helen which she knew nothing of for some time. However once she learned of the truth, she decided to end her relationship with him which many believe enraged Robinson to the point that she killed her.
ohen's main thesis revolves around the personality and career success of Helen who was quite unlike others in her profession for she was very well read and could assert herself confidently in various situations. ohen appears to like Helen despite her career choice as she saw her as a financially independent woman who chose not to sell herself short by charging quite a hefty sum for her services. Helen was also very eloquent as her letters to her customers reveal. To one potential client, she wrote: "You do not know what a pleasure your acquaintance is to me . . . A single oasis in the vast…
Cohen's main thesis revolves around the personality and career success of Helen who was quite unlike others in her profession for she was very well read and could assert herself confidently in various situations. Cohen appears to like Helen despite her career choice as she saw her as a financially independent woman who chose not to sell herself short by charging quite a hefty sum for her services. Helen was also very eloquent as her letters to her customers reveal. To one potential client, she wrote: "You do not know what a pleasure your acquaintance is to me . . . A single oasis in the vast desert of wretchedness, shame, guilt, blighted prospects and perverted powers which I am compelled to call my life." This was her way of generating adequate interest to make the final purpose clear: "Come and see me as soon as you can; I shall expect you every evening."
Helen's manipulative ways and her seduction skills met their match in a young man, Robinson who had come to New York to work as a clerk. Richard Robinson came from a rather affluent family of Connecticut. His highly passionate though tempestuous affair with Helen was an indication of how things would end between them. After months of exchanging love letters and spending time together, Helen was found dead on a cold day in 1836. Richard Robinson was an immediate suspect.
Her grisly murder on a cold day in 1836 has been attributed to many things including her interest in literature. One pamphleteer believed that her literary pursuits killed her for nothing good comes from reading books especially novels. As bizarre as this may sound, the fact remains that Helen's murder attracted much wider media attention than such a murder would otherwise warrant. This was precisely because Helen was not an ordinary woman. She believed in herself and in her skills in the profession she had chosen for herself. She chose to see only a certain number of clients in a week which showed that quality more than quantity was her preference. She would also charge much more than others believing she was worth the higher rate. Helen was attractive and very eloquent, something that had given her an edge over others. Her murder came as a shock to many but more importantly, it generated wide interest from all circles because suddenly there was a prostitute who had good connections and who had read Sir Walter Scott. That was enough to set her apart from many others and hence her case drew attention from a variety of social circles.
The second case, in which the individual received a verdict of reckless manslaughter, was less clear, but it was determined by the court upon appeal that the crime was not planned or premeditated, and that it was carried out due to the upset that the individual felt at the time. In other words, it was a crime of passion and a reasonable person could have been provoked to the point of taking someone else's life under those same circumstances.
The culpability and conduct elements of the two crimes differ greatly, and that is much of the reason that the verdicts for the two individuals were quite different. Of course, the first case also has the added information that more than one person was killed. While this is important and does figure into the case, it is not the central point in why the first individual received a verdict of purposeful…
2C: 11-3. Subtitle 2. Definition of specific offenses. Part 1. Offenses involving danger to the person. Chapter 11. Criminal homicide.
2C: 11-4. Subtitle 2. Definition of specific offenses. Part 1. Offenses involving danger to the person. Chapter 11. Criminal homicide.
State of NJ vs. List, 270 N.J. Super 169.
State of NJ v. Mauricio, 117 N.J. 402.
The fact that they planned and were able to commit the murder is a sign that this person is not well balanced. Instead, they are more than likely someone who is mentally disturbed enough by not thinking about how to conduct these activities on a regular basis. (Blinn, 1950, pp. 729 -- 735)
This is when the person could be considered to be a serial killer or mass murder. The reason why, is because these individuals are planning out in advance how they will conduct first degree murder. The only difference is the number of people that are being killed. As a result, anyone who is involved in these kinds of activities does not have a balanced mind, spirit of physical body. (Blinn, 1950, pp. 729 -- 735)
These elements are showing how all members of the community must help to be able to support effective personal development. This is…
Blinn, K. (1950). First Degree Murder. Journal of Criminal Law 40 (6), 729 -- 735.
John Draper holds a different perspective regarding Iago, which aligns him very closely with Othello in terns of honor. He contends that "a careful survey of the plot as it unfolds shows Iago as an opportunist who cleverly grasps occasion" (Draper 726). He believes that Iago and Othello are similar in that they are both noble soldiers. He goes on to defend Iago, noting that he is "less culpable than the king in Hamlet... Iago has no inherent wickedness like that of Richard III" (Draper 736). Draper maintains that Shakespeare made Iago "more realistic than the original; and his motives and character are indeed human, all too human" (736). Iago is "honest as this world goes caught in the fell grip of circumstance... attempting... To vindicate his honor" (736). This is an interesting point-of-view and many would choose to debate it because, in the end, the whole reason behind Iago's…
John Arthos. "The Fall of Othello." Shakespeare Quarterly. 9:2. 1958. JSTOR Resource Database. Information Retrieved December 08, 2008. http://www.jstor.org
Ralph Berry. "Pattern in Othello." Shakespeare Quarterly. 23:1. 1972. JSTOR Resource Database. Information Retrieved December 08, 2008.
In addition to murdering on the unquestioned orders of superiors, murder was also used as a tool for taking over rival businesses, sometimes, by starting unfounded rumors that a competitor was cooperating with authorities, or even that he had insulted the honor of a boss behind his back. Once the boss sanctioned the "hit" whoever started the rumor had received a green light to eliminate his competition. According to the strict hierarchical rules, murdering another "made" member of the organization would likely result in an order to kill the offender, more to reinforce the expected chain of command than out of any sense of "justice" or anything else.
Montiglio, who served in Vietnam as a Green Beret, later worked for his uncle, "Nino" Gaggi, collecting proceeds from his gambling and loan sharking operations and filling the role of driver and bodyguard. He describes an environment where members of the organization,…
The four assassinations of the 1960s and the conclusion of the Second Vatican Council may not seem connected on the surface but they all actually mark a distinct reversal of course—a dramatic change of direction for multiple populations and culture in general. JFK’s assassination in 1963 brought an end to the détente that president had developed with Khrushchev as the two sough to de-escalate the Cold War tensions in the wake of the Cuban Missile Crisis. With JFK out of the way, Johnson upped the ante in Vietnam while attempting to smooth things out at home by pacifying the African American population. That worked until MLK, Jr., was assassinated in 1968. MLK had become a vocal opponent of Johnson’s war in Vietnam (Stone & Kuznick, 2012). The FBI had already attempted to get MLK to kill himself (Weiner, 2013), and with MLK out of the way, the African American community…
Stone, O. & Kuznick, P. (2012). The untold history of the United States. NY: Gallery.
Weiner, T. (2013). Enemies. New York, NY: Random House.
Murder in Jamaica and the United States
This paper presents a detailed examination of the differences and similarities between murder in Jamaica and the United States. The writer focuses on the nature of the crimes as well as the differences between the two nations when it comes to acts of murder by the government agencies. There were five sources used to complete this paper.
While many crimes can be scary the thought of being murdered or someone we love being murdered is the ultimate fear when it comes to possible victimization. Murder is the final act of life, it is what stops all hopes, dreams, goals, efforts and ambitions. Murders occur worldwide but in the United States and the nation of Jamaica there are similarities and differences in the murders they experience that can potentially change the way their societies think. Murder is a violent crime regardless of how it…
Murder 'Madness' Bedevils Jamaica
Government Struggles to Curb Wave of Slayings and Address Underlying Causes
Tuesday, 1 January, 2002, 13:46 GMT
Murder Case Study
The author of this response has been asked to review a murder case that is described and detailed on the TruTV website. As far as analysis goes, the author has been asked to answer to five basic things. First, there will be an overview and summary of the case. Second, there will be a summary and review of how the investigators handled the crime scene. There were some secondary scenes and those will be covered as well. A description of three different forensic technologies that were used will be covered. Finally, there will be a review of how and when Miranda rights were read and why the timing of that reading existed as it did. While many crimes are basic and formulaic in nature, there are some particular crimes and crime scenes that are quite disturbing, vexing and/or troubling.
In regards to the two cases, they…
Nolo. (2016). Miranda Rights: What Happens If Police Don't 'Read Your Rights' -- Nolo.com. Nolo.com. Retrieved 2 February 2016, from http://www.nolo.com/legal-encyclopedia/police-questioning-miranda-warnings-29930.html
Ramsland, K. (2013). Serial Killer Signatures. Psychology Today. Retrieved 2 February 2016, from https://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/shadow-boxing/201312/serial-killer-signatures
TruTV. (2016). LAPD solves signature murders case -- " Shocking Discovery -- " Crime Library on truTV.com. Web.archive.org. Retrieved 2 February 2016, from http://web.archive.org/web/20121102194722/http://www.trutv.com/library/crime/criminal_mind/forensics/accessory_to_murder/1_index.html
Jon Benet Ramsey
The Murder and Subsequent Investigation of a Six-Year-old Beauty Queen
(Due Date with Month, Day, Year)
The murder of child beauty pageant winner JonBenet Ramsey in Boulder, Colorado has not yet been solved despite years of investigation on local, state, and even federal levels (Allen 2010). The six-year-old child's murder has never been forgotten. She has spurned debates over child abuse, the sexualization of minors, of the impropriety of child beauty pageants, and the frustration over unsolved murders of young people in the United States. It has been the subject of news program, documentaries, books, and television movies. Suspects have been named and hounded in the attempt to elicit confessions. Most of the general population came to believe that the murderers were John Ramsey and/or his wife; a belief based on the media attention given to the case and to the impropriety of declarations of…
Allen, N. (2010). JonBenet Ramsey murder case reopened. The Telegraph. Telegraph Media.
Bardsley, M. & Bellamy, P. (2013). Murder of JonBenet Ramsey. Crime Library. Time Warner.
Boulder Daily Camera. (2012). JonBenet Ramsey case timeline: 1996-2012. The Huffington
That discrepancy is the one between Suffolk and Nassau. if, as it was previously speculated, it were to be stated that the larger the population the more likely it would be that the murder rate would be higher, then Suffolk would have a slightly higher number and rate of murders than Nassau, and that is not the case. Table a.1 shows that Suffolk with a higher population base than Nassau by over 100,000 individuals has almost a fifty percent lower murder rate per thousand than does Nassau.
Other factors therefore must be taken into account than just the number of citizens a certain county contains. These factors might include such things as geographic area, inviting the question of how large are these counties geographically, and how do they compare in size to each other.
If Kings and Suffolk counties are relatively close in size and Kings contains over 1mm additional…
If it were the case that illegal conduct in general and murder in particular were effects of atheism, there would be many more atheist criminals and murders in society and comparatively fewer criminals and murderers who are not atheists. The fact of the matter is that, according to authorities like the U.S. Bureau of Justice Statistics as well as studies of prison inmates in the United Kingdom, atheists represent only a very small minority of incarcerated prisoners, and the vast majority of imprisoned criminals and murderers are not atheists, but Christians (Guessous, 2001).
Atheists believe that there are no consequences of their actions in the divine sense, but they fear the legal consequences of their conduct just as much as theists. Even someone who does not believe in God is deterred from committing murder by the prospect of life imprisonment or the death penalty. Belief in God is no guarantee…
Einstein, a. (1954) Ideas and Opinions. Crown: New York
Ginsberg, M. (1965) on Justice in Society. Penguin Books: New York
Guessous, F., Hooper, N., Moorthy, U. (2001) Religion in Prisons. Accessed September 29, 2007, at http://www.homeoffice.gov.uk/rds/pdfs/hosb1501.pdf
Take, for instance, a felon who sexually abuses a five-year-old; if such a person is not rational enough to realize the weight of the problems they inflict on their victims, how would they even begin to think and weigh their actions against the provisions of the felony-murder rule? if, for argument's sake, we assume that criminals are rational, there still is nothing much they can do to control crime scenes, most of which are usually highly chaotic. Even if they could, "the felony-murder rule does not substantially increase the criminal penalty for killing during a felony" (Malani, 2002, p. 6). In its absence, the state would only have to prove negligence and recklessness to charge the felon with murder (Malani, 2002).
The rule's opponents have argued that, in fact, the felony-murder rule increases crime. In the rule's absence, the state would grade punishment on an incremental basis as a felon's…
Binder, G. (2012). Felony Murder. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
Law Reform Commission. (2008). Report - Homicide: Murder and Involuntary Manslaughter. Law Reform Commission. Retrieved 2 March 2014 from http://www.lawreform.ie/_fileupload/Reports/rMurderandInvoluntaryMS.pdf
LII. (2014). Felony Murder Doctrine. Cornell University Law School. Retrieved 2 March 2014 from http://www.law.cornell.edu/wex/felony_murder_doctrine
Malani, a. (2002). Does the Felony-Murder Rule Deter Crime: Evidence from FBI Crime Data. New York Times 3 Dec 2007 (Working Paper). Retrieved 2 March 2014 from http://www.nytimes.com/packages/pdf/national/malani.pdf
Serial Murder Requires oth a Reactive and Proactive Investigative Approach
Serial Murder Requires oth the Reactive and Proactive Approaches
The most convenient starting point for this present discussion is to explain the features of serial killers. In line with this, it is sufficient to note here that any individual who kills three or more victims, with emotional time breaks between such killings, is a serial killer. Often, these breaks (which are referred to as the cooling-off periods) normally range from days, and sometimes weeks or months between each killing. It may also be stated that serial killers are usually psychopathic. This implies that, even though they are very much aware of their criminality and are not out of touch with reality, they have a profound personality disorder. Street-wise, charming, intelligent and charismatic are the best adjectives for describing serial killers. Since the serial killers are usually mobile, they can travel…
Brooks, P.R., Devine, M.J., Green, T.J., Hart, B.L., & Moor, M.D. 1987, 'Serial
Murder: A Criminal Justice Response', Police Chief, 54(6), 40-45.
Egger S.A.(2001): Killers Among Us -- Examination of Serial Murder and Its
Investigations. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Publishers
justified killing? Is all murder morally wrong?
There has always been much controversy regarding the concept of justified killing, as while some prefer to believe that it is ethical to murder particular individuals in certain circumstances other consider that it is never right to kill, regardless of the situation. People typically perceive justified killing as an instance in which an individual murders another individual with the purpose of preventing the respective person from being an impending threat to others. In spite of the fact that there are numerous situations in which the contemporary social order considers that it is justified to kill someone, all murders are essentially morally wrong.
hile some might be inclined to believe that the expression "you can't make an omelet without breaking eggs" only applies to material ideas, others believe that there is nothing wrong with killing innocent individuals as long as many others survive as…
Kaufman, Whitley, R.P. "Justified Killing: The Paradox of Self-Defense," (Rowman & Littlefield, 2009)
Kilner, Peter, "Soldiers, Self-Defense, and Killing in War," Retrieved April 16, 2012, from the Virginia Tech Website: http://scholar.lib.vt.edu/theses/public/etd-41998-18346/materials/etd.PDF
Tangwa, Godfrey B. "Road Companion to Democracy and Meritocracy: Further Essays from an African Perspective ," (African Books Collective, 2010)
"Principles of the Just War," Retrieved April 16, 2012, from the Mount Holyoke Website: http://www.mtholyoke.edu/acad/intrel/pol116/justwar.htm
The year 1998 brought the highest number of murdered young girls yet and authorities arrested another man for those crimes.
Press reports from the summer of 1999 typically offered body counts between 180 and 190, sometimes coupled with a reminder that "at least 95 women" were still missing. Chihuahua authorities claimed that FBI agents had endorsed their conviction of Abdel Sharif, while El Paso G-men indignantly denied it (MUDES of the YOUNG WOMEN of JUAEZ, MEXICO (http://www.crimelibrary.com/serial_killers/predators/ciudad_juarez/)."
At that point they brought in a serial killer forensics expert who told the authorities she believed there were a minimum of three serial killers involved and that the area had simply become a safe place for serial killers to carry out their murder fantasies.
By 2001 authorities in the area were desperate and had a rumored 50 suspects in custody hoping to stop the carnage but it continued even as the suspects…
Another body found in violent Mexican border city that is site or rape-murders." Associated Press (November 20, 2001).
Brooks, Karen. "Juarez fears serial killer is still on the loose." Fort Worth Star-Telegram (November 21, 2001).
Roosevelt became a boxer, he lifted weights and climbed mountains (he ascended the Matterhorn at the age of 22). His famous charge up Kettle Hill (Battle of San Juan Heights, Rough Riders) during the Spanish-American ar set him apart as an athletically gifted soldier with courage and heart.
And along with his workouts and activism, he "began to collect animal specimens, including fireflies and squirrels"; he filled notebooks with "drawings and life histories of animals and insects"; he read Darwin and Huxley; and, Dalton continues, he loved camping and became an "experienced outdoorsman."
hen the "strain of the job" of president "weighed on him," Dalton explained, "he stepped outside to watch the spring birds migrating"; he "identified the blackpoll warblers perched in the elms outside the Oval Office," and kept notes on his various bird sightings. In the spring of 1903, the president went est "to dramatize his commitment to…
Benedetto, Richard. 2006. No rest for the president. USA Today, 3 August 2006.
Cavendish, Richard. 2001. Assassination of President McKinley. History Today 51 (September).
Dalton, Kathleen. 2006. The Self-Made Man: He was a sickly child. But through sheer will,
Muscular effort - and a lot of time in the great outdoors - he became a powerful, passionate
Murder Inc. by Graham K. Bell
Starting from the 1920s, the American crime landscape underwent a complete transformation under an all-star gang of thugs, garrotters, and snipers. Ethnic and religious diversity was evident in its members. A majority of them hailed from New York City itself, chosen from its toughest neighborhoods, including Ocean Hill, Brownsville, and Flushing. The exorbitant amount of crime they perpetrated led the media to name them "Murder, Inc.."This merciless gang, considered the innovation of Meyer Lansky, Bugsy Siegel, and other elderly gangsters, was quick to catch the entire nation's attention, and made headlines across the country for more than twenty years. Graham Bell highlights the sinister history of the most infamous Mafia crime organization, including the men's identities and the forging of their partnership (Arcadia Publishing, 2010).
The media labeled 1930s-40s organized crime gangs "Murder, Inc.."These gangs were said to work on behalf…
This paper examines the death penalty as a deterrent and argues that states have not only the right but the duty to apply the death penalty to criminal cases because it is incumbent upon states to back the law with force. The death penalty acts as a forceful and compelling consequence for those who should choose to violate the law and commit murder. For that reason it can be said to be a deterrent. This paper also examines the opposing arguments and shows that those would say it is not an effective deterrent cannot offer any quantitative proof for this argument because no measurements exist that could possibly render such a claim factual or provable. The paper concludes by showing that the death penalty should only be administered in states where there is harmony between social justice and criminal justice.
While it may seem ironic that the death…
However, the reasons why people commit crime are as different as the individuals themselves. Intentional murder comes in two different flavors. The first is the carefully plotted, well thought out, planned act. In this scenario, motivational theory takes over. The person must feel that they will gain some type of value from the action. It may be that they gain something, such as money, or they may feel that eliminating a person will offer them some type of protection. In any case, the person justifies their actions through a perceived reward in the future (Horisch and Strassmair).
In the case of an intentional murder, the death penalty may deter the action. However, several conditions must be met for the fear of death to act as a deterrent. The person must feel that there is a significant possibility that they will be caught and punished for their crimes. In many cases,…
Amnesty International. Death Penalty. 2008. www.amnestyusa.org/death-penalty/page.do?id=1011005).
Death Penalty Information Center. Facts About the Death Penalty. March 1, 2009. http://www.deathpenaltyinfo.org/FactSheet.pdf (Accessed March 10, 2009). (Gumbel, a. The Innocence Project: Guilty Until Proven Innocent. Common Dreams My 4, 2006). http://www.commondreams.org/headlines06/0504-09.htm (Accessed March 10, 2009).
Horisch, H. And Strassmair, C. An experimental test of the deterrence hypothesis. Discussion Papers in Economics. February 27, 2008. University of Munich. http://epub.ub.uni-muenchen.de/2139/2/crime_Munich_DP.pdf (Accessed March 10, 2009).
Radelet, M., Bedau, H., and Putnam, C. In Spite of Innocence: Erroneous Convictions in Capital Cases. Boston: Northeastern University Press, 1992, and Bedau and Radelet, "Miscarriages of Justice in Potentially Capital Cases." Stanford Law Review 40 (1987): 21-179)
Murder Without a Body
Murder cases are perhaps the most noteworthy criminal prosecution cases regularly tried. They are indicative of the state of society and its larger problems. Therefore, it is always of extreme interest when there are murder cases in which there is no body found. The implications for these situations are obvious: if there is no dead body, is it truly fair to convict someone of having committed murder? In numerous instances, the answer to that question is a resounding yes. One of the most determining factors in convicting someone of murder without a body is circumstantial evidence. In the case of People v. Garcia, circumstantial evidence proved the deciding factor in convicting Mario Flavio Garcia of murder in the first degree in which it was found that he killed Christie Wilson.
Although Wilson's body was never recovered, there was a bevy of evidence that suggested that Garcia…
If his father had been violent with him, Jeremiah would have that experience to draw upon in order to solve problems. He may have seen violence as the only way out of the situation. Moreover, Jeremiah's extreme insecurity led him to be fully engaged in conditioned thinking, which compelled him to assert the validity of his worldview by any means necessary. In this instance, that meant resorting to murder in order to prove that he was right.
Where do these feelings of insecurity originate from? According to POM, insecurities are not a result of circumstances or life events. On the contrary, POM suggests that the source of insecure feelings exists within the mind of the offender and occurs as a function of different mood states (Kelley, 1996). The reason why a certain person may have feelings of insecurity in one instance but not in another, even under identical circumstances, stems…
Adams, M.S., Robertson, C., Gray-Ray, P., Ray, M. (2003). Labeling and delinquency. Adolescence, 38(149), 171-86.
Dishion, T.J., Nelson, S., Bullock, B., Winter, C. (2004). Adolescent friendship as a dynamic system: entropy and deviance in the etiology and course of male antisocial behavior. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 32(6), 651-63.
Doucette, P.A. (2004). Walk and talk: an intervention for behaviorally challenged youths. Adolescence, 39, 373-88.
Flom, P.L., Friedman, S., Kottiri, B., Neaigus, A., Curtis, R. (2001). Recalled adolescent peer norms towards drug use in young adulthood in a low-income, minority urban neighborhood. Journal of Drug Issues, 31(2), 425-43.
Two, countries or world leaders might act with selfish motives. For instance, genocide might be ignored if that country is a valuable trading partner or a member of a strategic alliance.
Non-Violent Civil Disobedience
Discussion 1: Mahatma Ghandi, Martin Luther King, Jr. And Nelson Mandela all organized massive movements based on non-violent solutions to major social crises. In each of these cases, non-violent solutions resulted in positive social change. Ghandi secured India's independence from British colonial rule; King bolstered the Civil Rights movement and helped break down institutionalized racism in the United States; and Nelson Mandela fought against apartheid even from within his prison cell. Each of these cases demonstrates the effectiveness of non-violence as a means to secure social change. Moreover, in each of these cases the non-violent movement brought the cause into the public arena. Ghandi, King, and Mandela garnered tremendous support for their causes by refraining from…
Both Andrew and Abby had been killed in a similar manner -- crushing blows to their skills from a hatchet (Tetimony of Bridget Sullivan in the Trial of Lizzie Borden).
Just prior to the murder there was a great deal of conflict at the Borden house. The two living Borden sisters, Lizzie and Emma, occupied the front of the house, while Andrew and Abby the rear. Meals were rarely served as a family; Andrew was very tight and rejected many modern conviencences and the two daughters, well past marriage age for this time period, argued with their Father about his decision to dive the valuable properties among extended relatives before his death instad of the estate going to them. Lizzie did not hate her step-mother, but did not really enjoy her company and the combination of Andrew's monetary views, the new social mores of the time, and Andrew's insistence that…
The first two murders that follow the suffocation of rs. Eagleton seem clearly connected -- one at a hospital, another at a concert. But then follows other killings accompanied by symbols that seem deliberate, like a bus driver who crashes his bus to get a transplant for his daughter. Also, despite this apparent link through symbols, Seldom points out that there is always an 'uncertainty principle,' even in mathematics. Seldom points to Gdel's Theorem which much like Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle in science, suggests that despite all appearances, there is always the element of the unpredictable -- for example, the landlady could have died by natural causes. Additionally, the mathematical murder could be unsolvable, although conveniently during the narrative the once 'unsolvable' Fermat's Last Theorem is solved, acting as inspiration to Seldom and his unnamed sidekick.
Matinez, Guillermo. The Oxford Murders. MacAdam/Cage, 2005.
The Oxford Murders is the story of an unnamed Argentinean mathematician studying at Oxford. One day, while accompanied by his landlady's friend, the don and professor of mathematics Arthur Seldom, the two find Mrs. Eagleton murdered on her sofa. The only clue, other than the fact that the old woman worked on the Enigma Code during World War II, is a circle left by the killer in a mysterious note sent to Seldom, along with the lines, "the first in a series." Soon it becomes clear there is apparently 'serial' killing occurring, on a very literal level. Seldom receives a note, accompanied by a symbol, every time a murder takes place. Seldom fears that the killer is effectively parodying his mathematical work on theories of patterns or series in mathematics. One of Seldom's areas of expertise is Wittgenstein's theories about series and the possibilities for deviation in numerical series.
The solution to the murder seems to revolve around finding out the pattern of these 'series' of shapes that accompanies the series of murders. The first two murders that follow the suffocation of Mrs. Eagleton seem clearly connected -- one at a hospital, another at a concert. But then follows other killings accompanied by symbols that seem deliberate, like a bus driver who crashes his bus to get a transplant for his daughter. Also, despite this apparent link through symbols, Seldom points out that there is always an 'uncertainty principle,' even in mathematics. Seldom points to Gdel's Theorem which much like Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle in science, suggests that despite all appearances, there is always the element of the unpredictable -- for example, the landlady could have died by natural causes. Additionally, the mathematical murder could be unsolvable, although conveniently during the narrative the once 'unsolvable' Fermat's Last Theorem is solved, acting as inspiration to Seldom and his unnamed sidekick.
He admits that he killed her but he states that it was an accident. In an event in which the result is death the defense of involuntary manslaughter is available if the defense can show that it was not an intentional killing.
He also used a partial wrestling defense. He was not allowed to use a complete wrestling defense because the professional wrestlers who were asked to testify to the moves that Tate had seen on television and how they were done refused to testify. The judge did not order them to testify but did allow tapes to be shown of the moves that Tate said he performed on his friend.
Tate's attorneys could have also used a manslaughter defense. Manslaughter can be used when a death occurred, the defendant knew that his or her actions might cause injury but they were not anticipating a death.
In the case of…
Where it all began: 14-year-old gets life (accessed 08-06-06) ( http://www.courttv.com/trials/wrestling/background.html )
Sons, family friend face life for murder (accessed 8-6-06) ( http://www.courttv.com/trials/king/background.html )
Saw Murder Didn't Call the Police"
Everyone likes to think that they would do the right thing when the time demanded it. However, in the modern world that is full of uncertainties, we often do not perform as well as we wish we would in dire situations. In fact, this is the main topic of Martin Gansberg's essay "37 ho Saw Murder Didn't Call the Police." ithin the essay, Gansberg describes a terrifying event or a woman was killed and 37 witnesses failed to call the police to prevent the killer taking her life. ith this extreme scenario Gansberg is arguing to main points: many people are afraid in a modern world to get involved with a conflict in fear that they might suffer themselves, as well as the fact that there are little legal ramifications for witnesses failing to act on their civic duty to prevent crimes from happening.…
Gansberg, Martin. "37 Who Saw Murder Didn't Call the Police."
"Dickie's money had given him only an added momentum on the road he had been travelling" (Highsmith). This quotation shows two key facts. One is that Ripley indeed murdered Greenleaf for the money the latter possessed, which Ripley appropriated. The second is that this appropriation of money and wealth was the direction Ripley's life was "travelling" -- which underscores the fact that he desires material wealth. By having him kill Greenleaf and impersonates him to get material wealth, the author demonstrates that Ripley is amoral and motivated by greed.
Lastly, it is significant to note that the amorality that leads Ripley to murder Dickie is intrinsically related to the sense of entitlement he possesses. Ripley's murder of Greenleaf was like the lie he told to his father and much like all the other crimes he committed -- things Ripley did because he believed he was entitled to the rewards they…
Highsmith, Patricia. The Talented Mr. Ripley. New York: Penguin. Print. 1955. (1).
Kimbofo, H. "The Talented Mr. Ripley by Patricia Highsmith." Reading Matters. 2012. Web. http://kimbofo.typepad.com/readingmatters/2012/02/the-talented-mr-ripley-by-patricia-highsmith.html
Matthew Baker Murder Case
In aco, Texas former pastor Matthew Baker was convicted of the murder of his wife in early 2010. In 2006, Baker's wife Kari was found dead in what looked like a suicide. However, it soon became apparent that Baker's accounts of his and Kari's movements during the day of her death were inconsistent with the forensic evidence discovered at the scene. It took some time before prosecutors had enough evidence to reach an indictment. Once the trial finally commenced, it became obvious that if nothing else Baker had been inconsistent with his various explanations for discrepancies and had outright lied about certain aspects of the case. One of the things Baker was found to have lied about was the object of his potential reason for committing the crime. The motive according to prosecutors was that Baker was having an affair with a Vanessa Bulls and wanted…
"Former Texas Minister Matt Baker Found Guilty of Killing Wife and Faking Her Suicide
Note." New York Daily News. January 2010.
Opfer, Chris. (2011). "Case Profile: Matthew Baker." Investigation Discovery. Discovery Communications: San Antonio, TX. http://investigation.discovery.com/tv/true-crime/cases/matt-baker.html
Talbert, Sara. (2010). "Breaking News: Matt Baker Sentenced to 65 Years in Prison." ABC
Meat Is Murder or Meat Is Dinner
The hospitality industry is a complicated one in which to excel. The customer must be treated as if he or she is not only always right, but also that he or she is important and revered. Every customer opinion counts and the industry must mold to fit the needs of those it serves. On an individual basis, this is not terribly difficult. People have basic needs and wants that should be met, and so long as this is accomplished the patron will be pleased with the service and choose to use it again. However, the complication is that, in the hospitality industry, there is rarely only a single customer to consider at one time, but rather many people, in many different groups, from many different lifestyles, that will be affected by each choice made by a manager, planner, or supervisor. What can be…
Since the events of September 11th, terrorism has been a crucial concern for Americans specifically, and the global society in general.
As Wilkins (2005) notes, although it is generally agreed to be justifiable to commit violence in the act of self-defense against aggressors, many of the victims of terrorism are innocent of any crime, and that the question of "collective guilt" must come into play when determining the justification for terrorism. There is a "distinction between moral guilt and metaphysical guilt (which) can be explained partially in terms of the difference between the failure to do one's duty and the failure to perform a supererogatory act. We have a duty to mutla aid to other human beings" (p. 340).
Therefore, it is justifiable to inflict violence upon innocent individuals when this guilt is apparent, such as the case of the plight of the Jews and the aggression of…
An-Na'im, A.A. "Islam, Islamic Law." Applied Ethics: A Multicultural Approach. Ed. May, L., Collins-Chobanian, S., & Wong, K. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2005. pp. 101-108.
Bolte, A. "Do Wedding Dresses Come in Lavender? The Prospects and Implications of Same-Sex Marriage?" Applied Ethics: A Multicultural Approach. Ed. May, L., Collins-Chobanian, S., & Wong, K. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2005. pp. 399-410.
Goering, S. "Gene Therapies and the Pursuit of a Better Human." Applied Ethics: A Multicultural Approach. Ed. May, L., Collins-Chobanian, S., & Wong, K. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2005. pp. 659-668.
Leth, F. "Confessed Cannibal Given 8.5-Year Prison Sentence." Title of Source. Day Month Year: pages.
A modern-day reenactment: the murder trial of Ned Kelly
This is the story of a courageous hero. A valiant leader and bold luminary, who was not afraid to stand up for justice. It's the story of a man who was not afraid to stand up for his family and his community, and fight to defend against an oppressive government and a corrupt and violent police force.
This brave man is Ned Kelly. And it is precisely because of his strong sense of justice and leadership ability that made him a target of the police and government.
We've seen that the police would resort to uncivilized violence for the sake of maintaining order in a rigged system, that reduced the Irish Catholics of this country to poor, 2nd class citizens. The police were blindly carrying out the British government's system, which relegated the Irish Catholics to permanent inferior status.…
Kentucky defines murder as "a capital offense" that occurs when a person "with intent to cause the death of another person" does so. Thus, accidental deaths may not be categorized as murder. Also, in this state, if a person kills someone "under the influence of extreme emotional disturbance" and there is a logical reason for the disturbance, the defendant shall not be charged with murder. Manslaughter, however, will likely be the charge. Murder also includes operating a vehicle with "extreme indifference to human life" that results in loss of life to another person (KY Statutes 507.020 Murder, 1984). This law has been on the books for more than 30 years and is still effective in the same modality as when it was enacted in 1984.
From the standpoint of the theory of victim precipitation, the victim himself may actually be an accessory in his own murder if he initiates…
Ewing, C. (2008). Insanity: Murder, Madness and the Law. UK: Oxford University
KY Statutes 507.020. (1984). LRC.KY.gov. Retrieved from http://www.lrc.ky.gov/statutes/statute.aspx?id=19717
KY Statutes 532.031 Hate Crimes -- Finding -- Effect. (2000). LRC.KY.gov. Retrieved from http://www.lrc.ky.gov/statutes/statute.aspx?id=20031.
If God Exists is Murder Immoral
To assert that murder is immoral because God exists is to connect a number of dots, albeit logically, that nonetheless requires discussion in order to be properly understood. As Immanuel Kant points out, God is viewed by people as having attributes which determine the order upon which one should base his own actions. In other words, “the concept of God” has a “function” that man should be aware of, as it informs his own critical thinking, behavior, and understanding of right and wrong (“Kant’s Philosophy of Religion”). Indeed, Kant “sought to locate the concept of God within a systematically ordered set of basic philosophical principles that account for the order and structure of world” (“Kant’s Philosophy of Religion”). Into this order and structure would fall questions such as, “Is murder immoral?” Kant’s system was not stagnant, however; it developed over time and evolved into…
Crimes Committed Against Persons in the United States
The United States is one of the world's super powers. Like any other country, it experiences the challenge of crimes committed against people too. The FBI has shown that the rate of violent crimes committed in the US has been declining for the past two decades. Violent crimes can be classified into types that include rape, murder, aggravated assault, and robbery. Statistically, the rate of crimes committed to people in 2016 decreased by 1.1% when it is compared with those reported in 2015. The rates of crimes against people vary across regions. For example, the FBI reports that in 2016, there was a positive change in the rate of 2.0% in murder cases in Northeast region and 1.2% in Midwest (Federal Bureau of Investigation). Therefore, this research paper examines the different types of crimes committed against persons in the US, their characteristics,…
Thus, Nordan does not only give an account of this main event in the true story of Emmett Till, but adds important information about the characters involved to stress the reality of the social tensions that existed at that time in the South. Besides the extensive use of magical realism, Nordan also employs several "blues strategies" to structure his narrative, as Baker points out: "In olf histle, Nordan uses several blues strategies, not the least of which is the blues technique of playing through the break, to explore the interracial implications of the Emmett Till story."(Baker, 48) the blues technique is also important because it is obviously used as a means of recreating the story within an African-American tradition. Actually, at the very moment of Bobo's fatal whistle, there is a blues singer on the porch of the store that accompanies the events with his music: "The blues singer on…
Baker, Barbara a. "Riffing on Memory and Playing Through the Break: Blues in Lewis Nordan's Music of the Swamp and Wolf Whistle." Southern Quarterly, Spring 2003
Costello, Brannon. "Poor white trash, great white hope: race, class, and the (de)construction of whiteness in Lewis Nordan's Wolf Whistle." CRITIQUE: Studies in Contemporary Fiction 45.2 (2004): 207(17)
Metress, Christopher. "No Justice, No Peace': The Figure of Emmett Till in African-American Literature."MELUS, vol. 28, 2003.
Nordan, Lewis. Wolf Whistle. Chapel Hill: Algonquin, 1993
The groundskeeper explained to the golfers, you are lucky to be alive, "You were sitting on a box of dynamite." The headline of small yet front page article LEOPOLD and LOEB OUGHT to READ THIS. A completely unrelated story of luck, becoms a very sobering reminder to the Sheboygan readers of the nationally infamous Chicago trial, still taking place and likely nearing the sentencing stage. On the same front page of the paper the details of the trail are played out in a larger article where the Sheboygan paper describes details of the trial findings, including the usage of phrases such as "death blow" submitting for public perusal the findings, as to who was the actual killer, (Loeb) and using descriptive testimony of witnesses with regard to Leopold and Loeb's varying psychosis. One passage describes a moment when Leopold began to show sympathy and then promptly apologized for doing so.…
Abrahamsen, David. The Psychology of Crime. New York: Columbia University Press, 1960.
ALIENIST DECLARES LEOPOLD and LOEB ARE DEVOID of SOUL; Quotes One as Saying He Could Think of Killing Just Like Choosing Pie." New York Times August 5, 1924; 1.
Busch, Francis X. Prisoners at the Bar: An Account of the Trials of the William Haywood Case, the Sacco-Vanzetti Case, the Loeb-Leopold Case, the Bruno Hauptmann Case. 1st ed. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1952.
Cannon, Carl M. "The Problem with the Chair - a Conservative Case against Capital Punishment." National Review 19 June; 1.
The Gambino crime family began to fall apart after the head of its founder died. It had split into two factions. This book centers on the more ruthless Brooklyn faction. Away from the scrutiny of the Manhattan police, for many years it could do what it wished. Gene Mustain and Jerry Capeci spare no details in detailing the cruel jokes these men told to one another while they engaged in their killing spree, nor the callousness of their attitudes towards their victims. The reason that these criminals were so effective at getting rid of bodies was because they were willing to do the unthinkable -- maim the corpses, and bury them piecemeal to avoid discovery. Some of the maiming they engaged in was gruesome without even a practical point to the violence. One of Roy's cousins was called Dracula, because he specialized in training the blood from the bodies.
Mustain, Gene & Jerry Capeci. Murder Machine. New York: Onyx, 1993.
Authors present the results of a national law enforcement technology survey and comparable forensics technology survey that was conducted by the RAND Corporation to assess the effectiveness of this support and constraints to applying forensic technologies at the state and local level. Authors devote several chapters to different types of forensic analyses, including what types of techniques are best suited for various types of crimes and the evidence that may be present. A discussion concerning the types of evidence, including controlled substances, firearms, explosives, fire debris, bullets, footwear, vehicle tire marks, latent fingerprints, blood, gunpowder residue and so forth that are typically encountered in different crime scenes is followed by a useful description concerning how and why specific forensic technologies are used. Authors also present a description concerning how computer-based technologies are facilitating the application of these forensic investigatory methods to achieve higher conviction rates by providing improved testing results.…
Watterson, J., Blackmore, V. & Bagby, D. (2006). Considerations for the analysis of forensic samples following extended exposure to the environment. The Forensic Examiner, 15(4),
Authors are all forensic scientists who present a timely discussion concerning the harmful effects that extended exposure to the environment can have on forensic evidence, including its analysis and the interpretation of test results. Because crime scenes may produce less-than-optimum samples of DNA, blood and other molecular-based evidence based on environmental factors such as sunlight, rain, and microorganism growth, authors provide a review of the relevant literature to explain how these constraints must be taken into account when conducting forensic investigations and analyses. In particular, authors emphasize that biomolecular substances such as enzyme and DNA analyses are adversely affected by these environmental factors. While these biomolecular materials may remain amenable to forensic analyses over time if they are properly stored and maintained, extended exposure to environmental elements can cause them to degrade in ways that confound even the most sophisticated technologies. Authors also present a discussion concerning how both biological and non-biological samples are affected by exposure to environmental factors, and how toxicological tests to ascertain time and cause of death can be hampered by these effects. Authors point out, though, that it is possible to interpret the results of forensic analyses of even degraded biological samples if forensic scientists are cognizant of the processes these samples tend to undergo as they degrade. Although some types of samples such as paint chips and glass fragments may not be adversely affected by extended exposure to the environment, other substances such as volatile ignitable liquids tend to evaporate altogether, making time of the essence in gathering evidence and conducting suitable testing protocols. Authors also emphasize, though, that there remains a dearth of timely and relevant guidance in the literature concerning the interpretation of biological samples that have experienced extended exposure to these environmental elements and call for additional research in this area. Taken together, this journal article presents useful guidance for forensic scientists who are confronted with degraded samples as a result of extended exposure to the environment, and note that the nature of crime means that these types of samples will be far more common in forensic scientists' experience than the pristine samples with which they may have been trained.
This is at odds with his previous rationalization, but the circumstances are different. He is faced with death, and his talk of martyrdom at this point is a threat to the knights.
Rationalizing can be done to justify any action. The knights, too, rationalize their actions on behalf of the king. Each actor feels that the circumstances fully justify their actions at each time and place. The question of right vs. wrong is not one that can be answered with rationalizations, as the conflicting rationalizations of the actors in this play demonstrate. Rationalizing demonstrates that ethics and morals are not absolute; they are in the eye of the beholder. The worth of one's actions are not measured by one's ability to justify those actions to others -- rationalizing is an empty activity that neither adds nor removes moral and ethical value from your deeds and speech.
death penalty is a deterrent to murder. The death penalty deters murder by putting the fear of death into would be killers. A person is less likely to do something, if he or she thinks that harm will come to them. Another way the death penalty deters murder, is the fact that if the killer is dead, he will not be able to kill again.
Although, opponents of the death penalty argue that putting criminals to death does not deter murder, there is clear evidence that murder rates are when there is a death penalty. During the temporary suspension on capital punishment in the United States from 1972-1976, murder statistics across the country demonstrated an increase in murder rates. In 1960, there were 56 executions in the United States and 9,140 murders. By 1964, when there were only 15 executions, the number of murders had risen to 9,250. In 1969,…
Punishments for First Degree Murder
The harshest sentences in law are reserved for first-degree murder convictions. It is important to note that although the statutory sentencing options vary from state to state, first-degree murders (unlike second-degree murders) still attract sentences which although not unusual, are particularly harsh. In this text, I explore punishments for first-degree murders. In so doing, I will largely concern myself with the death penalty.
Punishments for First-degree Murder
Essentially, "murder of the first-degree is murder which is perpetrated by means of any kind of willful, deliberate, and premeditated killing" (Samaha, 2011). Before a conviction is secured against the accused, the three elements identified above must be proven beyond any reasonable doubt (Samaha, 2011). As I have already pointed out in the introductory paragraph, being the highest form of murder, fist-degree murder attracts the most severe punishments. Defendants in this case are in most cases eligible for…
Kurtz, L. (Ed.). (2008). Encyclopedia of Violence, Peace, & Conflict (2nd ed.). Fairfax, VA: George Mason University.
Samaha, J. (2011). Criminal Law (10th ed.). Belmont, CA: Cengage Learning.
Siegel, L.J. (2009). Introduction to Criminal Justice (12th ed.). Belmont, CA: Cengage Learning.
Siegel, L.J. & Bartollas, C. (2010). Corrections Today. Belmont, CA: Cengage Learning.
The Odyssey, which was written by Homer, and the Libation Bearers, which was written Aeschylus are some of the ancient Greek writings that act as classic literature. These writings depict events and tragedies that happened in the traditional Greek society and provide important lessons for modern literature given their classical nature. One of the pertinent passages from the Odyssey by Homer and the Libation Bearers from the Greek tragedies is the story of Agamemnon. The Odyssey by Homer provides a detailed account of the life and times of Agamemnon who was a Greek king and the brother of Menelaos. On the other hand, the Libation Bearers was written after Agamemnon's death and acts as one of the major components of the trilogy by Aeschylus, an ancient Greek playwright. The passages have certain similarities and differences based on a specific theme that underpinned and/or inspired the writers.
Hughes, C. (n.d.). Prelude to the Odyssey. Retrieved from Washington State University website: http://public.wsu.edu/~hughesc/Prelude_to_the_Odyssey.html
Suksi, A. (n.d.). The Story of the Death of Agamemnon. Retrieved from University of Western Ontario website: http://publish.uwo.ca/~asuksi/in-class%20essay.htm
Webster, M. (n.d.). Summary of The Libation Bearers. Retrieved from Grand Valley State University website: http://faculty.gvsu.edu/websterm/libation.htm
Menendez Brothers Case
The Menendez murder case happened more than a quarter century ago but it is still one of the more notorious murder cases in the United States. It was the case of two men that were barely adults and how they shot and killed their parents. There are so many themes that could be looked at when assessing this case including affluence, child abuse, murder motives and the proper way to do a jury or judge-ran trial when so many of these factors exist. While there are many other notorious trials out there, the Menendez case is probably only eclipsed by the O.J. Simpson case in terms of how notorious and theme-laden it was (Blacno, J, 2015; CBS News, 2015; Time, 2015).
The case was a curious one. Indeed, Erik and Lyle Menendez had returned home around the same time that their parents had returned home from going…
Blanco, J. (2015). Lyle & Erik Menendez | Murderpedia, the encyclopedia of murderers.
Murderpedia.org. Retrieved 26 April 2015, from http://murderpedia.org/male.M/m/menendez-brothers.htm
CBS News. (2015). Erik and Lyle Menendez murdered their parents 25 years ago in their Beverly Hills, California mansion. Cbsnews.com. Retrieved 26 April 2015,
Classification of Crimes
Joe should be charged with murder, since he wielded the murder weapon. As it was a drive-by shooting, multiple shots were fired and another person was injured, the charges should include capital murder, and attempted capital murder. Larry, who served as an accomplice in the drive-by shooting, should also be charged with the same crimes, as he assisted in them by driving the car. Even though he did not operate the murder weapon, he was complicit in the act and enabled it to happen. Thus, the same charges that are leveled at Joe should also be leveled at Larry. They could also be charged with conspiracy to commit the crime, as it was premeditated.
As for Bob, he heard what the plan was and promptly quit the vehicle at the first chance he could. However, he did not attempt to stop what was about to happen and…
prologue of Piker's Four Deaths sets the stage of a violent colonial world in which a handful of Cherokee are murdered in a sneak attack by a group of Creeks within a half mile of the Government offices in Charleston, just one day after the Creeks led by the warrior Acorn Whistler had made assurances to the Town that it would not harm the Cherokee or persist in its war with that tribe. The murder on April 1, Fool's Day, is one that is meant to provoke -- both the reader and the citizens of the town at the time when it happened. Piker gives special attention to the way in which a head of one Cherokee was found in the road, the body some ways off, all the victims scalped: the scene is gruesome and appalling and sets the bloody tone of the book with its graphic emphasis on…
Edga Allen Poe tale of pemeditated mude such as "The Cask of Amontillado," eades will immediately delight in the autho's skill at suspense. Like wandeing though dakened and ancient catacombs, eading "The Cask of Amontillado" stis the imagination and maintains tension thoughout its eeie passages. Deepe analysis lends insight into Poe's employment of vaious liteay techniques to impat this sense of the tale being a campfie ghost stoy. Poe's cleve use of iony, both damatic and vebal, contibutes to the shot stoy's suspenseful mood. The opening line of "The Cask of Amontillado" whispe Monteso's plan of evenge: "The thousand injuies of Fotunato I had bone as I best could, but when he ventued upon insult, I vowed evenge," (Poe,). Befoe any action occus, the eade is made awae of the intentions of the naato. This damatic display of iony allows the eade to fully engage and paticipate in the tale.…
references to the nitre affecting his victim's health (Poe,). Montresor entombs Fortunato with impunity, and Fortunato laughs nervously, still hoping that the burial is a practical joke: "We will have many a rich laugh about it at the palazzo...over our wine!" Montresor humors the dying man: they will celebrate over the Amontillado. When Montresor seals the crypt with the final stone and erects the "rampart of bones" to guard it, he utters an ironic victory cry: "In pace requiescat," or "rest in peace." Montresor achieved his brutal revenge, adding the bones of his friend to the hundreds that already lay still in the catacombs. Poe's tale manages to remain suspenseful until the final words because the story rests firmly on a sound literary use of dramatic and verbal irony coupled with eerie symbolism.
Spade walking down to examine a murder makes use of shadows as well as high black-white contrast in order to convey drama and suspense. This is commonly referred to as the film noir lighting technique because it conveys a sense of mystery and danger. The lighting highlights the most extreme contours of the character's faces, but none of the moderating details such as texture or color. This makes the facial expressions look much more dramatic than they would under normal lighting.
The costumes are also very typical of the film noir genre. Spade is wearing a black wool overcoat and a fedora and his counterpart from the police station is wearing the same outfit. This is a style of dress associated with detectives, who sometimes had to conceal their identity and not stand out. The overcoat conceals much of the person's figure and could conceal weapons or other objects.
Murder Trial of Nicholas Lindsey, March 2012
Factual and Procedural Background
On the evening of February 21, 2011, Police Officer David Crawford of the St. Petersburg, Florida police department was fatally shot while investigating a report of a suspicious person or prowler in a residential neighborhood. After a 24-hour search expedition, police arrested and booked 16-year-old Nicolas Lindsey on charges of first-degree murder. Lindsey confessed to the killing in a taped statement to police shortly thereafter.[footnoteRef:-1] [-1: http://articles.cnn.com/2011-02-23/justice/florida.officer.shot_1_police-officer-fatal-shooting-petersburg-police-maj?_s=PM:CRIME]
Lindsey was arraigned in court the next day, and the judge ordered that he be held in custody without bail. A grand jury which convened the following week indicted Lindsey on first-degree murder of a police officer, whereupon the state Attorney General charged Lindsey as an adult based on the seriousness of the offense and that he was over age 14.
Jury selection began on March 19, 2012 and the jury heard…
Enforce the Death Penalty for Murders Over a Life Sentence
This paper addresses the question: Is it more cost effective to enforce the death penalty for murders over a life sentence? Several topics will be covered such as why it could be cost effective and why it has not been cost effective. Several articles point to the need for prisons to carry out death penalties in order for death penalty sentencing to be cost effective. The introduction will highlight why the death penalty has been regulated more so than enforced.
Other articles will also show how death penalty sentencing can be used a means of creating persuasive plea bargains as criminals do not want to experience death row. Another article states how expensive maintenance of death row inmates are vs. inmates who received life sentences. It also shows how many inmates were killed on death row vs. The…
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Ehrhard-Dietzel, S. (2012). The Use of Life and Death as Tools in Plea Bargaining. Criminal Justice Review, 37(1), 89. Retrieved from http://cjr.sagepub.com/content/37/1/89.short
Liebman, J.S., & Clarke, P. (2011). Minority Practice, Majority's Burden: The Death Penalty Today. Ohio St. J. Crim. L, 9, 255. Retrieved from http://heinonline.org/HOL/LandingPage?handle=hein.journals/osjcl9&div=14&id=&page=
Nagin, D.S. (2013). Deterrence: A Review of the Evidence by a Criminologist for Economists.Annual Review of Economics, 5, 83. Retrieved from http://www.annualreviews.org/doi/abs/10.1146/annurev-economics-072412-131310