" (Walker, 1999) the gas crisis caused that particular market sector to almost completely vanish, and the need for increased efficiency shifted power in the automotive industry away from designers and into the hands of engineers. Detroit tried one last time to introduce small cars to the American public, but this attempt was far less successful than all others before it. GM created the Chevrolet Vega, and Ford had the Pinto. oth cars were available with many accessories and trim options, but both suffered from severe design mistakes. "These cars were poorly made, did not perform well, and were the most dangerous automobiles on the road since Chevrolet introduced its Corvair ten years before." (Gartman, 1994) the failure of the Vega and Pinto secured the upcoming dominance of imports in the small car sector. Detroit's dominance ended, and so did the era of the muscle car.
The enforcement of…… [Read More]
Muscle Grow Case Qs
The commerce clause grants the federal government the right to regulate interstate commerce, which the online sale and interstate shipment of Muscle Grow by Texas-Based Health Corp. definitely constitutes (U.S. ConstitutionArticle 1, Sec. 8, Clause 3). A determination of whether or not this constitutes commerce is not really at issue as it quite clearly is concerned with the sale and transport of goods across state lines, however the Commerce Clause only grants the federal government (specifically, Congress) the authority to regulate this commerce, and does not specifically allow the actions taken in this case -- that is, action taken by the President to directly regulate the commerce of one particular firm through a selective application of executive power rather than established law.
According to United States Code Title 50, Chapter 34, there is no clear restriction on the ability of the President to declare a…… [Read More]
Preventing this 'snowball effect' of fatigued muscle, leading to leakage of calcium, leading to a weaker muscle that must work harder, leading to increased fatigue, would mean an increased life expectancy for these patients.
From an economic standpoint, the resultant increased life expectancy of a treatment derived from this study, would likely result in an increased cost to society.
Direct items, such as increased payments in Social Security benefits, will place an economic strain on society. Other economic costs will be increased healthcare for these patients, as they survive longer. However, for younger patients, this will allow them to be economically more productive within society.
Lastly, from a medical standpoint the implications are significant. This new research sheds light on an issue that has intrigued scientists and medical professionals. The molecular cause for muscle fatigue is now pinpointed. This not only has implications for cardiac medical professionals, but all medical…… [Read More]
Bellinger, a.M., Mongillo, M., & Marks, a.R. (2008). Stressed out: the skeletal muscle
Ryanodine receptor as a target of stress. Journal of Clinical Investigations. 118(2):
In this report prior the researchers addressed overall present understanding of muscle fatigue. For decades, the mechanisms underlying muscle fatigue and weakness were the emphasis of numerous studies. The dominant theory was that lactic acidosis caused muscle fatigue. However, dysregulation of sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ release has been associated with impaired muscle function induced by a variety of stressors, from dystrophy to heart failure to muscle fatigue. Here, the authors addressed the topic of the altered regulation of SR Ca2+ release during chronic stress and focused on the role the release channel known as the type 1 ryanodine receptor plays.
olata, G. (2008, February 12.). Finds may solve riddle of muscle fatigue in muscles.
New York Times. Research. Retrieved February 23, 2008 at http://www.nytimes.com/2008/02/12/health/research/12musc.html?ref=science
Based…… [Read More]
In a comparative study, Klein and colleagues (1994) studied the overall fat metabolism ratios for endurance-trained and untrained men during low-intensity exercise routines. They sample a total of 10 men, 5 who were endurance-trained athletes and 5 who were untrained. They started off by calculating and analyzing the overall lipid activities and muscle activities while all 10 subjects were resting before the exercise routines began. They also calculated the free fatty acid (FFA) and glycerol rate of appearance (a) ratios. The calculated the lipid activities using indirect calorimetry as a determinant and the FFA and glycerol levels through the combination of glycerol (2H5) and palpitate (1-13C) one after another (Klein et al., 1994).
The results showed that the lipolytic reaction after 4 hours of high-intensity training routines showed no significant variations in the overall FFA and glycerol levels between the endurance-trained subjects (increase in a minimum of 1.02/kg to 3.76/kg…… [Read More]
2. A functional syncytium a single, enormous muscle cell.
3. The fascia adherens component.
4. The aorta has a tunica media dominated by elastic tissue. The elasticity conferred by elastin allows these elastic arteries to smooth out the sharp changes in blood pressure resulting from the pumping heart.
5. An artery would have a larger lumen than its corresponding vein. With such relatively thin walls, veins tend to appear flattened or collapsed in contrast to arteries, which tend to appear more round.
6. The tunica media and tunica adventitia would not be presents in a capillary for the reason that
Respiratory Tissue Review
1. Respiratory Epithelium contains serous and mucous glands, these reflect the functions of the nasal mucosa, to warm and humidify the incoming air.
2. Gas exchange occur in bronchi since it occurs in the capillaries which are found in the alveoli sacs
3. The primary functional unit…… [Read More]
The most important skeletal muscle in the human body is the diaphragm. The diaphragm is the large dome shaped muscle that functions as the main muscle involved in respiration (Drake, Vogl, & Mitchell, 2009; Moore, 2014). Of course the reason that this muscle is the most important skeletal muscle is that it is involved in breathing and without oxygen the organism would perish in only a few moments. Thus, before any other muscle or organ can perform for any length of time they need to receive oxygen.
The lungs are surrounded by the rib cage with the diaphragm forming the floor of the thoracic cavity. The entire diaphragm separates the chest cavity (thoracic cavity) from the abdominal cavity. There are openings in the diaphragm that allow the descending aorta, inferior vena cava, the esophagus, and the phrenic and vagus nerves to pass between the thoracic cavity…… [Read More]
As part of starting a class in forensic anatomy, the instructor has provided two sets of bones of human adults with an assignment of determining which sets of bones is a male and which is a female. This task will require the use of different characteristics to distinguish between the two sets of bones since males' and females' bones develop at different rates. While every human being is born with some cartilage in his/her bones, the development of the bones occurs different between males and females. The adage that girls mature faster than boys is not only true in emotional development but also evident in the development of bones. Generally, distinguishing between males' and females' bones requires identification of clues or characteristics in the bones themselves.
One of the characteristics to use in determining which sets of bones is male and which is female in this assignment is…… [Read More]
HIP MUSCLE STENGTH & KNEE VALGUS DUING a SINGLE LEG SQUAT
elationship between Hip Muscle Strength & Knee Valgus in a Single Leg Squat
In the research paper entitled, "Physical Therapy Alters ecruitment of the Vasti in Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome," author Cowan et al. Of the Centre for Sports Medicine esearch and Education at the University of Melbourne outlined a study of the effects of physical therapy on patients suffering from Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome (PFPS), manifesting as pain in the knee valgus. More specifically, the purpose of the study was to "investigate the effect of physical therapy treatment on the timing of electromyography (EMG) activity of the vasti" in patients with PFPS, with a particular focus on the influence of increased motor control [COWAN et al. 2002].
PFPS is a condition defined by pain in the anterior or retropatellar regions of the knee; this pain is often made worse by…… [Read More]
2.2 Personality Disorders
On the other hand, Paranoid Personality Disorder, Schizoid Personality Disorder, Dependent Personality Disorder, and Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder are among the many personality disorders that are affecting many people today. A personality disorder is inflexible, maladaptive patterns of thoughts; emotions, behavior, and interpersonal functioning that are stable over time and across situations, and deviate from the expectations of the individual's culture. Men's anxiety in body dysmorphia has really been a matter that could be classified as one of these (American Psychiatric Association, 2007).
2.2.1 Categories of Personality Disorders
They are grouped into three different clusters.
i. Cluster A: The odd and eccentric includes the Paranoid, Schizoid, and Schizotypal Personality Disorders. The men in this category will in most cases appear eccentric or odd.
ii. Cluster B: The dramatic, emotional, or erratic cluster includes the Antisocial, Borderline, Histrionic, and Narcissistic Personality Disorders. The men in this group apparently are…… [Read More]
Home-based Nurse-Coached Inspiratory Muscle Training Intervention in Heart Failure
In order to devise an optimal experimental study, the primary information required and used by the researcher in this study is identification of the specific research issue to be addressed. From this foundation, the best design for this study can be determined. The specific research issue in this study is key to the relevance and importance of any data observations. A well-designed research study has a clear-cut experimental purpose, including identification of three key components: the studied parameter(s) -here heart failure; the population/group of patients to be studied; and the precise outcomes to be analyzed. Generally speaking, the research objectives for clinical experimentation can be viewed as addressing two different categories:
To study treatment efficacy for this study the experimental protocol evaluates both cost-effectiveness and benefit/harm (clinical effectiveness).
To study event frequency for this study the experimental…… [Read More]
1. Explain the basic process of movement for the musculoskeletal system.
When a football is kicked using the right foot, the psoas major, abdominals, and erector spinae stabilize the player’s trunk. The psoas, sartorius (oblique muscle situated at the inner thigh and linked to sitting cross-legged), iliacus, rectus femoris, and adductor group control bending or flexion of the right hip. The gluteus – the human body’s largest muscle – guides the left hip’s extension. The strong quadriceps is responsible for extension of the right and left knees, whereas the plantarflexors are responsible for right ankle flexing. The biceps brachii, pectoralis major and anterior deltoid move the football player’s left shoulder towards the body’s midline. Follow-through involves rotation and extension of the player’s right hip by the hamstrings, piriformis and gluteus, whilst the right knee is flexed by the hamstring group (Dale).
Sense organs in the muscles, joints, and tendons inform…… [Read More]
This white paper introduces the idea of lifting weights by discussing how it can improve health and who the role models are for women today. It discusses prior research on women’s health, then describes new findings from recent research that shows the benefits of lifting weights for women. It shows the benefits as relating to improved mood, increased confidence, and improved physical and mental health.
The keys to having a healthy life are nutrition and exercise. A good diet such as the world-renowned Mediterranean Diet and sufficient levels of physical activity throughout the day can improve one’s health and outlook (Guntzviller, King, Jensen & Davis, 2017). This paper will focus on the exercise part of that equation and discuss the benefits that lifting weights can have for a select population—specifically for women who are between the ages of 25 and 40.
In the past, lifting weights has…… [Read More]
Each muscle of the body has a specific function and purpose, it is important to be able to know what muscle one is working on, the ability of that specific muscle, as well as the limitations of that specific muscle. Understanding how parts of the body (specifically bones) and how they relate to muscles allow personal trainers the ability to hone in on particular muscle groups and aid clients in obtaining the optimum results quickly and efficiently. Learning the names of bones and their muscles counterparts allows the personal trainer the ability to explain what muscle groups that the client is working on, what results they can expect, as well as limitations in that specific muscle region.
ID Bones… [Read More]
Muscles Involved in the Backhand Action of the Tennis Shot
The Muscles That Initiate and Assist in Backhand Motion
The motion that is most important in the backhand motion is the grip. A proper grip is vital in any movement when playing tennis. For the grip, the index knuckle of the dominant hand is placed on the top bevel. These muscles are smaller muscles and include;
Abductor Pollicis brevis
Flexor Pollicis brevis
Abductor digiti minimi brevis
Flexor digiti minimi brevis
Opponens digiti minimi.
The backhand grip enables one to develop firmness that allow maximum power and spin enabling the player to get maximum utilization of the backhand. In addition, the backhand grip reciprocates well the stroke and allows a good leverage in the stroke to handle the ball from different angles. The Eastern and modified Eastern backhand grip are used when the player intends to return a hard…… [Read More]
The brain while expanding pushes the skull outward in the same perpendicular to the closed structure. This will be marked by the occurrence of 'papilledema' 'pseudoproptosis' as also 'optic atrophy.' (39) This results in the orbital socket being smaller and the eyes getting 'protoposed'. The intercranial pressure is bound to be high. The symptoms in such cases will be optic atrophy, head ache and papilledema. Or in the case of 'Crouzon's disease' where occurs a marked hooked nose and a frontal lobe which makes the disease also called the parrot head disease. Surgery in both these types of situations become mandatory as the result of the cranial pressure could result in death. (39)
egarding the facial surgery discussions always centre on perfecting features and cosmetic changes. The debate must rather be on the goals of the surgery and the overall benefits that can accrue to the patient in terms of…… [Read More]
e. hypertrophy). In the elderly, this process is reverse. Hence, the functional reserve capacities of the skeletal muscles decline with age, largely due to diminished levels of physical activity. As a result daily tasks once taken for granted become progressively more difficult, and eventually impossible, to perform. In illustration, a great deal of muscle force is required to simply stand up or to climb stairs. Therefore, skeletal system is relying upon the reserve capacity of the heart to provide the endurance needed to perform such activities. If an elderly person does not engage in some sort of endurance-based activities, he or she will not have the cardiac reserve capacity needed for daily tasks. More importantly, diminished capacity may not counteract illnesses or diseases. Although strength-based activities help the cardiac reserve, it may not benefit the skeletal system. "While resistance exercise promotes fiber hypertrophy in skeletal muscles, the explosive power of…… [Read More]
The success was remarkable, according to the researchers: Even muscles that had already lost half of its mass, recovered visible. (Leppanen et al. p5549-65) At the same time, the mice survived for several weeks longer than their untreated counterparts and also developed a healthy appetite again. (Mantovani, p296) The new study is therefore interesting in two respects: First, it demonstrates that the muscle loss at least in animal models in fact, affects the chances of survival, and secondly, it shows a way, may be how to prevent this degradation, and even reversed. (Bruera et al. p857)
Muscle atrophy is a medical term that refers to the decrease in the size of skeletal muscle, losing muscle strength because of the strength of muscle is related to its mass. (Burnfoot, p323-34)
All changes in cell morphological character may affect isolated cells or groups of them, therefore the modification of a…… [Read More]
So far, we have accomplished stepping up one step, but this is only half of the process necessary for reaching something on a high shelf. The second step, of course, is reaching up with the arm to grasp the desired object. The beginning of the process is pretty much the same -- a nerve impulse originates in the brain (possibly in the motor cortex for this more complex and less-often performed task), and then travels along the spinal cord and periphery nerves to the proper muscles (pbs.org). Again, the neuromuscular junction is the site of chemical/electrical messaging between he nerve and the muscle fiber, and the same process activates the muscle tissue.
It is worthwhile to examine exactly what process takes place in the muscle tissue once activated that actually enables movement. muscles work by contracting; at the cellular level, the muscle fibers actually cling together and shorten when activated,…… [Read More]
Muscles are an important part of our body, and without muscles, one would neither be able to walk nor to talk, and, quite literally, the blood would stop flowing within the body if our muscles did not work. In fact, muscles can be referred to as the 'engine' within our body, which we utilize in order to 'propel' ourselves by converting 'energy' into 'motion'. Anything that the brain conceives of doing is in fact carried out by muscles, and since they are long lasting, as well as self healing, and will keep growing stronger if they are used more, they form an incredibly sophisticated piece of machinery within the living body, and must be treated as such. There are three unique types of muscles within a mammal's body, and these are: the skeletal muscles that contract voluntarily, and are attached to the skeleton and come in pairs, the…… [Read More]
When watching a scary movie alone at night, this system is likely to become engaged due to the perception of a threat; sudden noises are likely to cause an involuntary flight reaction that, of course, subsides after a moment.
Temporal summation in a nerve cell occurs when the length of time over which successive activation potentials occur is sufficiently long enough to allow for the potentials to continue to the point where they begin to overlap. When this occurs, a new activation starts to begin before the climax of the preceding action potential has been reached. This action potential essentially ends prematurely, or summates, as it begins the rise into the next action potential, which ends up being larger in magnitude than the constituent action potentials. Summation of active potential in muscle fibers allows for similarly larger action potentials, which can increase the strength of the fiber contractions.
9)…… [Read More]
, & Mitchell, D. (2001). omatic Markers and Response Reversal: Is There Orbitofrontal Cortex Dysfunction in Boys with Psychopathic Tendencies?. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 29(6), 499.
Bourne, G.H. (Ed.). (1960). The tructure and Function of Muscle. New York: Academic Press.
Burgess-Limerick, R., Abernethy, B., Neal, R.J., & Kippers, V. (1995). elf-elected Manual Lifting Technique: Functional Consequences of the Interjoint Coordination. Human Factors, 37(2), 395.
Cooley, E.L., & Morris, R.D. (1990). Attention in Children: a Neuropsychologically-Based Model for Assessment. Developmental Neuropsychology, 6(3), 239-280.
Granata, K.P., lota, G.P., & Wilson, .E. (2004). Influence of Fatigue in Neuromuscular Control of pinal tability. Human Factors, 46(1), 81.
Grillon, C., inha, R., Ameli, R., & O'Malley, .. (2000). Effects of Alcohol on Baseline tartle and Prepulse Inhibition in Young Men at Risk for Alcoholism and/or Anxiety Disorders. Journal of tudies on Alcohol, 61(1), 46.
Gunnar, M.R. & Nelson, C.A. (Eds.). (1992). Developmental Behavioral Neuroscience.…… [Read More]
Or pressure. Or temperature (hot and cold, separately). Or vibration (both high- and low-frequency)." (Hancock, 1995) All over the surface f the skin are receptors that report warmth and there are others that report cold. Several types of nerves exist that have the ability to sense "cold, warmth pressure, pain, and more. The nerves that sense and transmit pain are called nociceptors. Nociceptors transmit electrical signals to your spinal column. In the spinal cord, electrical pain signals causes a release of chemicals which are called neurotransmitters, which activate other nerve cells that process and transmit the information to the brain. Important decisions occur in the spinal column: Acute pain like that from touching a hot surface raises a red flag and is routed to the brain immediately.. "The larger fibers convey electrical impulses very rapidly to the brain, and are thought to cause sharp pricking pain, while the very fine…… [Read More]
elationship between cardiac arrest and coronary cardiac disease
The heart is an essential organ in the human body, it keeps the individual alive. Understanding how the heart operates and functions is essential to help protect your heart from heart disease. Cardiac arrest and coronary heart disease are significant heart related illness that has a high mortality rate. It is important for individuals with pre-existing heart disease to understand the symptoms of cardiac arrest and coronary heart disease, since these are both leading causes of fatality in the United States. Understanding how the heart works, the individuals risk for heart disease, and how to prevent or delay heart disease is essential. In this paper I will address the relationship between cardiac arrest and coronary heart disease. I will also explain how the heart functions and discuss some ways of preventing cardiac arrest and coronary heart disease.
Cardiac…… [Read More]
Kinesiology -- Human Kinetics
Dunking, also known as slam dunk, is a basketball trick in which the player jumps in the air and dunks the ball in the basket with one or both the hands over the rim of the basketball hoop. It is a popular shot among the audience and provides an entertaining experience to the viewers. Slam dunk contests are also held separately due to the popularity of this shot.
Phases of the movement
There are four distinct phases involved in dunking. In the first phase, the player or MJ in this case, extends his body by bending his right knee and extending his left leg so that it propels him off the ground. In the second phase, he is jumping in the air and his right knee is more bent than his left knee. He also raises his right elbow and extends his left arm to…… [Read More]
Further, within this essay I have explained key reasons for how and why women's mere building of healthy muscle through appropriate weight-lifting exercise will not in fact make women "bulk up" (and that in order to do so, women must in fact weight train in a particularly rigorous and deliberate way, one that average female weight-lifters simply do not). Instead, weight-lifting allows most women who exercise regularly and correctly in this way to become healthier, more physically fit, more physically attractive, and therefore to like themselves better and gain greater self-confidence. Women who have been holding back from weight-lifting due to the unrealistic fear of building too much muscle may now, therefore, relax about this faulty myth, pack their gym bags, and head fearlessly toward those barbells and/or Nautilus machines!
Bedeaux, J. (2006). Biggest benefits of strength training. Changing Shape.
etrieved November 8, 2006, at http://www.changingshape. http://72.14.
104/search?q=cache:68yf2lMgweUJcom/resources/articles…… [Read More]
anatomical position, the person will access information stored in the hippocampus regarding the object's position, height, etc. The brains motor system in areas such as the motor cortex, primary visual cortex and the motor homunculus then activate to control the motor functions via the muscle movements. Electrical impulses via neurons connected to each other via axons and dendrites travel from the brain along the spinal cord and nerve fibers to the muscles with the spinal cord which make up the central nervous system. The impulses are then transferred to the peripheral nervous system under our control to the nerves in the hands, hips, shoulders, knees, feet, etc. To perform the step up motion.
The chemical activities in synaptic vesicles in the hippocampus activate synaptic terminals in the dendrites. The dendrites then activate neurotransmitters that impulse rapidly toward the neuron's cell body. Each nerve impulse begins in the dendrites…… [Read More]
In addition, small frequent feeds, and a large amount of fluid is provided to maintain the nutritional needs of the patient and prevent dehydration. The r suctioning of secretions proves necessary in preventing aspiration of secretions. The loss of voluntary muscle's activity increases the risks of accumulation of secretions hence, the need for regular suctioning. Bulbar involvement often results in communication complications such as dysarthria and muscle paralysis of the muscles of the face, throat, and tongue. As such, it requires the provision of management strategies such as augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) techniques and other forms of speech therapy that improves the communication abilities of patients with ALS. Pseudobulbar effects that often accompany those brought by the frontotemporal lobe degeneration often require the administration of antidepressants. The antidepressants manage mood disorder that presents through disproportionate crying, and inappropriate response to the external stimuli. Maximizing patients' comfort and…… [Read More]
5 gram per pound of bodyweight. Proteins give the muscle energy to grow but carbohydrates are just as important to promote the muscle to heal.
The following is a 3 day meal schedule recommended to the athlete:
reakfast- High energy cereal with whole milk
Fruit of his choice
Apricot nectar juice
Corn and peas
Snack (3)- left up to the athlete
reakfast- Eggs and whole wheat or grain toast
Fruit of his choice
aked or roasted fish
Corn and beans
Snack (3)- left up to the athlete
reakfast- Hot cereal with whole milk
Fruit of his choice
Steak or ground beef
aked potato…… [Read More]
" This allows the palm of the hand to go either up or down when in motion. The radius and the ulna connect with the bones which that are attached to the wrist and hand.
The thumbs of the human hand make it possible for the hand to lift and carry objects. The movement of the human hand is due to evolutionary development of bipedalism. The human hand consists of twenty seven bones. The wrist has cube shaped bones placed in rows of two or four each. The palm of the hand consists of bones called the carpals. hen lifting a glass of water the striated muscle pulls the radius and ulna allowing the arm to reach for the glass. The flexor muscles in the hand and fingers are used to flex the fingers around the glass making it possible to grip. The flexors which are located near the elbow…… [Read More]
The authors were trying to develop a system of estimating and indexing muscle fatigue rates during static muscle contraction. The results of this study indicated that estimations were reasonably successful with some limitations that were noted. One limitation was that the study neglected muscle recovery since the experiment was performed in a lab under controlled conditions and the muscles were able to fully recover. However, in the real world muscles move in a dynamic environment thus making muscle recovery rates a challenge in producing an accurate estimate of fatigue.
Another study looked at the efficacy of treatments in patients who suffer from Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS). The study conducted research using 111 patients who suffer from CTS. They compared the standard conservative treatment (SCT) with other forms of treatment available that also propose to alleviate symptoms associated CTS. They found that SCT, which includes local steroid injections, was effective as…… [Read More]
esearchers believe that incorporating evidence-based prevention methods can decrease the incidence of ACL ruptures, but an understanding of the etiology and mechanisms of sports injury are a necessary to do this (Posthumus, 2009).
The highest prevalence of extrinsic ACL injuries tends to occur in organized sports especially adolescents participating in pivoting type sports such as football, basketball, and team handball (Bahr & Krosshaug, 2005). In addition to any intrinsic factors and adolescent may have, or predisposing factors, environmental factors surrounding organized sports can also play a role in injury. For example, weather conditions (slippery surface), type of surface sport is played on (grass vs. pavement), proper footwear, and protective bracing (Posthumus, 2009).
A growing concern regarding these injuries and the populations that incur them is that these injuries increase the risk of osteoarthritis (Bahr & Krosshaug, 2005). In fact, after ten years, around half of all people that have suffered…… [Read More]
Proteins are often called the building blocks of life. In fact, the very word "protein" implies their importance in the body: it is a Greek word meaning "first place." Approximately fifty percent of the dry weight in animal cells is comprised of protein (Campbell 71). They play a roll in almost everything the body does and "are used for support, storage, transport of other substances, signaling from one part of the organism to another, movement, and defense against foreign substances." (Campbell 71). Proteins are essential to the proper functioning of every organism known to man.
The human genetic code holds the instructions for the making of over ten thousand different types of proteins; all with specific purposes. Additionally, "Proteins are the most structurally sophisticated molecules known." (Campbell 71). In comparison to other molecules, proteins are enormous and come in nearly every shape imaginable. However, despite their variety and size, proteins…… [Read More]
* The effects on normal aging and metabolism is that after the age of forty, metabolism usually decreases by about 5% every ten years. That does not mean that metabolism cannot be controlled to some extent; it can. Metabolism is loosely defined as the chemical workings within our bodies that help us to maintain a certain level of energy use, calorie burning and general energy (even at rest). As we age, our metabolism rate slows down, meaning that we burn less calories and the ones we do burn are burned at a slower rate. It also means that we may have less energy and our overall health slows as well.
* As individuals grow older their muscle mass is less likely to maintain its composition. Bill Sonnemaker, the 2007 IDEA Health and Fitness Personal Trainer of the year states that building muscle mass at any age provides a number of…… [Read More]
ENEFITS, ARRIERS, CHALLENGES
ackground and Origin
Progressive mobility refers to a series of planned and sequential movements aimed at bringing the patient back to his or her baseline (Vollman, 2010). It consists of positioning and mobility techniques. A meta-analysis of 39 randomized trials was conducted to examine the effect of bed rest on 15 different medical conditions and procedures. Four short-term medical conditions were identified for critically ill patients. ut the major and long-term complication was the reduced quality of life after discharge on account of lost physical functions during their stay at the ICU. Another study conducted among survivors of acute respiratory conditions found that they lost 18% of their body weight and suffered much functional limitations from muscle wasting and fatigue. The more than 5 million who get confined at the ICU must come to terms with both the short- and long-term complications of immobility or prolonged…… [Read More]
Enlarged Cardiac Muscle
In most instances, an enlargement of cardiac muscles produces detrimental effects in the person in which such an occurrence takes place. Depending on how large the muscles and the heart actually gets, the noxious nature of those effects increase. For instance, it is possible to still have the heart function normally and pump blood with a degree of efficacy with minimal or even nominal enlargement of the heart muscles. However, when that enlargement becomes too strong, there are a host of detrimental conditions that take place.
There are many different undesirable results that an enlarged heart can produce. For instance, it can lead to strokes, heart attacks, and various forms of heart failure. Still, there is not a direct correlation between enlarged hearts and these maladies for the simple fact that in most instances, enlarged hearts are produced by some other undesirable conditions such as high blood…… [Read More]
An impulse opens "gates" in the membrane that allow the positive sodium ions to rush in, which pushes the impulses along by moving electrons. When the impulse passes, the sodium moves out again and the nerve cells basically resets itself back to its resting potential.
When the nerve impulses reach the muscles they are meant to move, a similar use of ions inside and outside the muscle fibers occurs. In this case, sodium and potassium are used to spread the impulse across the muscle, but it is the influx of calcium into muscle fibers that reacts with the tropomyosin present in the cells, causing the fibers to contract, which pulls on the bones of the skeletons creating movement. The specific leg muscles necessary for stepping up in a step are the biceps femoris, which flexes the knee and extends the hip, the pectneus, which flexes the hip and raises the…… [Read More]
To verify this diagnosis, a doctor may then order either an X-ray of the area, or more likely, an MRI, which is better at imaging tears in soft tissues. hen surgery is required, these symptoms persist for several weeks after surgery.
Surgery is a common treatment for a rupture to the Achilles tendon; and most often consists of making an incision to the back of the lower leg and stitching together the torn section of the tendon. ("Surgery for an Achilles Tendon Rupture") if the rupture is complete, then the repair may be reinforced by connecting the torn tendon to other nearby muscles. hile the surgery is often performed through an open surgery procedure, if a patient has heart, circulatory, or poor healing risk factors, a percutaneous surgery will be performed. This surgical procedure differs in that it requires a number of small incisions instead of a single large one.…… [Read More]
Chronic musculoskeletal pain necessitates the maintenance of good extensibility in order for normal functioning to be enhanced. This enhancement results in improvements in strength, endurance, fitness, and psychological well-being (Law et al., 2009). Programs promoting the improvement of movement for people with chronic musculoskeletal pain usually include stretching components. Stretching helps to improve functioning through improved range of motion within joints, and therefore muscle extensibility (Law et al., 2009).
The study by Law et al. (2009) emphasized the importance of tolerance and extensibility for individuals with chronic musculoskeletal pain. The purpose of the study, which was clearly outlined in the report, was to explore whether stretch affects either or both of these factors. The researchers hypothesized that individuals with chronic musculoskeletal pain may respond to stretch differently than individuals who do not experience chronic pain. Further to this suggestion, the researchers suggest that individuals with chronic musculoskeletal pain may show…… [Read More]
More sport and physiological testing has become increasingly common as the interaction between scientists and coaches (tanner & Gore, 2013). When it comes to popular sports that are watched al over the world, team games like basketball generally have a heightened game tempo, a tougher body game and a more acute variability in the techniques and methods used (Singh & Deol, 2012). "An increased performance level can only be achieved by working and training of all major components i.e. technique, coordination, tactics, physical fitness, physiological qualities and psychological qualities. Basketball is one of the most popular team-based sports played and watched throughout the world" (Singh & Deol, 2012). This puts the aspect of physiological testing as an extreme priority for a variety of reasons. "Physiological exercise testing is important in basketball to help identify potential talent but also to provide the players, trainers and coaching staff with some…… [Read More]
There are specialized cells called receptors that receive information about the environment and changes in that environment. Each kind of receptor reacts to a different kind of stimulus. For example, the receptors on the retina in the eye detect light. Receptors are all connected to nerve cells, and the nerve cells carry information from the receptor to the brain, where the signal is processed. The brain makes the decision about what to do with the information, such as move a part of the body to cause a reaction based on the information the receptors sent. However, in the case of an emergency situation, this normal interpretation process takes too long even though it is extremely fast, and instead another emergency plan is followed by the nervous system. When burned the body will experience a reflex reaction.
The skin has receptors that detect both pressure and temperature. In the case…… [Read More]
In year 1799 anesthetic properties of Nitric Oxide were discovered by Humphery Davy (1778-1829) he advised that the by using nitric oxide, pain and shock of the surgical procedure can be negated. Third person who continue with Morton and ells philosophy was Charles T. Jackson. The Fourth man who contributed to anesthetics was Thomas Mortan (Blatner, 2009). In the year 1848 James Simpson used chloroform in obstetric surgery, he used diethyl ether to anesthetize a women with a pelvic deformity for delivery (kodali, 2009) and in year 1853 John Snow did a successful induction of chloroform to her Majesty Queen Victoria at the time of Prince Leopold's Birth and also on Fenny Longfellow who wrote to her poet brother that this use of ether is certainly the greatest blessing of this era (Longfellow, 1956). In the year 1885-illiam Halsted introduced the nerve block. In 1891 Heinrich Quincke demonstrated the process…… [Read More]
Doctor Determine Treatment for a Diagnosis of Hereditary Fructose Intolerance:
Explain how enzymes are involved in processes such as the breakdown of fructose.
The enzymes work as a lock and key process where the relevetn active part of the enzyme fits into the substrate (i.e. The molecule on which the enzyme acts) and activates it. There are various active sites on the enzyme and only the enzyme that will 'fit' in the substrate will work. After part of enzyme matching with substrate, enzyme breaks down substrate into two smaller products.
The following image illustrates:
(adapted from http://waynesword.palomar.edu/molecu1.htm)
At times the process can be blocked by an impediment that stops the 'key' from 'turning, as happens in the case of a lack in aldolase B. which can prompt hereditary fructose intolerance
Explain how a deficiency in aldolase B. can be responsible for hereditary fructose intolerance.
Hereditary fructose intolerance is a disease…… [Read More]
Explain how enzymes are involved in processes such as the breakdown of fructose.
Enzymes are integral to processes such as the breakdown of fructose, a monosaccharide. Thus, a deficiency in enzymes can cause malabsorption of fructose or other sugars. Chemically, enzymes are complex proteins. Some enzymes like fructokinase transform molecules into available energy via processes of metabolism. For example, fructokinase and aldolase B. are enzymes involved in the breakdown of fructose. Any imbalance or absence of these and other enzymes can lead to fructose intolerance in the person, leading to a number of medical symptoms. When fructose cannot be metabolized by enzymes, it may lead to reduced absorption of water in the intestines, which in turn may lead to "bloating, diarrhoea or constipation, flatulence, and stomach pain due to muscle spasms. (Breakspear Medical Group, n.d.).
Found throughout the human body, enzymes can be considered to be chemical catalysts that…… [Read More]
According to the recently released Stock Status Ratings -- 2012: Status of the orld's Fisheries for Tuna, which was compiled by the International Seafood Sustainability Foundation (ISSF), "there are 23 stocks of the major commercial tuna species worldwide (6 albacore, 4 bigeye, 4 blue-n, 5 skipjack and 4 yellow-n stocks) ... (and) globally, 52% of the stocks are at a healthy level of abundance, 39% are over-shed and 9% are at an intermediate level" (3). The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List of Threatened Species has found that because "this species has been intensively fished since the early 1950s "estimated (that) spawning stock biomass has declined approximately 85% over the past 36 years (1973 -- 2009) and there is no sign that the spawning stock is rebuilding" (1). Today, the majority of canned tuna purchased by consumers is sourced from commercial "fish farms" and industrial fisheries that…… [Read More]
capable managers make bad decisions? What individual managers improve decision-Making skills? Part 2: Using knowledge Management, write a page, formal written answer question .
There is a wide array of reasons that competent managers sometimes make the wrong decisions. First of all, it is useful to try and define these terms. A competent manager refers to a manager who has knowledge, both theoretical and practical. Usually, he has also shown his competency in practice in the past, in other situations. A wrong/bad decision is a decision that affects the company or the company's objectives, ranging from maximizing its profits to its share price.
One of the reasons why a competent manager makes a bad decision is the situation itself. The situation may prove so difficult and so complex that all the knowledge and competency that the manager has is not useful in solving it. Faced with this situation, the manager…… [Read More]
aging gracefully. There are eight references used for this paper.
Introduction number of people are obsessed with fighting the affects of aging on the skin and finding ways to age gracefully. It is important to look at methods such as antioxidants, wrinkle fighters and nutritional supplements, as well as aging and tissue/muscle loss and interventions for slowing the aging process in order to gain a better understanding of treatments available.
Free radicals are "highly reactive molecules with an unsatisfied electron valence pair. Free radicals are produced in normal and pathological processes, and are proven or suspected agents of tissue damage in a wide variety of circumstances including radiation, damage from environment chemicals, and aging (http://cancerweb.ncl.ac.uk/cgi-bin/omd?query=free+radicals)."
One of the main defenses against free radicals is the proper use of antioxidants.
Researchers theorize that an "increase in some antioxidants - especially those applied to the skin - helps protect…… [Read More]
Synapse Competition and Elimination
Throughout the growth and life of vertebrates and many animals, beginning even in the embryonic stages of development and continuing throughout adult life, a process known as synaptic competition takes place that eliminates certain underperforming synapses and neurons and leads to the dominance of a single motor neuron bringing even in embryonic stages (Wyatt & Balice-Gordon, 2003). This begins with the innervation of musculature during embryonic development by a single motor neuron that remains dominant and leads to the ongoing elimination of other motor neurons throughout life (Wyatt & Balice-Gordon, 2003). Though the mechanisms by which synaptic competition and the resulting synaptic eliminations occur are not precisely known, there has been some research into this area and the beginnings of reasonable theory explaining this phenomenon have been developed.
In embryonic development, synaptic competition begins prior to the innervation of musculature with developmental processes and random firings…… [Read More]
Partly because anatomical variation contributes to the development of metatarsal fractures, footwear is particularly important to mitigating any existing predisposing factors to the condition. While conflicting data as to the effect of hard surfaces call into question the assumption that surface density is directly related to metatarsal problems (Laker, Saint-Phard, Tyburski, et al., 2007), the insufficient cushioning properties of athletic footwear likely increases the overall risk nevertheless.
Proper fitting, particularly in the lateral dimension (i.e. width) is directly related to increased susceptibility to metatarsal problems because it further (artificially) contracts the overall surface areas available to dissipate and absorb dynamic forces by squeezing the metatarsals closer to each other as well (Cullen & Hadded, 2004). Finally, excessive roominess in athletic footwear can also contribute to stress fractures and other debilitating foot problems by allowing the foot to develop momentum within the shoe and resulting in momentarily high loads when…… [Read More]
3. BMR stands for basal metabolic rate. It generally refers to the body's metabolism at stasis: while doing nothing. The BMR is the basic energy level needed to sustain life. A person's basal metabolic rate usually decreases with age. The best way to increase the BMR is to exercise regularly. Eating less does not raise the BMR but rather, usually lowers it. Therefore, exercise is in many ways more important than eating less if a person hopes to lose weight. A higher body fat percentage is also correlated with a lower basal metabolic rate. Therefore, individuals with a lot of muscle mass tend to have higher basal metabolic rates than individuals who do not because muscles are metabolically more active than fat. Fat is burned off when muscles are used, during intensive exercise when the intake of calories is less than the expenditure of energy.
Centers for Disease…… [Read More]
A study from the Institute of Preventative Medicine in Copenhagen found that so-called apple-shaped woman with excess fat around their waists were likely to be less healthy than a curvaceous, pear-shaped woman whose fatty deposits were concentrated in the buttocks and thigh areas ("When it Comes to Stored Fat, Shape Matters," 2005, Daily News Central). From an aesthetic standpoint, toning exercises and machines like the Bun and Thigh oller are not useful -- the only thing that shrinks one's body is weight loss, and burning more calories than consuming more calories -- for which cardiovascular activity is better suited. No one can choose where their fat stores accumulate if they consume more calories than they burn.
Of course, strength training and flexibility are also important aspects of a fitness regime. But here the Bun and Thigh oller falls short as well. While a person who uses weights can add weight…… [Read More]
Torticollis is a condition which can be either temporary and of a minor inconvenience or it can be chronic and physically debilitating. The implications of the condition can run the gamut of severity and susceptibility to treatment. Torticollis, or a twisting of the neck, can be extremely common but its causes and impact exist across a wide range of variations. The discussion here will offer a concise overview of the condition with consideration of its various suspected causes, its most salient symptoms, strategies for its treatment and existing technologies or adaptive strategies aimed at helping individuals live with the condition.
Torticollis is not an altogether uncommon presence at the time of birth. hen the condition is present at the time of birth, it is referred to as congenital or inherited torticollis. According to the research provided by the Baby Center Medical Advisory Board (BMAB) (2012) "about…… [Read More]
Review and critique of a current article relating to women's biology
How Emergency Contraception Works to Prevent Pregnancy
Emergency contraceptives are drugs used to prevent pregnancy after women indulges in unprotected sex. There is a slight difference between birth control methods and use of contraceptives in preventing unplanned pregnancy. It is significant for women and men to learn and choose the appropriate method that guarantees their well-being. Use of contraceptives prevent fertilization of the ovum, while as birth control pills prevents pregnancy, and includes use of contraceptives such as, IUDs, sterilization, and abortion. This article reviews the health effects of various emergency contraceptives on female reproductive functions. The author argues that limited knowledge about Emergency contraceptive contributes to its overuse or its underuse and enhanced knowledge could trigger development of new ways, maximize use of current methods and increase acceptability of emergency contraceptives (Berger, 2012).
Review of the…… [Read More]
As people age, there are three main types of cognitive changes that can impair or alter cognitive functioning: mild cognitive impairment (MCI), Alzheimer's, and Parkinson's. All of these syndromes are more severe than the normal decline that is expected with aging, though they do not all reach the severity of dementia. Dementia refers to the "the loss of cognitive functioning- thinking, remembering, and reasoning- and behavior abilities, to such an extent that it interferes with a person's daily life and activities" (NIH, 2013). While there are some similarities between these three conditions, there are also significant differences between the three syndromes. These differences can impact treatment options and also help predict impact on the patient and the family.
MCI is an intermediate stage, which features a more significant cognitive decline than that expected with normal aging, but is not as severe as full-blown dementia. "It can involve problems…… [Read More]
Upper Body Strength
Exercise is vital to maintenance of good physical health. Upper body strength is of particular importance because it aids in allowing us to breathe properly and maintain healthy lungs. Exercises, such as, breathing control work by relaxing the upper chest and shoulders is a prime example of this. This exercise allows the individual to use "the diaphragm more efficiently by consciously allowing the abdomen (tummy) to move out as you breathe in, rather than allowing it to be sucked inwards." ("Exercise and the Lungs")
The purpose of the chest muscles is to move the arm and shoulder diagonally over the front of the body. The purpose of shoulder muscles is to allow the upper arm to be raised in the front and upward positions. Exercising of the shoulders and chest can improve the body's range of motion and posture. Additionally exercising the shoulders and chest can reduce…… [Read More]
Why are fat-soluble drugs more suitable for this type of delivery than drugs that are soluble in water?
Fat-soluble drugs are more suitable for skin diffusion than soluble drugs because they tend to be hydrophobic compounds, which facilitates their diffusion across the lipid membrane of skin cells. Water-soluble drugs are often hydrophilic and thus cannot easily diffuse through a hydrophobic milieu like the plasma membrane.
5. Which cutaneous glands are associated with hair follicles and what is their function?
The sebaceous glands are associated with hair follicles and function to secrete sebum (oil-like composition) into the follicular canal. Sebum helps to waterproof hair and skin, and it also serves to prevent cracking due to dehydration.
6. In which layer(s) of the epidermis does cell division occur?
Cell division occurs primarily in the stratum basale.
7. What is the function of the arrector pili muscles?
Arrector pili are bands of muscle…… [Read More]
Measuring Heart and Ventilation Rate During and After Moderate Exercise
A useful perspective to begin the process of conducting an experiment to measure heart and ventilation rate during and after a moderate exercise is to explain the central purpose of the experiment. Generally speaking, if we can measure the heart and the ventilation rate of an individual, we will be able to ascertain the individual's level of fitness. In addition, during an exercise activity, measuring the heart and ventilation rate can be a strategy for indicating the presence of disease in the subject's system. Furthermore, this kind of experiment can enable a researcher to determine the subject's maximum capacity, which, in turn, can serve not only as a barometer for determining the subject's cardiac capacity but also of his/her fatigue level. The following sections explored the objectives, steps and procedures for the experiment for measure the heart rate and ventilation…… [Read More]
Here, they indicate that "participation in cardio-based workouts (e.g., cardiovascular machines) was positively related to self-objectification, disordered eating behaviour, and appearance-related reasons for exercise, and negatively related to body esteem." (Prichard & Tiggemann, p. 855)
Among other things, this implies that in order to yield the true benefits of such an exercise program, one must combine this with other measures of lifestyle change as well. The failure of such programs is often prefigured by the half-hearted commitment that come with selective lifestyle change. Karas (2008) implies that dietary changes are necessary in order to accommodate changes as well. (p. xiii)
Objectives and Action Plan
My objectives are simply to establish an exercise regiment with different permutations which can be executed five times a week. My action plan would be centered on scheduling workouts so that a block of time is already designated to this activity.
Develop a Support Group:
I…… [Read More]
functional relationship of the PNS to the CNS?
The CNS effectively "controls" the PNS, and the PNS' main function is to connect the CNS to the limbs and organs. The PNS transmits nerve impulses produced by the CNS.
List the structural components of the PNS, and briefly describe the function of each component.
The structural components of the PNS are sensory receptors, which receive external stimuli; motor endings, which act to innervate muscle fibers and glands; and nerves and ganglia, which act as pathways for impulses to travel through the PNS.
How many different types of sensory receptors does the nervous system express and briefly, what kind of stimulus does each class respond to?
According to which way you might go about classifying, there are either five different types of sensory receptors or three different types of receptors. The group of five looks like this: 1) mechanoreceptors -- receptors that…… [Read More]
Analysis of passage from The Ballad of the Sad Cafe and Other Stories by Carson McCullers (New York: Houghton Mifflin, 1951; rpt. 1971), pp.3-5
Carson McCullers' short story "The Ballad of the Sad Cafe" is set in a town that is immediately established as remote, rural, and Southern: it is located near a cotton mill, there are peach trees all over the area, and there is only a single church. Even the buses are three miles away, which suggest the stranded and isolated nature of the residents. The main street is only two miles long, and there is "nothing whatsoever to do" during the long, hot summers. Even the nearest train stop (the significantly named 'Society' City) is far away. The largest building looks lonely and is boarded up completely. This large building, half-painted and left unfinished becomes a kind of metaphor for the town, as well as the woman…… [Read More]