Symptomatic Correlation Between Muscle Dysmorphia Dissertation
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2.2 Personality Disorders
On the other hand, Paranoid Personality Disorder, Schizoid Personality Disorder, Dependent Personality Disorder, and Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder are among the many personality disorders that are affecting many people today. A personality disorder is inflexible, maladaptive patterns of thoughts; emotions, behavior, and interpersonal functioning that are stable over time and across situations, and deviate from the expectations of the individual's culture. Men's anxiety in body dysmorphia has really been a matter that could be classified as one of these (American Psychiatric Association, 2007).
2.2.1 Categories of Personality Disorders
They are grouped into three different clusters.
i. Cluster A: The odd and eccentric includes the Paranoid, Schizoid, and Schizotypal Personality Disorders. The men in this category will in most cases appear eccentric or odd.
ii. Cluster B: The dramatic, emotional, or erratic cluster includes the Antisocial, Borderline, Histrionic, and Narcissistic Personality Disorders. The men in this group apparently are emotional, dramatic or even erratic iii. Cluster C: The anxious, fearful cluster includes Avoidant, Dependent, and Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorders. The men here will be found anxious or else fearful.
The necessary feature of Paranoid personality Disorder is a pattern of persuasive distrust and suspiciousness of others such that there motives are interpreted as malevolent. This pattern begins in early adulthood and is present in everyday life. About 3% of the general populations display this disorder, which most frequently occurs in men. People with this disorder assume that other people will exploit harm, or deceive them, even if no evidence is present to support this expectation. They often feel that they have been deeply and irreversibly injured by another person even though there is no evidence for this. These individuals are also inattentive with unjustifiable doubts about the loyalty or trustworthiness of their friends and associates, whose actions are minutely scrutinized for evidence of adverse intentions (American Psychiatric Association, 2007).
Men with this disorder also are unwilling to confide in or become close to others because they fear that the problem they have concerning their muscle dysmorphia will be used against them. They read hidden meanings that are demeaning and threatening into benign remarks or events. Example: an individual with this disorder may misinterpret an honest mistake by a store clerk as a contemplated attempt to shortchange or may view an unexpected humorous remark by a co-worker as a serious character attack (Johnston, 1994). People with this disorder also persistently hold grudges and are unwilling to forgive the insults and injuries that they think they have received.
Minor insults stimulate major hostility, and these hostile feelings last for a long time. Many people with this disorder may be pathologically jealous. They are often suspecting their spouse or sexual partner is unfaithful with any sufficient justification or believe in infidelity of their close associates without enough proof. People with Paranoid Personality Disorder are very difficult to get along with. They in most cases develop problems with those they relate with closely. Although these individuals may appear to be objective, rational, and unemotional, they more often show a labile range of affect, with hostile, stubborn, and sarcastic expressions prevailing.
Because they lack trust in others, they have an excessive need to be self-sufficient and a strong sense of autonomy. These individuals do not take stressful situations very well. They may experience very brief psychotic episodes that can last from minutes to hours. The necessary feature of Schizoid Personality Disorder is a pervasive pattern of detachment from social relationships and a restricted range of expression of emotions in interpersonal settings. This pattern begins by early adulthood and is present in everyday life.
Schizoid Personality Disorder is diagnosed slightly more often in men than women and may cause more impairment in them. People with this disorder appear to lack a desire for intimacy, seem uncaring to opportunities to develop close relationships, and do not seem to obtain much satisfaction from being part of a family or other social group. Such men prefer to spend time by themselves. They frequently appear to be socially isolated. They always choose solitary activities or hobbies that do not include interaction with others. They may have very little interest in sexual experiences with another person. These men have no close associates, confidants or friends leave alone a first-degree next of kin.
Unlike Paranoid Personality Disorder men with Schizoid Personality Disorder often seem unconcerned to the approval or criticism of others and do not appear to be bothered by what others may think of them. They assert
that they seldom experience any strong emotions like joy or anger (Brown & Esther, 1989). They often display a constricted affect and appear cold and contemptuous. Yet, in those very unusual circumstances in which these individuals become at least temporarily comfortable in revealing themselves, they may reveal having painful feelings, particularly related to social interactions.
Researchers assert that Schizoid Personality Disorder should not be diagnosed if the pattern of behavior takes place exclusively during the course of Schizophrenia, a Mood Disorder with Psychotic Features, another Psychotic Disorder, or a Pervasive Developmental Disorder or if it is due to the direct physiological effects of a neurological or other general medical condition. Schizoid Personality Disorder could have increased dominance in the relatives of persons with Schizotypal Personality Disorder or Schizophrenia.
The necessary feature of Dependent Personality Disorder is a pervasive and excessive need to be taken care of that which leads to submissive and clinging behavior and fears of separation. This pattern begins by early adulthood and is present in everyday life. This disorder has been diagnosed most frequently in women than men. However, some other studies using structural assessments report similar prevalence rates among males and females.
Men with Dependent Personality Disorder have a big trouble making daily decisions. Example: What color shirt they should wear to work or if they should bring an umbrella with them. These things are all done in the effort of determining the image of the body they want to present to the society. These individuals tend to be submissive and allow other men to take the initiative and assume responsibility for most major areas in their lives. Many male adults with this disorder depend on a parent or a spouse to decide where they should live and, what kind of job they should have (Brown & Esther, 1989).
Adolescents boys with this disorder usually allow there parents or parent to pick out what they should wear, choose a school or college for them; pick out what men to associate with, and how they should spend there free time. Dependent Personality Disorder may occur in a person who has a serious general medical condition or disability. In such particular cases the problem in taking full responsibility should go further than what would generally be coupled with that condition or else disability.
Since men with Dependent Personality Disorders fear losing support or approval, they often have difficulty expressing disagreement with other men, especially those who are dependent (Johnston, 1994). As a result of this, these individuals feel so unable to function alone and will agree with things that they think are wrong. Individuals with this disorder have difficulty working on projects or doing things alone. They are convinced that they are incapable of functioning independently and present themselves as inept. However, they are likely to function adequately if given the assurance that someone else is watching and approving them.
When a close relationship ends such as a breakup with a lover or the death of a caregiver an individual with Dependent Personality disorder may instantly seek another relationship to provide the care and support that they need. They are often distracted with fears of being left to care for themselves. The necessary feature of Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder is a preoccupation with orderliness, perfectionism, and mental and interpersonal control, at the expense of flexibility, openness, and efficiency (Barlow & Durand, 2006). This pattern begins in early adulthood and is present in everyday life. This disorder appears to be diagnosed about twice as often in males.
2.3 Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder in Men
Men with Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder try to maintain a sense of control by paying attention to rules, trivial details, procedures, lists, schedules, or form to the extent that the major activity is lost. They are excessively careful and prone to repetition, paying a large amount of attention to detail and repeatedly checking for possible mistakes. These men are oblivious to the fact that other men tend to get mad or become annoyed at the details and inconveniencies that result from this behavior. These men leave there most important jobs for the last minute (Morgan, 2008). They may get so involved in making a project perfect that the project is never finished.
These men with Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorders show a large abundance of devotion to work and productivity which excludes time for leisure activities and friendships. They may keep postponing a delightful activity, such as a vacation, so that it may never occur. However, if they do take time off for leisure…
Sources Used in Documents:
Abramowitz, J.S., (2006): The psychological treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder. Can J. Psychiatry 2006; 51: 407 -- 416. Retrieved 13 April 2010 from http://ww1.cpa-apc.org:8080/Publications/Archives/CJP/2006/june/cjp-june-06-abramowitz-IR.pdf
American Psychiatric Association: Practice Guideline for the Treatment of Patients with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder. Am J. Psychiatry 2007; 166(Suppl): 1 -- 96. Retrieved 13 April 2010 from http://www.psych.org/psych_pract/treatg/pg/prac_guide.cfm
Barlow, DH, & Durand, V.M., (2006). Essentials of Abnormal Psychology. California: Thomson Wadsworth,
Brown, L. & Esther R., (1989) (eds). Overcoming Fear of Fat Harrington Park Press,
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