In a comparative study, Klein and colleagues (1994) studied the overall fat metabolism ratios for endurance-trained and untrained men during low-intensity exercise routines. They sample a total of 10 men, 5 who were endurance-trained athletes and 5 who were untrained. They started off by calculating and analyzing the overall lipid activities and muscle activities while all 10 subjects were resting before the exercise routines began. They also calculated the free fatty acid (FFA) and glycerol rate of appearance (Ra) ratios. The calculated the lipid activities using indirect calorimetry as a determinant and the FFA and glycerol levels through the combination of glycerol (2H5) and palpitate (1-13C) one after another (Klein et al., 1994).
The results showed that the lipolytic reaction after 4 hours of high-intensity training routines showed no significant variations in the overall FFA and glycerol levels between the endurance-trained subjects (increase in a minimum of 1.02/kg to 3.76/kg and increase in a maximum of 9.85/kg to 24.64/kg) and the untrained subjects (increase in a minimum of 0.99/kg to 0.39/kg and increase in a maximum of 11.29/kg to 24.13/kg). The variation between the trained and untrained subjects occurred in the average triglyceride oxidation levels during the high-intensity exercise sessions. The trained subjects showed a high maximum of 7.51/kg and the untrained subjects showed a lowered maximum of 5.67/kg. Furthermore, during the recovery session of the exercises, the untrained subjects experienced a slower speed of decreased FFA and glycerol Ra levels in comparison with the trained subjects even though the overall decrease in the ratio was more or less similar as has been numerically exhibited above (Klein et al., 1994).
Analyzing the results of the above study, it is east to assert that the in spite of having similar FFA, lipolysis and glycerol levels, the endurance-trained individuals and athletes experience higher levels of fat burning then the untrained athletes. This is because they burn more fat tissues in their endurance exercise routines. Further analysis help us assert that the lipid activities get back to the baseline at a much slower rate for the untrained subjects then the male subjects.
In a separate and dissimilar study, Starling and colleagues (1996) took a different approach to analyzing the impact of endurance exercise by analyzing the impact that the diet of an individual has on his overall muscle triglyceride and endurance performance ratios. They took a sample of seven endurance-trained athletes who had the average of completing 120 minute cycling exercise with a maximum intake of oxygen at nearly 65% ratios. The diet changes introduced in the subjects daily routine included an intake of either a high-fat (Hi-Fat; with 68% of energy) or an isocaloric high-carbohydrate (Hi-CHO; with 83% of energy) diet for a total of 12-hour period. At the end of the 12 hours and after an overnight fast, the subjects went through an exercise routine of 1,600-kJ self-run cycling. Even though the muscle triglyceride levels before and after the cycling exercises were not so different before the new diet incorporation; the levels significantly increased for the Hi-Fat diet after it was incorporated into the daily intake of the athletes. The levels showed an increase in the minimum levels from 2.4 to 7.1 minutes and an increase in the maximum levels from 44.7 to 117.1 minutes for the Hi-Fat diet plans (Starling et al., 1996; see also Hochli et al., 1995; Morgan, 1992; McArdle et al., 1996c).
After analyses of the data and results from the above study, we can conclude that the diet of an athlete has a significant role to
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